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Bangsamoro Development Plan

Bangsamoro Development Plan

2015 by the Bangsamoro Development Agency


All rights reserved. Any part of this book may be used and reproduced, provided proper acknowledgment is made.
Bangsamoro Development Plan
Promoting just, honorable and lasting peace and sustainable development in the Bangsamoro
Published by:
Bangsamoro Development Agency
Purok Islam, Barangay Datu Balabaran (MB Tamontaka), Cotabato City
Tel: (064) 552-0131
Email: bangsamorodc11@gmail.com
www.bangsamorodevelopment.org
Cover photos courtesy of the Philippine Official Gazette, Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process, and
PhilSouth Angle.
ISBN: 978-621-95209-2-8
Printed in the Philippines

Contents
Acronyms

ix

Foreword

Acknowledgements

xii

The Vision of the Bangsamoro Development Plan

xv

Chapter 1: Introduction

A. Background

B. Objective

C. Outline of the Plan

Chapter 2: History and Analysis of Conflict in the Bangsamoro

A. A Brief History of the Bangsamoro Struggle

B. Conflict and Development Analysis of the Bangsamoro

Chapter 3: Plan Methodology and the Bangsamoro Development Framework

11

A. Guiding Principles

12

B. The Bangsamoro Development Framework

12

C. Technical Analysis

14

D. Clamor from the Ground

15

E. Review of Relevant National and Regional Development Plans

15

F. Limitations

15

Chapter 4: Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

17

A. Background

18

B. The Vicious Cycle in the Bangsamoro

20

C. Development Gaps in the Bangsamoro

23

D. Development Opportunities

24

Chapter 5: Clamor from the Ground

27

A. Community Visioning Exercises: Results and Insights

28

B. Cross-Validation of Consolidated Outputs

31

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Chapter 6: Strategy and Recommendations

33

A. Overall Goal of the Bangsamoro Development Plan

34

B. Strategic Interventions

35

C. Priorities

35

D. Potential Impacts

35

Chapter 7: Economy and Livelihood

39

A. Context: Economic Performance, Poverty, and Livelihood in the Bangsamoro

40

B. Strategic Goals

46

C. Summary of Priority Programs

56

Chapter 8: Infrastructure

59

A. Context: A Fragmented and Overstretched Infrastructure Network

60

B. Strategic Goals

64

C. Summary of Priority Programs

69

Chapter 9: Social Services

71

A. Context: Education, Health, and WaSH in the Bangsamoro

72

B. Strategic Goals

79

C. Summary of Priority Programs

91

Chapter 10: Environment and Natural Resources

93

A. Context: Rich but Fragile Natural Resources and Ecological Heritage

94

B. Strategic Goals

100

C. Strategies

101

D. Summary of Priority Programs

103

Chapter 11: Culture and Identity

105

A. Context: The Diverse Culture in the Bangsamoro

106

B. Strategies

108

C. Summary of Priority Programs

109

Chapter 12: Governance

111

A. Context: Governance Structures and Systems in the Bangsamoro

112

B. Transition Period Phase

114

C. Transition Challenges, Features, and Targets

115

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D. Promoting Shariah Justice

126

E. Strengthening Fiscal Autonomy in the Bangsamoro

128

F. Normalization and Development

128

G. Summary of Priority Programs

129

Chapter 13: Proposed Implementation Arrangements and Financial Modalities

131

A. General Principles

132

B. Proposed Implementation Arrangements

132

C. Relationships with Key Partners

134

D. Role of Community Leaders and Organizers

135

E. Training and Strategic Research

135

F. Possible Financing Modalities

136

Chapter 14: Challenges and Mitigating Measures

139

Chapter 15: Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

143

A. Objectives

144

B. Guiding Principles

145

Annexes

147

Annex A: BDP Priority Programs

148

Annex B: BDP Governance Structure

152

Annex C: Relevant National and Regional Development Plans

159

Annex D: Clamor from the Ground

160

Annex E: Poorest Provinces and Municipalities in the Philippines

166

Annex F: Cultural Diversity in the Bangsamoro

173

Annex G: Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

175

BDP Background Papers

190

References

192

Bangsamoro Development Plan

List of Tables
Table 1:
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Table 44:
Table 45:
Table 46:

List of BDP Themes, Components, and Participating Partners


Selected Indicators of Development Gaps
Economy and Livelihood-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Social Development-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Environment and Natural Resource-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Culture and Identity-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Governance-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Security-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Top Community Priorities Based on Previous Needs Assessments
Sequencing of Recommended Projects/Activities for Phases I and II of the Transition Period
Targets on Human Capital and Household Welfare
Average Annual Production of Key Crops in 000 mt (20102013)
Sources of Credit in the Bangsamoro (2011)
Youth Unemployment and Labor Force Participation (2013)
Priority Economy and Livelihood Programs
Status of Electrification in ARMM (2013)
Infrastructure Strategies and Project Types
Priority Infrastructure Programs
Prevalence of Undernutrition Among Children (05 Years Old) in ARMM (20082013)
Housing Needs Estimate by Housing Indicator in ARMM (20102017)
Access to Education for Internally Displaced Persons (2011)
Distribution of Elementary Schools by Type (SY 2013 and 2014)
Priority Social Programs
Forest Cover Change in ARMM in Hectares (20032010)
Proclaimed Watersheds in ARMM (2012)
Priority Environment and Natural Resource Programs
Priority Culture and Identity Programs
Challenges, Features, and Targets of Transition Phases I, II, and III
Priority Governance and Justice Programs
BDP Project Steering Committee
BDP Advisory Council
BDP Joint Review Committee
BDP Core Planning Team
Thematic Area Focal Persons
BDP Support Team
Thematic Area Consultants
National Government Agencies
ARMM Line Agencies
Overview of MCSOPP Consultation Outputs
Ranking of Poverty Incidence in the Philippines, by Province (2006, 2009, and 2012)
100 Poorest Municipalities and Cities in the Philippines (2006 and 2009)
Location and Population of ICCs/IPs in ARMM, Lanao del Norte, North Cotabato, and the Cities of
Isabela and Cotabato
Proposed Implementation Arrangements for RbM&E
Overall Goal and Strategies of the BDP
Logical Framework Matrix
Indicators to Monitor and Evaluate

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List of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
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Figure 27:
Figure 28:
Figure 29:
Figure 30:
Figure 31:
Figure 32:

Annual Trend of GPH-MILF Armed Skirmishes (20022014)


Bangsamoro Development Framework
The Vicious Cycle of Injustice, Insecurity, and Underdevelopment
Population Age and Gender Projections (2010 and 2040)
ARMM Budget 20092014
Current Aid Strategy and Practice: A Macro Perspective (20012010)
Transforming a Vicious Cycle to a Virtuous Cycle
GRDP Growth Scenarios in Bangsamoro (20112016)
Sectoral Composition of ARMM GRDP: Four-Year Average (20092012)
Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector Growth (19962012)
Nominal Value of Production of Top 10 Major Crops in the ARMM: 5-Year Average (20082012)
Total Bank Deposits in ARMM (as of end Dec 2013)
Total Bank Loans in ARMM (as of end Dec 2013)
Poverty Incidence in ARMM (20062012)
National Road Density (2012)
Ratio of Paved National Roads (2012)
Ratio of Paved Farm-to-Market Roads in ARMM (2005)
Ratio of Irrigated to Estimated Irrigable Area (20002012)
Human Development Index in the Bangsamoro (20002009)
Education Attainment, All Ages (2010)
Education Attainment, 18 Years Old and Above (2013)
Percent of Children (1223 Months Old) with No Vaccinations (19982013)
Percent of Children (1223 Months Old) Who Received All Basic Vaccinations (19982013)
Government Health Workers per 100,000 Population (2011)
Percent of Households with Health Insurance (2013)
Percent of Women (1549 Years Old) with Health Insurance (2013)
Percent of Households with Access to Improved Safe Water Supply (2011)
Percent of Households with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities (2011)
Ethnic Diversity in the Bangsamoro (2010)
Religious Diversity in the Bangsamoro (2010)
Principal Sources of Government Funds to ARMM (20092011)
Proposed Implementation Arrangements

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

List of Maps
Map 1:
Map 2:
Map 3:
Map 4:
Map 5:
Map 6:
Map 7:
Map 8:
Map 9:
Map 10:
Map 11:
Map 12:
Map 13:
Map 14:

The Proposed Bangsamoro Core Territory (BCT) (2014)


Poverty Incidence, by Province (2012)
Number of Establishments by Municipality (2012) and Municipalities Served by Banks (2013)
Displaced Households in the Bangsamoro and Surrounding Areas (2009)
Agro-Edaphic Maps of the Bangsamoro and Adjacent Areas (as of 2012)
Major Airports and Seaports in Mindanao (2014)
Transportation Network in the Bangsamoro (2014)
Barangay Access to Electricity and Electrification Projects in the Bangsamoro (20142015)
Barangay Access to Primary Education Facilities and Distribution of Population by Barangay
(612 Years Old) (2010)
Barangay Access to Health Centers and Distribution of Population by Barangay (2010)
Barangay Access to Waterworks System and Distribution of Household Population by Barangay (2010)
Integrated Mining Map (EO 79) (2013)
Vulnerability (2008)
Ethnic Diversity Index (2010)

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Acronyms
ADB
AFF
AFP
ARG
ARMM
ARMM-DAF

Asian Development Bank


Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry
Armed Forces of the Philippines
ARMM Regional Government
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Autonomous Region in Muslim MindanaoDepartment of Agriculture and Fisheries
BBL
Bangsamoro Basic Law
BCT
Bangsamoro Core Territory
BDA
Bangsamoro Development Agency
BDP
Bangsamoro Development Plan
BDF
Bangsamoro Development Framework
BIAF
Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces
BIWA
Bangsamoro Islamic Women Auxiliary
BIMP-EAGA
Brunei Darrusalam-Indonesia-MalaysiaPhilippines East ASEAN Growth Area
BSP
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
BTA
Bangsamoro Transition Authority
BTC
Bangsamoro Transition Commission
CAA
Conflict-Affected Area
CAB
Comprehensive Agreement on the
Bangsamoro
CCT
Conditional Cash Transfer
CDD
Community-Driven Development
CPH
Census of Population and Housing
CT4T
Coordination Team for the Transition
DA Department of Agriculture
DAR
Department of Agrarian Reform
DOE
Department of Energy
DOTC
Department of Transportation and
Communications
DPWH
Department of Public Works and
Highways
EC Electric Cooperative
FAB
Framework Agreement on the
Bangsamoro
FMR
Farm-to-Market Road
FIES
Family Income and Expenditure Survey

ICP
IDB
IDP
GAD
GAA
GDP
GPH
GRDP
GRP
JCCCH
JICA
JNC
LFS
LGU
MILF
MIM
MNLF
MOA-AD
MTF-RDP
NDHS
NPC
ODA
PAG
PAMANA
PDP
PSA
PNP
PPP
REZA
SDF
TISP
TJRC
TPMT

Independent Commission on Policing


Independent Decommissioning Body
Internally Displaced Person
Gender and Development
General Appropriations Act
Gross Domestic Product
Government of the Philippines
Gross Regional Domestic Product
Government of the Republic of the
Philippines
Joint Coordinating Committee on the
Cessation of Hostilities
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Joint Normalization Committee
Labor Force Survey
Local Government Unit
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Independence Movement
Moro National Liberation Front
Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral
Domain
Mindanao Trust Fund-Reconstruction
and Development Program
National Demographic and Health Survey
National Power Corporation
Official Development Assistance
Private Armed Group
Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan
Philippine Development Plan
Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine National Police
Public-Private Partnership
Regional Economic Zone Authority
Special Development Fund
Transition Investment Support Plan for
the ARMM
Transitional Justice and Reconciliation
Commission
Third-Party Monitoring Team

ix

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Foreword
In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful

donors and development partners, to conduct needs


assessment in the Bangsamoro, and to facilitate the

The challenges to nation-building are very daunting.

formulation of the Bangsamoro Development Plan (BDP).

This is more so in the case of revolutionary organizations

We are proud that despite seemingly insurmountable

that are tasked to lead governments during transitions

challenges that they faced in the course of crafting

after successful peace negotiations. In the case of the

the BDP, the men and women of BDA rose with firm

Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), we are aware

determination to the challenge of designing a blueprint for

that our more than four decades of knowledge and

development that seeks to address the fundamental needs

experience in the struggle for the Bangsamoro right to

and aspirations of the Bangsamoro people, who have lived

self-determination are hardly sufficient and relevant.

in a vicious cycle of injustice, conflict, and poverty for


generations.

Our decision to create the Bangsamoro Development


Agency (BDA) in 2002 in pursuance of the relevant

This Plan is intended to bring about equitable, inclusive,

provisions of the agreement between the MILF and the

and sustainable recovery and development of Bangsamoro

Government of the Philippines (GPH) underpins our

areas whose constituents also include both indigenous and

solid commitment to a just, lasting and honorable peace

migrant communities.

and sustainable development in the Bangsamoro and


its adjacent areas even while the peace negotiation is

The Plan takes into consideration the unique needs

still ongoing. As a genuine pro-people struggle, MILF

and aspirations of the Bangsamoro people. It includes

is never against development that will redound to the

the promotion of economic growth, equal access to

improvement of the deplorable condition of grassroots

employment and livelihood opportunities, human capacity

communities.

development, and elimination of social and economic


inequities that have resulted from decades of neglect,

The signing of the Framework Agreement on the

historical injustice, poverty, and inequality.

Bangsamoro (FAB) and the Comprehensive Agreement


on the Bangsamoro (CAB) and the endorsement of the

To ensure attainment of these objectives, we adopted a

proposed Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) to Congress

comprehensive framework that is based on the Sustainable

demonstrated to us the unwavering commitment and firm

Human Development and Peacebuilding Frameworks

resolve of H.E. President Benigno C. Aquino III to, once

combined with the Bangsamoro core values of khalifa

and for all, address the roots of the conflict in Mindanao.

(stewardship), piety, transparency, accountability, and


inclusiveness, among others. We made sure that these

In anticipation of a scenario of peace and intensive

principles were adhered to when community visioning

nation-building in the emerging Bangsamoro, we tasked

exercises and consultations were done among different

our development arm, the BDA, to coordinate with

stakeholders in our communities within and outside the

proposed Bangsamoro core territories, in addition to the

in our journey towards lasting peace and development,

technical inputs contributed by our expert Bangsamoro

continue to walk with us until we are able to jumpstart

focal persons as well as the technical experts deployed

a just economy that will provide equal access to

by our local and international partners.

livelihood, jobs, justice, and security to all residents of


the Bangsamoro in the short and medium terms.

Cognizant of the difficulties in crafting a plan for


communities emerging from conflict, we convey

The fruits of our struggle, attained not only through the

our sincere thanks to all aid agencies, development

sweat and tears of our mujahideen and their families

partners,

who

but more so through the blood and lives of our martyrs,

collaborated with BDA, thus paving the way for the

are not only for MILF members. It is for the entire

realization of this Plan. Your sincere support opened a

Bangsamoro to partake regardless of ethnic, religious,

window of opportunity for our vision for a peaceful and

and political affiliations including the indigenous peoples

progressive Bangsamoro to possibly see the dawning of

and migrant communities living in our midst. Once our

a new day.

objectives are attained, it is not only the Bangsamoro

and

counterparts

in

government

people that will be benefited but the entire Filipino


The transition period to the Bangsamoro is very short

people as well.

and this Plan will remain a plan if not implemented


through different programs and projects identified in it.

Let this Plan be an enduring legacy of our struggle for the

It is of crucial importance, therefore, that aid agencies

Bangsamoro of today and tomorrow.

and development partners who accompanied us early

AL-HAJ MURAD EBRAHIM


Chairman
MILF Central Committee

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

Acknowledgements
In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful

3 September 2013. The basis of this important work is an


official directive from no less than the Chairman of the MILF

Early in the creation of the Bangsamoro Development

Central Committee that mandated the BDA on 22 March

Agency (BDA) in 2002, we aspired to formulate a

2013 to coordinate with donors and funding partners,

Bangsamoro Development Plan (BDP) that would serve

to conduct needs assessment in the Bangsamoro, and to

as a comprehensive roadmap for the just, equitable,

expedite the formulation of the Bangsamoro Development

and sustainable reconstruction and development of

Plan.

