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ENVIRONMENTALSCIENCEANDENGINEERING(BCE101)

RequirmentofHumanBeing:
Energy
Water
Food

Quantitative&Qualitative

EnvironmentEngineersWork
Toprovidegoodqualityofwater
(Watertreatmentplant)
Wastewatertreatment
ControlonAirPollutiontoMaintaintheAirQuality
(Temperature,Pressure,Wind,Moisture)
ControlonWaterPollution
SolidWasteManagement
(Storage,Separation&Transportation)

1BookEnvironmentEngineeringByGerardKiely
2H.S.Peavy
D.R.Rowe
G.TechnobanogLous
3WaterSupplyEngineeringbyS.K.Garg

1.1

EcologicalPerspective:

The environmental engineer is interested to use the varies physical


resources such as natural energy (waves, wind, minerals, hydroelectric)
andwaterfordomestic&livingpurpose.
Therefore, It has to understand the functioning with the living system
anditsinteractionwiththeenvironment.
Environment(orEcosystem)
Itconsistsoffourmajorelementsuchas
(i) Land
(ii) Water
(iii) Airand
(iv) LivingOrganism(Plant&Animals)
Environment(Ecosystem)

PhysicalEnvironment
(Abiotic)

BiologicalEnvironment
(Biotic)

LivingOrganisms
(Planteanimals,Viruses,Bacteria,Fungi)
Hydrosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere
(Waterovertheearth
(Solidearth&soils) (airuptoadistance
&insidetheearth)
of700km.)
Living organisms are dependent on each other & depends on the physical
environment.
Ex.

Plansgrowonland&inwater.
Herbivorousanimalsusetheplantasfood.
Carnivorousanimalseatherbivorousanimals.

1.2

ValueofEnvironment:orResources
NaturalResources

Renewable
(Energyfromsun,water
andBiologicalcycles)
Itisrecycled&reused.

Nonrenewable
(Fossil,Fuel,Mineralsetc)

ForestPlantation

Theyarenot
Replaced.
Amountarefinite.

Abstract
(Animal,plantandnaturalsightusedfortourism)
1.3 EnvironmentAuditing:Listingofalltheresourcesofanarea
Differenttypesofdevelopmentalworkgoaheadinanareadependsonthe
economicalconsideration.
Ithastorestricttheeconomy(money)cased.
Therefore,Wehavetoauditormakealistofalltheresourcesofthearea.
(Environmentalauditing)
Auditing
Nosofspecies(Livingorganisms)exist
Usesofthelivingenvironment.

Directuses

Indirectuses

Food,Industrial&
Commercialproducts,
tourism,medicinesetc.
1.3.1 Directuse
FoodPlantsordomesticatedanimalproducts
Industrial & commercial products: Mineral, fossil, fuel, wools, cotton,
jute,rubberetc.
Medicines
1.3.2
IndirectUses
9 Biodiversityisthebiologicalprocessesthemselvesthatprovidethevalue.
Itisregardingaboutindirectusesofenvironments.
9 Environmentconsistsofpopulationsofspecieswithair,water,land.

Populationofonespecies(Environment)
Biological

mixedtogetherwithother

Processhelps

species

Theentiresystem.

Communities
Manycommunitiesare
Combined
Landscape

9 Therefore, biodiversity is a basic resource which acts as a human life


supportsystem.
9
Biodiversity
Sail formation, waste degradation, air & water purification, solar energy
absorption,andmaintenanceofhydrologicalcyclesetc.

LossofBiologicalresources
Reductionof
onecommon
species. 1Depletionofaoncecommonspecies
2Localorglobalspeciesextinction
3 Ecosystemdisruption
Environment may be changed due to habitat destruction
extinction means the potential of the particular species to be
appearedinfuture.

1.4.0

CostBenefitAnalysis:
Afterenvironmentalauditing,wehavetocalculatethecostfor
thedevelopmentalwork.

Some of the environmental process or services are excluded from


thecalculationsuchas:
9 Pollutionabsorptionbybioticsystem
9 Ecosystemstability
9 Recreationalvalue

9 Historicimportance.

Environmental parameters to be incorporated is based on World


ConservationStrategy(IUCN,1980).

1.5 BioticComponent:
Everythingintheglobalenvironmentisinonecomponentcanaffectmany
othersoverspace&time.
Sixmajorlevelsofecologicalorganizationarerecognized
9 Individual(Physiologicalfunctions)
Singlespecies
9 Population(Birth,death,populationgrowthrate)
9 Community(Interactionbetweendifferentspecies)
Bothplants&animals
9 Ecosystem(Interactionbetweenliving&
(biotic)
Nonlivingcomponent.)
Abiotic
Biotic
Community
ofLiving

Hydrosphere
(Water)

Lithosphere

Atmosphere

(earth,soil)

(Air)

ABiotic
Fig1Interactionsbetweenvariouscomponent
EnergyflowoccursatthelevelofEcosystem

9 Biomes: Environmental conditions are similar in


differentpartsofcountry.
Exclimate.
Vegetationtype.
9 Biosphere: Part of earth & atmosphere in which life
exists.
(Lithosphere, Atmosphere & Hydrosphere comes into
contactinBiosphere)

1.6 EcosystemProcess:
Ecosystemistheinteractionbetweenbiotic&abioticcomponents(Fig1).
Processoccurredatecologicallevelare
9 Energyflow
9 Nutrientcycling

1.6.1 EnergyFlow
Interactions between living organism & environment is because of
requirementoffoodwhichsupplyenergytosurvive

Italsohelpstoconstructbodytissues&gamesforreproductionofspecies.
(child/nextgeneration)
Energysources
converted
1Lightenergychemicalenergy
(storedinlivingorganism)

Solarenergy
Sun(ultimatesourcesofenergy)
2EnergyinEnvironment
AutotrophicHeterotrophic

(Energyoriginated
Fromprimaryproduction
inotherecosystem.)
twoways1Productionofenergybygreenplantsin
presenceoflightthroughtheprocessof
photosynthesis.

2Bysulphuroxidizingbacteriaindeepseaecosystems.

Photosynthesis
Granplantscreatetheirownfoodthroughaseriesofchemicalreactions.
12H2O+6CO2+LightChlorophyII+enzymes
Water709kcal
C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O

Carbohydrate(toair)
(Glucose)
+Sugarmolecules.

Photosynthesisiscarriedoutindaylightinleaves&instemsofsomegreenplants.

Plantrequireinorganicsubstancelike
9
9
9
9

Nitrogen
Phosphorusobtainedfromsoils.
Magnesium
Iron

Glucose+chemicalreactionFat,Proteins&Nucleicacid
(usedtoformbodytissues)
PrimaryproductionProductionoforganicmatterbyplants.
Whenanyorganismrequiresenergy,thereversereactiontophotosynthesis
occurs,celledrespiration.
C6H12O6+6O2metabolicenzymes
CO2+H2O+Energyforwork

PrimaryProduction
Theproductionoforganicmatterbyplantsiscalledprimaryproduction.
The rate of photosynthesis & primary production plays a vital role in the
ecosystem.Therefore,Ithastoconsidertheamountofprimaryproductionin
differentecosystem.
Netprimaryproduction=GrossPrimaryproductionrespiration
Grossprimaryproductionisthetotalamountofchemicalenergystoredby
plantsperunitareaperunittime.
Theprimaryproductionisaffectedbytheenvironmentalfactors,

9
9
9
9

Water
Light
Soilnutrients
Temperature.

Foodchain
Autotrophs(plants)cancreatetheirownfood,butheterotrophscannot.
(animals)
Heterotrophdirectlyorindirectlydependsonprimarysourceoffood.

Primaryproductionplant
(chemicalenergy)

Photosynthe
sis

respiratory

Netproduction

+Organicmatter
(GrossProduction)
Herbivore
to
s
Carnivores

1.6.2 Decomposition&NutrientRecycling
Nutrient:aminoacids,minerals,sugar,salts&vitamins.
With flow of energy through food chain, nutrients are passed from one
organismtoanotherduringfeeding.

AutotrophOrganicmatter

Sunlight

Photosynthesis

Respiratory

Sunsenergy
R
Primaryproducer
R
Decomposer
Primaryconsumer

Secondaryconsumer
R

R
Fig4Energyflow

Soil

Rain

Plant

Primaryproduct

Primaryconsumer

Decomposer

Herbivores

Secondaryconsumer

Carnivores

Fig5Nutrientcycle

1.7 EnvironmentalGradients&Tolerance:
Eachspeciesisnotfoundineverytypeofhabitat(area)Uneven
distributionoforganism
Thisisbecauseofseveralfactors
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

Light
Temperature
PH
Food
Water
Shelter
Predictor&competitorsinteraction.

Theaboveenvironmentalfactorsvariesfromtheequatortowardsnorthor
south;iscalledenvironmentalgradient.
Theplotbetweenenvironmental&populationsizeiscalledtolerancecarve.
++++++++++++
A=Speciesabsent
B=Lowpopulation

Rangeofoptimum:Areaofgreatestnumbers.

