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Universidad Autnoma de Santo Domingo

Facultad de Humanidades
Sudject: IDI 2460
LIT: Inglesa Siglo XX
Professor: Pedro J. Tavarez Da Costa

Biography of:
James Joyce (1882-1941)
Catherine Mansfield (1888-1923)
Graham Greene (1904-1991)
Marcelina durn CG8606
Names: Fior Maritza Prez BH-2940
Jose Ant. Polanco AI- 3535

Knowing about the life of renowned writers from a specific period makes us aware of
all the great potential that the language we are studying has. To speak a language one
has to know the culture and the people who modeled it. Who could influence more a
language than a writer? The writers hereby we study are a very prolific and creative
authors. We can consider them of rare kind, who could make his living almost totally
with their books. Is good to mention just as one example James Joyce, that in spite of
his bipolar condition he could create masterpieces that even today are tremendously
popular around the world so be it in writing or films. We hope this paper contributes to
understand more these authors and the language they represent.

James Joyce

James Joyce

James Joyce was born in Dublin Ireland on February 2, 1882. Joyce was one of
relevant writers of 20 century, his exploration of language and new literary forms
showed not only his genius as a writer, but spawned a French approach for novelist.

Joyce come from a big family, he was the eldest of the ten children born to John
Stanislaus Joyce and his wife Marry Murray Joyce, his father was a singer and he liked
to drink of attention to the family finance meant the Joyce never had much money. From
an early age, James Joyce showed a passion for writing and literature, at the age of 9
years James Joyce composed a poem Et tu Healy. He could read henrick Ibsens
plays in the language they would been written and spent his free time devouring dante,
Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas.
Largely educated by Jesuits, Joyce attended the Irish school of Clongowes wood
college before finally landing at university college Dublin where he earned a Barchelor
of arts degree with a focus on mother language, at this time, Joyce also began his
artistic life, after graduating he left Ireland for a new life in Paris where he hope to
study medicine. He returned, however not long after upon learning that his mother had
become sick, she was diagnose with cancer and then she dead in 1903. He continued
reviewing book. He supplemented with singing and teaching. In 1904 he was awarded a
bronze medal Feis Ceoil a festival of Irish dance and music. Joyce stayed in Ireland for
a short time and he met Nora Barnacle, Joyce eloped with Nora Barnacle around this
time Joyce also had his short story published in the Irish Homestead mangazin. The
publication piked up two more Joyce works, but this start of a literary career was not
enough to keep him in Ireland and in 1904 he and Barnacle move at the Italian seaport
city of Trieste.
There Joyce taught English and learned Italian, one of 17 languages he could speak,
Joyce and Barnacle made their home in cities like Rome and Paris, they have two
children, Georgio and Lucia. Joyce continued to find work as a teacher but he
continued to write and in he published his first book Dubliners, a collection of fifteen
short stories. Two year later Joyce put out a second book, the novel Portrait of the
Artist as Young Man. While not a huge commercial success, the book caught the
attention of the American poet, Esra Pound. The same year that Joyce met Barnacle, he
published Ulysses: the story recounted a single. day in Dublin. Ulysses is also a modern
version of Telemachus Ulysses and Penelope. With its advanced use of interior
monologue, the novel not only brought the reader deep into bloom s sometime lurid
mind, but pioneered Joyce s use of steam of consciousnesses as a literary technique and
set the couse for a whole new kind of novel but Ulysses is not an easy read, and upon its
publication in Paris by Sylvia Beach, an American expat who owned a bookstore in the
city, the book drew both praise and sharp criticism. Part of the story had appeared in

English and American publication and in U.S. and U.K. the book was banned for
several years after it was published in France.
In the U.S. Ulysses supposed obscene prompted the post office to confiscate issue of
the magazine that had published Joyce s work. Fines were levied against the editor.
Still, the book found its way into the hands of eager American and British readers, who
manage to get hold of bootlegged copies of the novel. In the U.S. the ban came to a
head in 1932 when in New York City customs agents seized copies of the book that had
been sent to Random House, which wanted to publish the book.
In 1934 the case made its way to court where the Judge John M. Woolsey came down
in favor of the publishing company by declaring that Ulysses was not pornographic.
American readers were free to read the book. In 1936 British fan of Joyce were allowed
to do the same. While he sometime resented the attention Ulysses brought him, Joyce
saw his days as a struggling writer come to an end with the book s publication. It hadnt
been an easy road. During World War 1, Joyce had moved his family to Zurich, where
they subsisted on the generosity of English magazine editor, Harriet Weaver, and
Barnacle s uncle.
Eventually Joyce and his family settled into a new life in Paris, they were living there
when Ulysses was published. His most problematic condiction concerned his eyes, his
suffered ocular illnesses, at time Joyce forced to write in red crayon on sheets of large
paper. In 1939 Joyce published Finnegan s Wake, A year after Finnegan s publication,
Joyce and his family were on the move again, this time to Southern France in advance
of the of the coming Nazi invasion of Paris. Eventually the family ended back in Zurich.
Sadly Joyce never saw the conclusion of the World War11. Following an intestinal
operation, the writer died at the age of 59, on January 13, 1941. At the
Schwesternhouse his wife and children were at his bedside when he dead. He was
buried in Flunter Cementery in Zurich.
Groundbreaking in form and of great psychological depth, James Joyce's "Eveline" is
a short but important story in Joyce's first major work of fiction, the short-story
collection Dubliners (London, 1914). "Eveline" is a portrait of a young woman torn
between her obligations to stay and look after her family or escape with her lover to a
new life across the sea, and this struggle is developed intricately and realistically.
Book by James Joyce, Chamber Music: was a poem (1907). The Heroe Stephen: was
poetry (1907). Dublines: was a fiction story (1914).The Dead: (1914). Eveline: was a
short story (1914).Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: was a novel (1916). Exile: was