Bangsamoro communities ravaged by several decades


of armed conflict. At the BDA, we have been seeking

The schedule of completion of the Plan was set for March

to address the fundamental needs and aspirations of the

2014; however, this was initially hampered by unexpected

Bangsamoro as a people, who have lived in a vicious

events beyond the control of BDA and its development

cycle of injustice, violence, and poverty for generations.

partners. The destructive earthquake that hit Bohol and the

However, constraints on technical expertise and other

super typhoon Yolanda that devastated Tacloban and other

resources hindered the realization of this dream.

adjoining areas in the Visayas region temporarily shifted the


attention of aid agencies from the BDP to the immediate

The signing of the Framework Agreement on the

relief and rehabilitation of these ravaged areas. In addition,

Bangsamoro (FAB) on 15 October 2012 suddenly

there were also other unforeseen technical challenges and

changed the outlook of donors and development partners

geographic location issues that were encountered along the

from one of indifference to one of eagerness to support

way while implementing the various activities. All of these

the preparation of the Plan. This is understandable, since

issues contributed to the delay of the plan completion.

the FAB is the first breakthrough agreement that has


solidly galvanized the commitment of the Moro Islamic

This work is rendered extraordinarily challenging by the

Liberation Front (MILF) and the Government of the

fact that it is being done for the Bangsamoro Homeland that

Philippines (GPH) to peacefully resolve the decades-old

is just emerging from a long history of violent conflict. We

conflict in Mindanao. The signing of the Comprehensive

are well aware that we have to set overarching targets that

Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB) on 27 March 2014

cannot be easily translated into numerical figures such as

further reinforced confidence in the positive outcome

stability and confidence building, while at the same time,

of the peace process. Indeed the FAB paved the way

realizing the need to set quantifiable goals in other thematic

toward the crafting of a blueprint for development in the

areas of the Plan. In so doing, we have to be constantly

Bangsamoro.

mindful of utilizing a peacebuilding lens believing that no


amount of prosperity could be achieved and preserved if

As a demonstration of their overwhelming support,

the roots of the conflict are not addressed.

aid agencies, and development partners responded

xii

positively to the convening of the MTF-funded 1st

We tried our best to make the planning activities as

Donors Forum conducted by the BDA at the Asian

participatory and inclusive as possible to ensure ownership

Institute of Management Conference Center Manila on

of the plan by all stakeholders in the Bangsamoro. We

derived inputs from reports of various technical experts

gaps that could have rendered the Plan incomplete if

who conducted research, analyzed data, and formulated

left unattended. The deployment of their consultants to

recommendations. We extensively utilized a bottom-up

assist the Core Planning Team to complete its task even

approach through our community visioning exercises

after the submission of reports on the different thematic

and grassroots consultations to determine the real needs

and sub-thematic areas undertaken by relevant agencies

and aspirations of Bangsamoro communities from the

is a testament to their unwavering support for peace and

people themselves within and outside the proposed core

development in Mindanao.

territories.
Our thanks also go to the Asian Development Bank
This work is designed as a plan by the Bangsamoro for the

(ADB) for providing invaluable support to our Advisory

Bangsamoro whose constituents include other indigenous

Council and in procuring technical experts who

peoples and settler communities. It is a means by which

assisted us in producing a study on the sub-themes on

the Bangsamoro dreams and aspirations as a people will

infrastructure and regional cooperation.

be finally realized. But, with all humility, the completion


of this project would not have been possible without the

The Asia Foundation (TAF) also deserves our sincere

support of local and international funding agencies and

appreciation for providing technical experts who worked

development partners who mobilized financial assistance

on the thematic areas of governance and security.

and technical experts to support the BDA-BDP Team in the


conduct of its activities.

Our Plan would have been incomplete without the


attention given to the private sector initiatives particularly

We express our gratitude to the World Bank-managed

in agribusiness, halal industry and Islamic banking and

MTF and all its donor partnersthe European Union,

finance. It is a fact that private investment serves as the

the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) of

real engine for economic growth and development in

Australia, the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and

the community. Thanks to the team of experts provided

Development (DFATD) of Canada, the New Zealand

by the Foundation for Economic Freedom (FEF) who

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (NZFAT), the Swedish

conducted an MTF-funded study for the BDA, entitled

International Development Agency (SIDA), and the United

Strategic Roadmaps for the Development of Agribusiness

States Agency for International Development (USAID)for

Industry, Halal Food Industry, and Islamic Banking

allocating funds and deploying local and international

and Finance in the Bangsamoro dated July 2014. This

consultants for assisting the BDA Core Planning Team.

study also benefited from parallel workshops conducted


by the FEF and the Philippine Council for Islam and

We also recognize the significant support of the Japan

Democracy (PCID) and funded by the Australian

International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in mobilizing

Government on Private Investment Opportunities in the

consultants who worked on several thematic and sub-

Bangsamoro that commenced in November 2013. Both

thematic areas of the plan and for deploying consultants

the aforementioned study and workshops have provided

also in the BDP Core Planning Team.

vital inputs in the formulation of the BDP.

We acknowledge the very important contributions of the

One herculean challenge in formulating the Plan was the

agencies of the United Nations (UN) and the International

inaccessibility of some available data and other statistics

Organization on Migration (IOM) that addressed potential

that were needed in carrying out the analysis by the

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

consultants and technical staff of the BDP team. Getting

Society Organizations Platform for Peace (MCSOPP) for

these needed data would have been impossible without

contributing to the successful formulation of this Plan.

the cooperation of the different regional and national

Without their sincere and untiring efforts, this project

line agencies of the government. In particular, we would

would have remained a dream.

like to express our thanks to the consistent support of the


National Economic and Development Agency (NEDA),

Lastly, our sincere gratitude goes to our principal, the

Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process

MILF Central Committee, particularly the Honorable

(OPAPP), and the Department of Finance (DOF) for

Chairman Al-Haj Murad Ebrahim for entrusting to us

facilitating the timely cooperation of various government

this difficult mission. It is through their inspiration and

agencies.

guidance that we were able to accomplish this Plan.

Also, we are deeply indebted to all members of the

Finally, all our praises and thanks belong to our Almighty

BDP Project Steering Committee, BDP Core Planning

Allah for giving us the strength, perseverance, and

Team, BDP Advisory Council, and BDP focal persons,

wisdom to fullfil a daunting taskthe preparation of

as well as local and international consultants and non-

the BDP. May this Plan be instrumental in realizing

government organizations such as the Consortium of

our dream for a dynamic, peaceful, and prosperous

Bangsamoro Civil Society (CBCS) and the Mindanao Civil

Bangsamoro.

DR. SAFFRULLAH M. DIPATUAN


Chairman, Bangsamoro Development Agency
Chairman, BDP Project Steering Committee

xiv

In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful


JUST AND LASTING PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE BANGSAMORO:
THE VISION OF THE BANGSAMORO DEVELOPMENT PLAN
We, the Bangsamoro people, under the guidance of the Almighty Allah,
envision the Bangsamoro as a just, peaceful, and prosperous society
of empowered people and communities, enjoying a dignified quality of life
enhanced by inclusive and sustainable economic opportunities.
In pursuit of this envisioned society, the Bangsamoro shall be supported
by responsive, participatory, and transparent governance systems
that are reflective of the Bangsamoros distinct cultural identity,
and the right to self-determination.

The Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB)

Guided by the Bangsamoro Development Framework

is the shared victory of the Bangsamoro and the Filipino

(BDF), embedded in this vision of attaining a just,

people as a whole, paving the way for the lasting resolution

peaceful, and prosperous society, are the following

of armed conflict in Mindanao and the establishment of

principles:

the Bangsamoro Government as a meaningful platform for


self-governance. However, the CAB and its component

Inclusivenessguaranteeing that the benefits of

agreements are but part of a longer journey. Despite its

economic growth and the dividends from the peace

potential natural and human resources, the envisioned

process shall be shared by all stakeholders in the

Bangsamoro core territory has historically been the

Bangsamoro territory, regardless of political or

depressed region in the country. Plagued by limited

ethnic affiliation, gender, or creed;

livelihood opportunities, inadequate social services,


inadequate institutions, and deep political, cultural and

Sustainabilityensuring

that

any

growth

or

economic inequity, generations of systemic injustice and

development strategy pursued should not be at

armed violence in the Bangsamoro have created serious

the expense of access, use and enjoyment of God-

development challenges that must be overcome.

given natural resources by future generations of


Bangsamoro;

It is in this context that the Bangsamoro Development Plan


(BDP) seeks to articulate the Bangsamoro peoples most

Accountabilityrequiring that both the public

fundamental needs and aspirations. It acknowledges that

and private sectors be responsive to the needs of

enduring peace and stability can be attained through just,

the Bangsamoros constituents, that active citizens

inclusive, equitable, and highly tangible socioeconomic

participation in all areas of development in the

rehabilitation, reconstruction, and development that

region be encouraged, and that transparency and

address the underlying causes of conflict in Bangsamoro

accountability mechanisms in the use of public

communities.

resources and funds be built;

xv

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Cultural sensitivityrequiring that development


strategies be respectful of the culture and identity of

and to freely pursue their economic, social, spiritual,


and cultural development.

the various ethno-linguistic groups in the Bangsamoro


territory, in recognition of the collective struggle to

Attaining a vision is a long-term agenda, and the aspiration

build a just, humane, and prosperous society;

to a truly just, peaceful, and prosperous Bangsamoro as


stated above is no exception. Decades of hard work and

Self-reliancerecognizing that the strength of the

sustained resource investments will be needed to reach

Bangsamoro lies in its ability to build and develop

wide latitude of development, let alone full transformation

its internal capacities, mobilizing local talents and

of the Bangsamoro into a normalized society with a robust

resources as the basis for just and equitable external

and diversified economy. Hence, this Plan provides a clear

partnerships in and outside the region; and

roadmap for immediate post-Agreement rehabilitation


and development, parallel to the ongoing political

xvi

Self-determinationupholding the collective rights

and normalization transition that seeks to address the

of people to determine their own future, and by

socioeconomic roots of the Bangsamoro Question with

virtue of that right, determine their political status,

honor, justice, and dignity for all.

Introduction

CH A PT ER

Introduction

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Introduction

A. Background
On the 27th of March 2014, the Moro Islamic Liberation

and redeployment of units of the Armed Forces of

Front (MILF) and the Government of the Philippines

the Philippines (AFP). Measures toward justice and

(GPH) signed the Comprehensive Agreement on the

reconciliation during the transition period, as well as

Bangsamoro (CAB). As the culmination of 17 years of

comprehensive socioeconomic programs, will allow

peace negotiations, the CAB paves the way for the just

communities to achieve their desired quality of life,

and peaceful resolution of armed conflict in Mindanao

which includes the pursuit of sustainable livelihoods

and the establishment of the Bangsamoro Government.

and political participation within a peaceful deliberative

society.2 The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro


The CAB and its constituent parts have set in motion

(FAB) further commits the Parties to intensifyefforts

a process of transition from the Autonomous Region

for rehabilitation, reconstruction and development of the

in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) to a new Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro.3 These processes are inherently political

political entity. The Bangsamoro Transition Commission

and are subject to continued negotiation between the

(BTC) has drafted a Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL)

Parties.

that, following Congressional and popular approval


through a plebiscite, will lay the legal foundations for

It is against this background that the Bangsamoro

the autonomous region. Once the BBL is passed, a

Development Agency (BDA)as the MILFs mandated

Bangsamoro Transition Authority (BTA) will assume all

agency to determine, lead and manage rehabilitation

devolved powers of the new political entity and function

and development efforts in conflict-affected areas,4 and

as the interim Bangsamoro government until elected

with more than a decade of experience in delivering

officials can assume office following elections in May

development

2016.

Bangsamoro areas in coordination with international

and

humanitarian

assistance

across

partnerswas tasked by MILF Chairman Al Haj Murad

Parallel to the political process of establishing a new

Ebrahim to coordinate with donor and funding partners,

institutional framework for governing the Bangsamoro

to conduct needs assessment in the Bangsamoro

will

which

immediately, and to expedite the completion of the

communities affected by the decades of armed conflict

formulation of the Bangsamoro Development Plan

in Mindanao can return to a peaceful life free from

(BDP).5 The directive echoes provisions in the FAB

fear of violence and crime. This will include systemic

and the Annexes on the importance of the BDP as a

policing reforms, decommissioning of MILF forces,

development blueprint for the Bangsamoro.6

be

normalization

process

through

Introduction

B. Objective

providing strategic directions for regular delivery and


basic services in Bangsamoro communities during

fundamental tenets of equity and inclusiveness. As

and beyond the transition period;

reaffirmed by Chairman Murad in his statement at the

4. Assist the BTA in taking a leadership role in the

signing of the CAB, the Agreement is not only for the

implementation of the post-conflict development

MILF. It is for the MNLF as well, as much as it is for all

process;

the Muslim ethnic tribes, the Christian settlers, and the


Peoples

in

the

prospective

5. Help facilitate a seamless institutional transition that

Bangsamoro

will take place in 2016 as provided for by the FAB;

Government territory.7 In this regard, the BDP has been

and

crafted in close collaboration with national and regional

6. Identify and recommend priority projects to the BTA.

government agencies, civil society organizations, and


development partners, and based on extensive communitylevel

consultations.

The

Bangsamoro

Development

Framework (BDF) is based on the frameworks of


sustainable human development and peacebuilding, with
the BDA core values as its value system and ethic.
As a plan crafted in the context of communities emerging
from and still experiencing conflict, the BDP proceeds
from a peacebuilding perspective. It recognizes that the
usual approach8 to development planning cannot apply
to the Bangsamoros specific situation, given serious
market imperfections and market failures caused by the
conflict. The primordial goal during the transition from
violence to peace, therefore, is attaining stabilization and
normalizationa precondition for achieving sustainable
and inclusive growth in the subsequent years.
The primary objective of the BDP is to provide short- and
medium-term

3. Sustain the momentum of the peace process by

In formulating the Plan, the BDA is guided by the

Indigenous

CH A PT ER

vision,

strategy,

and

recommendations

for the socioeconomic recovery and development of


the Bangsamoro during the transition period (2015 to
mid-2016) and following installation of the Bangsamoro
Government (mid-2016 and beyond). More specifically,
the short- and medium-term objectives of the BDP are to
enable the Bangsamoro to:
1. Provide a development plan for the people of the
Bangsamoro;
2. Build mechanisms of local participation that will
ensure sustainability and ownership of development
planning and implementation;

The focus of the BDP is on the Bangsamoro transition


period, as the Bangsamoro Parliament, the entity mandated
to identify and determine development programs and
projects for the Bangsamoro area, will become operational
in mid-2016.

C. Outline of the Plan


Against this background, guided by an assessment of
the current situation in the Bangsamoro and informed
by communities and stakeholders of the region, the
BDP provides recommendations in six cluster areas,
consistent with the BDF: (1) economy and livelihood; (2)
infrastructure; (3) social services; (4) environment and
natural resources; (5) culture and identity; (6) governance
and justice as related to the goals of normalization and
development.
Recommendations in each cluster area include policy and
operational inputs on the key crosscutting areas of gender,
youth, and peacebuilding.
The BDP is divided into 15 chapters:

Chapter 1 presents the background, objective, and


outline of the Plan.

Chapter 2 provides a brief historical narrative of the


Bangsamoro struggle and peace process as the context
of the BDP.
Chapter 3 explains the methodology employed in the
formulation of the BDP and its limitations; and presents
the philosophy behind the BDF.

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Chapter 4 assesses the current situation in the

Chapters 7 to 12 further break down the strategy

Bangsamoro area, including the regional development

into sectoral targets and recommendations for the six

challenges and opportunities involved in breaking the

thematic areas of the BDF.

cycle of conflict, poverty, and underdevelopment.

Chapter 13 outlines the proposed implementation

Chapter 5 presents the results of Community Visioning

arrangements and financing modalities to ensure

Exercises (CVEs) conducted by the BDA to determine

that recommendations are effectively and efficiently

the needs, aspirations, and sources of dissatisfaction in

implemented.

selected Bangsamoro communities. It also links to the

Chapter

14

identifies

possible

implementation

current situational assessment in the Bangsamoro as an

challenges that will be encountered and proposes

attempt to validate the findings.

mitigating measures to address these risks.

Chapter 6 articulates a strategy to achieve the vision

Chapter 15 outlines a Results-based Monitoring

of the BDP and provides short-term recommendations

and Evaluation system to track the progress of

and indicative directions for the medium term to

implementation and lessons learned.

realize the vision for the Bangsamoro.


Listings of priority programs are provided in Annex A.

NOTES
1 Through the Agreement, the MILF and the GPH commit to protect and enhance the right of the Bangsamoro people and other inhabitants in the
Bangsamoro to human dignity; reduce social, economic and political inequalities; correct historical injustices committed against the Bangsamoro;
and remove cultural inequities. Refer to the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro, March 27, 2014.
2 The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, October 15, 2012.
3 Ibid.
4 The BDA was established pursuant to the Agreement on Peace Signed Between the GPH and the MILF on June 22, 2001, which is known as the
Tripoli Agreement of 2001, and the Implementing Guidelines of the Humanitarian, Rehabilitation, and Development Aspects of the GPH-MILF
Tripoli Agreement of 2001, which was signed on May 7, 2002.
5 This was a directive from the MILF Central Committee to the Bangsamoro Development Agency Chairman Dr. Saffrullah M. Dipatuan on March 22,
2013.
6 The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, Section VII, 4C instructs the Bangsamoro Transition Commission to coordinate development
programs in Bangsamoro communities with BDA, BLMI, and others; Annex on Revenue Generation and Wealth Sharing, Section XI stresses the
need to formulate the BDP; and the Annex on Normalization, Section G, item number 6 mentions that socioeconomic interventions shall be aligned
to the BDP.
7 Statement of Chairman Al Haj Murad Ebrahim at the signing of the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro, Malacaan Palace, Philippines
on March 27, 2014.
8 The orthodox manner of formulating development plans is anchored in the dynamics of the market, with sectoral concerns fleshed out based on a
functioning market system. Such conditions cannot be presumed for many communities just emerging from a long period of conflict.

