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MCEN90029
Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L28
Contact5

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 1

Summary
In this lecture we will study the effects of friction on
objects sliding relative to one another. We will
assume that the objects are in line contact

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 2

Roller on a plane, = 0.333


Principal stresses presented as a function of x and b on the
contact surface (z=0) and below the surface at z = b/4
Assuming = 0.333

1
3

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 3

Roller on a plane
Principal stresses 1 and 2 are in tension near the edges of
b
b

=
0.667
;

=
0.167
the contact area! Max tension: 2
3

From these charts of principal stresses as a function of x


and b, we can read off the maximum principal stresses

With friction
= 0.333
(from charts)

1 = 1.4

b
3 = 0.53

2 = 0.72

Without friction
(from equations 6 )

b
2 =

1 =

b
3 = 0.5

A coefficient
of friction = 0.333 increases
the maximum

principal stress by 40%


MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 4

Roller on a plane: maximum shear stress


From the maximum and minimum principal stresses on the
contact surface, the maximum (surface) shear stress when
= 0.333 is
max =

&b)
1
1 & 1.4b 0.53 )

+
=
0.43
(
+
( +
(
3)
'*
2 1
2'
*

(-ve = compression)

Is this the maximum value in the body?

Need to compute max shear stress at all other points, but:

First, plot the three shear stresses at the surface and z=b/4 below
surface.
1 =

1
1
1
1 3 ); 2 = (1 2 ) 3 = ( 2 3 )
(
2
2
2

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 5

Roller on a plane: maximum shear stress


= 0.333

2 larger at z=b/4 than at surface

2
1

When 2 is plotted for several different


distances below surface, max value is
0.36b/ occurring at b/4 from surface
1

Thus, maximum shear is still 1 = 2 (1 3 ) = 0.43


MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

at 0.3b from centre


Lecture L29 - 6

Roller on a plane: maximum octahedral stress


Max octahedral stress can be determined from
oct

2
2
2
1
= (1 2 ) + (1 3 ) + ( 2 3 )
3

1/ 2

by substituting values of principal stresses 1, 2, 3 from


principal stress curves (see earlier slides)

Max value is oct(max) = 0.37b/


Occurs at same point that max
principal stress and max shear
stress occur

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 7

Effect of magnitude of friction coefficient


determines magnitude of frictional force f, for a given w, and
Max principal stresses
Max shear stresses
Max octahedral stresses

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 8

Range of shear stress for one load cycle


Static loading: magnitude of max shear stress/oct stress indicates if
yielding has occurred
Fatigue loading: range of shear stress indicates loading severity
No friction? From previous, max range of
orthogonal shear stress (=0):

2 0 = 0.5

where 0 = zx(max)

which is larger than max shear stress

b
max =
0.3

and maximum octahedral stress


b
oct(max) = 0.27

Friction doesnt significantly affect range of 0


Friction significantly affects range of non-orthogonal shear stresses
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 9

Position of contact surface


relative to fixed point 0

Direction of principal
stresses of fixed point 0

Principal stresses, and


their directions, = 0.333
Max shear stress
max =

1
1&
b
b)
b
1 3 ) = ( 0.67 0 + = 0.335
(
2
2'

Max shear stress

max =

1
1&
b
b)
b
1 3 ) = ( 1.39 + 0.53 + = 0.43
(
2
2'

Thus, range of shear stress in


horizontal plane is 0.67b/
Max shear stress
max =

1
1&
b
b)
b
1 3 ) = (0.67 0 + = 0.335
(
2
2'

Lecture L29 - 10

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Example
Two cylindrical steel rollers (E = 200 MPa and v = 0.29), each 80 mm in
diameter and 150 mm long, are mounted on parallel shafts and loaded
by a force P = 80 kN. The two cylinders are rotated at slightly different
speeds so that the roller surfaces slide across each other. If the
coefficient of sliding friction is = 0.333, determine
(i) The maximum compressive principal stress
(ii) The maximum shear stress
(iii) The maximum octahedral stress

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 11

Example cont.
If it is found that fatigue failure occurs in the cylinders after
109 cycles for max = 1500 MPa when = 0, what load P
would cause this failure?
Determine the load P that can be applied to the cylinders to
cause fatigue failure at 109 cycles for = 0.333
NOTE: Assume that max to cause failure is inversely
proportional to the maximum range of shear stress on a
given plane

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 12

Lecture summary
In this lecture we showed that in contact,
friction affects the range of orthogonal shear
stresses and non-orthogonal shear stresses

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L29 - 13