ConceptofHydrology
2.1Hydrologicalcycle:
Water evaporates from oceans & other water bodies, and from land
surfaces. The evaporated water rises into the atmosphere until the water
vapour condness. Then the condensed water vapour condenses. Then the
condensedwatervapourintheformofrain&sometimesassnow.
++++++++++++++++

Fig2.1Hydrologicalcycle.
2.2Waterbalance:
Theaccountingofwaterforaparticularcatchment,regionorearthiscalled
waterbalance.
Therefore,waterbalanceistheaccountofhydrologicalcycle.Moreover,the
inputtothehydrologicalcycleisduetoprecipitation.
theequaforwaterbalanceis

P=R+E SG

P=Precipitation,mm/day
R=Streamrunoff
E=Evaporation
S=Changeinsoilmoisturestatus
G=Changeingroundwaterstatus
2.3 Energybudget/balance:

Thesourceofenergyissolarradiation.Earthsurfaceabsorbssolarradiation.
Theenergyabsorbedbyearthsurfaceisreflectedbacktotheatmosphere
& some enters into the earth. Furthermore, the earth also reradiates some
solarenergy.
The energy balance is the accounting of distribution of the solar radiation
through atmosphere and onto the earths surface of land and ocean.
Moreover, It accounts for the outgoing terrestrial radiation from the earths
surface.
It includes evaporation flux, sensible heat flux & net radiant emission by
surface.
Ourinterestisfindthenetincomingradiationattheearthssurface.
Quantityofradiantenergyremainingattheearthssurface.
Rn=LE+H+G+PS+M
WhereRn=Specificfluxofnetincomingradiation,W/m2
L=Latentheatofvaporization(Doesntincreasethetemperature)
E=specificfluxenergyofsensibleheatintotheatmosphere(watt/m2)
G=Specificfluxofheatintooroutofthesoil
PS=Photosyntheticenergyfixedbyplants
M=Energyforrespiration&heatstorageinacropcanopy.
NeglectingPS&M,wehave
Rn=LE+H+G
2.4Precipitation:

Preciptionisintheformofrain,hailorsnow.Weareinterestedto
determinetheamount,rate&durationofprecipitation.
Themagnitudeofrainfallisdeterminedbythreewayssuchas:

9 Precipitationgauges
9 RaderInstruments
9 Satelliteremotesensing

Precipitationcanbecalculatedfromdifferentmethodanalysisresultsi.e.
9 Areaprecipitation
9 Deptareadurationanalysis
9 Precipitationdurationfrequencyanalysis.
9 Intensitydurationfrequencyanalysis.
9 Extremevaluesofprecipitation.
Areaprecipitation
P1=.dx

MeanareaTotalaccumulation
Precipitationofprecipitationatallpointx1inthecatchment
Timeaveragedmainareaprecipitation
M
P2=

I=1AA
Totalprecipitationatx&timeti.
Where
A=Catchmentarea
T=Totalstormperiod.
Depthareadurationanalysis.
Generally,astheareaofacatchmentincreases,thedepthofprecipitation
decreases.Therefore,anareareductionfactor(ARF)
Isusedforprecipitationinthisanalysis.
Precipitationfrequency
Rainfallrecordoveraperiodoftimewithaspecificmagnitude.(No.oftimes)
+++++++++++++++++

Fig2.3Depthareadurationcurve
Intensitydurationfrequencyanalysis(IDF)
FromIDFcurves,asrainfallintensityincreases,itsdurationdecreasesi.e.
I
Runoff(Q)=CIA
Catchmentarea(km2)
Localityconstants.
2.5 Infiltration:
Itisthemovementofwaterfromsoilsurfaceintothesoil.About76%of
precipitationinfiltrateintothesoil.

1 Thepropertiesofsoilwhichresponsibleforinfiltrationare

9 Bulkdensity
9 Particledensity
9 Porosity
9 Volumetricwatercontent
9 DegreeofSaturation.
Bulkdensityofasoilis:
(b)

b=()
Md=Drymassofasoilvolume
Vt=totalvolume(Undriedcondn)

Particledensity(m)=
Vd=dryvolume
Typicalvalueformostsailsis2.65kg/m
Porosity()==1

Va=volumeofair
Va=volumeofwater
Vs=volumeofsolids

VolumetricWatercontent()==

Degree of saturation (S) is the proportion of water containing pores. of the


measureofwetness.
S==
SoilhorizonsandHydraulicconductivityHydraulicconductivityistherateof
movementofwaterintothesoil.
Deadleavesvegetation(Grass,tree)
Soil

UnsaturatedzoneAHorizon
Subsoil

BHorizon
Saturatedsoil
CHorizon
BedRock
3Soilmoisturecontentorsoilwatercontent
Eachsoilhasamaximummoisturemagnitude/capacity,whenitissaturated.
+++++++++++++++
Aerationzone:istheupperzonewheretheporesareoccupiedbyair.
Capacityzone:isthezonethroughwhichwaterwillrisethroughthesoilpores
bycapillaryaction.
Groundwaterzone:existsbelowthewatertable.

2.6Evaporation&Evapotranspiration:

Evaporation is the process by which water is returned to the


atmosphere,fromliquid&soildintothevapourstate.
Evaporationintotheatmosphereoccursthroughthetranspirationofleaf
partsofplants.Theprocessistermedasevapotranspiration.
30% of rainfall flows in the form of runoff. Therefore, on the ocean
surfaceofearththereismoreevaporationthanprecipitation.
Thetypeofevaporation/evaporatranspirationare:
9 Evaporationfromlakesurface(Eo)
9 Actualevapotranspiation,(ET)
9 Potentialevapotranspiration(PE)
Evaporationfromlakeoropenwaterbodysurface.
Itincludestheevaporation&transpirationfromalandsurface,&vegetated.It
willvarydependingonthepresentsoilmoisturestatus.
Potential evapotranspioration is determined for catchment research
projects,whenradiation&heatbalanceareconsidered.
Factors causing evaporation from any surface are: 1 Latent heat of
vapourization&(2)wind
2.7 Groundwater:
Groundwaterisdefinedasthewaterbelowthewatertable.

The level of soil below which the pore space is 100% occupied by
water.
2.7.1Aquifers
Watertable
+++++++++++++++
An aquifier is a water bearing rock formation that contains sufficient
amountsofwatertobeexploited&broughttothesurfacebywells.
Aquifersaretwotypesinnature:
9 Contined
9 Uncontined
Upperaquiferisunconfined&ithasanaturalwatertableline.
Freetomoveup&down
The impermeable strata between unconfined aquifer & confined aquifer is
calledaquaclude.
Whenwellsaredrilledintoconfinedaquiferwaterwillrise&attainitsown
watertableline.
2.8Groundwaterchemistry:
(quality/properties)

The quality of ground water depends on the subsoil & rocks that it passes
through.
Ex:hardness,iron,manganese

1 Hardness
WhenGroundwaterpassthroughthelimestone,itdissolves/mixedwith
calcium & magnesium compounds; which cause hardness. (200 to 400
mg/litr)
2 Iron&Manganese
Excessamountofironsdontcausehealthproblem(Tasteproblems)
Itwillgiveametabolictastetowater.
Manganesecauseablackdiscolorationofwater.
Iron&manganesearegoodindicatorofwaterpollution.
3 Hydrogensulphide(gas)
H2Sispresentinwaterfromrockslikelimestonesorshales.
ItcreatethesameproblemasinthecaseofIron.
4 Sulphate(800mg/lit)
5 SodiumChloride(Nacl)

Thisproblemoccursinareaswhererocksarehighlypermeable.
2.9 Ground water contamination: internet Make impure which will
becomeharmful
TheindicatorsofthesourceofcontaminationareE.coli,nitrate,ammonia,
potassium,chloride,iron,manganeseetc.
1 Bacteria&Viruses.
E. coli is the parameter which indicates the presence of bacteria &
viruses.
Presence of bacteria in ground water causes typhoid fever, diarrhea,
gastrointestinalinfectionetc.
EcoliBacteriaFromseptictankeffluent,landfillsites&birdsetc.
2 Nitrate
Nitraterichwatercausemathaemoglobinaemia(bluebabysyndrome)to
youngchildren.
3 Ammonia
Ithasalowmobilityinsoil&subsoil.
4 Potassium(K)
Itisimmobileinsoil.

5 Chloride(Cl)

6 Iron&Manganese
2.10Groundwaterpollutioncontrol/prevention:
WaterQualityRequirement:
3.1InStreamStandards:
Waterqualityrequirements&waterqualitystandard.
Manyfactorsaffectstream
Qualityex:Wastewaterdischarge&humanactivities
3.2Portablewaterstandard:
+++++++++++++
3.3Wastewatereffluentstandards:
Decomposition:Theprocessofdecaycausedbybacteria&fungi
:WaterQualityinRivers:
4.1OrganiccontentparameterDO&BODinstreams
DODissolvedoxygen.
Waterbodiessupportavarietyoffishandanimals.Theyrequire
oxygen&astream/rivermusthaveaminimumdissolvedoxygenabout
2mg/litr.

Whenanorganicwasteisdischargedtoastream,theorganiccontent
undergoesbiochemicalreaction.Thisreactionaconsumesoxygenfrom
waterbodies.
Organiccontent+O2microorganism
New+Co2+H2O+stableproducts
Biomass
Theamountofdissolvedoxygenusedupfromwatersamplebymicro
organismforthebiochemicalreactionistermedasBOD.
TherelationbetweenDO&BODisdevelopedbyStricter&Phelps
model.
Follow=K1LtK2DO
otherbook=

K1L0eK1tK2DO

Lo=Oxygendemandatt=to
Lt=CBOD(mg/Litr)
=Carbonaceousbiochemicaloxygendemand
amountofoxygen
Remainingattimet
ConstantsK1dexygenationrate(1/day)
K2reactionrate(day1)
(LoLt)Oxygenconsumed.

Thedissolvedoxygen(Do)decreasesinariver/streambydegradationof
BOD.ThevariationofDOinthestream/riverw.r.tBODwasderivedby
Streeter&helpsmodel.
Seededwater
Deoxygenation
ChemicalOxygenDemand(COD):Aquickchemicaltesttomeasurethe
oxygenequivalentoftheorganicmattercontentofwastewaterthatis
susceptibletooxidationbyastrongchemical.(organic&inorganic)
(both)
OrCODisameasureofthetotalorganiccarbonwiththeexceptionof
certainaromaticsuchasbenzenewhicharenotcompletelyoxidizedin
thereaction.
Organicmaterialssuchascellulose,phenolsetc.resistbiodegrationalong
withpesticides&thesematerialsareoxidizedintheCODtest.
*Theorganiccontentofawastewaterstreamisdeterminedbyfollowing
tests.

BOD5:conc.OfDoatday5
COD
TOC:Totalorganiccarbon,
atdayOatday5
BOD5=P(DOiDos)

Dilationfactor.
4.2Transformationprocessinwaterbodies:
TheconstituentsinwaterbodiesareDO,BOD,temperature,salinity,
nitrogen(asorganic,ammonia&nitrateetc),phosphursetc,(considering
waterquality).
Thetransformationprocessinwaterbodiesare:
1 Influentcleanflows
2 Influentwasteflows
3 Biologicaloxidationofcarbonaceous&nitrogenousorganicmatter.
4 Reparationofsurfacelayer
5 ReductionofBOD(sedimentation)
6 Photosynthesis
7 Respiration
8 Oxygendiffusion
9 COD(Chemicaloxygendemand)
4.3Transportprocessinwaterbodies:
Transportprocessesare
1 Advection(heat,humidity&solidityinocean)
2Difusion:theprocessbywhichmodelsSeeS.K.Garg
intermingleasaresultoftheir&otherBook
extwogasesmixK.E.ofrandommotion.Fordestination

withcostivelyoftheprocess
3Buoyancy:isanupwardforexertedby
fluidthatopposestheweighofimmersedobject.
4.4StricterPhelpsOxygenSagModel:
Therateofdecompositionoforganicmatterisproportionaltotheamountof
organicmatteravailable;i.e.