History and Analysis of Conflict in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

History and Analysis of


Conflict in the Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro Development Plan

History and Analysis of


Conflict in the Bangsamoro

A. A Brief History of the Bangsamoro


Struggle
The history of conflict in Mindanao can be traced back

the customs and traditions of the Moros, led to massive

to Spanish colonization in the 16

dispossession of Moro lands by settlers and private

th

century. By then,

Islam had already taken root in Mindanao,

having

investors.

been introduced in the 13 century by Arab traders and


th

promoted by missionaries from Indonesia and Malaysia

After the Philippines gained independence from the

in the 15 and early 16 centuries. In line with Islamic

United States, a series of land resettlement programs in

tradition, a governance structure was in place in the form

Mindanao in the 1950s and 1960s further accelerated

of Sultanates.

this dispossession. The resettlement programs were

th

th

10

undertaken to ease the social unrest spawned by the


The ability of the Muslims to thwart successive attempts

Communist-led Huk rebellion in the islands of Luzon

of the Spanish colonial forces to subjugate them set

and the Visayas and, purportedly, to further develop

their people apart from the northern inhabitants of the

Mindanao by exploiting its vast natural resources.14

Philippine archipelago, most of whom were conquered

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, tension increased

and converted to Christianity. Deep distrust and

between the settlers and Moros as land scarcity grew and

suspicion

centuries-old distrust continued between the two groups.

11

were cultivated by the colonizers among

the Christian converts against their Muslim brothers as a


way of ensuring their control of most of the country and

The

contemporary

armed

conflict

between

the

its inhabitants. Intermittent wars were fought between

government in Manila and the Moros was triggered

the Spanish invaders and their local Christian allies and

by the Jabidah massacre in 1968,15 which led to the

Muslim fighters throughout three centuries of Spanish

establishment of the first Moro separatist groups initially

colonial rule.

with the founding of the Moro Independence Movement


(MIM) and eventually the Moro National Liberation Front

The advent of American colonial rule did little to

(MNLF).

change the situation. The American regime passed a


series of land laws12 that favored settlers and private

The declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand

corporations at the expense of the Moros. This, along

Marcos in 1972 transformed the conflict from a

with the implementation of land titling programs in

simmering rebellion into a full-blown war. Ultimately

Mindanao anchored in a property rights regime alien to

realizing that he could not achieve total victory against

13

History and Analysis of Conflict in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

the Moro combatants, Marcos initiated the signing of

in the displacement of more than a million people, with

the 1976 Tripoli Agreement with the MNLF. Under this

high human and physical costs to the entire country.

agreement, the MNLF would drop its separatist goal in

Following Estradas impeachment and ouster in 2001,

favor of creating an autonomous government for the

President Gloria Arroyo reversed her predecessors

Moros. In the years that followed, the conflict returned

aggressive policy and declared an all-out peace stance

to being a low-intensity rebellion, with the Central

toward the MILF. Peace negotiations began but broke

Government in Manila implementing its own definition

down when the government unilaterally attacked MILF

of autonomy for the Moros.

positions in 2003, resulting in the displacement of more


than a half a million people.

Dissatisfied with the outcome of the Tripoli Agreement,


the MILF led by Chairman Salamat Hashim, formally

Later that year, the signing of a ceasefire agreement with

broke away from the MNLF in the signing of instrument

the MILF paved the way for resumed negotiations, which

December 30, 1977. Chairman Salamat distinguished the

culminated in the 2008 Memorandum of Agreement on

MILF from the MNLF by stressing not only a nationalist

Ancestral Domain (MOA-AD). The MOA-AD provided

but also an Islamic agenda.

for greater autonomy for the Bangsamoro to govern their


affairs and an expanded ARMM territory. However, it

Following the fall of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986,

was challenged in the Philippine Supreme Court and

under the government of President Corazon Aquino,

was ruled unconstitutional. There followed another

a new Philippine Constitution was enacted in 1987

major outbreak of armed violence between some MILF

that included provisions for autonomy in Muslim

forces and government troops, displacing some 700,000

Mindanao and the Cordillera Region. This opened further

people.

negotiations between the GRP and the MNLF and led to


the signing of the 1996 Final Peace Agreement between

It was not until mid-2010, with the newly elected

the GRP and MNLF during the administration of President

government of President Benigno Aquino III, that

Fidel V. Ramos. The agreement provided for the creation

negotiations resumed. In early 2011, President Aquino

of the Southern Philippines Council for Peace and

personally met Chairman Murad in Tokyo to assure him

Development (SPCPD) as a transitory institution before

of his governments sincerity in seeking lasting peace

the establishment of an expanded region to be known as

with the MILF. In October 2012, the GPH and MILF

ARMM.

peace negotiating panels, through mediation by the


Malaysian Government, reached a breakthrough and

The MILF distanced itself from the agreement but

signed the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro

committed to not standing in the way of peace. However,

(FAB).

noncompliance by both sides to the peace agreement


and failure to deliver the peace and economic growth

A series of negotiations provided the details of the FAB,

promised to MNLF constituents resulted in increased

which are contained in four annexes pertaining to: (1)

support across the region for the MILF. The MNLFs

Transitional Arrangements and Modalities; (2) Wealth

credibility was further eroded in 1998 when the new

Sharing and Revenue Generation; (3) Power Sharing;16

administration of President Joseph Estrada did not give

and (4) Normalization. The signing of the Comprehensive

full support to the peace agreement.

Agreement on the Bangsamoro signaled the start of a new


phase in the relationship between the MILF and the GPH

In 2000, concerned about the MILFs growing strength,

and the difficult task of implementing the peace accord

the Estrada regime declared an all-out war, resulting

as embodied in the proposed BBL.

Bangsamoro Development Plan

B. Conflict and Development Analysis of the


Bangsamoro
Conservative estimates of deaths due to wars in
Mindanao put the fatalities at nearly 120,000 from 1970
to 1996, with even higher figures for protracted and
cyclical displacement.17 Purely economic assessments
of the costs of conflict range from a conservative USD 2
to 3 billion for the period from 1970 to 200118 to USD
10 billion for the period from 1975 to 2002.19 The latter
considers not only direct output losses but also other
factors, such as forgone investments and capital flight.
Using USD 10 billion as the reference figure and based
on the average exchange rate between 1975 and 2002
of PhP 22.5 to the US dollar, this amounts to PhP 225
billion or around PhP 8.3 billion per yearlosses that
have translated to profound social and economic impacts
and forgone opportunities for both the Bangsamoro and
the Philippines as a whole.20
As a development plan for a conflict-affected area, the
BDP is anchored in an understanding of the complex
security, justice, and economic factors that drive and
perpetuate conflict and its corresponding development
costs. The 2005 Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) for
Reconstruction and Development of Conflict-Affected
Areas in Mindanao21 illustrates how injustice in its
various manifestations underpins the historical conflict
in the Bangsamoro. These forms of injustice escalate into
structural violence and armed confrontation because of

commits the parties to three interlocking aspects of the


peace process: (1) Security Aspect (2) Rehabilitation,
Humanitarian

and

Development

(3)

to be done in support of structural and security


sector reform, particularly in the transition period,
the full implementation of the CAB will require
targeted socioeconomic responses that will enable
the Bangsamoro to immediately feel the benefits of the
peace dividends and improve their overall welfare.
The signing of the CAB is a significant step in reducing
incidences of state-minority contestation, or vertical
conflict, which pits non-state armed groups against
government forces. Data from the GPH Coordinating
Committee on the Cessation of Hostilities (CCCH) (see
Figure 1) show no armed skirmishes between the GPH
and MILF since the breakthrough in peace negotiations
in 2012, which provided an enabling environment for
stable communities and continuous socioeconomic
delivery.22
Other drivers of conflict in the Bangsamoro area take the
form of inter-communal (between political and ethnolinguistic groups) and inter-elite violence (rido or local
clan feuds, such as over political posts and control over
Figure 1: Annual Trend of GPH-MILF Armed Skirmishes
(20022014)

natural and mineral resources, crime (e.g., cattle rustling,


kidnapping), local election disputes, and government
policies, such as the declaration of all-out war against
the MILF by the Estrada administration, among others.
In response to the cycles of violence and insecurity
driven by widespread economic marginalization and
political disenfranchisement in the Bangsamoro, the

and

Ancestral Domain Aspect. While much work remains

certain key triggers, including competition for scarce

CAB, specifically the Tripoli Agreement of 2001,

Aspect,

Source: GPH-CCCH Info Brief (March 2012)

History and Analysis of Conflict in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

resources).23 While distinct, these horizontal conflicts

in this Plan are therefore different from those in the parts

are often closely related to the vertical conflict, and

of the Philippines that are not affected by conflict.

one spills over into the other.

24

Another driver of

conflict is the prevalence of the shadow economy,

For the short term, the Plan recommends actions

or nonconformist economic activities

and

25

such as the

interventions

that

will

promote

stabilization

illicit weapons and drug trade, kidnap-for-ransom

and strengthen the legitimacy of the Bangsamoro

activities, informal credit and land markets, and cross-

Government. The Plan recognizes that how development

border trade, as it intersects with the prevalence of

is implemented in the Bangsamoro matters as much as

warlordism and clan-based violence. Economic rents

how much is spent. Based on the principles described

from the shadow economy are used to consolidate

in the next chapter, the BDP promotes distribution of

political influence and patronage, reinforcing overall

resources based on need and equity, to ensuring fair and

insecurity and further undermining weak institutions.

equal access to development opportunities for all in the

26

Bangsamoro.

The Plan gives priority to development

Injustice and insecurity are central to the narrative of

approaches that are people-centered and that bring

failed development in the Bangsamoro. Economic

communities together for joint planning and decision-

development by itself cannot address the historical

making, as these have been proven to build the necessary

grievances of the Bangsamoro or the insecurity that

social cohesion.

affects large parts of the Bangsamoro territories. But


development can play a part in supporting the political

As a conflict-sensitive and peacebuilding plan, the BDP

and security transitions that will play out in the coming

is ultimately built around developing stronger institutions

period. Accordingly, the BDP is a peacebuilding

that will deliver better services, more effective justice, and

plan that analyzes and addresses development issues

decent jobs and livelihood for the Bangsamoro people.

through the lens of conflict. It is driven by a strong

Such institutions will require open and transparent

intention to address injustice and directly tackle

governance, partnerships between government and civil

sources of discontent that drive conflict. The priorities

society, and a willingness to openly engage with citizens.

Bangsamoro Development Plan

NOTES
9 See Rodil (2009), Houben (2003), and Abubakar (2005).
10 There were four sultanates, namely: the Sultanate of Sulu, which was based in Sulu but also ruled the neighboring islands and coastal areas of
what is now known as the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Sultanate of Maguindanao, which covered the south-central portion of Mindanao Islands;
the Four Principalities of Lanao, which ruled the eastern and central portion of Mindanao; and the Sultanate of Kabuntalan in Maguindanao. For
historical accounts of the rise and fall of the Sultanates in Mindanao, refer to Majul (1973 and 1985), Tan (1977, 1989 and 1993), Muslim (1994),
Tanggol (1993), and Rodil (2009).
11 In fact, the Spaniards used the term Moros to refer to the Islamized inhabitants of Mindanao to distinguish them from the Christian inhabitants
of Luzon and the Visayas.
12 Refer to the 1902 Philippine Bill, which effectively upheld Spanish cadastral laws; the 1902 Land Registration Act, which established the
requirement of a Torrens title as proof of land ownership; and the 1905 and 1918 Public Land Acts, which determined all unregistered and
untitled lands to be owned by the State, and that such public lands may be claimed and registered through the free patent system.
13 This is the Regalian doctrine, which was first introduced during the Spanish colonial period and became the basis for all land laws as established
in the 1935, 1973 and 1987 Philippine Constitutions. It stipulates that all lands of the public domain and other natural resources belong to the
King of Spain and later to the State as the natural successor.
14 See Majul (1973 and 1985), Tan (1977, 1989, and 1993), and Mastura (2004).
15 This involved the killing of at least 28 young Moro military trainees by their superiors to prevent a leak of the Philippine Governments intent of
fomenting unrest in Sabah, to which the Sulu Sultanate has a claim.
16 An Addendum on Bangsamoro Waters complements the Annex on Power Sharing.
17 See World Food Programme and World Bank (2010).
18 Using an exchange rate then of PhP 54.5 to USD 1, this will amount to PhP 108 to PhP 158 billion for the entire period or around PhP 5.07.5
billion per year. See Barandiaran (2002).
19 See Schiavo-Campo and Judd (2005). This is further supported by the United Nations Development Programme (2005).
20 Average exchange rate calculated using data from World Bank World Development Indicators (19752002).
21 See World Bank et.al (2005). The 5-volume report is divided into sectoral concerns, namely: human development, rural development, finance and
private sector development, local governance and institutions, and an integrative report which serves as the fifth volume. Each sectoral report
rendered a discussion of the current situation in their sector, identified the problems, formulated recommendations to address these problems,
and identified the menu of activities that need to be undertaken and their funding requirements. The recommended activities were divided into
three implementation periods: immediate term (start at year 1 but implementation can go beyond year 1); short term (start in year 2 but
implementation can go beyond 1 or 2 years); and medium term (start in year 4 and 5 but implementation can go beyond 2 or 3 years). To obtain
the data for the needs assessment, the study employed key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and analysis of secondary data.
More than 3,000 individuals and representatives of institutions served as respondents of the study coming from 19 municipalities in 7 provinces
considered as Conflict-Affected Areas (CAAs).
22 See the GPH-CCCH Update Report (2012).
23 State-minority contestation is also known as vertical conflict in conflict literature; inter-elite and inter-communal contestations are classified as
horizontal conflict.
24 See Adriano and Parks (2013) for additional information on the typology of conflict in the Bangsamoro.
25 Lara and Schoofs (2013).
26 Ibid.

10

Plan Methodology and the Bangsamoro Development Framework

CH A PT ER

Plan Methodology and the


Bangsamoro Development
Framework

11

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Plan Methodology and the


Bangsamoro Development Framework

A. Guiding Principles
The BDP is anchored in the Bangsamoro Development

The BDPs technical recommendations were formulated

Framework (BDF) based on the BDA core values, with

by thematic experts, validated at the ground level, and

the dual objectives of sustainable human development

complemented

and peacebuilding. In line with the CAB implementation

(CVEs) that were conducted to define the vision, needs

principles of committing the parties to acknowledge the

and aspirations, and sources of dissatisfaction across the

identity and legitimate grievances of the Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro.

while affirming the individual rights of all individuals


in the community, the BDP is formulated through
wide participation in all sectors. Thus, the Bangsamoro
political entity will protect both individual and collective
rights while representing the diversity of the Bangsamoro
population in a truly democratic manner and enshrining
shared accountability.
Furthermore, Section XI of the Annex on Wealth
Sharing and Revenue Generation of the CAB states
that the development plan for the Bangsamoro shall be
formulated in a manner that is consistent with national
development goals but recognizing unique needs and
aspirations of the Bangsamoro people.
These principles require that the BDP be:
1. Anchored in the BDF;
2. Inclusive and respectful of the cultural diversity of
the Bangsamoro as enshrined in the CAB;
3. Informed by views from Bangsamoro communities
both across the potential Bangsamoro Core Territory
(BCT) and the adjacent expansion areas; and
4. Aligned with relevant national and regional
development plans.27

12

by

Community

Visioning

Exercises

B. The Bangsamoro Development


28
Framework
At the core of the BDF are the mutually reinforcing
frameworks of Peacebuilding and Sustainable Human
Development (SHD) (see Figure 2). By pursuing peace
in Mindanao and seeking political settlement of the right
to self-determination, the Bangsamoro can begin to build
a stable and prosperous society with a strong economy,
reliable security, respect for cultural diversity, protection
of the environment, and strong social services.
The

peacebuilding

framework

will

deliver

an

environment conducive to the political settlement


concerning the right to self-determination. At the
center of this are inclusiveness and consideration of all
stakeholders and of the drivers of violence and conflict in
the Bangsamoro.
The peacebuilding framework commits the Bangsamoro
to: (1) consulting all stakeholders; (2) increasing the
understanding of the structures that breed violence; (3)
developing capacities to avoid and resolve conflict; (4)
creating avenues of cooperation between communities;

Plan Methodology and the Bangsamoro Development Framework

Figure 2: Bangsamoro Development Framework

CH A PT ER

dividends across communities. It will also necessitate


providing a platform for non-Bangsamoro to participate
in decisions that affect them.
On the other hand, intra-community conflict needs to
be reduced to allow for a negotiated peace, a strong and
accountable governance system, and services that ensure
positive social outcomes. These are necessary conditions
to address the deep economic, cultural, environmental,
and security challenges in the region.
With a well-formulated plan based on specific sectoral
challenges, an integrated approach can deliver SHD
based on priorities identified by the Bangsamoro in line
with their right to self-determination.
In formulating these mutually reinforcing peacebuilding

Source: BDA (2014) modified from Abubakar (2013)

and SHD Frameworks, the BDP is guided by core values


that inform the approach to all interventions, namely:

with the ultimate goal to (5) helping attain reconciliation


among communities. By reducing inter- and intra-

1. VicegerencyMan, according to the teachings of

community conflicts across the Bangsamoro, which are

Islam, is the representative and vicegerent of the

a major source of violence and distract from human and

Almighty Allah on Earth.29 This world is a trust and

economic development, it becomes possible to resolve

man is its trustee. Prophet Mohammad (peace be

longstanding state-minority contestation over the right to

upon him) also said: All of you are shepherds and

self-determination.

all of you are responsible for your herds: The leader


is a shepherd and is responsible for his subjects.

