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Six Weeks Industrial Training

ROLL NO.: 1409445 (Sem. 4th)

Doaba Khalsa Trust Group of Institutions



Training Supervision Area
Salient Feature Of Blast Furnace
Plant Overview
How A Blast Furnace Works
Power Distribution
What Is Transformer
Types Of Transformer
Distribution Transformer
Dry Type Transformer
1. Classes Of Insulation
2. Efficiency
Oil Type Transformer
1. Parts of Oil Type Transformer
6.6KV Switchboard
Types Of Motors Used At Blast Furnace
Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
1. Stator
2. Rotor
3. Reasons For Skewed Rotor
Wound Rotor Motor
Motor Starting Methods
1. VVVF Drive
2. Soft Starter
How Does Soft-starter Works
Benefits Of Soft-starters
Basic Components Of Soft-starter


Bhushan Steel Limited is the largest manufacturer of auto-grade steel in India and
is spending Rs. 260 billion to expand its capacity to 12 million tonnes annually,
from the present installed capacity of around one million tonnes. Gross sales of
Bhushan Steel grew from Rs.5 billion in 2001 to Rs.40 billion in 2007. It earned
net profits of Rs.3.13 billion in 2007 and exported goods worth Rs.12.57 billion.
Its exports include steel for both the automotive and white goods industry and the
list of countries it is exporting to includes several developed countries.
Its biggest expansion is in Odisha it has signed an agreement with the
Government of Odisha for setting up of a three million tonnes capacity steel plant
at Meramandali in Dhenkanal district,[7] and as part of its total integration of the
steel value chain, Bhushan Steel is in the process of setting up a power plant and
an advanced hot rolling plant on 3,200 acres (13 km2) at Meramandali in
Dhenkanal district near Angul, at a cost of 52 billion and its subsequent backward
integration and expansion to 4 million tonnes.
Brij Bhushan Singal is chairman of board of directors of Bhushan Steel.
Neeraj Singal is the Vice Chairman & Managing Director of Bhushan steel


A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce

industrial metals, generally iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
In a blast furnace, fuel, ores, and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied
through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air (sometimes with oxygen
enrichment) is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes
called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as
the material moves downward. The end products are usually molten metal and slag
phases tapped from the bottom, and flue gases exiting from the top of the furnace.
The downward flow of the ore and flux in contact with an upflow of hot, carbon
monoxide-rich combustion gases is a countercurrent exchange process.
In contrast, air furnaces (such as reverberatory furnaces) are naturally aspirated,
usually by the convection of hot gases in a chimney flue. According to this broad
definition, bloomeries for iron, blowing houses for tin, and smelt mills for lead
would be classified as blast furnaces. However, the term has usually been limited
to those used for smelting iron ore to produce pig iron, an intermediate material
used in the production of commercial iron and steel, and the shaft furnaces used in
combination with sinter plants in base metals smelting


Furnace volume - 4186m3

Useful volume - 3814m3
Working volume 3230m3
Annual Production 2.5MT
Tap Hole 4 Nos.
Tuyeres 34 Nos.
Internal Combustion Stoves 3 Nos.
Furnace Top Pressure 2.5 kg/cm2
Furnace Bottom Pressure 4.1 kg/cm2
Blast Volume (WET) 350KNM3/HR
Paul Wurth BLT Charging System - Yes
Waste Gas Recovery System Yes
Slag Granulation Plant INBA
DE Dusting System in Cast house & Stock House Yes
Top Recovery Turbine Yes
Pulverised Coal Injection 150kg/thm



The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron
oxides into liquid iron called "hot metal". The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack
lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the
top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom. The raw materials require 6 to 8
hours to descend to the bottom of the furnace where they become the final product
of liquid slag and liquid iron. These liquid products are drained from the furnace at
regular intervals. The hot air that was blown into the bottom of the furnace ascends
to the top in 6 to 8 seconds after going through numerous chemical reactions. Once
a blast furnace is started it will continuously run for four to ten years with only
short stops to perform planned maintenance.