=K
11
1Lt

Lt=BODremainingattime
t,
K1=deoxygeneationratecoefficientperday
Integrateequation1between(Lo)to(Lt)
Lt=Loek1t
Wehave2

WhereLo=UltimateBOD
=(BODattintO)=initialBOD
BODconsumedattimet.
(BOD)t=LoLt
=LoLoeK1t
=Lo(1eK1t)
Solve
Ex7.1

7.3
Whenbiodegradablewastewasdischargedtoastream/river,Itconsumed
oxygen.
Thedeticienyofdissolvesoxygenismaintainedthroughreaertionfrom
atmosphere.
Hence,eqa1canbewrittenas
=K1LtK2(DO)
=K1Loek1tK2(DO)

3
WhereDO=DOdeficit(oxygendeficit).
=maintainDOactualDO
LtOxygenremainingattimet
K1deoxygenationrateperday
K2=reparationrateperday
Integratingeq,wehave
DO(t)=(ek1tek2t)+
DOek2t
4
WhereLo=Oxygendemandatt=to
Doo=dissolvedoxygendeficitatt=to
Dissolvedoxygensaturationdeficitatanytimet.

Equ4isthestreeterPhelpsoxygensagformula.
Solveex7.5
InitialDODOcDOsagcurve
DeficitminReaertim
DO(mg/lit)
deoxygenation
time
FigDissolvedoxygensagcurve
DocMinimumormaximumdissolvedoxygendeficit
differentiateequ4w.r.ttot&setitequaltozero.Wehave
tc=.Ln1
timeofoccurrenceofminimumDOormaximum
dissolvedoxygendeficitDOc
=DO(t)DOo
Dissolvedoxygensaturationdeficitattime.
ChemicalPretreatment:toremoveundesirablepropertiesofwater(excess
colourofalgae)Photosyntheticalghe.(doubt)
Unit(NTU:Nephelonetricturbidityunit)
Prechorinctinfor(Lowturbiditywater)

Activaledcarbon
(Turbidity:Shouldbe<0.3NTU)suspendedandmuddyparticles.
(Itisinvisibletonakedeye)
Prechorination:
1 Lowturbidingpurpose
2 Pathogenicwill&reducedcolour
(Bacterialusingdisease)
Chlorineisinjectedintowaterforaperiodinthesettingtank.(5mg/Line
Dose)
3 Itisusedtoreduceammoniainwatersupply
Activatedcarbonisusedfor
9 Removalofphotosyntheticalgae
9 Improvementofcolour&odour.
9 Removalofselectiveorganiccompound.
Activatedcarbonusedaspowderedactivatedcarbon(PAC)
PACisdepositedinsandfilters&watercausingtheundesirable
taste&odoweraredispositedtoPACduringinfiltration.Adsorbed
gas/molecnlegatherdepositonasurface.
Aeration:
Iron&manganesecausesmetabolictastetowater

OxygenO2contentisincreasedtorechesthebadtaste(metabolic
taste).
Additionofoxygenhelpstoseparatethesubstance(Iron&
manganses)inasolidform.
Adsorption:theaccumulationofgas,liquidorsolutesonthesurface
asolid/media.
Sedimentationtank(settingtank):(I)dissolveparticiple

=
Flowvelocityinhorizontaldegree.
Vs=settingvelocity
V=()xVs

Therearethreezonesinthetank.
1 Inletzone
2 Outletzone
3 Sludgezone
Sedimentationofflocculentparticles:(II)
Settingofflocculentparticles.

Coagulationisthefirstprocessofaddingthecoagulantwhichchanges
theparticleselectriccharges&thenhelpstoaggregateinmass.
Flocculationisthesecondprocessofgettingthecoagulatedmixto
formlargerflocs.
Beforeflocculationcolloidalparticlesaresuspendedinaliquid&not
dissolvedinthesolution.
Incoagulationprocesscoagulantswithoppositechargetothe
suspendedsolidareweldedtoneutralizethevechargesondispersed
nonsettablesolids.
Ex7.1Asampleofwastewaterisdilutedwithaseededwater&isplaced
inanairtightbottle.MeasuretheconcentrationofDOatignitionday.
1 PretratmentProcess:
9 Screening:Coarseserreemy(25mm100mmsize)
9 Storage
9 Aeration(ToreleaseexcessH2S,CO2,O2)
9 Chemicalpretreatment.(Prechlorination&Activatedcarbon)
Screeny
Coarsesereeny(25mmdiabar&100mmspellingisusedtopreventlarge
floatingmaterial)
FixSereen(6mmdiaopening)Aobstructionis
Microscreen(2040Nmopening)madewithwovensteel
Wirenet.

Storagetankareusedforsettlementofsuspendedparticles
(initialsettingtank)
9 Thismaybeusefultoreelncepathogensbyexposuretodaylight.
9 Timeofstorageisabout12hr.
Aration:issupplyofoxygenfromatmospheretowatertochangequalityof
water.
(PH,hardness,manganese,H2Setcinaspecifiedanomy)
Aerationisusedtorelease(H2S),which
releaseCO2,whichiscorrosiveinnature.
:WaterTreatment:
5.1Watersources&theirquality:
Differentwatersourcesare
9 Rivers
9 Lake&reservoir
9 Groundwater
Qualityofwaterare:

PH,Acidity,Alkalinity,Colour,Turbidity,DO,etc.
Secondary
Primarytreating

Disonfeet
Pretreatment
treatment

Sedimentation,
Coagulation(Fitration)

5.2WaterTreatmentOperation:
5.2.1Sedimentation

Theseparationofsuspendedsolidsfromtheliquidbygravitysetting
processisreferredassedimentation.
Sedimentationofdiscreteparticles(I)
Separatepart
9 Settingtanksarecircular/rectangular.Particlessettleout
individuality.Thedesignofsuchtanksarebasedonsettingvelocity.
Aparticlewillaccelerateverticallydownwardsuntilthedragforce
(FD)equalstoimpellingforce(F1).Thenparticlewillsettleata
constantvelocity.
Stokesvelocity(V2)
F1=(sw)V

s=densityofsolidparticles(Psg)
w=densityofsolidwater(Pwg)
V=Volumeofparticles

FD=CDAsPw
CD=Dragcolficient
=0.4forspheres.
As=spheresectionarea.
Vs=stokesvelocity

V=kinematicviscosity=
Sedimentationofflocculentparticles(I)
Flocculent:cloudlikeaggregations.
Flocculentparticlesarethoseparticlesthatarechemically(Addthechemical)
assistedtocometogether&producelargeparticle&settle.
5.2.2(Coagulation:
Iftheparticlesizerangeisbetter107to101mm,thenbecauseofsmall
size,thesuspendedmatterhasnegligiblevelocity.Tosettletheseparticles,we
usechemicalcoagulanttocollecttheparticlesinmass.
Coagulant:Aluminumsulphate,ferrous,sulphete&ferricchloride.
Whenalumisaddedtorawwater,thereactionis:
Al2(SO4)3.14H2O+3Ca(HCO3)2
Alumcalciumbicarbonate
PH=PotentialofHydrogen(VariesfromOto14)
=Itisthelogarithmofthereciprocalofhydrogenionconcentrationingram
atomsperlitre.
=<7(acidity)
>7(Basic/alkalining)

FlocGelatinousparticle(Asmalljellyaggregatemassformed.)
Itthereisinsufficientalkalinityinwater,limeisaddedtowater.Thereaction
is:
Al2(SO4).14H2O+3Ca(OH)2
Calcium
Hydroxide
Then,thesmallparticlesattachedwiththeflockmass&producealarger
mass&itsettlesdown.
Solve.
Ex.11.3,11.4
5.2.3Filtrationistheprocessofpassingwaterthroughaporousmedium.,(ex
sandlayer).
Usuallysandfiltrationhasbeenusedfortheporousmedium.
Classificationoftitrationsystemare
9 Gravityorpressure
9 Rapid/slowfiltration
9 Depth/cakefiltration
Gravityfiltrationistheprocesswherewatergoesthroughfilteronly
bygravityforce.
PressurefiltersWaterisforcedthroughthefiltermediaunder
pressure.

Slow/rapidfiltration
Slow:filtrationrate(0.1to0.2m/hmeter)
Rapid:filtrationrate(5to20m/h)
Depthfiltrationiswheremostofthedepthofthefiltermediumis
activeinthefiltrationprocess.
SlowSandFilteration

Supernatantwater
Schmutzdecke
Sandfiltered
Inlet
Structure
Systemofunderdrain.
Waterenterthroughinletandflowerontheschmutzdeckelayer.

Thislayeriscomposedofliving&deadmicroorganisms.

TheSupernatantwaterprovidessufficientwatertodrivethrough
thesandfilter.
Thefilterbdisoffinesand(0.15to0.3mm)
Inshowsandfiltration
Totalcoliformbacteriaremoval(99.4%)
Removalofparticlewithsizes1to60r&m
Colourremovalisnotsignificant.
Turbiding(waterwithfineclay/mueldyparticles)removalis25%
Slowsandfiltrationfiltersabout26month.
RapidGravityFilters
InfluentWaterheadcoarsematerialFinesand

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Rapidgravityfiltersareusedtofilterchemicallycoagulatedwater&
producehighqualitydrinkingwater.
Biologicalactivityoccurinthebreakdownofammoniatonitrateas
innitrification:
NH4+2O2NO3+

AmmoniaBacteriaNitrate
2H++H2O
Filtrationoperateswithaheadofabout1mofwater.
Maintainsamefiltrationrate
Waterorcompressedairfrombottomissentupthroughbackwash.
(BackwashVelocity>0.3melm/min)
Waterisrecycledthroughtheplant.
Filtrationoperatedonhydraulicprinciple.
Vf=Vtxf4.5
Porosity
Terminalvelocitytowashmediumfrombed
5.2.4Disinfection
Itreferstooperationsusedtokillpathogenicmicroorganisms.
Sterilizationistheprocessforthecompletedestructionofallliving
matter.
Disinfectiondoesntindicatetosterilizationprocess.