The political settlement between the GPH and the


MILF, supported by the international community and in

2. TransparencyIn accordance with the Philippine

collaboration with conflict-affected communities, NGOs,

Constitution, the Bangsamoro will make full

private and other actors, becomes the foundation of the

public disclosure of all its transactions involving

SHD Framework. At the center of the SHD Framework is a

public interest and guarantee the right of

strong commitment to governance- and institution-building

the people to information on matters of public

to enable the Bangsamoro to address the substantial

concern. This is also enshrined in Islam, where

development challenges in the Bangsamoro after many

Muslim leaders believe that Allah (glorified and

years of neglect. This must be accompanied by effective

exalted be He) knows what is in ones mind (i.e.,

social services that are essential to ensure positive health,

Allah said, And I know what you reveal and what

education, and social outcomes.

you have concealed.)

Inter-community conflicts (i.e., between Bangsamoro

3. PietyGod-consciousness

consists

in

practical

and settlers) will need to be addressed through inclusive

manifestation of ones faith in ones daily life,

measures, such as the equitable distribution of peace

which means desisting from everything that

13

Bangsamoro Development Plan

is disapproved of or forbidden. Man must be

shared accountability, meaning exercise of mutual

in a state of readiness to undertake all that is

concern by both officers and the public, and above all,

commanded and observe the distinctions between

accountability to the Almighty Allah, for indeed, Allah

lawful and unlawful, right and wrong, and good

commands you to render trusts to whom they are due.

and bad in life.


The importance of these values and principles of governance
4. TrustworthinessThis is a virtue everyone should

cannot be overemphasized under the BDF because it views

possess and practice, since everyone occupies a

governance and human development as indivisible. The

position of trust as a vicegerent. All believers will

soundness of governance depends on whether it sustains

be questioned in the life hereafter on how they

human development, while an educated, healthy, and

kept their trust.

prosperous society, in return, is required to sustain good


governance. These values and principles are not only

5. JusticeJustice is equality in the observation


of rights and in abiding obligations without
discriminations for any reason, such as religion,
race, color, or social status. Social justice means
giving each what he or she deserves, with financial
and other benefits in society being distributed
in order to attain equality in the fulfillment of
basic needs. It also ensures greater opportunities
for people so that each person has a chance to
improve oneself and ones overall welfare.
6. InclusivenessOnly inclusive peace will end the
conflict, so no section of society shall be left out.
Inclusiveness is enshrined in Islam as a way of life,
at all times and places and for all people.

embedded in all the human development areas but also in all


the components of peacebuilding.

C. Technical Analysis
The analysis and recommendations in this Plan are derived
from separate studies conducted on specific thematic areas30
by consultants and Bangsamoro experts recommended by the
BDA. In writing their reports, thematic teams closely consulted
with relevant national and regional government agencies. After
an initial review of the literature and data to assess the current
situation and identify problems and gaps, the initial findings
were validated through focus group discussions (FGDs) and
key informant interviews (KIIs) in selected Bangsamoro sites.31
In line with the transition to the Bangsamoro Government,
the recommendations are divided into two clusters: (1) a

7. ExcellenceA person attains the highest quality

transitional phase (2015 to mid-2016) when governance of

in words, deeds, and thoughts by identifying his

the Bangsamoro areas shall be transferred from the ARMM to

or her will with that of the Almighty Allah and

the BTA and the Bangsamoro Government; and (2) a medium-

harmonizing it with the Divine will to the best of

term phase of indicative recommendations (mid-2016 to

his or her knowledge and ability.

2022) when a new governance structure will be in place,


together with its newly elected set of officers whose mandate

8. AccountabilityAccountability means not only


accountability to the people in accordance with

will include determining the development trajectory of the


Bangsamoro.

the constitutional provision that public office is a

14

public trust, and all public officers and employees

Throughout the BDP formulation process, the technical

must at all times be accountable to the people,

approach, analysis, and recommendations benefited from

serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity,

inputs, recommendations, and validation from the Project

loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and

Steering Committee, the BDP Advisory Council, and the BDA

justice, and lead modest lives. Rather, it is also

Board of Directors (see Table 1).

Plan Methodology and the Bangsamoro Development Framework

CH A PT ER

Through a series of consultations and forums to generate

socioeconomic wellbeing of the people; (3) inclusivity;

input and feedback, thematic drafts were presented to a

(4) promotion of transparency and accountability in

broad range of stakeholders, both inside and outside the

government transactions to achieve good governance;

Bangsamoro, including national and regional government

(5) attainment of a just and more equitable society; (6)

representatives,

society

promotion of peace, stability, and the rule of law; (7)

organizations, academic institutions, stakeholder groups,

preferential treatment for the poor (particularly vulnerable

MILF specialized agencies, and development partners.

groups); (8) reduction of vulnerabilities among the poor

officers

of

the

BTC,

civil

D. Clamor from the Ground


To ensure that the BDP adequately addresses the unique
needs and aspirations of Bangsamoro communities and
accounts for the cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity,
a series of ten32 one-day Community Visioning Exercises
(CVEs) was conducted across the proposed Bangsamoro
and expansion areas. Participants included members of
Moro groups (including both MNLF and MILF), settlers, and
also IPs, as represented by formal and informal community
leaders, and organized stakeholder groups (i.e., women,
youth, farmers, etc.). A comprehensive discussion of the
results and insights from the CVEs, cross-referenced against
similar past and parallel processes, is included in Chapter
5.

through climate change adaptation and implementation


of disaster-risk reduction and mitigation measures; and (9)
improvement and provision of adequate infrastructure to
further promote economic growth and development. Their
ultimate goal, therefore, is to improve the wellbeing of
individuals living in the area.
The strategies and visions of national and regional
development plans match the priorities identified from
the community consultations and are aligned with the
technical analysis of the development gaps in the BDP. In
turn, they have partially provided guidance to the BDPs
recommendations. Annex C (Relevant National and
Regional Development Plans) presents a table summarizing
the national and regional development plans.

A round of Community Validation (CV) consultations

F. Limitations

was conducted on the draft BDP Integrative Report in the

In conducting the technical analysis of development gaps,

same areas and in additional identified key locations. This

thematic consultants and the Bangsamoro Development

ensured that the recommended interventions in the BDP

Plan Core Planning Team (BDP-CPT) found limited

were aligned with the identified needs and aspirations of

availability of highly disaggregated data. The analysis is,

the Bangsamoro communities. Technical validation was

therefore, based mostly on national data, disaggregated

also conducted to further ensure that the infrastructure

at the provincial and regional levels. Moreover, because

network, both existing and proposed, would achieve its

of the difficulty of obtaining data from municipalities and

goal of promoting connectivity and growth in the region.

barangays proposed for inclusion in the BCT, the ARMM

E. Review of Relevant National and Regional


Development Plans
The CAB provides for the formulation of a development
plan that is consistent with national development goals
while recognizing the Bangsamoros unique needs and
aspirations. A review of relevant national and regional
development plans reveals their key strategies and visions
to be as follows: (1) poverty reduction; (2) improved

was used as a proxy to the BCT.


Initial ideas were rendered on issues on normalization
and security given that the attainment of peace in the
Bangsamoro cannot be realized with socioeconomic
measures alone. However, because of the sensitivity of this
issue due to the ongoing negotiations between the GPH
and MILF negotiating panels, it was decided to remove
detailed discussion on this concern.

15

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 1: List of BDP Themes, Components, and Participating Partners


Theme

Components

Development
Partners

Government Counterparts
(NGA & ARG)

a. Economy and
Livelihood

Agriculture, fisheries and agro-based industry, economy and


livelihood, agribusiness, halal industry, Islamic finance and
banking, regional cooperation

JICA, ILO, MTF


(FEF), ADB, FAO

NEDA, ARMM-RPDO, DA,


DTI, DPWH

b. Infrastructure

Transportation, economic-related infrastructure

JICA, ADB, WB

NEDA, DPWH, ARMM-RPDO,


ARMM-DPWH

c. Social

Education, reproductive health, child health and nutrition,


domestic water and sanitation, social support infrastructure

DFAT Australia,
UNFPA, UNICEF

DSWD, DepEd, DOH, DILG

d. Environment and
Natural Resources

Natural resources (including mines and other extractive


industries), power, DRRM, forest and watershed management,
conventional and non-conventional (renewable) energy and
climate change, hazard, risk and emergency response, urban
ecosystems management, ecotourism and biodiversity

JICA, UNDP

DENR

e. Governance and Justice Governance, Shariah justice system, fiscal autonomy

TAF, UNDP, MTF

f. Culture and Identity

MTF

g. Security

TAF

h. Cross-Cutting
Concerns

Gender, youth and other vulnerable groups, peacebuilding,


food and nutrition, security

IOM, UN-WFP,
UN-Women

Source: BDP-CPT

NOTES
27 These include the Aquino administrations Social Contract with the Filipino People; the Philippine Development Plan 20112016 Midterm Update;
Mindanao Strategic and Development Framework 20102020; Mindanao 2020: Peace and Development Framework Plan 20112030; and the ARMM
Regional Development Plan (20102016) Midterm Update.
28 The Bangsamoro Development Framework is based on the doctoral dissertation of Ayesah Abubakar, Building Peace in Conflict Affected
Communities through the Sustainable Human Development (SHD) Framework: A Case Study of Mindanao.
29 This is akin to the Christian concept of stewardship.
30 Refer to Annex B for the full listing of different thematic areas addressed by consultants, Bangsamoro focal persons, and supporting donor
partners and national and regional government agencies.
31 Feedback from BDA, government agencies, international partners, civil society, and other stakeholders was incorporated into consultant outlines
prior to field validation.
32 Community Visioning Exercises were conducted in the following areas: (a) Central Mindanao, (b) Davao, (c) Southern Mindanao, (d) Zamboanga
Peninsula, (e) Basilan, (f) Lanao del Norte, (g) Lanao del Sur, (h) Sulu, and (i) Tawi-Tawi.

16

Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

Current Situation, Development


Gaps, and Opportunities in the
Bangsamoro

17

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Current Situation, Development Gaps,


and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

A. Background
The Bangsamoro is located in the south of the Philippines

Bangsamoro region and have an average density of 1,070

and its proposed core territory consists of the following

persons per square kilometer.

(see Map 1):


The protracted nature of the conflict in the Bangsamoro
1. The present ARMM consisting of the provinces of

area, combined with years of limited investment and

Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Basilan, Sulu, and

geographical remoteness,33 has resulted in a vicious

Tawi-Tawi, and the cities of Marawi and Lamitan;

cycle of injustice, conflict and insecurity, poverty,

2. Cotabato City and Isabela City;

militarization, marginalization and deprivation, and

3. The municipalities of Baloi, Munai, Nunungan,

underdevelopment. Figure 3 illustrates the dynamic

Pantar, Tagoloan, and Tangkal in the province of

interrelationships of these conditions.

Lanao del Norte;


4. The thirty-nine (39) barangays in the municipalities
of Kabacan, Carmen, Aleosan, Pigkawayan, Pikit,

Figure 3: The Vicious Cycle of Injustice, Insecurity, and


Underdevelopment

and Midsayap in the province of North Cotabato


that voted for inclusion in the ARMM during the
2001 plebiscite; and
5. Other contiguous areas that may opt to be included
in the Bangsamoro region.
The total land area of the region is estimated at 1,488,353
hectares, with Maguindanao and Lanao del Sur having
the biggest land areas. The present ARMM constitutes the
largest area of the Bangsamoro at 87% of the total area of
the region.
There are four urban areas in the Bangsamoro region: the
cities of Marawi in Lanao del Sur, Lamitan and Isabela
in Basilan, and Cotabato City in Maguindanao. The
populations of these urban areas account for 18% of the

18

Source: BDP-CPT

Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

The uncertainty caused by armed conflict and insecurity

nets for vulnerable groups such as women, children,

diminishes the productivity of resources and discourages

youth, and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The lack

investments and saving, resulting in poor economic

of productive jobs, combined with inadequate social

performance. Where conflict obstructs the needed

service delivery, inevitably results in reduced wellbeing

economic and political reforms and diverts activities from

and high poverty incidence.

the productive domains to the redistributive spheres, it


can precipitate a collapse in growth in both the short and

In

the long run.

institutions, the high poverty and greater deprivation

34

an

environment

characterized

by

inadequate

of livelihoods and social services fuel dissatisfaction


With low economic growth, few decent jobs are created,

and unrest, leading to increased conflict and a greater

resulting in high unemployment, predominance of low-

intensity of this vicious cycle of insecurity, poverty and

productivity jobs, and a high number of working-age

marginalization, and underdevelopment.

people opting out of the labor force. This, in turn, reduces


purchasing power significantly, leading to inadequate

Primarily using data from the ARMM as a proxy for the

demand and low revenue generation. The provision of

Bangsamoro area, this chapter presents the manifestation

social services, which relies on the governments ability

of this cycle in the Bangsamoro area and key indicators

to raise revenues, is severely reduced and affects safety

of the development gaps and discusses some of the

Map 1: The Proposed Bangsamoro Core Territory (BCT) (2014)

Source: Using data from the CAB and the proposed BBL (2014)

19

Bangsamoro Development Plan

development opportunities in the Bangsamoro that can


be leveraged to break the vicious cycle.

B.2. Employment
It would seem paradoxical that despite limited economic
opportunities in the Bangsamoro, unemployment at

B. The Vicious Cycle in the Bangsamoro

4.6% and underemployment at 12.3% are lower than


in the rest of Mindanao (5.3% and 22.9%, respectively)

B.1. Economic Performance

and the country (7.1% and 19.3%, respectively). But

Decades of injustice, conflict, and insecurity in the

such measurements hide actual weaknesses and are a

Bangsamoro

full

consequence of the fact that in a developing country

development of the Bangsamoros economic potential.

without unemployment insurance, most of the poor

Although it accounts for 3.5% of the Philippine

cannot afford to be unemployed and must take whatever

population, the ARMM contributes less than one percent

low-productivity occupation they can find.35

have

severely

undermined

the

of national output and has a per capita output less than


a quarter of the national average. While average annual

This can be seen in the more telling fact that 80.6%

growth in per capita GDP between 2009 to 2013 has

of employed persons in ARMM are in the vulnerable

been strong across the country, reaching 3.4% nationally

employment categorybeing self-employed or unpaid

and 3.3% in the rest of Mindanao, ARMM registered only

family workers. This is very high compared with the

a 1.0% average annual per capita GDP growth over the

38.3% national figure.36 Such employment is associated

same period.

with the low-productivity and low-income employment


options that are available to the poor. The majority of

Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry (AFF) is the main

these vulnerably employed people are male (73.5%),

component of output in the ARMM, representing 63.5%

self-employed (71.2%), and in the agriculture sector

of total value-added, with the services sector contributing

(82.0%). Young people comprise 18.7% of the vulnerable

a third and industry the remaining 5%. With the lowest

employed.

gross fixed capital formation in the Philippines, primarily


concentrated in agricultural inputs, (i.e., breeding stock

Another notable characteristic is the very low labor force

and orchard development), the Bangsamoro problem

participation rate in the ARMM, which at 56% is 10

is exacerbated by its specialization on the production

percentage points lower than in the rest of Mindanao.

of low value-added products combined with low


agricultural labor productivity. In recent years, the AFF

Women and youth make up a disproportionate share

sector experienced a decline in output. The services

of the potential but non-active workforce. Womens

sector meanwhile is the primary driver of growth but is

participation in the labor force is typically lower because

constrained by very low public and private investment.

of housework and childcare but the nonparticipation


rate of 68% in the ARMM is significantly higher than

While

positive

economic

performance

does

not

immediately translate to improved welfare, stable

the national and Mindanao averages of 50% and 49%,


respectively.

and sustained growth and investment increase per

20

capita output and improve the economic opportunities

Meanwhile, almost a quarter of those aged between 15

available to the population. Increasing labor productivity

to 24 are neither in school nor in the workforce. Lacking

through investment and entrepreneurship is imperative

skills to participate productively in the labor market,

if production is to shift to higher value-added and more

the out-of-school youth are at high risk of poverty and

labor-intensive industrial and services sectors that are

disaffection, which potentially can lead them to violence

capable of leading growth.

and undermine social cohesion.37 The welfare impact of

Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

increasing work opportunities for women and the youth

Limited access to health facilities, lack of education

could be significant and their potential contribution to

and lack of funds, and unsanitary conditions resulted

output must not be underestimated.

in ARMM having the highest national mortality rate of


children under five years of age at 55 deaths per 1,000

B.3. Education
Due in part to poor prospective economic opportunities,
but also as a result of very low investment in schools
and teachers, school participation in the ARMM is much
lower than in the rest of the country. The net enrollment
rate in SY 2012 and 2013 in the ARMM was 72.5% in
primary and 26.1% in secondary education, compared
with the national averages of 95.2% and 64.6%,
respectively. Despite these low enrollment rates, school
overcrowding is very high, with a teacher-to-student
ratio of 1:52 and 1:54, respectively, and a classroom-tostudent ratio of 1:62 and 1:82, respectively, at primary
and secondary levels.
As a result, cohort survival between 2002 and 2010
averaged only 39% in primary and 64% in secondary
school, while the rest of Mindanao performed better than
the national averages, registering cohort survival rates of
77% and 73% in primary and secondary, respectively.
If this trend persists, the labor pool in the region will
consist mostly of unskilled workers. Median schooling of
only four years and simple and functional literacy rates in
the ARMM of 81% and 72% are the lowest in country,
compared with 96% and 86% nationwide.
B.4. Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition
A similar lack of investment in health and sanitation
has exposed the population, especially children, to
significant health risks. Only 37% of the population
have access to an improved water source such as a
community water system or piped deep well, while a
full third rely on natural sources such as springs, rivers,
or lakes, and a quarter have access to a simple dug
well. Only 22% of households have access to sanitary
toilet facilities or water-sealed toilets, compared with a
national average of more than 80%. Exposure to waterborne diseases in ARMM is very high as a result.