Iron oxides can come to the blast furnace plant in the form of raw ore, pellets or
sinter. The raw ore is removed from the earth and sized into pieces that range from

0.5 to 1.5 inches. This ore is either Hematite (Fe 2O3) or Magnetite (Fe3O4) and the
iron content ranges from 50% to 70%. This iron rich ore can be charged directly
into a blast furnace without any further processing. Iron ore that contains a lower
iron content must be processed or beneficiated to increase its iron content. Pellets
are produced from this lower iron content ore. This ore is crushed and ground into
a powder so the waste material called gangue can be removed. The remaining ironrich powder is rolled into balls and fired in a furnace to produce strong, marblesized pellets that contain 60% to 65% iron. Sinter is produced from fine raw ore,
small coke, sand-sized limestone and numerous other steel plant waste materials
that contain some iron. These fine materials are proportioned to obtain a desired
product chemistry then mixed together. This raw material mix is then placed on a
sintering strand, which is similar to a steel conveyor belt, where it is ignited by gas
fired furnace and fused by the heat from the coke fines into larger size pieces that
are from 0.5 to 2.0 inches. The iron ore, pellets and sinter then become the liquid
iron produced in the blast furnace with any of their remaining impurities going to
the liquid slag.
The coke is produced from a mixture of coals. The coal is crushed and ground into
a powder and then charged into an oven. As the oven is heated the coal is cooked
so most of the volatile matter such as oil and tar are removed. The cooked coal,
called coke, is removed from the oven after 18 to 24 hours of reaction time. The
coke is cooled and screened into pieces ranging from one inch to four inches. The
coke contains 90 to 93% carbon, some ash and sulfur but compared to raw coal is
very strong. The strong pieces of coke with a high energy value provide
permeability, heat and gases which are required to reduce and melt the iron ore,
pellets and sinter.
The final raw material in the ironmaking process in limestone. The limestone is
removed from the earth by blasting with explosives. It is then crushed and
screened to a size that ranges from 0.5 inch to 1.5 inch to become blast furnace
flux . This flux can be pure high calcium limestone, dolomitic limestone
containing magnesia or a blend of the two types of limestone.
Since the limestone is melted to become the slag which removes sulfur and other
impurities, the blast furnace operator may blend the different stones to produce the
desired slag chemistry and create optimum slag properties such as a low melting
point and a high fluidity.

All of the raw materials are stored in an ore field and transferred to the stockhouse
before charging. Once these materials are charged into the furnace top, they go
through numerous chemical and physical reactions while descending to the bottom
of the furnace.





Distribution Transformer:

A distribution transformer is a transformer that provides the final voltage

transformation in the electric power distribution system, stepping down the voltage
used in the distribution lines to the level used by the customer. The invention of a
practical efficient transformer made AC power distribution feasible; a system using
distribution transformers was demonstrated as early as 1882.
If mounted on a utility pole, they are called pole-mount transformers. If the
distribution lines are located at ground level or underground, distribution
transformers are mounted on concrete pads and locked in steel cases, thus known
as pad-mount transformers.
Distribution transformers normally have ratings less than 200 kVA, although some
national standards can describe units up to 5000 kVA as distribution transformers.
Since distribution transformers are energized for 24 hours a day (even when they

don't carry any load), reducing iron losses has an important role in their design. As
they usually don't operate at full load, they are designed to have maximum
efficiency at lower loads. To have a better efficiency, voltage regulation in these
transformers should be kept to a minimum. Hence they are designed to have small
leakage reactance

Distribution Transformer Types

Dry Type Transformer:

Dry Type transformers use air as the cooling medium. Dry Type Transformers can
be located closer to the load unlike oil transformers which require special location
and civil construction for safety reasons. Locating the transformers near the loads
may lead to savings in cable costs and reduced electrical losses.

Moisture Proof

In cast-resin dry-type transformers, the complete

encapsulation of primary and secondary winding
in epoxy resin prevents penetration of moisture
into windings. The cast resin offers very good
protection against adverse ambient conditions.

These transformers can work without disruption

of service at 100% humidity.
Immediate Switch on

Impulse Strength

Short Circuit Strength

Free of partial discharge's

Resistant against
temperature Fluctuation

Hardly inflammable and

self extinguishing

No Maintenance Required

Due to the high grade insulation material, coils

are non hygroscopes & the transformer can be
switched on directly without pre-drying even
after a long period of service interruption.
Contrary to the conventional dry type
transformers the cast coil transformers are better
in respect of impulse voltage withstand strength.
Higher dynamic short circuit withstand strength
as compared to oil immersed and conventional
dry type transformers because of fibre glass
reinforced epoxy encapsulation.
No partial discharges can occur during operation.
The insulation material used is glass fibre
reinforced with epoxy resin of class 'F' which can
withstand wide temperature variation.
Due to high quality insulation material the
transformer is practically non-inflammable by an
electrical arc, special fire protection measures are
not required.
Due to encapsulation of coils with cast resin the
coils dimensions are stable & no coil tightening
is required to maintain the short circuit strength.
Also no check of oil level and electrical
insulation/oil is required. This leads to saving in
cost on account of maintenance.