90%ofbacteria&virusesareremovedbycoagulation&filtration
process.
Therateofdestructionofmicroorganismisalchemicalreaction
(chickslaw)
=kNt
solun Nt=Noekt
Nt=Nooforganismsattimet
No=
K=rateconstantofthetypeofdisinfectant,microorganism
Thecommonuseddisinfectantsare
9 Chlorinedioxide.
9 Chloramines
9 Ozone
9 Ultravidetradiaction
9 Chlorination.
1Makeashortnoteontheuse&effectofdifferentdisinfectants.
2Drawthelayoutofthewatertreatmentplant.

*BrakpointChlorination:Duetothereactivityofchlorine,itreactswitha
multitudeofinorganic&organicmaterialspresentinwater.Insomecases,itis
usedasanoxidizingagentfirsttobreakdownthesematerials.Thistypeof
chlorinationiscalledbreakpointchlorination.Duetohighdosagesofchlorine
normallyemployed,thisprocedureisnolongerperformedinGermany,butstill
widelyusedinUS&othercountries.

:WasteWaterTreatment:
6.1Wastewatercharacteristics:
Wastewatersareeitherfromthesourcofindustrialwastewaterorfrom
municipalwastewater.
Componentsofwastewateraresuspendedsolids,biodegradableorganics,
andpathogens.
Suspendedsolidsareorganicinnature.ExBodywaste,foodwaste,paper&
biologicalcells.
Solubleorganicsinwastewaterareofproteins,carbohydratesandlipids.
Waterbornepathogensmaybefoundindomesticwastewater.
6.2wastewatertreatmentprocesses:
Domestic&industrialwastewatercontainmainlyorganicwaste.

So,themaintreatmentprocessesareusedtowardsorganicremoval.
Processare:
9 Pretreatment
9 Primarytreatment
9 Secondarytreatment
9 Advancedtreatment
6.3Pretreatment:
Thefloatingdebrisdestinationproductofbuildingdebris&grit,&oily
dictionaryscumsareremovedfromwaste
Vegetationprolentwater,inthepretreatmentprocess
Sometimes,thepHofwastewaterisinsucharangethatwateriseithertooacidic
ortooalkalineforoptimumbiologicaldegradation.ItneedpHcorrection.ThePH
correctionisachievedbytheadditionofsulphuricacid(H2SO4)orlime.
6.3.1Screening
Theobjectiveofscreeningistoremovelargefloatingmaterial&soprotectdown
streammechanicalequipments.
9 Corasescreenwithopening
(removelargematerial>6mm)
9 Finescreenswithopening(1.6mmto6mmmaterial)
(Foractivatedsludge)
9 Veryfinescreenopening(0.2to1.5mm)
9 Microscreenwithopening(0.001to0.3mm)

Municipalwastewater

screens

Gritfacilities

Fat,oil,greases
FOG
flotation

BalancingpH,
Organic,nutrient

Primarytreatment

6.3.2Gritchannels
Gritisinorganicsandorgravelparticlesdofsizeabout1mm.
Theyarewashedintosewercollectionsystemsfromroad&pavement.
Gritdoesntexistinindustrialprocessofwastewater.
Gritcanabrademechanicalequipments.

Gritcollectiondevicesare:
9 Helicalflowaeratedgritchamber
9 Horizontalflowgritchannel.
Airentersonesideofchannelnearthebottom&thiscauseaspiralmotionIarto
themainflowdirection.

Airsupply

Grit
FigHelicalflowaerated
gritchannel
Heaviergritparticlessettlewhilethelighterorganicmatter
remaininsuspension.
Aeratedgritchambersaremoreefficientthanhorizontalflow
type.
Thedesignofgritchannelisbasedonsettingofparticle
F1=FD

(sw)V=CDAsfw
Vs=(Sp1)d2

Sp=Specificgravityofparticiples
CD=dragcoefficient
=
V=Kinematicviscosity
=
Ex12.4Designahorizontalflowgritchambertoremovegritofsize
greaterthan0.2mmifthethroughflowis10,000M3/d.thespecific
gravityoftheparticlesis1.9.
Solution
Settingvelocity(Vs)=.(

)d2

=x(1.91)x(0.2)2
=19.6mm/see
=0.02m/see
AssumeDepth(D)=1.5xwidth(w)

C/sarea=A=WxD
=1.5w2
A===0.39m2

6.3.3 Flotation : Flotation is used when suspended particles have low setting
velocitythattheyarenotsettleableinsedimentationtank.
Sedimentation, in watertreatment chapter, is the gravity unit process of
separatingsolidsfromliquids.
Flotationisthebuoyancyunitprocessofseparatingsolidparticlesfromaliquid
phase.
Inmunicipalwork,solidsarefats,oils&grases(FOG).
The process of separation involves introducing air bubbles at the bottom of a
flotationtank.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Fig:DissolvedAirFlotation
Airbubbleattacheswithparticulate(composedofdistunitparticles)dictionary)
matter&thecombinedbuoyancyhelpstheparticletorisetothesurface.Then,itis
removedbyskimming.Dictionary.

9 Gravityflotation
9 VacuumMakeashortnote
9 Electroflotation
9 Dissolvedairflotation(DAF)
9 Airflotation

6.3.4Equalization:Uniformity/balancing
Wastewater treatment plant receives the waste matter (effluent),
uniformity/balancingisrequiredforthat.
Thisincludes
9 Flowequalization
9 Organicequalization
9 Nutrientbalancing
9 PHbalancing(PHcorrection)
(6.5to8.5)
Flowequalization/balancingoperates&balanced7days.
Overflow
RawScreensstructureToprimary

2
3A
1

sedimentation
WastewaterGritremoval

3B

EqualizationFlowcontrol

6.4PrimaryTreatment:
Primarytreatmentisoftencalledclarification,sedimentationorsetting.
The waste water is allowed to settle for a period (about 2hr) in a setting tank
andproduceclarifiedliquideffluentinonestream.
Therefore, the objective is to produce a suitable for the secondary biological
treatment&achieveasolidseparation.
Hence,theprimarytreatmentinclude
9 Reductioninsuspendedsolids
9 ReductioninBOD
9 Reductionintheamountofwasteactivatedsludge(WAS)
9 Removaloffloatingmaterial.
9 Partialequalizationofflowrates&organicload.
++++++++++++++++
FigC/sofatypicalcircularprimaryclarificationtank.
9 Wastewaterentersthroughthediffusionbox.Thetankissizedso,that
theretentiontimeisabout2hr.inthisperiod,thesuspendedparticles
settledownassludge&liftupwardsthroughacentralhopper.
6.4.1Chemicallyenhancedprimarysedimentation
Theadditionofcoagulantchemicals

(iron,salts,lime,alum)
Beforesedimentationmakesthesuspendedfineparticlesintosettleableflocs.
This process increases. The efficiency of suspended solid & BOD removal
rates.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Surfaceoverflowratem3/d/m2)
Asthesurfaceoverflowrateincreases,theremovalefficiencydecreases.
Themechanismofchemicallyenhancedprimarysedimentationistousean
aerationtank&addcoagulants.
6.4.2Sludgequantitiesfromprimarysetting:
Theamountofsludgeproducedduringprimarysettingwilldependonthe
totalsuspendedsolids&theefficiencyofsolidremoval.
6.5Secondarytreatment:
In primary setting process. About 60% of suspended solids & 30% of BOD
removedfromwestwater.
ThepurposeofsecondarytreatmentistoreducetheBODwhichdoesnot
benefitasmuchassuspendedsolidsfromprimarysetting.
Secondarytreatmentprocessproducesnonpollutingandproductsfromthe

(H2O,CO2,Sludge)
Biodegradableorganicmatter:
Theendproductshouldntprovideafoodsourceforaerobicbacteria.
(Liquidefficient)
Theremovaloforganicmatterincludestheprocesses:
9 Biodegradation
9 Airstripping:removalofcovering
9 Adsorption
(accumulation of molecules particles to form a thin film on surface of
water)
9 Activatedsludgesystem
9 Attachedgrowthsystem
6.5.1Activatedsludgesystem
Thecommonactivatedsludgesystemsare
9 Completemixreactors.
9 Plugflowreactors.
9 Oxidationditch
9 Contactstabilization
9 Sequencingbatchreactors
CompleteMixReactors

Ithasuniformcharacteristicsthroughouttheentirereactor.
Aerationisprovidedbysurfaceaerators.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are maintained throughout the process
(2mg/L).
Thereturnedactivatedsludge(RAS)fromtheclarifierisfeddirectlytothe
aerationbasin
bacteria
Organic+O2CO2+NH3+newbiomassOliodProcess
PlugFlowReactors
Plugflowmeansaplugofsubstrateinfluenttoanaerationbasinismoved
forward, without too much interaction with plug. This means satisfacting
mixingoccursinthelateraldirection,butnoneinlongitudinaldirection.
InfluentEffluent
Plug
Thereisahighorganicloadingattheinfluentendofthebasin.
Thereisanexcessoffoodsubstrateattheinfluentendshortageoffood
substrateatthedownstreamend.
Throughtheaerationbasinthefoodsubstrate.Decreaseswhilemicro
organismconcentrationincreases.
OxidationDitch
+++++++++++++

FigLayoutofanoxidationditchsystem.
ContactStabilization
Aerationiscarriedoutintwophasesintwodifferenttanks.
Influenteffluent
Contacttank

Clarifier

Sludgesludgewaste
recycle,
Aeratortank

In contact tank the suspended organic matter is adsorbed by the microbial mass and
thedissolvedorganicmatterisabsorbedbythebiomass.
Sequencingbatchreactors
Itisacomplexmixactivatedsludgesystemwithoutasecondaryclarifier.
Fivedifferentsequencesarefollowedwithinthesingleaerationbasin.
Aeration&clarificationarecarriedoutinonetank.

++++++++++++++++++++
6.5.2Attachedgrowthsystems(Writeashortnote)
Itallowamicrobiallayertogrowonthesurfaceofthemedia(stone,plastic)
Itexposedtotheatmospherefromwhereitdrawsitsoxygen.
Themicrobiallayerissprayedwiththewastewater.

Inthisprocess,themicrobiallayerconventsthebiodegradeableorganicwastewaterto
biomass&byproducts.
Microbial:involving/causedbymicrobas
ThemicrobiallayerhelpstoreducetheBODofeffluents.
PercolatingFilters(TrickingFilters)
Thesearegenerallycylindricalorrectangularboxesofconcreteorsteel,containing
stonemedia.
Themediaisangularratherthanrounded(exlimestoneisabetterchoice).
Thefloorofthetankhasanunderdrainsystemforcollectingtheunderdrainsystemfor
collectingthetreatedwastewater.