a drama (1918).Ulysses: was a novel (1922). Apple poem: was poetry (1927).
Finnegans Wake: was a novel (1939). Giocomo: was writing in Trieste and published
by Faber (1968).
James Joyce was the eldest of the ten children, also of the writer he work as a teacher
and as a singer, later he met Nora Barnacle, and they had two children, Georgio and
His parents John Stanislaus Joyce and his wife Marry Murray Joyce, also his father
was a singer; nevertheless he didnt has enough money because he liked drink. Late his
mother was diagnose with cancer and she died in 1903. James Joyce had ocular
illnesses, but On January 13, 1941, at the age of 59 James Joyce died of a intestinal
operation, his wife and his children were at bedside when he died. He was buried in
Flunter Cementery in Zurich.
Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp

Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp

Mansfield was born Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp in 1888 into a socially
prominent family in Wellington, New Zealand. Her father was a banker and she was a
cousin of the author Countess Elizabeth von Arnim. She had two older sisters, a
younger sister and a younger brother, born in 1894.
Mansfield wrote in her journals of feeling alienated in New Zealand, and of how
she had become disillusioned because of the repression of the Mori people. Mori
characters are often portrayed in a sympathetic or positive light in her later stories, such
as How Pearl Button Was Kidnapped.
In 1903 she moved to London, where she attended Queen's College along with
her sisters. Mansfield recommenced playing the cello, an occupation that she believed

she would take up professionally, but she also began contributing to the college
newspaper with such dedication that she eventually became its editor.
Mansfield travelled in continental Europe between 1903 and 1906, staying
mainly in Belgium and Germany. After finishing her schooling in England, she returned
to New Zealand in 1906, and only then began to write short stories. She had several
works published in the Native Companion (Australia), her first paid writing work, and
by this time she had her heart set on becoming a professional writer.
Mansfield had two romantic relationships with women that are notable for their
pre-eminence in her journal entries. She continued to have male lovers, and attempted to
repress her feelings at certain times. Her first same-gender romantic relationship was
with Maata Mahupuku (sometimes known as Martha Grace), a wealthy young Mori
woman whom she had first met at Miss Swainson's school in Wellington, and then again
in London in 1906. In June 1907 she wrote: I want MaataI want her as I have had her
terribly. This is unclean I know but true. She often referred to Maata as Carlotta. She
wrote about Maata in several short stories.
Mansfield's mother, Annie Beauchamp, arrived in 1909. She blamed the
breakdown of the marriage to Bowden on a lesbian relationship between Mansfield and
Baker, and she quickly had her daughter despatched to the spa town of Bad
Wrishofen in Bavaria, Germany. Mansfield miscarried after attempting to lift a
suitcase on top of a cupboard. It is not known whether her mother knew of this
miscarriage when she left shortly after arriving in Germany, but she cut Mansfield out
of her will.
In 1911 Mansfield and Murry began a relationship that culminated in their
marriage in 1918, although she left him twice, in 1911 and 1913.
Mansfield's life and work were changed by the death in 1915 of her beloved
younger brother, Leslie Heron Chummie Beauchamp, as a New Zealand soldier in
France. She began to take refuge in nostalgic reminiscences of their childhood in New
Zealand. In a poem describing a dream she had shortly after his death, she wrote
At the beginning of 1917 Mansfield and Murry separated, although he continued
to visit her at her new apartment. Baker, whom Mansfield often called, with a mixture of
affection and disdain, her wife, moved in with her shortly afterwards. Mansfield entered
into her most prolific period of writing after 1916, which began with several stories,
including Mr Reginald Peacock's Day and A Dill Pickle, being published in The New
Age. Woolf and her husband, Leonard, who had recently set up Hogarth Press,

