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Union College

Sta. Cruz, Laguna

Assignment in Comp 2

Genalyn R. Madrona
Comp 2
12:30-2:00 MW
Ms. Gonzales

Differentiate data to information:

Data is a collection of facts it is unorganized but able to be organized into useful
information while information is the processed data organized in a meaningful way

which are useful to people who receive them, thus, data are sometimes referred to as
the raw materials from which information is generated.
What is data processing?
Data processing is the processing or series of action that converts data into useful
What is data processing cycle?
Data processing cycle refers to the process of transforming raw data into useful
information. The cycle entails a process of sequential steps, including input, processing,
output and interpretation. Preparation, feedback and storage often are included steps of
the cycle. But the least three basic steps are: input processing and output.
Areas of Data Processing
Data processing maybe classified as either scientific or business in nature.
1) Business Data Processing (DBP). Business data processing is characterized by
the need to established, retain, and process files of data for producing useful
information. Generally, it involves a large volume of output. For example, a large
retail store must maintain a record for each customer who purchases on account.
2) Scientific Data Processing (SDP). In science, data processing involves a limited
volume of input and many logical or arithmetic calculations.
3) Data Processing Operations. A data processing procedure normally consists of
number of basic processing operations performed in some order. The means of
manual, electromechanical, or electronic methods are used. Many businesses
find that the best solution to their processing requirements is to use a
combination of methods.
a) Recoding. Recording refers to the transfer of data onto some form or document.
It relatives to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from
b) Verifying. Since recording is usually a manual operation it is important that
recorded data be carefully checked for any errors. This operations called
c) Duplicating. It is sometimes necessary or desirable to copy or duplicate data.
This operation consists in reproducing the data onto many forms or documents.
Duplicating maybe done while the data being recorded manually, or it may be
done afterwards by some machines
d) Classifying. This operation separates data into various categories. Identifying and
arranging items witch like characteristic into groups or classes is called
e) Sorting. Arranging data in a specific order is called sorting. After the data are
classified, it is usually necessary to arrange or rearrange them in a
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predetermined sequence to facilitate processing. Sorting is done in an alphabetic

or numeric order and the data item which determines the sorting is called the key.
Numeric sorting usually requires less time than alphabetic sorting in machinebased processing systems and it therefore generally used.
Calculating. Arithmetic manipulation of the data is known as calculating. It is a
crucial phase of data manipulation, because the outcome of this operation
becomes part of the output. In the calculation of an employee's pay.
Summarizing and Reporting. In this operation, a collection of data is condensed
and certain conclusions from the data are represented in a meaningful format. To
be a value, data must often be condensed or sifted so that the resulting output
reports will be clear, concise and effective. Reducing masses of data to a more
usable form is called summarizing.
Merging. This operation takes two or more sets of data, all sets having been
sorted by the same key, and puts them together to form a single sorted set of
Storing. Placing similar data into files for future reference is storing. Storage is
done by any of the following methods;
a. manual - such as in a ledger book, b. electromechanical- in the form of
punched cards and c. electronic- by magnetic tape, disk, and main memory of
the computer. Data should be stored only if the value of having them in the future
exceeds the storage cost.
Retrieving. Recovering stored data and/ or information when needed is the
retrieving step. Retrieval methods range from searches made by file clerks to the
use of quick responding inquiry terminals that are connected directly to a
Feedback. Feedback is the comparison of the outputs. And the goal set in
advance; any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected, and feedback to the proper
stage in the processing operation.

Categories of Data Processing

The categories of data processing:
1) Manual Data Processing
2) Mechanical Data Processing
3) Electronic Data Processing
1) Manual Data Processing:
In manual data processing, data is processed manually without using any
machine or tool to get required results. In manual data processing, all the
calculations and logical operations are performed manually on the data. Similarly,
data is -transferred manually from one place to another. This method of data
processing is very slow and errors may occur in the output. Mostly, is processed
manually in many small business firms as well as government offices &

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institutions. In an educational institute, for example, marks sheets, fee receipts,

and other financial calculations (or transactions) are performed by hand.
2) Mechanical Data Processing:
In mechanical data processing method, data is processed by using different
devices like typewriters, mechanical printers or other mechanical devices. This
method of data processing is faster and more accurate than manual data
processing. Examination boards and printing press use mechanical data
processing devices frequently.
3) Electronic Data Processing:
Electronic data processing is the modern technique to process data. The data is
processed through computer; Data and set of instructions are given to the
computer as input and the computer automatically processes the data according
to the given set of instructions. The computer is also known as electronic data
processing machine. This method of processing data is very fast and accurate.
For example, in a computerized education environment results of students are
prepared through computer; in banks, accounts of customers are maintained (or
processed) through computers etc.
Methods of Data Processing
The data processing can be accomplished through following methods:
1. Batch Processing
this is a method where the information to be organized is sorted into groups to
allow for efficient and sequential processing.
2. Online Processing
this is a method that utilizes Internet connections and equipment directly
attached to a computer. It is used mainly for information recording and research.
3. Real-Time Processing
this technique has the ability to respond almost immediately to various signals in
order to acquire and process information.
4. Distributed Processing
this method is commonly utilized by remote workstations connected to one big
central workstation or server. ATMs are good examples of this data processing

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