Q.1Operationoftrickingfilterwithdiagram.
Factorsaffectingtheefficiencyofatrickingfilter.

Granularmediafiltration:
Themediamaynatural/syntheticmedia&filtertypeiseitherofpressureorgranting.
Adsorption:(Activatedcarbonadsorption)
OrganiccompoundmayberemovedbyPACorgranulatedactivatedurban(GAC).
Powered.
Chemicaltreatment:Inthisprocess,thePHofeffluentrisesto10.811.5,sothat
ammonia(wastewater)
Nitrogenconvertedtoammoniagas&itreleasedtoatmosphere.

++++++++++++++

6.6SecondaryClarification:
Theretentiontimeinsecondaryclarificatorisabout2hrssameasinprimary
clarification.Butitisprovidedwithadeepsettingtank.
(about4.5m)
Theaimisthatnosolidsshouldescapeintheclarifiedeffluent.
Thesolidsarebiologicalinnature.
(Biodegradableorganicmatter)
Itmayrequireoxygendemandfromwaterbodyforthedecomposition.
Theimportantparameterforsecondaryclarificationis
surfaceoverflowrate(SOR)=discharge
AreaofC/S
6.7AdvancedTreatmentProcess(Filtration)
9 Granularmediafiltration:Itcomposedofonetypeofgrains
9 Adsorption(Sand/stoneek)
9 Chemicaltreatment
9 AirstrippingRemovalofammonia;
9 Chlorinationwhenammonialevels
arehighineffluent
(wastewater)

6.8WastewaterDisinfection
Theobjectiveofdisinfectionistoeliminatepathogenicorganisms.
Thedisinfectionproducerforwastewaterare?
9 Chlorine
9 Ozone

9 Chlorinedioxide
9 Ultravidetradiation.

6.9Layoutofwastewatertreatmentplant
+++++++++++++++++++++
Figlayoutofatypicalwastewatersystemincludingfiltration.

:Anaerobicdigestion:
Processofdecomposingthe
organicmatter.
7.1Introduction:
Itisusedforthetreatmentofindustrial,agricultural&municipalwastewater.

Anaerobicdigestionistheuseofmicroorganismsforthestabilizationoforganic
(intheabsenceofoxygen)
matterstotheformofmethaneandotherinorganicproducts.

Organicmatter+H2OmicrobialCH4+CO2+
organism

New+NH3+H2S+Heat
Biomass
Itoccursintheabsenceofoxygen.
Concentratedwastewatersledgesmayreactwithwastewater&hena,canproduce
badproductsorgasestotheenvironment.

Therefore,Ithastomakethesludgesasinertpriortodisposal.ThecommonNoreaction
withwaterorotherelements.Noreactionwithwaterorotherelements.
Processisbiologicaldegradation.Thisprocessconvertthesolidstononcellularend

products.(dictionary)Notdividedintocells
Theprocessiscommonlytermedassludgedigestion.
2 Sludgedigestionreducesthevolumeofthickensludgeaswellasmakesthe
remainingsolidasinert.
Aerobicdigestion
Anaerobicdigestion
Aerobes:Microorganismsrequireoxygenfortheirsurvival,arecalledaerobes.
Anaerobes:Othermicroorganismscantsurviveintheoxygenenvironment,areknown
asanaerobes.
3 Primarysludgecontainslargeamountsofavailableorganicsthatwouldinducea
rapidgrowthofbiomassiftreatedaerobically.
(dictionary)totalmassoflivingmatter
4 Anaerobicdecompositionproduceslessamountofbiomasscomparedtoaerobic
processes.
The aim of anaerobic digestion process is to convert as much as sludge to end
productssuchasliquids&gases;whileproducingalittleresidualbiomass.

7.2MicrobiologyofAnaerobicdigestion:
Fourdifferentmicrobiologicalgroups(bacteria)arerecognized.
9 Hydrolytic bacteria compound reacts with water & produce other
compound.

9 Acidogenicbacteriaformationofacid.
9 AceticlasticMethanogens.
9 HydrogenophilicMethanogens.
Complexwaste
(sludge)

Proteincarbohydrates.Lipids.Hydrolysis
Process
Hydrologic
Bacteria.
Aminoacid,sugar

Faltyacid,alcohols.

Acidogenic
bacteria
Acidogonesis
process
Intermediate
Products.

Acetate
H2,CO2

Aceticlastic

BacteriaHydrogenophilic
Methane,
Methanogens
CO
2

7.3MethaneProclcetion:
Anaerobicsludgedigestiondividesintotwogroups,theacidformers&methane
formers.
Theinfluentsludgeentersthetankclosetothetopatthesupernatantlayer(purified
liquidlayer)
Thereisaactivitydigestingsludgelayerbelowtosupertentlayer.
Finallythedecomposed(digested)sludgestabilizedatthebottomoftank.

Gasreleased.

InfluentsludgeScam
Supernantreleased.
AActivitydigestingsludge.
Stabilizedsludge

Digestedsludge
ExC6H12O63CO2+3CH4

7.4Applicationofanaerobicdigestion:
Agriculturalwastewatertreatment
Industrial
Municipal

:AirPollution:
Mancanhardlysurvivefor5minuteswithoutair.
However,hecansurvive5dayswithoutwater&for5weekswithoutfood.
Whenairgetspolluted,itcausesanumberofdiseasesinhumanbody(animals).
Hence,thepollutedairisharmfultoalltypesoflife(plant,animals).

8.1Airpollutants:
Thepollutedairgetscontactwiththenonlivingmaterials(metal,wood,stoneetc)&
corrosiveactionofpollutedairorduetothechemicalattackofairpollutants.
Primarypollutants
Sulphuroxides(SO2),carbonmonoxide(CO),Nitrogenoxides(NO&NO2),Lead(Pb),
hydrocarbons,allergicagents&radioactivesubstances,H2S,H2F,&methyl&ethyl
mercaptans.
Theprimarypollutantsreactwitheachother&withwatervapour&producesnew
pollutants,calledsecondarypollutants.
Secondarypollutantsareproducedfromhechemicalreactionsduetooxidationcaused
byenergyofsun.
Secondarypollutantsaremoreharmfulthantheoriginalprimarypollutants.
Thepollutantsare:
9 H2SO4(Sulpharicacid)

9 Ozone(O3)
9 Formaldehydes(HCHO)orCH2O
9 Peronyacylnitrate(PAN)(NOz)
1 Sulpherdioxide(SO2)
Itisanirritantgas&wheninhaled,itincreasesthebreathingrate&causesoxygen
deficitinthebody.
exPatientsofasthmaareaffectedbythispollutions.
SO2mayoxidizetoformSO3,whichwheninhaled,maydissolveinbodyfluidtoform
sulphuricacid(H2SO4).H2SO4isaverystrongcorrosiveacid.
SO3causesseverebranchspasm.
(dictionary):difficultyinexhalation
SO2originatesfromrefineries&chemicalplants,smeltingoperation&burningof
(dictionary):formationmetalsby
heating
fulls.ThermalpowerplantalsoemitsSO2.
ThequantityofSO2inairis0.03ppm
(SpecifiedAirStandard)*
*Contentationofpollutant(Unitofmeasurement)
9 Generallytheconcentrationofpollutantcanbeexpressedasmicrogramspercubis
metre(g/m3)atatmospherictemp&pressure.
9 Iftheconcentrationisexpressedincum(m3)permillioncumofair,itiscalledas
ppm(partspermillion).
9 Therelationbetwnppm&g/m3is:
1g/m3=

X103

Liter

Molmolecule
( /mol)VolumeinLiteroccupiedbyonemolecule.
2 Carbonmonoxide.(CO)
COhas200timesaffinitytowardsbloodhemoglobin(Hb)thanoxygen.
Wheninhaled,COreplacesO2fromhaemoglobin&formcarboxyhaemoglobin
(COH6).
Ithasnouseinrespiratoryprocess.Hence,helfofthebloodisused
Carbonmonoxideisresponsibleforheartattack.
SourcesCOoriginatesfromautomobileexhausts&incompletecombinationof
organicmatter.(dictionary):(Processinwhich
substancesreactswithoxygen.)
Incities,theconcentrationofCOis54ppm.
Specifiedstandard(9ppm).
3 OxidesofNitrogen(NO,NO2)
NitricoxideNitrogendioxide.
Eye&NasalirritationsarecausesbyNO2(whenconcentrationis15)
Respiratorydiscomfort(concentrationis25ppm)
Itoriginatesfromautomobileexhausts:
(dictionary)
Furnacesmokes

SpecifiedstandardforNO2is0.05ppm

4 HydrogenSulphide(H2S)
H2Sisafoulsmellinggaswithaodourofrottenegg.
(dictionary)dirty(dictionary):Damaged/useless
Thisgascauseheadaches,sleeplessness&painineyes.
HigherconcentrationofH2Smayblockoxygentransfer&damagetonervetissues.
H2Sisrarelyfoundinatmosphere,therefore,Itisnotincludedintheairquality
standers.(Nospecifiedstandardconcentration)
Itisproducedinindustrieslikeoilrefinibg,rubber,artificial,silketc.
5 Methyl&EthyleMecaptans
Ethylmercaption:C2H3SH
Thesecompoundsarenotharmfultous.
Theyhavestrongodours.
6 HydrogenFluoride&OtherFluorides
Allfluoridecompoundsareextremelyirritantgas&corrosiveinnature.
Theirsmallerconcentrationmayproducesfluorosisincattle&plants
dictionaryapathologicalcondition.
Itisnotharmfultohumanbeings.
SourcesTheyareemittedintoatmospherefromaluminumplant,steelplant,
phosphatefrtiliserplantsetc&byburningofcoal.