approached her for a story, and Mansfield presented Prelude, which she had begun
writing in 1915 as The Aloe.
In December 1917 Mansfield was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Rejecting the
idea of staying in a sanatorium on the grounds that it would cut her off from writing, she
moved abroad to avoid the English winter. She stayed at a half-deserted and cold hotel
in Bandol, France, where she became depressed but continued to produce stories,
including Je ne parle pas franais. Bliss, the story that lent its name to her second
collection of stories in 1920, was also published in 1918. Her health continued to
deteriorate and she had her first lung haemorrhage in March.
Mansfield spent her last years seeking increasingly unorthodox cures for her
tuberculosis. In February 1922 she consulted the Russian physician Ivan Manoukhin,
whose revolutionary treatment, which consisted of bombarding her spleen with X-rays,
caused Mansfield to develop heat flashes and numbness in her legs.
In October 1922 Mansfield moved to Georges Gurdjieff's Institute for the
Harmonious Development of Man in Fontainebleau, France, where she was put under
the care of Olgivanna Lazovitch Hinzenburg (who later married Frank Lloyd Wright).
As a guest rather than a pupil of Gurdjieff, Mansfield was not required to take part in
the rigorous routine of the Institute, but she spent much of her time there with her
mentor, Alfred Richard Orage and her last letters inform Murry of her attempts to apply
some of Gurdjieff's teachings to her own life.

The following high schools in New Zealand have a house named after her: Rangitoto
College, Westlake Girls' High School, Macleans College all in Auckland, Tauranga
Girls' College in Tauranga, Wellington Girls' College in Wellington, Rangiora High
School in North Canterbury and Southland Girls' High School in Invercargill. She has
been honoured at Karori Normal School in Wellington which has a stone monument
dedicated to her with a plaque commemorating her work and her time at the school. She
has also been recognised at Samuel Marsden Collegiate School (previously Fitzherbert
Tce School) with a painting and award in her name. There is a Park dedicated to her in
Thorndon, Wellington.
She was the subject of the 1973 BBC miniseries A Picture of Katherine
Mansfield starring Vanessa Red grave. The six-part series included adaptations of
Mansfield's life and of her short stories. In 2011, a biopic film titled Bliss, was made of

her early beginnings as a writer in New Zealand, played by Kate Elliott and featured on
the TVNZ TV-movie series Sunday Theatre that aired on 28 August 2011.

Graham Greene

Graham Greene

Henry Graham Greene was born on October 2, 1904 in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire.

The fourth of six children, Greene was a shy and sensitive youth. He disliked sports and
was often truant from school in order to read adventure stories by authors such as Rider
Haggard and R. M. Ballantyne. These novels had a deep influence on him and helped
shape his writing style.
The recurring themes of treachery and betrayal in Greene's writing stem from his
troubled school years where he was often tormented for being the headmaster's son.
After several suicide attempts, Greene left school one day and wrote to his parents that
he did not wish to return. This culminated in his being sent to a therapist in London at
age fifteen. His analyst, Kenneth Richmond, encouraged him to write and introduced
him to his circle of literary friends which included the poet Walter de la Mare.
In 1978 Greene gave Professor Norman Sherry a map that marked the spots he traveled
to. Sherry spent 20 years retracing Greene's journeys, not without suffering. He
contracted diseases from tropical diabetes in Liberia, gangrene of the intestine, to

temporary blindness. He won the Edgar Allan Poe award for Best Critical/Biographical
Study in 1990 for Volume I of The World of Graham Greene.

Balliol College was

Greene's next stop, where he studied modern history. He writes in his autobiography
that he spent his university years drunk and debt-ridden. However, it was here that
Greene gained experience as an editor at The Oxford Outlook;
Developed an interest in politics after joining the Communist Party (more for
amusement than for principle); and honed his skills at writing, with one novel Anthony
Sant complete before he graduated.
After graduating with a B.A. in 1925, Greene was employed as a subeditor at the
Nottingham Journal after two abortive positions at other companies. His dislike of
Nottingham's seediness manifested in his later novel Brighton Rock. Here he met his
future wife Vivien Dayrell-Browning when she wrote to point out some errors regarding
Catholicism in his writings. Upon her urging, Greene took instructions in the faith and
was received by the Church in 1926.
Greene moved on to a job as a subeditor at The Times in London. He married Vivien in
October 1927 and with her had a daughter, Lucy Caroline, and a son Francis. During
this time, he wrote a political novel, The Episode, which was rejected by publishers. He
finally succeeded in getting published with The Man Within. The success of the book
led Greene to make a difficult decision: leave his much-loved job at The Times and
become a self-employed writer.