live births. Only 29% of children are fully vaccinated


by their first birthday, while 40% have received no
vaccinations. Under-5 mortality in the poorest household
quintile is three times higher than in the wealthiest
quintile and a child born to a mother without education
is four times more likely to die before the age of five,
compared to a mother with a college education.38 In
ARMM, 73% of households are in the lowest income
quintile and 33% of women aged between 15 and 49
have no education or did not complete elementary.
Maternal health also lags behind that of other regions
with a maternal mortality ratio of 67.35 deaths per
100,000 live births. While almost all women in the
country (96%) and in the rest of Mindanao (95%)
receive antenatal care from a skilled professional,
only 53% of women in ARMM are able to do so. In
addition, only 12.3% of births are delivered in a health
facility (compared with 61% nationwide), only 20.4%
are delivered by a skilled professional (compared with
72% nationwide), and only 20.4% of mothers receive
postnatal checkups (compared with 77% nationwide).
The ARMM also registered the highest unmet need for
family planning at 27.6%, compared with the 17.5%
national average.
Both acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition are prevalent in Mindanao. The ARMM
records 8.5% acute malnutrition prevalence among
children under 5, compared with the national average
of 7.9%.39 Meanwhile, stunting is a serious public
health problem, affecting 39% of children under 5 in
Mindanao, compared with 33.6% nationwide. Stunting
of growth in the first two years contributes to an elevated
risk of mortality, cognitive deficits, and increased risk
of adult obesity and non-communicable diseases. High
malnutrition among women, infants, and children
is a compelling issue in the ARMM and the rest of the

21

Bangsamoro Development Plan

country. Among the consequences of malnutrition,

The discussion highlights the development challenges in

particularly

decreased

the Bangsamoro and how underdevelopment continues

economic productivity, not to mention poor health and

to fuel injustice and insecurity. The signing of the CAB

low quality of life.

and ongoing governance reforms in the region have

stunting

and

wasting,

are

raised expectations of positive transformation. However,


B.5. Poverty and Displacement
Poverty in the Bangsamoro remains high as a result
of limited access to basic services, limited economic
opportunities, and the disruption and uncertainty caused
by conflict. More than half of the ARMM population
(55.8% in 2012) lives in poverty (see Map 2)that is, an
estimated 1.85 million people living below the poverty
threshold in 2012, almost three times the number in

limited

livelihood

opportunities,

social

service provision, weak institutions, and deep political,


cultural and economic inequityexacerbated by armed
violence and resultant cyclical displacementcontinue
to pose serious challenges to the development and
stabilization of the Bangsamoro.
Map 2: Poverty Incidence, by Province (2012)

1991. The poverty gap has also increased from 8.8% in


2009 to 13.1% in 2012, more than twice the national
average of 5.1%.
The protracted violent armed conflicts and insecurity in
the Bangsamoro created a class of IDPs that resulted in
massive migration to Luzon, Visayas, and other places
in Mindanao. Though many would like to return to
their original homes or communities, the majority have
already lost their land to new owners (i.e., legalized landgrabbing by settlers from Visayas and Luzon). Fulfilling
their aspirations to return to their original communities
will require addressing the highly complicated land issue
in the Bangsamoro. As for the displaced persons and
migrants, they should return to their places of origin and
should be given appropriate and sustainable economic
and livelihood programs. For IDPs who opt to stay
where they are currently resettled, a resettlement package
is needed to restart their lives and livelihoods.
The provision of humanitarian assistance for resettlement
and for those who have opted to return to their places of
origin has become more imperative with the signing of
the CAB because it can serve as one of the immediate
peace dividends for vulnerable groups.
Source: PSA (using FIES 2012 data) and PhilGIS (2013)

22

inadequate

Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

C. Development Gaps in the Bangsamoro


Table 2 presents selected development indicators in the

especially the private sector, for the Bangsamoro to attain

ARMM, the rest of Mindanao, and the Philippines to

2013 national averages, given the regions low historical

illustrate the development gaps that need to be addressed

starting point. Massive institutional development and

to break the cycle of violence and underdevelopment.

capacity mobilization in key technical areas, combined

The last column shows the estimated annual change

with a concerted effort to reduce conflict and insecurity,

required for the ARMM to reach the current national

will serve to accelerate the process.

averages by 2022.
While the CAB is a significant step in addressing the
It may take more than a generation (30 to 40 years)

vertical conflict between the Central Government and the

of sustained investment from both government and

MILF, the Bangsamoro must address horizontal conflict,

Table 2: Selected Indicators of Development Gaps


Indicators

ARMM

Mindanao

Philippines

Measure of Gap: Annual


change to achieve 2013
national average by 2022

GDP per capita, PHP (2013)


- in current prices
- in constant prices

29,608
14,565

79,902
46,050

117,603
68,897

21.4%
(in constant prices)

Poverty Incidence (%, 2012)

55.8

39.1

25.2

- 74,167 people

Net Enrollment
(%, SY 201213)
- primary
- secondary

72.5
26.1

95.2
64.6

+ 33,098 students
+ 22,051 students

Access to electricity
(% HH, 2012)

58.1

81.2

88.8

+ 24,873 households

Access to safe water source


(% HH, 2012)

36.6

73.3

79.9

+ 35,081 households

Access to sanitary toilets


(% HH, 2012)

22.5

83.6

87.2

+ 52,420 households

Seal of Good Housekeeping


(% municipalities, 2013)

6.6

59.7

76.6

+ 8 municipalities

43
(12.3 / million
population)

3
(0.13 / million
population)

86
(0.91 / million
population)

- 5 groups

Source: PSA-Regional Income


Accounts
Source: PSA

Source: ARMM RDP

Source: PSA-FIES

Source: PSA-FIES

Source: PSA-FIES

Source: DILG

Private Armed Groups


(number & per million
population, 2012)
Source: PNP

Note: HH refers to households.

23

Bangsamoro Development Plan

including rido and other forms of inter-communal and

various types of orchard cultivation. Its sea and freshwater

inter-elite violence, which continue to be prevalent in the

resources contribute around 18% to the national fish catch.

region and are a significant impediment to growth.

It also boasts mineral and non-mineral resources, though


their financial and economic viability remains to be fully

In

the

current

environment

of

insecurity

and

determined.

underdevelopment, investments in the region should


be based on a complete understanding of the complex

The Bangsamoro has huge human resource potential,

security, justice, and economic drivers of conflict in

given its young labor force. Population projections

the Bangsamoro. Throughout the transition from the

indicate that the working-age population will account for

ARMM to the Bangsamoro Government, responses must

72% of the population in 2040from 63% in 2010 (see

be tailored to the specific geographical and cultural

Figure 4)holding out the prospect of a demographic

needs and sources of dissatisfaction in Bangsamoro

dividend. Reconstituting, developing, and retaining the

communities, while addressing the needs of the

regions human capital and equipping it with the necessary

normalization process and the CAB.40

education, skills, and modern work ethic is key to the


development process. The untapped potential of womens

D. Development Opportunities

participation in economic activity is bound to be a source

Despite these huge challenges, a number of factors


can be leveraged to support the development of the
Bangsamoro.

of future economic growth. The regions competitive labor


market and low food costs due to the abundant supply of
agricultural products are also promising starting points for
the Bangsamoro area.

D.1. Natural and Human Resource Base


The Bangsamoro enjoys a natural advantage in the form
of vast land areas that are relatively undeveloped. There
are underdeveloped and expansive waterways, both
inland and coastal. The regions rich agricultural lands
are suitable for the production of high-value crops, such
as banana, pineapple, asparagus, oil palm, rubber, and

D.2. Breakthrough in the Peace Process


The March 2014 signing of the CAB after 17 years of
peace negotiations between the GPH and the MILF
represents a historic opportunity to improve security
and development in the present ARMM and the
Philippines as a whole. This, as well as the ongoing

Figure 4: Population Age and Gender Projections (2010 and 2040)

Source: PSA

24

Current Situation, Development Gaps, and Opportunities in the Bangsamoro

CH A PT ER

Tripartite Implementation Review of the 1996 GRP-MNLF

The total amount of donor assistance to conflict-affected

Final Peace Agreement, creates the political environment

areas in Mindanao is difficult to determine because many

for generating investment and improved socioeconomic

donor projects are not exclusive to the ARMM and cover

outcomes. While there are no immediate solutions for the

provinces elsewhere in Mindanao and the rest of the

Bangsamoros deep development challenges at present, it

Philippines. However, a conservative estimate from 2001

is hoped that the Bangsamoro Government will meet the

to 2010 puts average annual donor assistance at USD 40

historical Moro aspirations for political, economic, and

million (see Figure 6).

cultural self-determination, while laying the foundation for


stronger institutions and better governance.

Despite these significant financial inflows, development


indicators have not substantially improved, pointing

D.3. Growing Economic and Investment Opportunities


The ARMM has reported incremental gains as shown in an
increase in regional GDP growth from an annual average of
2.5% in 20092012 to 3.6% in 2013. Private investments
show signs of improvement, with investments in the region

to the need for a new approach to development in the


Bangsamoro that will unlock the economic potential
of the region and deliver stability and prosperity.
Figure 5: ARMM Budget 20092014

jumping from PhP 174.7 million in 2010 to PhP 1.463


billion in 2013, according to the ARMM Regional Board of
Investments.
These improvements must be sustained with systemic
improvements to register tangible impacts on wellbeing, given
the regions massive development challenges. Specifically,
heavier investment is needed in agriculture and fisheries,
which are the biggest contributors to employment and ARMM
GDP,41 and targeted initiatives are needed to address the
main drivers of violence in the present Bangsamoro area:
corruption, weak governance, clan-based rivalries, private
armies, injustice, and limited economic opportunities for the
youth.

Source: Ateneo School of Government (2014)43

Figure 6: Current Aid Strategy and Practice: A Macro


Perspective (20012010)

D.4. Government and International Development


Assistance
During the term of President Aquino, the annual budgetary
allocation to ARMM has more than doubled, from PhP 9.3
billion in 2010 to PhP 19.6 billion in 2014, or from 0.6%
of the national budget to 0.9% (see Figure 5). This does
not include the special development assistance extended
by

national

government

agencies

to

conflict-affected

communities through the PAMANA42 program and the ARMM


Transition Investment Support Program, which together

Source: Adriano and Parks (2013)

amount to around PhP 15 billion for 2011 to 2014.

25

Bangsamoro Development Plan

NOTES
33 Balisacan and Pernia (2001) noted that the geographical isolation of a particular area can cause poverty because of the difficulty of linking it to the
market due to the exorbitant cost of providing linking infrastructure.
34 Rodrik (1999).
35 On this, refer to the example cited in de Dios and Dinglasan (2014).
36 Philippine Statistics Authority-Labor Force Survey (July 2013).
37 World Bank (2014).
38 Data based on the National Demographic and Health Survey (2013).
39 Data based on the Food and Nutrition Research Institute National Nutrition Survey (2013).
40 Normalization, as defined in the CAB, is the process through which communities affected by the decades-long armed conflict in Mindanao can
return to a peaceful life and pursue sustainable livelihoods free from fear of violence and crime. It has three components: (a) security arrangements,
including decommissioning of the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces (BIAF), redeployment of AFP units, policing reforms, and disbanding of
private armed groups; (b) socioeconomic development; and (c) transitional justice.
41 ARMM Regional Development Plan Midterm Update 20132016.
42 PAMANA stands for Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan (Peaceful and Resilient Communities), a special development program launched in 2011 by
the Central Government to assist conflict-affected communities nationwide. Coordinated by OPAPP, PAMANA is implemented by 12 agencies as of
2014. These include DILG, DA, DSWD, DAR, DENR, CHED, PhilHealth, NEA, NCIP, DPWH, DND-AFP, and the ARMM Regional Government.
43 Towards a Transparent and Accountable Formula for the Bangsamoro Block Grant (2014).

26

Clamor from the Ground

CH A PT ER

Clamor from the Ground

27

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Clamor from the Ground

A. Community Visioning Exercises: Results


and Insights
To ensure that the BDP adequately targets the priority

to the clustering of the report into six broad themes that

needs of its beneficiary communities, a total of ten

44

also partly guide the structure and the content of this Plan:

one-day CVEs were conducted across the proposed

(1) economy and livelihood; (2) social development; (3)

Bangsamoro and expansion areas representing the

environment and natural resources; (4) culture and identity;

ethnic and religious diversity of the stakeholders in the

(5) governance; and (6) security. The key messages from

Bangsamoro. Participants included members of Muslim

each theme are presented below.46

groups (including both MNLF and MILF), settlers,


and also IPs, as represented by formal and informal
community leaders, and organized stakeholder groups,
among others.45 Each CVE workshop was structured
around focus group discussions and meta-analysis against
three broad objectives:
1. Define the needs, identity, and aspiration of the
Bangsamoro for their envisioned society;
2. Determine the problems, sources of dissatisfaction,
and grievances of Bangsamoro communities, their
causes and possible solutions; and
3. Identify priority projects and programs that respond
to the needs and aspirations of Bangsamoro
communities, and address sources of dissatisfaction.
The results of the CVEs show that most sources of
dissatisfaction, aspirations, and priority programs are
common to all areas. They also validate the BDF, as
the needs and priorities articulated in the CVE results
are reflective of it. In turn, the results provide guidance

28

A.1. Economy and Livelihood


As expected, issues related to the Bangsamoro economy
formed a substantial part of the responses from the CVEs.
The Bangsamoro lags significantly behind the rest of
Mindanao and the Philippines in Gross Regional Domestic
Product (GRDP) and poverty levels as identified earlier,
which correlates with the identified major sources of
dissatisfaction.
This translates directly to the vision and aspirations of the
people for a prosperous Bangsamoro with reduced poverty
where a dynamic private sector can provide livelihood
opportunities and help foster sustainable development.
Priority programs to help address the sources of
dissatisfaction and attain the vision range from direct
livelihoods inputs to infrastructure development in support
of livelihoods and specific interventions to help foster a
private sector based on Islamic principle of halal. Table 3
presents the top responses identified in the CVEs.

Clamor from the Ground

CH A PT ER

Table 3: Economy and Livelihood-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs


Sources of Dissatisfaction

Vision and Aspirations

Priority Programs

Poverty

Prosperity

Economic program and livelihood


assistance

Lack of livelihood opportunities

Employment and livelihood support

Inputs to production (farming, irrigation,


aquaculture)

Poor transportation network

Sustainable development

Farm-to-market and municipal roads

Unreliable power supply

Dynamic private sector

Increased power generation capacity

High price of inputs to production

Economy sensitive to religious


diversity

Access to finance (microfinance, minicoop, Islamic finance)

A.2. Social Development


Social development issues were equally prominent in

IDPs and their lack of secure housing. Of key importance

the responses of participants in the CVEs, reflecting the

to the peacebuilding aspect of the BDP is the prevalence

substantial lag in social service provision and individual

of out-of-school youth (OSY), whose lack of opportunities

development outcomes across the Bangsamoro (see Table

contributes to a disaffected society susceptible to

4). Poor access to health and education facilities drives

nefarious influences, including drugs, gambling and

the vision and aspirations, which also reflects the plight of

violence, teen pregnancy, and early marriage.

Table 4: Social Development-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs


Sources of Dissatisfaction

Vision and Aspirations

Inadequate access to health services Reliable access to health services


and facilities
and facilities

Priority Programs
Construction, rehabilitation, and
staffing of health centers

Poor provision of education


(including madaris)

Quality educational system reflective School/Madrasah construction and


of religious diversity
teacher training

Lack of housing

Resettlement and safe integrated


return of migrant communities with
reliable housing/shelter

Support for Balik-Bangsamoro and


IDPs including housing, nutrition, and
orphan support

Poor sanitation

Potable water and sanitation system

Waste management

Drugs/gambling

Social safety net system

OSY programs/sports centers

29

Bangsamoro Development Plan

A.3. Environment and Natural Resources


The CVEs reinforced the importance of environmental

and sustainable management should be streamlined

stewardship across the Bangsamoro (see Table 5).

in connection with the economic development of the

Many of the Bangsamoro, and also IPs, associate their

Bangsamoro. Coupled with this is reliable access to

very existence with their natural resources. Therefore,

personal and communal lands, conflict

in association with the Bangsamoro peoples right

continues to be a major issue across Bangsamoro.

to

self-determination,

environmental

over which

restoration,

Table 5: Environment and Natural Resource-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs
Sources of Dissatisfaction

Vision and Aspirations

Priority Programs

Environmental degradation

Balanced ecology and sustainable


environmental stewardship

Reforestation/Forestland management
and protection

Illegal logging/mining

Strong regulation of mining industry


and enforce forestry laws

Conflict-sensitive assessment of
mineral potential in Bangsamoro

Land conflict

Land conflict resolution

Land conflict management system

Pollution

Realized returns of environmental


exploitation to communities

Enforcement of environmental policy

Frequent environmental disasters

Reduced environmental disaster


susceptibility

Disaster Risk Reduction and


Management programs (flood
protection)

A.4. Culture and Identity


As with the environment, communities understand

part of a peacebuilding effort, supporting the recognition

the CAB as an expression of their right to self-

and sharing of the various religious and cultural traditions

determination. Related to that is the equal expression of

of the Bangsamoro people can help foster social cohesion

the multicultural societal fabric of the Bangsamoro. As

(see Table 6).

