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Imagination is the beginning of Creation. You Imagine what you Desire, you
will what you imagine, & at last, you create what you will George
Bernard Shaw
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new & valuable is germinated
(e.g. an idea, a joke, an artistic or literary work, a painting or musical composition, a
solution, an invention, innovation, imnovation). The ideas & concepts so conjured
can then manifest themselves in many ways, but quite often, they become
something we can sense. The range of scholarly interest in creativity includes
various definitions & approaches which comprises several disciplines such as
psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy, technology, sociology,
linguistics, business studies & economics, taking in the relationship between
creativity & intelligence, mental & neurological processes associated with creativity,
the relationships between personality type & creative ability & between creativity &
mental health. The potential for fostering creativity is through education & training
especially strengthened by technology & the application of creative resources to
enhance the efficacy of learning & teaching processes.

History of Creativity
According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin; "the early Western conception of
creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis. In the JudaeoChristian tradition, creativity was the sole propriety of God; humans were
disregarded to have the ability to invent. An individual was not identified with
creativity until the Renaissance.
As a direct & independent topic of study, creativity effectively received no attention
until the 19th century. Runco & Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper
study began to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in
individual differences inspired with the arrival of Darwinism. Particularly they refer
to the work of Francis Galton who through his eugenicist outlook took a keen
interest in the heritability of intelligence with creativity considered as a gift of the

20th Century
The insights of Poincare & Von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the
creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallace & Max
Wertheimere. In his work Art of Thought, Wallace presented one of the first models
of the creative process. In the Wallace stage model, creative insights & illuminations
may be explained by a process comprising several stages:
1) Preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's
mind on the problem & explores the problem's dimensions)

2) Incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind &
nothing appears externally to be happening)
3) Intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way)
4) Illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its
preconscious processing into conscious awareness)
5) Verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, & then
Alfred North Whitehead is credited with having coined the term "creativity" to
serve as the ultimate category of his metaphysical scheme.
"Four C" model
James C. Kaufman & Beghetto introduced a "Four C" model of creativity:

Mini-C (transformative learning including personally

meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions & insights)
Little-C (everyday problem solving & creative expression)
Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or
vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent)
Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field)

Theories of Creative Process

Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in
insight. There has been some empirical research looking at whether as the concept
of "incubation" in Wallace model implies a period of interruption or rest from a
problem may aid creative problem-solving. Ward lists various hypotheses that have
been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, & notes
how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids
creative problem-solving in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence
of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate
strategies of solving the problem.
Convergent & Divergent Thinking
J. P. Guilford drew a distinction between convergent & divergent production.
Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem,
whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a
same problem. Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in
psychology literature. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible
thinking or fluid intelligence, which are almost synonymous to (but not synonymous
with) creativity.
Creative Cognition Approach
Finke proposed the "Geneplore" model, in which creativity takes place in 2 phases:
a generative phase, where an individual constructs mental representations called
pre-inventive structures, & an exploratory phase where those structures are used to
bring out creative ideas. Some evidence shows that when people use their

imagination to develop new ideas, those ideas is heavily structured in predictable

ways by the properties of existing categories & concepts. Weisberg argued, by
contrast, that creativity only involves ordinary cognitive processes yielding
extraordinary results.
The ExplicitImplicit Interaction
Haile & Sun recently proposed a unified framework for understanding creativity in
problem solving, namely the ExplicitImplicit Interaction theory of creativity. This
new theory constitutes an attempt to provide a more unified explanation of relevant
phenomenon. The EII theory relies mainly on five basic principles:


co-existence of & the difference between explicit & implicit knowledge

simultaneous involvement of implicit & explicit processes in tasks
redundant representation of explicit & implicit knowledge
integration of the results of explicit & implicit processing
iterative processing

A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the

CLARION cognitive architecture & used to simulate relevant human data.
Conceptual Blending
In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of dissociationthat
creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two different frames of reference.
This idea was later developed into conceptual blending. Various approaches in
cognitive science that dealt with metaphor, analogy & structure mapping had been
converging, & a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art &
humor had emerged under the label conceptual blending.
Honing Theory
Honing theory puts forth that creativity arises due to the self-organizing, selfmending nature of a worldview & that it is by way of the creative process the
individual hones (& re-hones) an integrated worldview. Honing theory places equal
emphasis on the externally visible creative outcome & the internal cognitive
restructuring brought about by the creative process. Albeit one factor that
distinguishes it from other theories of creativity is that it focuses on not just
restructuring as it pertains to the conception of the task, but as it pertains to the
worldview as a whole. When faced with a creatively intriguing task, there is an
interaction between the inception of the task & the worldview. The inception of the
task changes through interaction with the worldview, & the worldview changes
through interaction with the task. This interaction is reiterated until the task is
complete, at which point not only is the task conceived of differently, but the
worldview is subtly or drastically transformed. Thus another distinguishing feature
of honing theory is that the creative process reflects the natural tendency of a
worldview in order to resolve dissonance & seek internal consistency amongst its
components, whether they are ideas, attitudes or knowledge.

Measuring Creativity
CQ (Creativity Quotient)

Innumerous attempts have been made towards the development of a creativity

quotient of an individual on the same fronts as that of intelligence quotient (IQ).
However the attempts have been unsuccessful.
Social-personality Approach
A few analysts have depended on social-identity methodology of estimation. In
these studies, identity characteristics, for example, freedom of judgment, selfassurance & fascination in many-sided quality, tasteful introduction & danger taking
are utilized as measures of the imagination of people. A meta-examination by
Gregory Feist demonstrated that imaginative individuals have a tendency to be
"more open to new encounters, less routine & less reliable, more self-assured,
enduring toward oneself, determined, yearning, prevailing, hostile & incautious."
Openness, good faith, acknowledgement toward oneself, unfriendliness &
impulsivity had the strongest impacts of the qualities recorded. Inside the schema
of the Big Five model of identity some reliable characteristics have developed.
Openness to encounter has been demonstrated to be reliably identified with an
entire host of distinctive appraisals of imagination. Among the other Big Five
characteristics, research has exhibited unpretentious contrasts between distinctive
spaces of imagination.