No leakage or Pilferage of
As cast resin transformers are solidly cast,

problem associated with oil filled transformers

like oil leakage and pilferage of oil is completely
Saving in Space

These transformers are generally smaller in

dimensions and lesser in weights. The
construction and installation cost for the substation can be reduced by adopting dry type

Saving in Civil work cost

Without fire or danger of explosion, it is possible
and LT cables
to place the transformers near to the load centre.
Also, these transformers do not need
construction of special fibre brick walls or oil
pits, which reduces the overall civil works.
Additionally, since LT cables are not required,
thers is also saving in cost on account of
expensive cable laying works.

Since no oil is used in these transformers, there

are no chances of contamination of ground water
due to oil leakage.


Dry type Transformers - Classes of insulation

Dry-type transformers are available in three general classes of insulation. The main
features of insulation are to provide dielectric strength and to be be able to
withstand certain thermal limits. Insulation classes are:
220C (Class R).
180C (Class H),
155C (Class F).
130C (Class B).
105C (Class A).
Temperature rise ratings are based on full-load rise over ambient (usually 40C
above ambient and are 150C (available only with Class H insulation), 115C
(available with Class H and Class F insulation) and 80C (available with Class H,
F, and B insulation). A 30C winding hot spot allowance is provided for each class.
The lower temperature rise transformers are more efficient, particularly at loadings
of 50% and higher. Full load losses for 115 C transformers are about 30% less
that those of 150C transformers. And 80C transformers have losses that are about
15% less than 115C transformers and 40% less than 150C transformers. Full
load losses for 150C transformers range from about 4% to 5% to 30 kVA and
smaller to 2% for 500 kVA and larger. When operated continuously at 65% or
more of full load, the 115C transformer will pay for itself over the 150C
transformer in 2 yrs or less( 1 yr. if operated at 90% of full load). the 80C
transformer requires operation at 75% or more of full load for a 2-yr payback, and
at 100% load to payback in 1 yr over the 150C transformer.
If operated continuously at 80% or more of full load, the 80C transformer will
have a payback over the 115C transformer in 2 yrs or less. You should note that at
loadings below 50% of full load, there is essentially no payback for either the
115C or the 80C transformer over the 150C transformer, Also at loadings below
40% the lower temperature rise transformers become less efficient that the 150C
transformers. Thus, not only is there no payback, but also the annual operating cost
is higher.


At Load


AT Unity P.F

AT 0.8 Lag P.F

99.02 %
99.21 %



STANDARD KVA ratings of distribution Transformer

1250,1500,2000,2500 KVA.




Electricity has to be distributed with minimal losses after generation. Unlike a

shore based transmission system, where the lengths of the conductors run
throughout a country, a shipboard electrical distribution system is short and simple.
In this article, the general layout of the main electrical distribution system, along
with the main switchboard and emergency switchboard arrangements, will be
discussed. The main switchboard is the main power distribution center of the ship.
Thus the main bus bars are contained within the switchboard feeding various ship
board auxiliaries. A ship may contain two or more generators connected to the
main bus bar via the circuit breaker. Various protection for the generators like
overload, reverse power, etc. are connected to circuit breaker such that the faulty
generator is electrically isolated from the main bus bar. From the main bus bar, the
electrical power is supplied to various ship board auxiliaries like pumps, blowers,
compressors, etc. The main switch board has various measuring and monitoring
devices like ammeters, voltmeters, frequency meters, watt meters, synchroscope,
and power factor meters.

6.6kv Switchboard supply power to the equipment like as transformer

(6.6kv/433v) and motors. In these switchboard vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) are
used to switch on/off the motor or transformer. For protection there are several
equipments used. Equipments used in 6.6kv board Details are given bellow:-

Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB)

Tripping Relay (86)
Temperature Scanner
Load Manager
TNC Switch
Synchronous Check Relay
Test Terminal Block (TTB)
Beacon Lamps
Indications Lamps