Itsconcentrationincityairisveryless(around0.025ppm).Itisnotincludedinair
qualitystandard.
7 Lead(Pb)
SourcesItisejectedintotheatmospherethroughexhaustedofautomobile.
(Gasemittedfromtheautomobileengine)
Itmaycauseirritationofmucousmucousmembranesofnose,throat&lungs,
when(athinlayerinsideofnose&mouth&outsideofotherpartofbodyinhaledair.
ItmaydamagetoLiver,kidney&gastrointestinaltracts(systems).
(dictionary)system.
Specifiedstandardforleadinairqualitystandardis1.5g/m3
8 Hydrocarbons(Alkane,Alkene,Alkynes.)
Alkenesarehighlyreactiveinatmospherethroughphotochemicalrealn.
Itreactswithotherpollutantgases&formsnewpollutants.
SourcesHydrocarbonsreleasedtothetmospherebyautomobileexhausts&by
smokesofincinerators&fromOilrefineries.
Hydrocarbonsarefoundtocausebodycancers.
Formaldehydecauseirritationofeyes,skins&lungs.
Airqualitystandardis160g/m3(0.24ppm)
9 AllergicAgents
Microscopicsubstancesinairmaycauseallergicreactionsinhumanbodies,called
aeroallergens.(Physicalmatterofwhichthing/personconsist)

Sneezing,asthma,skintroublesareduetoallergicagents.
SourcesItOriginatesfromplants&animals.
Finallypoweredindustrialmaterialsmaycauseallergicreacnwithsensitivepersons.
Poweredlikematerialformseasonalplants.
10RadioactiveIsotopesexTitrium(H3)
Carbon11,14,18
Radioactive emissions leads to anemia, cancers & shortening of life spans & genetic
effects.(Itsnuclicareunstable&itdisputeenergybyemittingradiationinthefromof,
&rays)&accidentialdischargesfromatomic&nuclearreactors.

11Ozone(O3)
The presence of ozone gas in air may cause irritation in the respiratory (dictionary)
tract.System.
itmaybeproducedbyphotochemicalprocess

Twopollutantsunittogetherinthepresenceofsunlight,
producingathirdpollutant.
In day time, It is also produced by photochemical realn of hydrocarbons & nitrogen
oxide.(inhighlymotorizedareas)vehicleused(dictionary)
Theairstandardforozoneis0.12ppm
Environmentprotectionagency
8.2Criteria&Noncriteriapollutants:

Criteriapollutantsare:
9
9
9
9
9
9

CO
NO2
O3
SO2
Lead
Particlematter(dia<10m)

Asmalldiscretemassofsolidorliquidmatterthatdistributedingasorliquid
8.3Influenceofmeteorologicalphenomenaonpollutants:
Meteorology:Thescientificstudyofearthsatmosphere&itschanges.
Meteorologicalphenomena:1Heat(Tempn)
9 Pressure
9 Wind
9 Moisture
Whenapocketofgasisreleasedintotheatmospherefromasource,itgetsdispersed
into atmosphere into various directions depending on wind, temperature & pressure
conditionsoftheenvironment.
8.3.1Lapserate
Introposphere,temperatureofsurroundingairdecreaseswithan

ionosphere
Atmospherestraphere
Troposphere
Earthssurface
Increaseinheight.TherateofchangeoftemperatureiscalledLapserate.

Theratewilldifferfromplacetoplace&fromtimetotime(daytoday)atthesame
place.
Lapserateataparticularplace&timeisdetermined
bysendingabarbonequippedwithathermometer&
aselfrecordingmechanism.

Ambientlapserate/Environmentallapserate
surrounding.

Whenaparcelofair,whichishotter&lighterthanthesurroundingair,isreleased,the
Emittedgases
ittendstoriseup
Untilitreachestoalevel,whereitsowntemperature&densitybecomesequaltothatof
surroundingair.
Therateofdecreaseoftemperaturemaybedifferentthanambientlapserate.Thisis
calledadiabaticLapserate.

Withouttheadditionoflossofheat
2000

Heightin
meter
500
5101520


To
EnvironmentalLapserate=
Theemittedgasiscalledplume.(Lapseratevsdisperstmot)pollution

EmittedplumeLoppingplumeLoftyplume
BehaveinNeutralplumefumigatingplume
airunderConingplumeTrappingplume
theseconditions.Fanningplume

8.3.2Impactsofwinds
Themovingairisknownaswind.
Themovementinairisduetounequaldistributionofatmospherictemn&pressureover
theearthssurface&alsobecauseofrotationofearth.
Thedirectionofwindisfromhighpressureareastolowpressurearea.
Quickerheating&coolingofearthcomparedtoseamaycauseflowofair.
9 Daytime(fromseatoland)
9 Nighttime(fromlandtosea)
Thismayaffecttotheairpollutionproblemwindspeedismeasuredbyanemometer.
Thevelocityofwindatanyheightzis:
U=Uok

WhereU0=windspeedatheightZo
9 K=constforlargelapserate.
=(averagevalue)
Thedirection&speedofwindwillinfluencethediffusionofpollutedgases.&emission
ofparticulatesfromfactoriesorautomobiles.
unit

8.3.3Impactofpressure
High pressure systems (clear SR/, Light ward condition) cause a bad dispersion of
pollutants.
Lowpressuresystemsleadstogoodmixing&rapiddispersionofpollutions.

8.3.4Impactofmoister
The presence of moisture blocks & obstructs the solar radiation reaching to ground,
whichaffecttheairquality.
Humidityleadstoformationofdog&increasesthecorrosiveactionofairpollutants.
Excessivemoistureinatmospherewillleadtorain,whichwillbehelpfulinimproving
thequalityofambientair.
Becauseitwashdownthepollutantstotheearth.
RemovedofatmosphericSO2throughraincauseproblemsduetoreactionofSO2with
water,formingH2SO4.

:Watertreatmentprocess:
Ex.11.3Determinethedailyrequirementofalum,Lime&polyelectrolytetocoagulatea
flowof200L/S,ifthejartestindicatesthatqrtimumcoagulationoccurswhen1Litreof

waterisdosedwith3mlof10g/Lalumsolution,1.8mlof5g/Lsuspensionoflime&0.2
mg/Lofpolyelectrolyte.
AnsCoagulantsaresometimesassistedwithfurtherchemicals,knownascoagulant
aids.
Ex1Polyelectrolyte.
Limealkalinityaddition
PHcorrection:Lime,sulphuric,acid
(H2SO4)
Theamountofchemicalcoagulantpolyelectrolyterequiredforparticularrawwater
qualitycanbedeterminedusinglaboratoryJartest.
Electrolyte:Asolutionthatconductelectrolyte.
transmissionof
electricity
Polyelectrolyte:Aelectrolyteofhighmolecularweight.
Solution1min1hr
Dailyflowrate=200x60x60x24
=17.28x106L1day
Alumrequirement3mLof10g/L
=30mg/Lx17.28x106L
=518.4kg/day
Linerequirement1.8mLof5g/L
=9mg/Lx17.28x106L
=155.5kg/day
Polyelectrolyte=0.2mg/Lx17.28x106L
=3.46kg/day
Ex9.2S.K.Garg

The maximum daily demand at a water treatment/purification plant has been


estimatedas12millionlitresperday.Designthedimensionsofasuitablesedimentation
tank for the raw water supplies, assuming a detension period of 6 hrs & the velocity of
flowas20cm/minute.(assumebasinwithinis10m)
Solution
GivenQuantityofwatertreatedin24hrs(daily)
=12x106liters
Quantityofwatertreatedduringdetentionperiod
=(x6)
=3x106litres
=3000cu.m(m3)
Thecapacityoftankrequired=3000m3
Givendata(Velocityofflowtobemaintainedthroughoutthetank)=20
=(0.2)
Lengthoftankrequired=(velocityofflow)xt
(Detentiontime(t)=)Lengthoftank
Velocityoftank
=0.2x6x60
=72matres
C/Sareaoftank=
=
=41.7m2
GivenBasinwidth=10m
Waterdepth==4.17
=4.2m

Ex9.6S.K.Garg
In a continuous flow setting tank 3m deep 60m long, what flow velocity of water
wouldyourecommendforeffectiveremovalof0.025mmparticlesat250C.thesp.Gravity
ofparticlesis2.65&kinematicvisocityvforwatermaybetakenas0.01cm2/see
SohtimVs=(Sp1)d2
Settingvelocitydiaofparticles
Sp.gravityofparticles
Kinematicviscoeity=v
= ( s w)d2

So,

Vs=(sp1)d2

Kinematicviscocity
vs=x(2.651)(0.0025)2
vs=0.0562

Settingvelocity
InletAD
Depthof(=H)
water
sludgezone

V=flowvelocityinhorizontaldirect
Vs=settingvelocity
FromthevectordiagramfromAtoC,wecanwrite.

Flowvelocity
V=)xVs
=x0.0562
=1.35cm/see.
Derivationofstokeslaw:
Vs=(Sp1)
Kinematicvisocityofwater(m2/see)

Sp=Sp.Growthofparticle
F1F1=Impellingfor=densityofparticle
FDFD=Dragforcedensityofwater

Dragforceincreaseswithincreaseofvelocity,tillitbecomesequaltoeffectiveweight
ofparticlei.e.(V=Vs)
Effectiveweightofparticle(F1)
=TotalweightBuoyancy
=)ys)yw

VolumeVolumeofsperialparticle
=r3(VsVa)
Unitwt.ofwater
Unitweightofparticle
=(
Dragforce(FD)
(Areaofparticle)(r2)=CDAs.Pw.
CD=dragcolt.
=
=0.4(forsphericalparticles)
V=dynamicvisocityofwater
densityinkg/m3
(m2/see)
F1=FD
Vs=
Vs= (S 1)
p

WhereSp=
V=
*Dragforcereferstoforcesactingoppositetotherelativemotionofanyobjectmoving
withrespecttothesurroundingfluid.

:NoisePollution:
9.1Introduction:

Noiseisdefinedasanunwantedsound.Theunwantedsoundproducesseveral
undesirableeffectsonourbodyhealth,therefore,itcanbecalledasapollutant.
Itinterfereswithonesactivitieslikework,rest,sleepetc.&producesundesirable
physiological&psychologicaleffectsinbody.
Itismainlyinhighlyindustrializedcountries,characterizedbyhighvolumeoftraffic;&
sportingactivities&lowflyingaireaftetc.
Itreducesthequalityoflife&causesasignificanthealthhazard.
Ex1)Peoplelivingadjacenttobusyroadtendtohavehigherbloodpressure.
2)Highnoiselevelsofsufficientdurationcanresulttemporary/permanenthearingloss.
3)Irritation,headacheetc.
9.2Physicalpropertiesofsound:
Soundisproducedintheenvironmentbyalternatingpressurechangesintheair
becauseofvibrationsofsolidobjects.orseparationoffluids.
Alternatingpressurevariationproducessoundwaveswhichpropagateintheformof
sinusoidalwavepattern/cosinewavepattern.
T
A
(+ve)

SoundPressure
(ve)T

A=Amplitude
T=Wavelength=Distmabetwntwosuccessivecrests.