Economists Outlook on Creativity

Economic approaches to creativity have focused on three aspects:
1) The impact of creativity on economic growth
2) Methods of modelling markets for creativity
3) The maximisation of economic creativity (innovation)

Social Networks take on Creativity

Imagination research has long been captivated between the "sentimental" see that
major imaginative accomplishments are started by innovative & extraordinarily
talented people at the edge of an intelligent field. In spite of the fact that this
remaining parts the predominant methodology when looking at individual
innovativeness, an undeniably substantial number of studies have focused on the
imperativeness of additionally taking a gander at social variables. Emulating this
line of thought & drawing all the more unequivocally from examination by
sociologists & sociopsychologists, authoritative researchers have progressively
perceived the imperativeness of the system side of individual innovativeness.
The key thought of this point of view is that a deeper understanding of how creative
yields are produced & get to be acknowledged might be attained just by setting the
single person inside a system of interpersonal connections. The impact of the social
setting in which people are inserted decides the scope of data & opportunities
accessible to them amidst the creative methodology. A few studies have started to
uncover the system components that underlie the genesis & authenticity of creative

Bolstering Creativity

Establishing purpose and intention

Building basic skills

Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge
Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration
Building motivation, especially internal motivation
Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks
Focusing on mastery and self-competition
Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity
Providing opportunities for choice and discovery
Developing self-management (metacognitive skills)
Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance
Providing balance

Some see the conventional system of schooling as "stifling" of creativity and

attempt (particularly in the pre-school/kindergarten) to provide a creativity-friendly,
rich, imagination-fostering environment for young children. Researchers have seen
this as important because technology is advancing our society at an unprecedented
rate and creative problem solving will be needed to cope with these challenges as
they arise. In addition to helping with problem solving, creativity also helps students
identify problems where others have failed to do so.

Societal Response towards Creativity

Despite the fact that the profits of inventiveness to society in general have been
noted, social demeanor about this theme remains isolated. The abundance of
writing in regards to the advancement of innovativeness & the bounty of
imagination systems demonstrate wide acknowledgement, in any event among
scholastics, that inventiveness is alluring.
In any case, businesses are progressively esteeming imaginative aptitudes. A report
by the Business Council of Australia, for instance, has called for a more elevated
amount of imagination in graduates. The capacity to "consider unheard of options"
is very looked for after. Nonetheless, the aforementioned Catch 22 may well infer
that organizations pay lip administration to conceiving of brand new ideas while
keeping up customary, various leveled association structures in which singular
imagination is denounced.

Two highly acclaimed Creative Indians:

Creative Sectors

Media & Advertising

Arts and Antique markets
Fashion designing
Film, video and photography
Software, computer games and electronic publishing
Music, visual and performing arts

Creativity Techniques
Creativity techniques are methods that encourage creative actions, whether in the
arts or sciences. They focus on a variety of aspects of creativity, including
techniques for idea generation and divergent thinking, methods of re-framing
problems, changes in the affective environment and so on. They can be used as
part of problem solving, artistic expression, or therapy. These methods include word
games, written exercises and different types of improvisation, or algorithms for
approaching problems.

Aleatory Techniques
Aleatoricism is the incorporation of chance (random elements) into the process of
creation, especially the creation of art or media. It is commonly found in music, art,
and literature, particularly in poetry.
Improvisation is a creative process which can be spoken, written, or composed
without prior preparation. It is also called extemporization, can lead to the discovery
of new ways to act, new patterns of thought and practices, or new structures.
Improvisation is used in the creation of music, theater, and other various forms.
Many artists also use improvisational techniques to help their creative flow.
Problem Solving
In problem-solving contexts, the random-word creativity technique is perhaps the
simplest method. A person confronted with a problem is presented with a randomly
generated word, in the hopes of a solution arising from any associations between
the word and the problem. A random image, sound, or article can be used instead of
a random word as a kind of creativity goad or provocation

Journals on Creativity (Post 2000)

1) The Effect of social embeddedness on bloggers creativity by ChengHsiu Hua
2) Creativity for Feist by Julian Warner
3) Organizational culture in knowledge creation, creativity and
innovation: Towards the Freiraum model - by Jan Auernhammer


How Creativity came to reside in the land of the gifted by Lori Flint
Creativity in Research by Jonathan Eldredge
Supporting Creativity in School Libraries by Melissa Techman
Fear No Creativity by Gail Bush
Digital Games as creativity enablers for children by Ott, Michela,
Pozzi, Francesca
9) Creativity & Knowledge Management by Saulais, Pierre; Ermine, JeanLouis
Cautious Creativity by Galen L Fletcher

Creativity can be harnessed if not in-born. People with Creative Vision are the
leaders of the future. They are considered to be the saviors of tomorrow. At
very early stages of our lives creative thoughts and ideas should be
encouraged so that they can one day blossom into a very fruitful event. India
lags in the list of Creative thinking and ability in many respects. We mimic
the movies, the vogue, the culture and what not of the others; very little do
we spend to think out of the box. We are a very conservative society
depending upon tried and tested procedures.
Nows the time, the time to start to be a part of the Worlds most elite
Creators, so do not inhibit creativity, think hard, think good and think new.
Creativity is Intelligence having fun Albert Einstein

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