Table 6: Culture and Identity-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs


Sources of Dissatisfaction

30

Vision and Aspirations

Priority Programs

Lack of respect for ethnic/religious


traditions

Ethnic and interfaith understanding

Cultural preservation programs


(museums, memorials, parks)

Minimal access to Islamic justice,


finance, health, and education
facilities

Access to culture-specific social,


economic, and governance systems

Construction of culture-specific
facilities (prayer rooms, traditional
birthing facilities, cemeteries)

Disregard of traditional cultures by


the youth

Pride in multi-ethnic background of


Bangsamoro

Peacebuilding and cultural education


program

Clamor from the Ground

CH A PT ER

A.5. Governance
Transitioning from the ARG structure to the Bangsamoro

particularly corruptionwill be a priority for the new

Government with a parliamentary form, along with the

government (see Table 7). Building a new government

associated human resource capacity development, will

with institutions able to provide citizen security, justice,

require substantial effort. At the same time, addressing

and job opportunity will have one of the most significant

the

impacts in breaking the cycle of conflict.

governance

issues

identified

in

the

CVEs

Table 7: Governance-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs


Sources of Dissatisfaction

Vision and Aspirations

Priority Programs

Corruption/lack of transparency

Good governance

Values Transformation

Inequitable implementation of laws/


distribution of services

Participatory/representative
government

Transparency and accountability


measures in budget utilization

Nepotism/political dynasty/electoral
fraud

Progressive/fair community

Electoral reform

Injustice/weak judiciary

Justice and human rights (including


Shariah)

Implementation of laws

Discrimination/tribalism

Good inter-ethnic relations

Government accountability programs

Limited Shariah

Shariah Justice System

Implementation of Shariah

A.6. Security
As a socioeconomic development plan, it is difficult for

identified by the CVEs (see Table 8). These should,

the BDP to address security issues directly. However,

therefore, be addressed in parallel by the relevant

the protracted history of violence and conflict plays an

institutions to create an enabling environment where

important part in shaping the views of the Bangsamoro

socioeconomic interventions can help foster stability and

people. Hence, security was one of the main themes

prosperity.

Table 8: Security-Related Concerns, Aspirations, and Priority Programs


Sources of Dissatisfaction

Vision and Aspirations

Priority Programs

Armed conflict/militarization

Peace and stability

Police reform/law enforcement


promotion/demilitarization

Rido

Peaceful community environment

Reconciliation and unification

Crime (kidnapping, rape, human


trafficking)

Strong enforcement of the law

Moral recovery and police operation


enhancement

Private armies

Strong and equitable law


enforcement

Disbandment of private armies

Insecurity/lack of law enforcement

Strong police visibility

Strict enforcement of laws

B. Cross-Validation of Consolidated Outputs


Though representative of the geographical and ethnic

CVE results were cross-validated and compared with

diversity of the Bangsamoro, the CVE process, in the

parallel and past processes to ensure they were aligned

limited time available, covered only a sample of the

with the views expressed by a broader constituency of

proposed

stakeholders and potential beneficiaries of the BDP.

territory

and

population.

However,

the

31

Bangsamoro Development Plan

B.1. Community Consultations on the Bangsamoro


Basic Law (BBL)

B.2. Alignment with Previous Regional Analysis of


Development Priorities

The BTC, in line with its mandate to draft an inclusive

Several Official Development Assistance (ODA) partners

BBL, conducted an extensive series of community

have conducted detailed analyses of the needs and

consultations.

the

priorities of the Bangsamoro people based on community

Mindanao Civil Society Organizations Platform for

consultations across the ARMM and in potential expansion

Peace (MCSOPP), it held more than 120 community

areas. Through a desk review, BDP confirmed the

consultation sessions across the potential core territory

close alignment of the aspirations, needs, and priorities

and expansion areas.

identified by the CVEs with those described in previous

Through

partnership

with

studies47 in Table 9.
In drafting the BDP, the BDA coordinated with MCSOPP
to draw on data gathered in the consultations. While the

The results of these studies provide a regular polling

consultations on the BBL focused primarily on political,

of the issues, aspirations, and priorities of Bangsamoro

legal, and institutional concerns, the issues identified

communities over the past decade of neglect and reinforce

by the population through the MCSOPP process, and

the continued underdevelopment experienced in the

the suggested remedies, closely match those of the CVE

Bangsamoro. The alignment of the results of the MCSOPP-

exercise. These include the major themes of security,

led consultations on the BBL with earlier socioeconomic

governance, social services, livelihood, and environment.

assessments and development plans, as well as the CVE

An overview consolidation of the CVE, CV, and MCSOPP

results, confirms that the CVEs provide a sound basis to

outputs is in Annex D (Clamor from the Ground).

guide the priority programs of the BDP.

Table 9: Top Community Priorities Based on Previous Needs Assessments


Priority 1

Priority 2

Priority 3

JNA (2005)

Livelihood/income above
subsistence

Water and sanitation

Durable housing/protection from


natural disaster

JICA SERD-CAAM (2009)

Livelihood and economic


infrastructure

Reliable water supply

Access to health and education

WB and WFP (2010)

Money

Jobs

Food

MTF PPA 3 Assessment (2014)

Livelihood and employment

Capital for businesses

Farm inputs, implements, and


postharvest facilities

ARMM Social Fund Baseline


Survey (2014)

Money

Basic needs

Food

NOTES
44 See note 32 in Chapter 3, page 16 for the complete listing of the Community Visioning Exercises in selected Bangsamoro areas.
45 Refer to Annex D (Clamor from the Ground) for a full description of the CVE methodology and results.
46 The list in the matrix table is not meant to have correspondence from sources of dissatisfaction, vision, and aspirations to that of the priority
programs. The table merely enumerates the responses of communities consulted.
47 These are the World Food Programme and World Bank (2010), Japan International Cooperation Agency (2009), and World Bank (2003 and 2005).

32

Strategy and Recommendations

CH A PT ER

Strategy and Recommendations

33

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Strategy and Recommendations

A. Overall Goal of the Bangsamoro


Development Plan
The immediate objective of the BDP is to provide an

citizen security, justice and the rule of law. In shifting the

immediate short- and medium-term vision and strategy

economy toward high value production that improves

for the recovery and development of the Bangsamoro

overall welfare, promoting inclusive and sustainable

based on its unique needs, anchored in justice and

growth, ensuring a proper and more transparent and

building a peaceful and prosperous society emerging

accountable distribution of public funds, and establishing

from long years of conflict. The BDP will build the

a peaceful and stable society, the BDP will help the

foundations of a functioning just economy that will

Bangsamoro break the vicious cycle of injustice, insecurity,

strengthen institutions and promote greater access to

and underdevelopment, fostering a virtuous cycle where

social services, jobs and economic opportunities, and

sustained poverty reduction can take hold (see Figure 7).

Figure 7: Transforming a Vicious Cycle to a Virtuous Cycle

Source: BDP-CPT

34

Strategy and Recommendations

CH A PT ER

B. Strategic Interventions

C. Priorities

The BDP must address these challenges through an integrated

Table 10 shows the sequencing of projects/activities

approach of transforming the institutions of the state and

envisaged during the transition period of Phase I and into

restoring confidence among citizens to build a society that is

the Bangsamoro Government in Phase II. Further details

resilient to external stresses.

of the recommended list of projects under the various


sectoral concerns are discussed in the next chapter. As

However, with limited resources, priority socioeconomic

a general principle, priority programs and projects are

interventions must be tailored to the local environment and

selected on the basis of their ability to restore confidence

focused on areas most prone to social exclusion, poverty, and

in the peace process and build inclusive enough

violence.

coalitions to support reform.

1. Investments for Social Justice. Increasing access to basic

Programs that generate jobs and improve the quality of

services and employment and livelihood opportunities

life will be a top priority. Those that open up access to

are necessary to promote social justice. Where poverty

culturally important initiatives, such as Islamic financing,

incidence is low but the number of poor people is high

halal industry development, support for madaris, and

(e.g., in densely populated urbanized communities),

cultural activities to record and celebrate the rich history

programs must be tailored to target those most in need.

of the Bangsamoro people will also be given priority in

Where poverty incidence is high but the number of poor

the initial period.

people is low (e.g., in rural areas), programs must benefit


the whole community.

Finally, the Bangsamoro will embark on programs


that will put the region on track to build legitimate

2. Support to Economic Growth and Production. Where

institutionsthose

with

technical

capacity

and

there is potential for improving productivity or expanding

accountabilitythat will sustain the gains of the FAB and

capacity, particularly in small-scale enterprise farming

CAB.

and fishing, programs must open up opportunities for


growth.
3. Support

to

Areas

Vulnerable

to

Conflict

and

Environmental Shocks. In areas prone to conflict or


environmental shocks, or both, programs must address
past or current injustice while building a socially
cohesive

resilient

community.

In

particular,

early

recovery and humanitarian support is essential.

D. Potential Impacts
The reduction of violence in ARMM in recent years,
combined

with

regional

governance

reforms

and

increased investment from the Central Government,


development partners, and the private sector, resulted in
economic growth of 3.6% in 2013. During the transition
to the Bangsamoro Government, the BDP must, at a
minimum, be able to preserve, sustain, and improve
these gains. But higher economic growth is necessary to

To maximize the benefits, build synergies across the region,

catch up with the rest of the nation.

and foster a strong common growth objective, interventions


will further be designed to ensure points of geographic

Central Government spending during the transition

convergence across sectoral interventions. With a strong

period (2015 to mid-2016) will be a catalyst for growth.

complementary institutional reform and strengthening program,

Targeted spending toward activities and programs that

the BDP will help lift the Bangsamoro to higher sustained

accrue to the local economy, particularly in terms of

growth in the medium and the long term.

inducing local employment, would imply additional

35

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 10: Sequencing of Recommended Projects/Activities for Phases I and II of the Transition Period
Theme

36

Phase I

Phase II

Economy and Livelihood

Provide basic agricultural assistance to farmers and


fishers, including women, to ensure food security
Provide financial support to develop small-scale
agricultural and fishery industries
Develop organic farming industry
Conduct analytical and feasibility studies to promote
agribusiness investments, and studies to create
integrated development zones
Develop Polloc Port and other export processing zones
as manufacturing and trading hubs
Promote Bangsamoro as a regional trade partner
Develop economic policies
Promote and establish Islamic microfinance institutions

Accelerate provision of agricultural services and


goods to farmers and fishers
Continue development of organic farming
industry
Promote growth of the halal food
industry
Strengthen Islamic financial institutions
Implement recommendations of
analytical/feasibility studies

Infrastructure

Provide infrastructure projects along key value-chains


to improve economic growth and increase productivity,
improve delivery of basic education, and health services,
etc.
Provide key energy projects
Conduct feasibility and detailed engineering studies of
strategic infrastructure projects

Complete key infrastructure projects started in


Phase I
Implement infrastructure projects with
completed feasibility and detailed engineering
studies

Social Services

Write Bangsamoro history textbooks (traditions, culture,


governance, and values transformation)
Strengthen provision of basic health services
(immunization, nutrition, reproductive healthcare, mobile
clinics, etc.) and medical missions
Improve basic education (madrasah, adult education, IP
education, OSY programs, scholarships) and technical
vocational education
Continue/intensify CCT and CDD programs
Establish social safety nets and protection mechanisms
for the most vulnerable groups
Conduct analytical studies in support of long-term
improvement of social service delivery
The institutionalization of formal and informal peace
education-peacebuilding strategy

Develop curriculum (including the integration of


Bangsamoro history for elementary and secondary
levels)
Conduct propagation (Dawah) on Bangsamoro
values formation
Accelerate provision of basic education, health
services, and sanitation including reproductive
health
Strengthen and sustain social safety nets and
protection mechanisms established for vulnerable
groups
Implement recommendations to improve provision
of basic education, health services, and sanitation
Establish centers for women
Implement recommendations of analytical/
feasibility studies

Environment and Natural


Resources

Conduct analytical and feasibility studies to establish


Shariah-compliant insurance system
Implement sustainable forest management and
reforestation, reef and mangrove rehabilitation projects
in selected sites, recruit forest and sea guards, etc.
Conduct capacity-building training programs on DRRM
in selected communities

Accelerate implementation of activities on


conservation and rehabilitation
Full mobilization and equipping of forest and
sea guards
Implement institutional arrangements
and measures critical for a successful DRRM
response in the selected communities

Culture and Identity

Construct public museums, libraries, historical markers,


and establishment of Bangsamoro public cemeteries
(maqaabir al-aam)
Establish Bangsamoro language, orthography, cultural
and Dawah centers
Provide financing for youth and interfaith activities, and
grants for textbook development to promote a shared
understanding of the Bangsamoro struggle
Promote culture-sensitive and gender-responsive health
approaches
Promote tourism development with cultural identity

Attain full operation of public museums, libraries,


language/cultural centers, and other programs and
projects started in Phase I
Continue support for youth leadership trainings,
interfaith activities and similar peace efforts
Strengthen culturally appropriate health systems
and approaches
Establish cultural centers for women

Strategy and Recommendations

Theme
Governance, Justice, and
Security

CH A PT ER

Phase I

Phase II

Develop a Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation


(RbM&E) system
Establish technical assistance facilities for the
Bangsamoro, capacity-building of Bangsamoro
Government senior and mid-level officials of BTA
transition team
Establish satellite offices of key national and regional
government agencies in the island provinces
Implement CSO capacity-building programs on
monitoring service delivery in the Bangsamoro,
Bangsamoro Open Data Portal, regular polling on
justice, security and jobs
Establish judicial capacity-building program for judges
and lawyers, increase access to legal aid for the poor
Strengthen mediation and reconciliation capacity of
community level justice systems (especially on land
conflict and rido)
Conduct analytical studies to improve good
governance, justice delivery, and security

Institute and implement RbM&E into the


government system
Continue implementation of capacity-building
programs for the Bangsamoro Governments
senior and mid-level officials
Operational national and regional satellite
offices
Implement findings and recommendations of
analytical and feasibility studies undertaken in
Phase I

concession that could improve rapid national economic

implementation arrangements are in place, and therefore

growth.

fund-releases and implementation can proceed without


delay.

Proposed programs during the transition are projected to


reach PhP 225 billion. Around PhP 116 billion is already

Figure 8 presents the best-case (high) scenario and

covered by planned activities of various government

alternative scenarios (low and medium) using different

agencies for the period from 2014 to 2016. The financing

levels of utilization: 19% for the low scenario and 38%

gap of PhP 109 billion corresponds to proposed projects

for the medium scenario. Projected growth under the

that are not included in programmed budget of the

low scenario is 4.1% and 5.5% in 2015 and 2016,

government for 2014 to 2016. This allotment of funds for

respectively; and under the medium scenario is 6.5% to

various programs will have significant impact on economic

8.7%.

growth.

Figure 8: GRDP Growth Scenarios in Bangsamoro (20112016)

If inflation (which averaged around 6.5% between 2007


and 2013) remains stable, economic growth is projected
to reach as high as 9.7% in 2015 and 12.8% in 2016.
This is far above the projected growth at the baseline (i.e.,
following historical trends) which is at 1.9% in 2015 and
2.4% in 2016. This best-case scenario, however, assumes
a high absorptive capacity and at least a 63% utilization
rate of funds during the transition.
In addition, this assumes that detailed project plans
are in place, projects have been approved in principle,
contracting

out

of

projects

proceeds

smoothly,

Source: NEDA and BDP-CPT estimate

37

Bangsamoro Development Plan

The sources of growth during the transition will rely

55.8% in 2012. This would translate to 300,000 people

heavily on government spending, which cannot be

rising from poverty.

sustained in the medium term. Instead, the gains from


improved agriculture practices, infrastructure, and

High priority placed on wide delivery of basic social

public service should prompt the private sector to

services is expected to improve peoples capabilities and

participate more vigorously in the regional economy.

household welfare. An examination of the post-conflict

Building a just economy in the Bangsamoro through

situation reveals that the most important development

the targeted interventions identified in this plan will

constraint specific to the region is the level of its human

deliver the necessary conditions for the Bangsamoro to

resources and human capital. This is borne out, among

move to a higher growth path similar to that observed

others, by the extraordinarily low levels of education and

in Mindanao and the rest of the country in recent years.

health and other human-development indicators.

An average annual growth rate of 6% to 8% in 2017


to 2022 would help significantly in lifting communities

Table 11 presents the targeted improvements on selected

out of poverty. Sustained economic growth could

human development indicators by the end of the transition

reduce poverty incidence to 40% to 42% in 2022 from

and the medium term.