Surge Arrestor
Current Transformer
Potential Transformer



The stator is the outer most component in the motor which can be seen. It may be
constructed for single phase, three phase or even poly phase motors. But basically
only the windings on the stator vary, not the basic layout of the stator. It is almost
same for any given synchronous motor or a generator. It is made up of number of
stampings, which are slotted to receive the windings. Lets see the construction of a
three phase stator. The three phase windings are placed on the slots of laminated
core and these windings are electrically spaced 120 degrees apart. These windings
are connected as either star or delta depending upon the requirement. The leads are
taken out usually three in number, brought out to the terminal box mounted on the
motor frame. The insulations between the windings are generally varnish or oxide

Rotor: Squirrel Cage Rotor:

This kind of rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for
carrying the rotor conductors, which are not wires, as we think, but thick, heavy
bars of copper or aluminium (aluminium) or its alloys. The conductor bars are
inserted from one end of the rotor and as one bar in each slot. There are end rings
which are welded or electrically braced or even bolted at both ends of the rotor,
thus maintaining electrical continuity. These end rings are short-circuited, after
which they give a beautiful look similar to a squirrel thus the name.
One important point to be noted is that the end rings and the rotor conducting bars
are permanently short-circuited, thus it is not possible to add any external
resistance in series with the rotor circuit for starting purpose. The rotor conducting
bars are usually not parallel to the shaft, but are purposely given slight skew. In
small motors, the rotor is fabricated in a different way. The entire rotor core is
placed in a mould and the rotor bars & end-rings are cast into one piece. The metal
commonly used is aluminium alloy. Some very small rotors which operate on the
basis of eddy current, have their rotor as solid steel without any conductors.

Reasons for Having Skewed Rotor

1. It helps in reduction of magnetic hum, thus keeping the motor quiet,

2. It also helps to avoid Cogging, i.e. locking tendency of the rotor. The
tendency of rotor teeth remaining under the stator teeth due to the direct
magnetic attraction between the two,
3. Increase in effective ratio of transformation between stator & rotor,
4. Increased rotor resistance due to comparatively lengthier rotor conductor
5. Increased slip for a given torque.


A wound-rotor motor is a type of induction motor where the rotor windings are
connected through slip rings to external resistances. Adjusting the resistance
allows control of the speed/torque characteristic of the motor. Wound-rotor motors
can be started with low inrush current, by inserting high resistance into the rotor
circuit; as the motor accelerates, the resistance can be decreased.
Compared to a squirrel-cage rotor, the rotor of the slip ring motor has more
winding turns; the induced voltage is then higher, and the current lower, than for a
squirrel-cage rotor. During the start-up a typical rotor has 3 poles connected to the
slip ring. Each pole is wired in series with a variable power resistor. When the
motor reaches full speed the rotor poles are switched to short circuit. During startup the resistors reduce the field strength at the stator. As a result the inrush current
is reduced. Another important advantage over squirrel-cage motors is higher
starting torque.
A wound-rotor motor can be used in several forms of adjustable-speed drive.
Certain types of variable-speed drives recover slip-frequency power from the rotor
circuit and feed it back to the supply, allowing wide speed range with high energy
efficiency. Doubly fed electric machines use the slip rings to supply external
power to the rotor circuit, allowing wide-range speed control. Today speed control
by use of slip ring motor is mostly superseded by induction motors with variablefrequency drives.



The present day industry categorizes AC motor drives into two distinct categories
Induction Motor Drives, and Permanent Magnet AC Motor Drives. The basic
difference between the two types of drives is performance and cost.

Induction motor still forms the work horse of todays industry. Applications that
use induction motor may not need very high precision position and velocity
control. Such applications typically use what is known in the industry as
General Purpose AC Motor Drives However, the machine tool industry that
caters to the semiconductor manufacturing and other sophisticated industries,
require highly precise and controlled motion. Permanent magnet motors are the
motor of choice because of their smaller size, higher efficiency, lower inertia, and
hence higher controllability. Such motors are clubbed into the Servo Motor
category and are controlled by Permanent Magnet AC Motor (PMAC) Drives
and are typically more expensive than their induction motor counterpart.
General Purpose AC Motor Drives V/f Control The power structure of the
General Purpose AC Motor Drives is similar to the PMAC motor drives. Both of
these drives are referred to as Voltage Source Inverters, a term which will soon be
clear. Since the power topology includes a large DC bus capacitor as a filter, and
since it is the voltage that is modulated to provide variable voltage, variable
frequency to the AC motor, such an inverter topology is called a Voltage Source
Inverter and forms the integral part of most present day AC motor Drives. A
typicalschematic of the present day AC motor drive The general purpose AC motor
drives typically provide constant flux into the induction motor. Since the motor
flux is the ratio of the voltage to the frequency (V/f) applied to
the motor, this ratio is held constant to achieve constant flux operation. The motor
current increases almost linearly with load. Conveyor belts and other frictional
loads require such profiles. For centrifugal loads like fans and pumps, the flux
in motor can be altered to follow a square function. By doing this, the power
consumed by the motor becomes a cubic function of speed (Pocf) enabling
significant energy savings. Even if the V/f is held constant in these types of
applications, there is still significant energy savings compared to constant speed
drives, where relatively large losses are associated with valve or damper control.
Thanks to the square type torque characteristics of the load, voltage reduction at
lower speed range is possible improves efficiency further. The resulting
improvement in efficiency is so significant that even the member countries that
ratified the Kyoto agreement in the year 2000 agreed to convert fans
and pumps from being operated directly across the line to be operated via AC
motor drives to save energy and reduce the overall carbon foot print of a given
plant. It is significant and important only, for those countries but for all people
using centrifugal loads to convert the fixed speed fans and pumps to variable