Timeperiod:Thetimerequiredforacompleterotationoscillation
Frequency:Thenoofcompletedcyclesperunittime.

Mostsoundsarenotpurelysinusoided.Theyvarybothinfrequency&magnitude.

Soundpressure(Prms)
Rootmeansqure.
=(P2)=1/2
(P=pressureateachinstantoftime.)
Soundpower&intensity
Therateatwhichenergyistransmittedbysoundwavesiscalledthesoundpower(W)
measuredinwatt.
Theaveragesoundpowerperunitareanormaltothedirectionofpropagationofa
soundwaveistermedthesoundintensity.
I=Wetts/m2metre.
I=soundintensity/acousticintensityatadistancerfromthesoundwave.
9.3Noisecriteria:
Loudnessofasoundisdeterminedbyitssoundpressurelevel&frequency.

9.4Noisestandard:(x)
Soundpowerisindifferentrange.
Deeibel:Soundpowerlevelismeasuredindecibel(db).Itisthereferencepowerlevel;
1012watts(db).
Soundpower(watts)
Lw=10log10
Soundpowerlevelindb
9.5 Noisemeasurement:
Soundpowercantbemeasureddirectly,whereassoundintensitycanbemeasured
withmoderninstrumentation.
9 Soundlevelmeter.
(Readthe

9.6Noisecontrol:
Whennoiselevelisexcessive,thesolutioninvolvesthreesteps.
(a) SourceSourcecouldbemodifiedbythetreatmenttomachinesurfaces.
(b) TransmissionpathCouldbemodifiedbycontainingthesource(machine)insidea
soundinsulatorandbyconstructinganoisebarrio(absorbingmaterial)
(c) ReceiverProtectionofthereceiver(ear)byprovidingearprotection.

Soundprotectioninbuilding
Externalsoundwillenterabuildingthroughtheweakesttransmissionpath.
(maybewindow)
Whensoundpressurewavemeetawall/buildingsurface,thebuildingvibrates&
soundisradiatedbuckintospace.
Partofsoundenergyisreflected,partisabsorbedbysurface&remainderis
transmitted.
Vibrationwillbelargeratthenaturalfromofelement(will/building).
Naturalfromdependsonweight,surfacearea&rigidityofbuildingelement.
Soundreductionisbetterforhighernaturalfrequency

:10.SolidWasteManagement:
10.1Introduction:
Solidwastesincludepaper,plastics,glass,foodwaste,ashetc.italsoinclude

paints,oldmedicines,etc.liquidwates
Fromhealthpointofview,solidwastesare
9 Humanpathogens
(exHandkerchiefs,contaminatedfood&surgicaldressing)
9 Animalpathogens(exWastefrompets)
9 Soilpathogens(exGardenwaste)

10.2Sources&classification
Solidwaste/municipalsolidwasteiscollectedfromdomestic,commercial&industrial
sources.
SourceTypesofwaste
Domestic(Singlefamilyhouse,Food,paper,packaging,glass
MultiFamilyhouse.Low,medicinemetal,ashes.
&highriseapartments)otherhouseholdwaste

Commercial(shop,restaurants,Types
Markets,office,Food,paper,
Buildings,hotelsPackaging,glass,
&institutions)metals,ashes.
(sameasdomestic)
Industrial(Fabrication,Types
Manufacturing,refineries,Industrial,process

chemicalplants,miningwastes,oil,metal,plasticsetc.

Construction&demolition.Soil,concrete,
(destruction)timber,steel,
Plastics,glass.
10.3CompositionofMSW:
Municipalsolidwaste.
Thebasicideaistoidentifywasteasbeingorganicornonorganic(Inorganic).
Organic:Food,vegetables,paper,
Cardboard,plastics,
Clothing,gardenwaste,
Wood,bone.

Inorganic:Metals,glassash,

Stone,brick,etc.
WHO(Worldhealthorganization,1991)
Categorytheindustrialwasteintothreetypes:

9 Nonhazardousindustrialwaste.
9 Hazardouswaste.
9 Hospitalwaste.

10.4PropertiesofMSN:

Wastehandlersneednttoknowthephysical,
Chemical&biologicalpropertiesofsolidwaste.

Forproperwastemanagement(disposal,transformation,reuse&recycling),wehaveto
knowthephysical,chemical&biologicalpropertiesofsolidwaste.
Physicalpropertiesare:
9 Density&moisturecontent(kg/m3)
9 Particlesizedistribution.(mm)
(LxBxH)
9 Fieldcapacity(%)metre
9 Hydraulicconductivity(m/day)
9 Shearstrength(KN/m2)
Fieldcapacityisthemaximumpercentageofvolumetricsoilmoisturethatasoilsample
willholdfreelyagainstgravity.
Density&moisturecontentofMSWisabout20040kg/m3&is1sto40%forthe
compaction(density)(moisture)
Ofsoildswasteinlandfill.
Hydrauliccontectingistherateofmovementofwaterintosoil.Sludgeresiststhe
movementofwarterdownthroughthesolidwaste.
Densewaste:7x106m/s/Loosewaste:15x1015M/S
Filedcapacity=0.60.55
W=Overburdenweightofsolidwasteinlift.
ShearstrengthofsludgeinLandfillisaboutzero.
Hardness:isdefinedastheconcentrationofmultivalentmetalliccationsInsolution.
Organics:Thesearecarboncompoundproducts.
Biodegradableorganic
Nonbiodegradableorganic
Biodegradableorganic:Materialscanbecetilizedforfoodbynaturallyoccurringmicro
organizations.Thesematerialsconsistsofstarches,facts,proteins,alcohols,acidetc.

NonbiodegradableOrganics:Someorganicmaterialshavetheresistanttobiological
degradation.
Aeration:Itisaprocessusedinpreparingthepotablewater.
(drinking)
9 Itmaybeusedtoremoveundesirablegasesdissolvedinwater
Biochemicalprocess:Thesechemicalreactionsarenotspontaneousbutrequire
externalsourceofenergyforinitiation.
Turbidity:isameasureoftheextenttowhichLightiseitherabsorbedorscattered
bysuspendedmaterialinwater.
Itisnotaquantitativemeasurementofsuspendedmaterial.
Sp.Gravity:Thedensityofasubstmee/particlerelativetothedensityofwater.
Effluent:Watermixedwithwastematter
Viscocity:Resistanceofliquidtoshearforceinflow.
PH:Potentialofhydrogen(Logarithmofthereciprocalofhydrogenion
concentrationingmatomsperlitre).
Diffusion:themovementofasubstancefromanareaofhighconcentrationof
thatsubstancetoanareaoflowerconcentration.Sludge:theprecipateproduced
bysewagetreatment.
Sewage:wastemattercarriedawayinsewers
Decant:Causetoflowoutfromacontainer.

.4

PropertiesofMSW:

MostoftheMSWwasdumpedsoitnotnecessarytofindthechemicalproperties.
Sincerecycle,reuse&transformationtechnologyfollowed,wearedeterminingthechemicalpropertiesof
MSW.
ChemicalProperties
Technology/Analysisprocessusedtofindthechemicalpropertiesas:
9 Proximateanalysis
9 Ultimate
9 Energycontent.
Proximateanalysisinclude
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Moisturecontentbypercentageweight
Voletinematter
Fixedcarbon
Noncombustiblefraction(ash).

Theenergycontentisbasedinheatvalue.

Heatenergyproduced,itthe
Solidwasteisburnt

(Joule/kg)/orMI/kg

(Hu)=(HawfxB2.445xw)
Easilyburning
B=Flammablefraction.(%)
(Volatilematter+fixedcarbon)
W=moisturecontentfractionbyweight(%)
Ultimateanalysisisfollowedtoknowtheenergyproducedbycombustionorbiologicaltransformation
ofsolidwaste.
1)
(Dulongequation)
WhereC,
Ultimateanalysisincludethe%oftheaboveelement.
2) Khanetal(1991)
E=0.051

Energycontentin

F=%offrombyweight
CP=%ofcarboard&paperbyweight.
PLR=%ofplastic&rubberbyweight.
BiologicalpropertiesDuetoaerobic/anerobicdigestion,solidwasteistransformedintoenergy&otherend
products.
Anerobicdigestionprocessisresponsibleforthedecompositionoffoodwastestoendproductmethane,
Thesolidwaterrelatedtobiodegradation.AreOil,fat,proteins,celluloseetc.
Therefore,thebiodegradationoffoodfractionofMSWisdeterminedby
BF=0.830.028LC
Lignincontent(%)
Biodegradationfractionexpressedona
volatilesolidbasic.
LCLignincontent(dryweight)ofVolatilesolid.

LigninAcomplexpolymerconstituteofwood
otherthancarbohydrate.

VolatileSubstancethatchangesreadilyfromsolid/liquidto
vapouratnormaltemperature.

Dispose:toarrangethings/orpeopleinaparticularway/position.
Disposal:theactofgettingridof5th.
tobefreeofsb/thing
thathasbeenannoyingyou
haulier:aperson/companywhosebusinessistransportinggoodsbyroads/railways.

10.5 Separation:
Separationofdifferentfractionofwastefromthetotalsolidwastecanbedoneatsource(household/or
industry)oratfinaldestination.
Basedonseparation,thetotalMSWisdividedinto:
9 Wastesthataredesirablyseparatedatsource
9 Allotherhouseholdwaste.
Wastesthataredesirableseparatedatsource
(sourceseparation)
9
9
9
9
9

Foodwaste
Paper&cardboard
Plasticaverythickpaper
Metals
Glass.

Otherhouseholdwastesare
9 Bulkywaste(tyres,furnitureetc)
9 Hazardoushouseholdwaste.
9 Yardwaste.
Anareaoutsideabuilding(withasurroundingwell)

10.6) Storage&transportofMSW:
Differenttypes&sizesofstoragecontainersareusedforMSW.
Therangeforsizevaryfrom25Lcapacityto40000litre.
Forapartmentbuilding,thesizeofcontainerisfrom600to1000Litre.
Thetypesofstoragedependonthecollectionfacility.