Table 11: Targets on Human Capital and Household Welfare


National
(baseline)

ARMM
(baseline)

Transition
(end 2016)

Medium Term
(end 2022)

Participation rate in elementary


school

95.2%
(2012 and 2013)

70.4%
(2013 and 2014)

75 to 80%

80 to 85%

Participation rate in high school

64.6%
(2012-2013)

26.1%
(2012-2013)

35 to 40%

55 to 60%

17%
(2012)

23%
(2012)

18 to 20%

15 to 17%

Adults with at least elementary


education

83.4% (2010)

54%
(2010)

56 to 58%

72 to 74%

Households with access to safe


water

79.9% (2012)

36.6%
(2012)

50 to 60%

60 to 70%

Households with access to sanitary


toilets

87.2% (2012)

22.5%
(2012)

30 to 40%

50 to 60%

Immunized children of age at 1 year

69%
(2013)

29%
(2013)

40 to 45%

60 to 70%

63.0% (2013)

44.2%
(2013)

50 to 55%

60 to 70%

88.8%
(2012)

58.1%
(FIES 2012)

60 to 65%

70 to 75%

Inactive youth (between 15 and 25


years old, not in school or labor
force)

Population with health insurance


coverage
Households with access to
electricity

Source: NEDA and BDP-CPT estimate, using data from DepEd-ARMM (EBEIS) and PSA-LFS (2013), CPH (2010), and NDHS (2013)

38

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

Economy and Livelihood

39

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Economy and Livelihood

The protracted conflict in the Bangsamoro, combined

3.1% (19962008) and 2.5% (20092012)49 and a

with its accumulated neglect and its geographical

population growing annually at approximately 2.3%

remoteness,

of

(2010), the regional economy can barely keep up with

insecurity, poverty, marginalization and deprivation,

the expanding needs of its residents. As a result, the

and underdevelopment (see Chapter 4). This chapter

ARMM had the lowest regional per capita output in the

discusses the state of the economy and livelihood

Philippines in 2013PhP 29,608 per person, barely a

opportunities in the Bangsamoro, using data from the

quarter of the national average and lower in real terms

ARMM as proxy. It proposes a strategic approach to

than per capita output in 2010.

has

resulted

in

vicious

cycle

development in the Bangsamoro based on leveraging


its agricultural potential to spur investment and move

Less evident in the official data is an active and far-

production up the value-chain. Section 1 assesses

reaching informal economy, which provides meager

the performance of the Bangsamoro economy across

but critical livelihood and employment opportunities to

its sectoral composition and describes the impact on

marginalized and vulnerable communities operating in a

labor force participation, poverty incidence, and food

highly imperfect and disconnected market. Data suggest

insecurity. Section 2 provides a strategic framework for

that close to 60% of workers in Mindanao are involved

improving

performance and developing

in the informal sector, with the share in the ARMM

livelihood opportunities for sustainable growth in the

being considerably higher. This informal economy is an

Bangsamoro. Section 3 outlines a program for economy

essential survival tool for poor communities, although

and livelihood in the transition.

it also includes a shadow economy that operates

economic

A. Context: Economic Performance, Poverty,


and Livelihood in the Bangsamoro
A.1. Overall Economic Performance
Despite

recent

improvements,

economic

output,

productivity, and incomes in ARMM, it continues to


lag significantly behind those of the rest of Mindanao
and the Philippines. Though ARMM represents 3.5%
of the Philippine population,48 it contributed only
1% of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in
2012. With an average annual growth in GRDP of

40

within it that engages in illicit transactions of weapons,


drugs, land, and credit, which are significant drivers of
violence.50
Recent governance and policy reforms have nonetheless
led to an increase in regional output growth, from an
average of 2.9% in the period from 2009 to 2012, to
3.6% in 2013. This opportune starting point must be
built upon through well-selected interventions to create
momentum for sustainable growth and development in
the Bangsamoro.

Economy and Livelihood

A.2. Composition of the ARMM Economy


AFF contributed nearly two-thirds of GRDP (63.5%) in

CH A PT ER

Figure 9: Sectoral Composition of ARMM GRDP: Four-Year


Average (20092012)

20092012. Services accounted for 31.4% of output and


manufacturing contributed the remaining 5.1% (see Figure
9).
Though AFF is the dominant sector in the ARMM economy,
its performance has been highly uneven and, on average,
has registered a decline in recent years, including a 1.1%
contraction in 2012 (see Figure 10). Further, as a result of
low investment, the agricultural sector specializes in lowvalue crops, such as cassava, corn, coconut and palay (see
Figure 11). Similarly, though the ARMM benefits from
rich coastal and inland waters and contributes 18% of the
national fish catch, the incomes of its fisherfolk remain low
because of limited processing facilities.

Source: PSA-Regional Income Accounts

Figure 10: Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry Sector Growth


(19962012)

The ARMMs share in the countrys total production is


substantial in cassava (45.76%), coffee (12.2%), corn
(10.96%), rubber (9.2%), coconut (8.3%), and abaca
(7.3%) (see Table 12). However, it is only in cassava (10.7
mt/per ha), coffee (0.8 mt/per ha), sugarcane (59.3 mt/per
ha), and abaca (0.6 mt/per ha) where productivity is higher
than the national average, while productivity rates in corn
(2.6 mt/per ha), coconut (4.1 mt/per ha) and mango (0.6
mt/per ha) are close to the national average. Considering
that productivity in agricultural crops in the Philippines

Note: Statistical series break beginning 2009 and also at 1985 prices
(1996 to 2009 series) and 2000 prices (2009 to 2012 series).
Source: PSA-Regional Income Accounts

are much lower than in neighboring ASEAN countries,51


improving agricultural productivity in the ARMM would
logically serve as a key objective in improving small

Figure 11: Nominal Value of Production of Top 10 Major Crops in


the ARMM: Five-Year Average (20082012)

farmers income and welfare.


The share of the services sector to GRDP has grown in
recent years, from 31.4% in 2009 to 32.8% in 2012.
However, most service-sector jobs are government jobs,
and those in other sectors tend to be low-productivity
and low-paying jobs. The tourism sector, which has the
potential to provide significantly higher revenues to the
region and offer higher compensation for workers, is
constrained by security concerns and poor infrastructure
despite the natural beauty and amenities that the region

Source: DA-BAS

can offer.

41

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 12: Average Annual Production of Key Crops in 000 mt (20102013)


Rice
Philippines

17,232.1

Corn

Coconut Coffee Cassava Banana Mango Sugarcane Rubber Abaca

7,033.0 15,492.6

87.7

2,224.0

9,034.5

31.2

24,321.6

427.2

67.1

Region IX

608.2

203.6

1,686.2

1.0

35.9

250.4

0.2

0.3

186.1

0.5

Region X

627.4

1,194.8

1,784.0

5.6

545.7

1,720.7

0.4

3,740.4

10.7

2.0

Region XI

422.4

204.8

2,564.8

18.6

14.9

3,652.3

0.9

420.8

14.1

8.9

Region XII

1,262.0

1,185.5

942.5

28.0

53.9

1,119.9

0.5

741.1

162.9

0.9

Region XIII

469.0

91.8

892.4

1.9

25.6

210.4

0.1

0.0

14.1

6.0

ARMM

588.8

771.1

1,290.6

10.7

1,017.6

428.3

2.7

72.5

39.2

4.9

% share of ARMM in
Philippines

3.42%

10.96%

8.33%

12.2%

45.76%

4.74%

8.7%

0.3%

9.2%

7.3%

Source: DA-BAS

Manufacturing comprises only 5.1% of the regional


economy and is dominated by micro- and small-scale
industries.52 The uncertainty fueled by the security
situation discourages entrepreneurs from investing
in the region, and keeps their ventures small so these
can easily be scaled down in case of urgent situations.
As part of the residents coping mechanisms, most
of these microenterprises contribute little, if any, to
the governments revenues53 or are part of the illegal
shadow economy.

generate a significant number of jobs have been


successful and rely heavily on localized security
The

development

of

an

industrial

base is further limited by unreliable power supply,


unavailability of skilled labor, lack of access to
finance, and some cultural factors (e.g., enforcement of
industrial discipline among the workers, which presents
a challenge because of existing social hierarchies).
Map 3 illustrates existing business establishments
and financial services per municipality in Mindanao.
Due to the limiting factors described above, these
establishments and services are sparse inside the
proposed Bangsamoro core territory.

42

Limited access to capital and credit is one of the


binding constraints to higher productivity and growth
in the ARMM. Total deposits and loans in the region are
negligible (see Figures 12 and 13). Inherent market failures
in rural areas, combined with the conflict risks, have made
financial inclusion and intermediation almost nonexistent.
Only 7% of municipalities and cities in the ARMM are
serviced by banks, compared with 48% and 63% in
Mindanao and the Philippines, respectively.

Very few medium- and large-scale enterprises that

agreements.

A.3. Finance and Credit

Furthermore, access to Islamic finance and credit in the


region is very limited. The Al-Amanah Islamic Investment
Bank of the Philippines, the only bank in the Philippines
legally authorized to engage in Islamic financing and
credit, has a heavy debt burden and limited reach at the
community level. Operations of microfinance institutions
are also limited. A survey on the credit sources of residents
in the conflict areas reports that the vast majority of
respondents rely on family networks as their main source
of credit (see Table 13).
A.4. Employment and Labor Force Participation
The

ARMMs

deceptively

low

unemployment

and

underemployment rates, as noted earlier, conceal the


regions real problem, which is labor underutilization and

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

Map 3: Number of Establishments by Municipality (2012) and Municipalities Served by Banks (2013)

Source: DTI (2012) and BSP (2014)

the poor being trapped in low-productivity, low-income

age residents outside the labor force. Over a quarter of

jobs. Labor force participation in the ARMM is only

employed individuals are unpaidtypically working for

56.0% (2013), which translates to one million working-

family-owned businesses.

Figure 12: Total Bank Deposits in ARMM (as of end Dec 2013)

Figure 13: Total Bank Loans in ARMM (as of end Dec 2013)

Source: BSP

43

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 13: Sources of Credit in the Bangsamoro (2011)


Sources of Credit

Lanao del Sur

Maguindanao

Cotabato City

Tawi-Tawi

Basilan

No access

1%

4%

32%

19%

Relatives/friends

97%

84%

81%

48%

79%

1%

1%

13%

23%

1%

9%

1%

1%

15%

2%

1%

Stores

5%

14%

12%

Others

2%

2%

2%

11%

2%

Charities/NGOs
Local lenders/pawnshops
Banks
Cooperatives
Local Government Units
(LGUs)

Source: WFP and WB (2011)

Women and youth make up a disproportionate share of

poverty and disaffection, which potentially can lead them

the potential but inactive workforce. Women account

to violence and undermine social cohesion.54

for 75% of the population outside the labor force. Even


allowing for womens typically low participation in

A.5. Poverty Incidence

the labor force due to housework and childcare, the

As a result of limited employment opportunities, low

participation rate in the ARMM is only 32%, compared

investment, and lagging growth, the ARMM has the

with the national and Mindanao averages of 50% and

highest incidence of poverty in the Philippines, more

51%, respectively.

than twice the national average (see Figure 14). Three of


the ARMM provinces are among the 20 poorest provinces

The same factors explain the low unemployment rates

in the country, with Lanao del Sur registering the highest

among the youth. Youth labor force participation is only

poverty incidence at 73.8 in 2012.55

35.1% and almost a quarter of those aged between 15 to


24 are neither in school nor in the workforce (see Table

Poverty is also closely linked to displacement, which is

14). Lacking the skills to productively participate in the

one of the defining characteristics of conflict in Mindanao.

labor market, the out-of-school youth are at high risk of

Even minor spikes in violence can lead to large-scale

Table 14: Youth Unemployment and Labor Force Participation (2013)


Age

Labor Force Participation Rate

ARMM

Rest of Mindanao

Philippines

ARMM

Rest of Mindanao

Philippines

15 to 24
(UN definition)

8.6

10.6

16.2

35.1

49.0

46.1

18 to 30
(Official definition)

7.0

9.8

13.7

50.6

64.3

64.3

15 to 40
(Bangsamoro definition)

4.9

6.9

9.8

51.2

62.8

61.6

Source: PSA-LFS (2013)

44

Unemployment Rate

Economy and Livelihood

population displacement. Between 2000 to 2012, over

CH A PT ER

Figure 14: Poverty Incidence in ARMM (20062012)

40% of families in Central Mindanao were displaced at


least once, with a high of 82% in Maguindanao. Displaced
populations invariably fare much worse than people who
have never been displaced, according to such indicators
as food consumption, access to basic services, and trust
in government and other ethnic/religious groups.56 Map
4 illustrates the number of households that have been
displaced due to armed conflict, infrastructure development,
or natural disasters.
Even returned households are almost as vulnerable as those

Source: PSA (using FIES data)

still displaced, since lengthy displacement results in the loss


of one or more harvests, absence from school, and in some

Poverty and low agricultural productivity contribute to

cases, forced sale of capital assets in order to meet basic

food insecurity and malnutrition. An assessment of food

needs. Displacement thus drives the transmission of poverty

security in the five provinces of ARMM57 showed that

across generations.

900,000 households, or 46% of the total, had a poor or

Map 4: Displaced Households in the Bangsamoro and Surrounding Areas (2009)

Note: NHTS data counts households where a family member has been displaced in the last 12 months prior to the survey.
Source: DSWD-NHTS (2009)

45

Bangsamoro Development Plan

borderline consumption score (i.e., 20% poor and 40%

Meanwhile, there is significant human and financial

borderline consumption). Lanao del Norte, Lanao del

capacity vested in individuals residing outside the

Sur, and Maguindanao are particularly badly affected

Bangsamoro, both in the Philippines and abroad. Offering

by food insecurity, with IDPs being the worst affected,

incentives for increased banking and investment in the

followed by returned and resettled populations.

Bangsamoro, including the transmission of remittances,


could provide a multiplier effect on the investments

B. Strategic Goals

of

Bangsamoro

Government

and

development

partners. Encouraging young Moro professionals, through

B.1. Jumpstarting the Economy

scholarships and training packages linked to technical

Addressing low-productivity employment, low labor

posts, could fill the immediate capacity requirements

participation, and unemployment and underemployment

to manage the transition to a growing and prospering

rates among the youth and women in the Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro.

shall be a key priority during the transition period.


Stability and normalization cannot be guaranteed as long
as a large pool of potentially productive workers remains
underutilized.

B.2. Unlocking Growth Potentials


B.2.1. Promoting Agricultural Development
The large share that AFF contributes to the regional output

Poverty reduction will remain an elusive goal without


providing productive employment that will yield decent
incomes for the workers. In turn, additional incomes in
the hands of poor households will have a multiplier effect
in the form of generating greater demands for local goods
and services. Rising demand will then jumpstart the local

suggests that unlocking the potential of this sector will be


key to generating sustainable and inclusive growth. In the
transition period, focusing on small- and medium-scale
farmers to increase their productivity, supporting links of
subsistence production of small farmers to livelihood in
the value-chains, and building resilience to climate change

economy to reach higher and sustained levels of growth.

will have an immediate impact across the Bangsamoro,

To attain this goal, the BDP recommends implementation

security and provide employment opportunities. In the

of cash-for-work programs, particularly among the


youth, in the maintenance of public facilities, including
roads, canals, irrigation facilities, school buildings and
premises, health centers and premises. Upscaling the
implementation of the community-driven development
(CDD) approach in delivering basic infrastructure
facilities to the community would immediately provide
hundreds if not thousands of jobs to highly qualified

particularly in poor areas, as this will increase food


medium term, removing structural barriers to investment
in the Bangsamoro region will be essential to sustainable
growth (see Map 5).
This approach is enshrined in the BBL, which commits the
Bangsamoro Government to advance agriculture as a key
development strategy, promote productivity measures, and
provide support for farmers and fishers, especially small

Bangsamoro youth.

landholders and marginal fishers.58

Training programs on food processing, cottage industry

The BBL further states that the Bangsamoro Government

and farming/fishing, skills that are demanded by the


market,

would

provide

employment

opportunities

especially for women. Such activities would be viable


if accompanied by a small amount of credit to start the
business venture.

46

the

shall encourage and support the building up of


entrepreneurial capacity in the Bangsamoro[and] shall
provide technical and skills training programs, create
livelihood and job opportunities, and allocate equitable
preferential rights to its inhabitants.59

CH A PT ER

Economy and Livelihood

Map 5: Agro-Edaphic Maps of the Bangsamoro and Adjacent Areas (as of 2012)

Source: Manila Observatory (2012) and the Philippine Human Development Report 2012/2013

In line with this, the BDP proposes four complementary


strategic growth paths:

B.2.1.1. Harness the Potential of Small Farmers,


Agricultural Workers, and Fishers
The vast majority of workers in the Bangsamoro are

a. Harness

the

potential

of

small

farmers,

small farmers, agricultural workers, and fishers. To attain

agricultural workers and fishers by increasing

food security,60 raise incomes, and meet domestic and

their productivity to attain higher income and

regional demand, the BDP envisions to:

ensure food security.


b. Promote

private

enhancement

of

sector-led

growth

agricultural

through

value-chains,

with particular focus on linking small farmers

a. Increase

the

productivity

of

small

farmers,

agricultural workers, and fishers;


b. Facilitate growth in value of production by

and fishers to food processing and commercial

cultivating

development for export in the medium term.

developing new products, and developing linkages

c. Promote the growth of the halal food industry.


d. Foster sustainable integrated area development
planning.

crops

with

higher

value-added,

to processing facilities; and


c. Increase the sectors resilience to risks, including
climate change risks.