A soft starter is a solid-state device that protects AC electric motors from damage
caused by sudden influxes of power by limiting the large initial inrush of current
associated with motor startup. They provide a gentle ramp up to full speed and are
used only at startup (and stop, if equipped). Ramping up the initial voltage to the
motor produces this gradual start. Soft starters are also known as reduced voltage
soft starters (RVSS).
Soft starters are used in applications where:
Speed and torque control are required only during startup
(and stop if equipped with soft stop)
Reducing large startup inrush currents associated with a large motor is required
The mechanical system requires a gentle start to relieve torque
spikes and tension associated with normal startup (for example,
conveyors, belt-driven systems, gears, and so on)
Pumps are used to eliminate pressure surges caused in piping
systems when fluid changes direction rapidly
How does a soft starter work?
Electrical soft starters temporarily reduce voltage or current input by reducing
torque. Some soft starters may use solid-state devices to help control the flow of

the current. They can control one to three phases, with three-phase control usually
producing better results

Most soft starters use a series of thyristors or silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) to
reduce the voltage. In the normal OFF state, the SCRs restrict current, but in the
normal ON state, the SCRs allow current. The SCRs are engaged during ramp up,
and bypass contactors are pulled in after maximum speed is achieved. This helps
to significantly reduce motor heating.

Benefits of choosing a soft starter

Soft starters are often the more economical choice for applications that require
speed and torque control only during motor startup. Additionally, they are often the
ideal solution for applications where space is a concern, as they usually take up
less space than variable frequency drives.

Soft Start Definition

In technical terms, a soft starter is any device which reduces the torque applied to
the electric motor. It generally consists of solid state devices like thyristors to
control the application of supply voltage to the motor. The starter works on the fact
that the torque is proportional to the square of the starting current, which in turn is
proportional to the applied voltage. Thus the torque and the current can be adjusted
by reducing the voltage at the time of starting the motor.











1) Open Control: A start voltage is applied with time, irrespective of the current
drawn or the speed of the motor. For each phase two SCRs are connected back to
back and the SCRs are conducted initially at a delay of 180 degrees during the
respective half wave cycles (for which each SCR conducts). This delay is reduced
gradually with time until the applied voltage ramps up to the full supply voltage.
This is also known as Time Voltage Ramp System. This method is not relevant as








2) Closed Loop Control: Any of the motor output characteristics like the current
drawn or the speed is monitored and the starting voltage is modified accordingly to
get the required response. The current in each phase is monitored and if it exceeds
Thus basic principle of soft starter is by controlling the conduction angle of the

Components of a basic soft starter

Power switches like SCRs which need to be phase controlled such that they
are applied for each part of the cycle. For a 3 phase motor, two SCRs are
connected back to back for each phase. The switching devices need to be
rated at least three times more than the line voltage.
Control Logic using PID controllers or Microcontrollers or any other logic
to control the application of gate voltage to the SCR, i.e. to control the firing
angle of SCRs in order to make the SCR conduct at the required part of the
supply voltage cycle.

Advantages of Soft Start

Now that we have learnt about how an electronic soft start system works, let us
recollect few reasons why it is preferred over other methods.
Improved Efficiency: The efficiency of soft starter system using solid state
switches is more owing to the low on state voltage.
Controlled Start up: The starting current can be controlled smoothly by
easily altering the starting voltage and this ensures smooth starting of the
motor without any jerks.
Controlled acceleration: Motor acceleration is controlled smoothly.

Low Cost and size: This is ensured with the use of solid state switches.