9 Haulierforbulkyitems.
aperson/companywhosebusiness
istransportinggoodsbyroad/railways.
9 Doorstepcollection
(areaveryclosetodoor.)
9 Regularkerbcollection
(sideofroad)
9 Vacuumtrucketc.
(emptyspace)
Typesofstoragesareplasticbag,wheeled,bin,vaccum,truck,paperbagetc.
(alargecontainerwithacover/aid)

10.7) MSWManagement:
Thetechnologiesusedfortreatment&disposalofMSWare:

9
9
9
9
9

Wasteminimization
Reuse&recycling
Biologicaltreatment
Thermaltreatment(combination/incineraton)
Landfiling

10.8) Wasteminimization:
Itfollowsthereductioninamountofsolidwastegeneratedatsources.
Examplesofsourcesare:
1 Productionunitsforfood&householdproducts.
(Industry)
2 Productionunitsforcommercialproducts.
3 Shoppingoutlets(Businessplace)
4 Households
5 Office,institutes&commercialproperties.

10.9) Reuse&Recycling:
Aluminiumcansareconsideredforrecyclingpurpose.
(dictionary)container

Paper&cardboardareusedasarecyclingsolidwastematerial.
Glasswaswellrecycled.
Exdifferenttypesofbottles.
Plasticsaremostlynonbiodegradable.
Hence,itisundesirableinlandfilling.
Therefore,plasticsarerecycled.
Yardwaste,organicfoodfractionetc.

10.10)BiologicalTreatment:
9 AerobicorcompostingItisanaerobicprocess
Whichdecomposetheorganic
foodwaste.
9 AnaerobicorBiogas
9 Combinedanaerobivc&aerobic
1 Compostingisanaerobicprocesswheremicroorganismsdecomposetheorganicfoodwastein
anoxygenenvironment.
aerobicbacteria
Organicmatter+O2Newcells+CO2+H2O+NH2+SO4
Thefinalproduct(compost)consistsofminerals&complexorganicmaterial.
Therequiredparametersforthecompostingprocessare:
9
9
9
9
9

Temperature*
Moisturecontent(%)
Oxygen(%ofoxygen)
(range68)
Biochemicalcomposition
(Itinfluencestheprocessrate)

2 Anaerobicdigestion(Absenceofoxygen)
Organicmatter+H2ONewcells+CO2+CH4+NH3+H2S
anaerobicbacteria
ThebeneficialendproductistheCH4(methane).
ThisprocessdecomposethefoodwastetoCH4.
3 Combinedanaerobic&aerobicprocess

Anaerobicdigestionfollowedbyinvesselaerobiccomposting.
(1stprocess)

(2ndprocess)

10.11)ThermalTreatment:
Thermaldegradationoforganicmaterialcanbecarriedoutwith/withoutoxygen.
Thermaldegradationwithexcessoxygeniscalledcombustion.
Whenthefuelisawaste,thethermaldegradationprocessiscalledincineration.
IncinerationOrganicmaterialisconvertedintoheatenergy,gas,slag.

10.12)Landfill:
*Aschematic(Layout)oflandfillprocess.
:11HazardousWasteTreatment:
11.1) Hazardouswaste&itsgeneration:
Hazardouswastemeans
9 Itcausesfire(Ignitable)
9 Itreactswithother(reactive)
9 Itdestroy/corrodeother(corrosive)
Tissue/material
9 Solidwasteisdangertohealth.(toxic)
Itpollutewater,food&air
Itmaybemedicalhazardouswaste.
orhouseholdhazardouswasteorfromindustry.
Examples
Copper(Cu),Zine(Zn),Lead(Pb)&
Mercury(Hg)etc.

Lubricatingoil,drillingoil,syntheticoil
NO2,Organics,hydrocarbons,etc.
TaskWriteexamplesofhazard/solidwastesfrommedical/household/industry.

11.2 TreatmentforHazardousWaste:
*Incineration
Hazardouswastecanbemanaged/treatedbyincineration/Landfillingprocess.
Intheincinerator,thewasteisoxidizedinanoxygenrichenvironmentatelevatedtemperature.
Themostimportantcriteriaforhazardouswasteincineratorsisthecompletedestructionofthemajor
hazardouscompounds.
Thecombustionefficiency(CE)iscalculatedas:

Where

Incinerationisacontrolledhightempratureoxidationofprimarilyorganiccompoundtoproducecarbon
dioxide&water.

OrganicwasteIncinerationCO2+H2O+Byprotein
Thenetheatvalue(NHV)forwasteinincinerationprocessis
NHV=1.25(T15)x
[1+0.268(NHV+EA)]
WhereT=(therequiredtemperatureforincineration,OC)
=15+
EA=Heatcapacityofexcesssirof1.25KJ/Kg.OC
Duringincineration,heattransferoccurredbyconduction,convection&
radiation.(lowtempn)
at(hightempn)
Energyspreadsintheformofwaverays.
Convection:transferofheat

Conduction:transmissionofheat

throughfluid(liquid&gas)(transferfromonemediumtoanothermedium.)

Typesofincinerators

Incineratortypedependsonageofstructure&economics.
9
9
9
9
9

Rotarykiln
Liquidinjectionfor(liquidorganicwaste)
Plasmaarcelectricalconductionthroughagas
Wetairoxidation
Fluidizedbed.

Theuseofanelectricalarcforwastetreatmentgenerallyitisusedwithinchemical&metallurgical
industryastooltoprovidehightemperature.(280000C)
Wetoxidationisanaqueousphaseoxidationwhereorganic&inorganicmaterialssuspendedor
dissolvedinwateeareexposedtooxygen/(gaseoussource).

11.3) Handlingoftreatmentplantresidences:
Residuefromincineratorare:
9 Slagfromrotarykiln
9 Dustfromheatboiler
9 Reactionendproducts
Residuefrominorganicplantare:
9 Filtercakes
9 Wastewater
Theabovewastesrequirefurthertreatment.
*Securelandgfill
*Stabilization(solidification)

SecureLandfill
Securelandfillarethedisposalsitesforfiltercakes,slag,dustfromafulltreatmentfacility(treatment
plant).
ThedesignofasecurelandfillissimilartothatMSWlandfill.
9
9
9
9

SiteLocation
Designoflandfill
Constructionoflandfill
Operation

Stabilization(Solidification)
WhenhazardoussolidwasteisnottreatedbyLandfillingprocess,stabilizationisthenextchoicefor
furthertreatment.
Allingredientsaremixedinacontinuousmixter

Waste
Solid
(or)
sladge

Blast
furnace
ash

Water

Cement

Waste
acid

Batch
reacts

Contineous
mixer

SolidationPlant

11.2 Treatmentforhazardouswaste(Continued)
1

RotaryKiln

Rotarykilnisusedinthecement,lime,clay,iron,coal&phosphateindustry.
Traditionalcementkilnsarenowchoosenashazardouswasteincinerators.
Rotarykilnprovidetheprocessesforincineration
9 Mixingofsolids
9 Containmentofheatforheatexchange.
(cantspread)/topreventaccidentalrecycle
ofradioactivematerial.
9 Chemicalreaction

Rotarykilnsarecapabletotreatbulksolids,sledges,liquidsetc.

Liquidinjectionincineration

ItisusuallyusedtoidealLiquidwastestreamscontainingminor
concentrationoforganiccontaminants.makesimpure
(substancethatcontaminates)
InLiquidinjectionincinerator,thewastedontcontainthenecessaryheatvaluetosustainitsown
combustion.

10.12MSWLandfill:
ThetraditionalmethodofdisposingofMSWisLandfill.
ThedesignofLandfill&secureLandfillsaresimilarinnature.
ParameterfordesignofLandfilltosatisfyimpermeabilityinmaterial(generallyconcock).
&topreventleahate(PenetrationofLiquidthroughthematerial).
LandfillDesign:
1) Foundationdesign
2) Linerdesign(Toavoidseepageofleachete.)
Aprotectingcoverthatconstructsinsideof
landfilltoprotectthesurface.
3) Leachatecollection&gascollection.
(Lechate&Landfillgasisreleased)

4) Drainagedesign
5) Fillingdesign
6) Runoffcollectionsurfacewelfer
7) Closuredesign

Reactions
InLandfill

Gascollection

Leachate
(Liquidwaste)
collection

Lechatetreatment

Leachateisthecontaminatedwaterinlandfill,whichproductsthroughexternalprecipitation.
(makeharmful/impure)

LandfillOperation:
wasteitems,Loads,typeetc.
(solid,liquid)
(organic/inorganic)
Cell/compartmentforhazardouswaste.
Cell/compartmentfornonhazardouswaste.
Landfilltypes:
Landfillsaretwotypes1)Attentuate&dispersesites.
tomake5thweaker.
2)Containmentsites.

Attenuate&dispersesites
Leachatedisperses/spreadsthrough
OldPores&fissuresintotheunderlyingsaturatedzone.
Type
Newlandfillsarecontainmentsites.Leachate&Landfillgasarecollectedwithspecialdesign
procedure,whichisisolatedfromthesurroundingenvironment.

:EnvironmentalImpactAssessment:
12.1Introduction:
EIAisaprocessthatrequiresenvironmental&publicparticipationinthedecisionmakingprocess
ofprojectdevelopment.
EIAincludesthefollowingprocedures:
9 Screening(Todecidewhichprojectshouldbesubjecttoenvironment
assessment.)
9 Scoping(Issuesshouldbeincludedinenvironmentalassessment)
9 EISpreparation(Scientific&objectiveanalysisofpreparationof
documentation.)
Environmental1ReviewMethodsdeveloped
Impactstatementtoassiststhetask.

Defuissurveyistobetakenbyagovernmentorganization/agency.
Thereviewpanelguidesthestudy&thenadvicesthedecisionmakers.

Wetairoxidation:(continuingfrompreviouspages)

Air/oxygen
(coolingwater)

Heatexchanger.

Thetemperatureofoperationisfrom150to3250C&operationalpressureisfrom2000
kpato20,000kpa
Theprocessisitcarriesinabatchreactor.
Batchreactor:Itconsistsofatankwithmovingorshakingfacility&auditionedheating&
coolingsystem.Avarietyofoperationsuchasmixing,dissolution.chemicalreach&crystulization
canbedoneinsidethebatchreactor.
Due to high pressure & high temperature, the construction material of reactor. Must
havetheresistancetowardscorrosiveactionofhazardoceswaste.
An extent waterbased cooling system is provided. If the waste is in suspension, it is
directlypumpedintothereactor.
Duringtreatmentinahorizontalreactor,oxygen/airareinjectedatcertainpositioninto
thereactor.Acontinuousoxidationtakesplace&majorityoftheorganiccompoundsareoxidized.

FluidizedBedCombustion:Consistsof
9 Airfluidizationsystem
9 Bedmaterial
9 Fluidizedbedvessel
9 Wastefeedsystem
9 Fluegascleaningequipment.