NUCLEAR  CHEMISTRY  

  • Chemical  reactions  form  bonds  by  gaining,  losing,  or  sharing  _________________.     The  atomic  number,  or  number  of  _____________,  always  stays  the  same.    For   example,  aluminum  always  remains  aluminum  with  its  _____  protons.     • NUCLEAR  reactions  involve  _____________  changes  in  atoms.    Atoms  that  are   radioactive  (unstable  ratio  of  protons  and  neutrons)  spontaneously  change  to   produce  an  atom  of  a  different  ______________  (one  with  a  different  number  of   protons),  and  emitted  particle,  and  released  energy.     • There  are  three  types  of  nuclear  radiation:     Nuclear  Radiation  Can  be  stopped  by   Penetrating  power   What  is  it   Symbol     Energy     Alpha  particle   Blocked  by    paper   Beta  particle   Gamma  ray           strong     NUCLEAR  FUSION:  is  a  type  of  nuclear  reaction  in  which  two  nuclei  with  low   masses  fuse  together  to  form  one  nucleus  with  a  larger  mass  and  release  large   amounts  of  energy.       Fusion reactions (like the one to the left)   are constantly occurring on the surface   of the sun.         FYI: All elements larger than helium are formed through the process of nuclear fusion! electron   High  energy   photons    
                 0γ  
0  

weak  

 

 

Low  

  High  

NUCLEAR  FISSION:  is  the  process  of  splitting  an  atom  into  two  nuclei  with   smaller  masses.  This  occurs  in  nuclear  power  plants  to  produce  massive   amounts  of  energy.  

  NUCLEAR  DECAY   • Nuclear  reactions  occur  because  the  nuclei  are  trying  to  become  more   stable.  An  uneven  number  of  _____________  and  ______________  cause  an   unstable  nucleus.     • Any  element  larger  than  atomic  number  _____  (lead)  goes  through   nuclear  decay.  There  are  many  smaller  isotopes  like  carbon-­‐14  that  go   through  nuclear  decay  as  well.       • Carbon  -­‐14  is  used  for  dating  organic  materials  like   _____________.  The  half-­‐life  of  carbon-­‐14  is  5730  yrs.  Using   this  number  they  can  tell  how  long  ago  an  organism   lived.     • Uranium-­‐238  is  another  common  isotope  that  radioactively  decays.  The   energy  released  from  the  decay  of  uranium-­‐238  is  trapped  and  used  as   energy  in  _________  _________  ________.  Uranium-­‐238  has  a  half-­‐life  of  4.46   billion  years!  Polonium-­‐214  has  a  half-­‐life  of  only  163.7  microsec.      

 

       
 
Pg 814 Figure 25-11

Isotopic Notatio Name – Mass #

 

Like Uranium-2
The Mass # is shown at the bottom of the graph

         

 

Nuclear  Reactions:    Find  Uranium-­238  in  the  top  right  corner.    It  decays  to  forms___________-­‐ ____  (what  element  in  isotopic  notation)  and  releases  a(n)  ________  particle.        When  thorium-­‐234  decays,  it  forms  ___________-­‐_____  and  releases  a  _________   particle.        When  Pa-­‐234  decays  it  forms  __________  and  releases  a  __________  particle.    Why  does  the  mass  number  change  when  U-­‐238  decays  to  form  Th-­‐234?    Why  does  it  form  Th?    Why  does  the  mass  number  stay  the  same  when  Th-­‐234  decays  into  Pa-­‐ 234?    Why  does  Th  form  Pa?     These  nuclear  reactions  can  be  represented  as  follows:   U     Th     In  nuclear  reactions,  just  like  chemical  reaction,  mass  is  CONSERVED.     However,  unlike  chemical  reactions,  new  elements  are  formed.   Pa        +         e     a  beta  particle  was  released         Th        +             He           an  alpha  particle  was  released  

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