Michael Shelden's biography of Greene, The Man

Within, angered many supporters of the novelist. The book portrayed Greene as a
pathological liar, an anti-Semite, a callous womanizer, and a bumbling political rabblerouser, among other things. It even hinted that Greene may have something to do with
the murders in Brighton, which inspired a few plotlines in Greene's writings.
He came near to reneging this decision with the failure of his next two novels (The
Name of the Action and Rumour at Nightfall). Living on his publisher's advances, he
moonlighted as a book reviewer for The Spectator. The financial strain made Greene
write Stamboul Train, an escapist novel that was deliberately intended to please the
From then on, he never shied away from writing both "entertainments" and "serious
novels. Besides reviewing books, Greene also took on film for The Spectator, and was
co-editor of the short-lived Night and Day. He became involved in screenwriting despite
being sued by Twentieth Century-Fox for his criticism of Shirley Temple. He wrote

adaptations for the cinema as well as original screenplays, the most famous being The
Third Man.
Greene began his world-renowned traveling in part to satisfy his lust for adventure, and
in part to seek out material for his writing. A trip to Sweden resulted in England Made
Me. A exhausting 400-mile trek through the jungles of Liberia not only gave Greene a
near brush with death, but provided fodder for Journey Without Maps. During World
War II, he worked for the Secret Intelligence Service in Sierra Leone, which became the
setting for The Heart of the Matter. His journey to Mexico to witness the religious
purges in 1938 was described in The Lawless Roads. Greene's horror of the Catholic
persecution in Mexico led him to write The Power and the Glory, arguably the best
novel of his career. It was both acclaimed (being the Hawthornden Prize winner in
1941) and condemned (by the Vatican).
The frenetic globetrotting continued until Greene was physically unable to do so in his
later years. He sought out the world's "trouble spots": Vietnam during the Indochina
War, Kenya during the Mau Mau outbreak, Stalinist Poland, Castro's Cuba, and
Duvalier's Haiti among others.
The differences between Norman Sherry's biography and Michael Shelden's version of
it led to a debate between the two in Waterstone's bookshop in Hampstead. Sherry called
Shelden a "literary terrorist" and accused his biography of containing over 1000 errors.
Shelden tried his best to defend his stance, despite being drowned out by the shouts of
many supporters and friends of Greene Although Greene always declared himself to be
apolitical as a writer, he nonetheless enjoyed being politically connected and appearing
to be a supporter for the oppressed. The extent of his involvement in the British Secret
Service has become a matter of intense speculation. He
has publicly declared himself a lifelong friend of Kim Philby, after working under him
in the MI6. After the publication of The Quiet American, Greene was accused of being
anti-American and consequently developed a strong dislike of Americans, particularly
Ronald Reagan. He began to delve into Central American politics, associating with
people such as Fidel Castro and Manuel Noriega. His friendship with Panamanian
dictator General Omar Torrijos led him to write Getting to Know the General.
Aside from his exotic trips, Greene also achieved notoriety in his personal life. Greene's
financial success as an author enabled him to live very comfortably in London, Antibes,

and Capri. He associated with many famous figures of his time: T.S. Eliot, Herbert
Read, Evelyn Waugh, Alexander Korda, Ian Fleming, Noel Coward, among others. He
had many extra-marital affairs, and confessed he was "a bad husband and a fickle
lover", although he never revealed his affairs in his two autobiographies. He separated
from his wife in 1948 but they never divorced. Towards the end of his life, Greene lived
in Vevey, Switzerland with his companion Yvonne Cloetta Greene suffered from bipolar
disorder, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. In a letter to his
wife, Vivien, he told her that he had "a character profoundly antagonistic to ordinary
domestic life," and that "unfortunately, the disease is also one's material." William
Golding described Greene as "the ultimate chronicler of twentieth-century man's
consciousness and anxiety."He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukemia,
After finding out about these authors we can understand how important is the attitude
and the persistence in reaching out your goals. For example in the particular case of
Graham Greene his medical condition did not impede him to success and live an
adventurous life. In spite of all his struggles he could live a long life and could achieve
things that sometimes healthy people never even think of. Now we have new literature
to read and discuss for `improvement.
If we compare Catherine Mansfield to some other short story writers proffering
generalization. finds a deep of world war .meal what should be the most sociable time
of day become a stressful point for hostilities and fears to surface. The subject of death
and how it related the cycle of life was always a principle concern for Catherine
Mansfield in her stories.
James Joyce represented the spirit of his time and went beyond in modern thinking
awakening the admiration and hate of all kinds of people around the planet. He stood
up for intelligence, gentlemenness and concern about his country and culture where he
grew up being an example of good rebelliousness in favor of keeping his believes over
all prejudices.

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