47

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Given that the region is a net importer of food, raising

BDP gives importance to training and seed funding that

farm productivity will serve as one of the key thrusts of

encourage women and post-school-age youth to join the

the Bangsamoro Government to increase income and

labor force within the sector development programs.

attain food security

61

among its constituents. Increasing

farm productivity to bolster the food supply will be an

Increasing value of production by diversifying crops

immediate first step to ensuring better access of the poor to

with higher commercial value, developing new products

food at affordable prices. Food security may be achieved

from agricultural commodities, and developing linkages

in the short term by complementing current production

to processing plants and markets can be facilitated

output with supply from outside sources. On the other

by building a better understanding of the value-chain

hand, food self-sufficiency can be a medium- term goal

approach to agro-industrial development among the

with increased agricultural productivity and better food

government agencies, the private sector, and farming

logistics. Higher incomes for farmers will be achieved

communities. Small farmers and fishers shall be enabled

through diversification into crops and activities with higher

and encouraged to consolidate their production to

value-added.

facilitate profitable opportunities for common services


(such as cold storage, drying and other postharvest

Combined with appropriate information and education

facilities) and access to processing facilities; and

campaigns, this general thrust for productivity can improve

improving the business environment by simplifying labor

the nutritional status especially of children, the youth, and

regulations, facilitating access to finance, and providing

mothers. This can be achieved through (a) agricultural

suitable incentives.

extension services aimed at improving nutrition and


education

of

the

public;

(b)

adopting

sustainable

Improving the sectors resilience to risk will involve a

agricultural practices; (c) facilitating access to appropriate

much better understanding of the factors impinging on

technology, production inputs and market information; (d)

farmer risks, particularly factors related to climate change,

improved market access through farm-to-market roads and

and the design and deployment of appropriate farm

transport; (d) small-scale harvesting and irrigation facilities;

finance, insurance products, and better crop selection.

and (e) improved access to rural finance.


Vulnerable groups are particularly susceptible to poverty

B.2.1.2. Private Sector-Led Growth: Developing ValueChain and Commercial Production of Crops

and exclusion, and will need to be explicitly targeted

To promote further private sector investment, restoring

across all areas of intervention. Scholarship programs

law and order is of paramount importance. In addition,

would encourage the youth to return or to stay in school.

for agricultural ventures, addressing the widespread land

Livelihood opportunities in infrastructure development

tenure problems in the region is vital if land access to

and maintenance activities could also be reserved for the

potential investors is to be guaranteed. Other elements

out-of-school youth.

that will encourage greater private sector investments


in the Bangsamoro are reliable infrastructure; access

To

provide

longer-term

employment

opportunities

for youth, skills-training programs that correspond to

to finance, including Islamic finance; improving local


governance; and better-trained workers.62

industrial labor requirements would be beneficial, as

48

would agricultural training and provision of inputs.

Land and property rights require special and urgent

Women, whose labor force participation may be

attention. For smallholder farmers, increased land tenure

constrained by household requirements, could contribute

security can enhance productivity, as it encourages them

to household income through food processing, cottage

to invest in their land, and also enables them to access

industries, or operating trading stands in the home. The

financial and property markets. For large-scale investors,

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

being able to consolidate land resources, through

a rallying point for mobilizing resources for investment,

contract growing or leasehold agreements, and security

infrastructure support, capacity-building, and introduction

of tenure over the long-term, are essential to investment

of

viability.

agricultural practices. Its impact would cascade all the

better

technologies

for

improved

and

efficient

way down to the community level, involving micro-,


Providing these conditions could generate employment

small-, or medium-scale farming, as well as processing

opportunities for thousands of landless agricultural

activities associated with food crops, livestock and poultry,

workers. The present uncertainty of ownership and

aquaculture/mariculture, fruits, and vegetables.

overlapping ownerships are a significant obstacle to


development and must be addressed. The BBL provides

Targeting both issues of low farm productivity and low

that land management is a concurrent power between

value of farm produce, the

the Bangsamoro Government and Central Government,

food industry could ride on the opportunities offered by

the exercise of which will require coordinated long-term

the burgeoning global halal economy, the comparative

engagement to clarify.

advantage of halal agriculture and food in the Philippines

development of the halal

and in the ASEAN region, and the benefits of a cohesive


Also, the BBL stipulates that

the Bangsamoro

and integrated value-chain. Since the emphasis is on

Government shall institute processes for improved

improving the value-chain and linking the farmers to the

land management. This will be possible with adequate

halal food industry, the benefits of interventions are most

information on the current situation. In the immediate

felt in increasing the value of farm produce.

term, the BDP will support surveying of existing land


titles and claims and an assessment of the existing land

Apart from linking the farmers to the halal food processors

management institutions. In the medium term, priority

and markets, appropriate technologies and knowhow

shall be given to the formulation and passage of a

would be the main intervention in increasing farm yields.

Bangsamoro Land Use Act.

Furthermore, by improving technologies and the value


of the farm produce, farms (and farmers) become more

Promoting the development of value-chains will result

resilient to price and financial risks.

in the creation of new products and encourage the


development of a food processing industry. This will

At the heart of this strategy is intensive promotion and

generate more jobs and provide the impetus for the

development of halal organic farming as a sustainable

growth of the manufacturing sector. The latter will be

source of food that is compliant with the Islamic dietary

based initially on food processing but eventually can

code. Organic farming is a fast-emerging sector in

proceed to light industrial products as the supply of

agriculture, with a niche market of its own in the Philippines

trained workers increases.

and in nearby regional and other international markets. The

63

B.2.1.3. Promote a Robust Halal Food Industry

strategy for the halal food industry is, therefore, an entry


point in resuscitating an ailing agriculture sector, with halal

Successful development of the halal food industry hinges

organic farming at its core.Over and above the steps to

on implementation of a strategy along the lines proposed

be taken to revitalize the agriculture sector in general, the

for the development of the Bangsamoro agriculture

thrust of the actions to get the halal food industry up and

sector. The strategy for the halal food industry is an

running would include the following:

integral part of that strategy.


a. Enacting

and

on

halal

of

policies

and

accreditation

and

Development of the halal food industry could be a

regulatory

flagship economic program. This

certification, labeling, and food safety;

industry provides

laws

strengthening

49

Bangsamoro Development Plan

b. Designing

and

implementing an incentives

of development. These can involve physically or culturally

code for halal-compliant ventures, particularly

sensitive areas, including locations where security issues

for smallholders and small- and medium-scale

would preclude private sector interest, at least in the short

enterprises;

term, due to the level of risk involved.

c. Strengthening the institutions responsible for the


promotion and development of the halal industry,

Aside

with particular emphasis on extension and support

plans for areas under this approach will be complete

services to smallholders and small-scale enterprises

plans incorporating physical and social infrastructure.

engaged in halal food production;

It is important for these interventions to serve as signals of

from

attention

given

to

productive

activities,

d. Developing and implementing a capacity-building

intent of the Bangsamoro Government to ensure inclusive,

program for extension service providers, trainers,

spatially sensitive, and sustainable development to targeted

and smallholders, and encouraging state universities

underdeveloped communities.

and colleges to engage in research and introduce


new courses to develop the halal industry; and
e.
Developing

and

implementing

Determining locations and appropriate types of interventions

sustained

across the Bangsamoro will require significant study and

information and communication program on halal

assessment. In environmentally sensitive river basins where

food.

integrated planning focuses on watershed protection, a


significantly different approach to securing water catchments

More detailed actions will be articulated in a revised and

and ensuring sustainable forest management will be needed

enhanced Regional Halal Food Industry Development

from that to be applied in former MILF camps, which could

Master Plan. This

be redeveloped into integrated agribusiness hubs in peaceful

endeavor

will require substantial

financial resources but identification and validation of

and productive communities.

production zones as embodied in the Halal Industry


Development Framework could catalyze an industry

Regardless of the type of intervention, integrated area

buildup in which infrastructure support, financial

development programs can be significant sources of

resources, capacity-building, and technical support,

employment for displaced populations, returnees, and

would be focused for better utilization.

demobilized forces, with the added benefit of helping foster


social cohesion.

The Bangsamoro Government could encourage the


private sector to take the lead in such an endeavor by

The specific approach of the Bangsamorosuch as location

providing the enabling environment and appropriate

selection criteria, private sector involvement, and transition

incentives and other support programs. In some

planswill have to be studied carefully to ensure both the

instances, however, public-private sector partnerships

sustainability of investments and the maximization of social

may be the most appropriate route.

and economic benefits. The BDP recommends conducting


a study on promoting climate-resilient agriculture through

B.2.1.4. Fostering Sustainable Integrated Area


Development Planning
Sustainable

50

integrated

area

development

integrated area development planning, and a study on


transforming MILF camps into agribusiness centers.
planning

recognizes that some areas are environmentally fragile

While other locations will require further assessment,

or have special characteristics that require a significant

Polloc Port is being considered in this Plan as a potential

degree of government intervention, or may require the

manufacturing and trade hub that will later distribute other

close consideration of cultural and social dimensions

supportive industries in other areas of the Bangsamoro. It is

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

located in a cove perfect for large vessels to berth and to

A comprehensive study needs to be conducted during

load and unload cargo. Its location and size is perfect as

the transition period on how to develop Polloc Port and

a Regional Export Processing Zone. The BDP will support

other ports declared as export processing zones to become

necessary assessments that will lead to the attainment of

the growth hubs for the manufacturing industry in the

this goal for Polloc Port.

Bangsamoro, including the appropriate policy environment


that would need to be adopted. As with export processing

B.2.2. Promoting the Development of the


Manufacturing Sector
Given

the low

labor-force

participation

zones elsewhere, it is critical that an open trading policy


be adopted in these zones to ensure their success.
rate

and

the initially limited labor-absorptive capacity of

the

agricultural sector, measures must be implemented


to promote the rapid growth of the manufacturing
sector in the Bangsamoro, particularly labor-intensive
manufacturing, primarily related to food processing.
The regions abundant land and labor supply, relatively
low wages, and geographically strategic location are
advantages that will enable the Bangsamoro area to
attract sizeable investments in industry.
For this to happen, the Bangsamoro Government will
need to (a) ensure the security of investors and their
investments, (b) provide the policy environment conducive
for greater private sector participation, (c) upgrade the
skills of the labor force, and (d) address the lingering
energy shortage.
Rapid expansion of the manufacturing sector is unlikely to
be achieved in the short term but will be within reach of
the Bangsamoro in the medium term. Many elements are
already in place, assuming that security is guaranteed.
Natural locations for new manufacturing industries can

B.2.3. Extractive Industries


The Bangsamoro

is

generally

regarded

as

having

significant potential in the extractive industries. Though


more geological

studies need to be conducted, the

potential revenues from a well-managed extractive industry


would contribute considerably to the regions fiscal
autonomy.
However, extractive industries can take more than a
decade

before

yielding

any

revenue for the state.

To attract investors, the Bangsamoro could generate


geological data for use of potential developers to assess
technical and financial viability. The Bangsamoro must
also be cognizant of the inherent risks of environmental
degradation

and

social

displacement

by

large-scale

of

geological

resource development.
The

BDP

supports

the

development

information-based feasibility and engineering studies,


while

the

institutional

and

capacity

development

requirements of managing and regulating extractive


industries in the Bangsamoro continue to be assessed.

Polloc Port is ideal as a Regional Export Processing Zone.

B.2.4. Developing a Tourism Industry in the


Bangsamoro

Second, the Bangsamoro Government will have authority

The Bangsamoro has some of the most diverse and

under the BBL to pass measures that will facilitate the entry

unique natural resources in the Philippines and a rich

of private sector investors, ranging from giving appropriate

cultural history that can yield significant revenues from

land rights and access arrangements to offering incentives

tourism. The impediments to large-scale development

to potential investors. Third, the export processing zone

of the tourism potential have been the security situation

could be expanded to other viable areas, such as the

and poor infrastructure and connectivity. There are also

Bongao Port in Tawi-Tawi where active trading is already

environmental and cultural conservation concerns (see

taking place with neighboring Sabah Island.

Chapters 10 and 11).

be found in and around the regions major ports. First,

51

Bangsamoro Development Plan

However, the political and social stability resulting from the

order and an improved business and investment climate,

peace agreement makes it opportune for the Bangsamoro

development banks, commercial banks, and rural banks

to lay the groundwork for private-sector development of

will step forward to provide financial support, among

the tourism industry. Areas of particular natural or cultural

others, to enterprises in the informal sector that wish to

significance, such as Central Mindanao and Tawi-Tawi,

move into the formal sector to take advantage of the new

could be targeted with specific normalization interventions

economic environment. Islamic banking and finance

regarding

should be viewed as a system, and thus it is critical that

security

and

governance

to

encourage

investments.

the foundations be set for developing institutions and


products across all these aspects of the sector, including

Conservation and sustainability measures will need to

banking, capital markets, microfinance, and insurance.

be prioritized alongside the improvement of security


conditions. Supportive access infrastructure, improved

This must further be viewed from the national as well as

tourism facilities, competitive prices for tourism amenities

from the Bangsamoro perspective, recognizing the legal

and food,

and capacity-building of key actors (from

mandate of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) and

managers to staff) are important requisites for developing the

other Central Government instrumentalities, and taking

sector.

into consideration the wider national market for Islamic


financial products. The banking systems development

To

realize

the

potential

of

tourism

for

significant

should not be rushed; it should be driven by business and

employment creation, training programs in tourism industry

economic rationales, with market forces and the peoples

skills could be instituted, with particular focus on women

emerging needs being allowed to determine the optimal

and the out-of-school youth. Demobilized MILF forces

mix of products.

could also be trained as guides, considering their extensive


knowledge of the region and its history.
B.2.5. Improved Access to Credit and Strengthened
Islamic Banking and Finance

The legislative base would need to be wide and flexible


enough to enable the market to do its work, recognizing
the rapid evolution of Islamic financial products and their
delivery mechanisms. The BSP is working with the other

At this stage, both conventional and Islamic banking

pertinent agencies to lay the groundwork for the necessary

and finance facilities will inevitably have to coexist in

legislative and institutional agenda. The aim is to provide

the Bangsamoro. An orderly development of both the

the appropriate regulatory framework for licensing and

conventional and Islamic systems, leading to a better spread

supervision of Islamic banking and other Islamic financial

of financial risks over the economy, would include:

instruments in the country, especially in the Bangsamoro.

a. Promoting healthy competition, resulting in increased


market discipline and improved customer service and

Having the legal framework for Islamic banking and

value;

finance at the national level would reduce the need

b. Increasing the deposit base, as products like tabun hajj

for legislative action by the Bangsamoro Government.

(a savings account for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca)

The Bangsamoro Government would need to work with

are introduced; and

the BSP and the Financial Services Forum (FSF) on this

c. Enabling Muslims and non-Muslims alike to choose

legislative and institutional agenda.

the financial tools that are most appropriate for their


needs.

Various

options

are

available

to

the

Bangsamoro

authorities in establishing an Islamic banking presence

52

All facets of the conventional banking system will have

in the region. One is for the Bangsamoro Government

a role to play in the future Bangsamoro. With peace and

to establish its own Islamic bank, which could be a new

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

entity or a revived Al-Amanah. If this scenario is chosen, it

Given the dominance of informal activity in the

would be beneficial to encourage private entities to engage

Bangsamoro

also in providing Islamic banking and financial services in

collateral over property and land, Islamic microfinance

the region.

facilities could play a major role in expanding the

and

the

difficulties

associated

with

economic base. However, there is a need for service


Alternatively, conventional banks could be allowed to open

providers with outreach to the rural areas where the

Islamic windows in their operations, or even establish

need for support is greatest, and a need for suitably

fully pledged Islamic subsidiaries. Foreign banks may also

designed and affordable instruments tailored to the

want to enter the market, which could be through joint

needs of the Bangsamoro market. In the Philippines,

ventures or technical/management agreements with local

cooperatives and NGOs are likely to be the initial

banks that lack know-how in Islamic banking.

conduits for Islamic microfinance instruments, although


rural banks may also be willing to perform that role.66

Some interest has been expressed by local and foreign


commercial banks to take over the Al-Amanah and use

The Muhammadiyah model of Indonesia is worth

it as springboard for introducing a wider range of Islamic

exploring for its applicability to the Bangsamoro. This

banking and finance instruments.

model also introduces micro-Takaful (micro-insurance) as


protection to reduce risk associated with the possibility of

Another option is encouraging the establishment and

losses. There is certainly a demand for insurance against

growth of Islamic capital markets, which can be achieved

crop failure by farmers in the Bangsamoro, although the

if the Central Government removes discriminatory taxation

necessary premiums may currently be beyond reach.

policy against Islamic financial instruments.


Underpinning Islamic banking and financial instruments
Islamic capital markets probably offer the fastest route for

is the need to ensure that Shariah compliance

introducing Islamic banking and financial products into

arrangements are in place. The BSP is exploring

the Bangsamoro. The Bangsamoro Government and local

this matter within the context of its legislative and

government units could consider meeting their borrowing

institutional review, and the Bangsamoro Government

needs through the sukuk,

as the drive toward financial

would need to engage with the BSP on this issue. The

integration in the ASEAN region (and Asia) is expected to

best course of action for the Bangsamoro and the

provide a platform for the local development of sukuk,

Philippines would need to be explored and could

given the growing importance of these instruments in

involve adopting interim measures, including tapping

ASEAN countries, particularly Indonesia, Malaysia and

ASEAN expertise.

64

Brunei.
A

communications

strategy,

based

on

careful

Use of sukuk is suited for public-private partnerships (PPP)

socioeconomic research, would be needed to educate

and could form a significant component of the economic

the public on the principles of Islamic banking and

development thrust in the Bangsamoro, particularly as a

finance and on the products that would be available.

means to finance infrastructure in support of critical private-

This strategy would need to address all stakeholders,

sector projects. Major private-sector projects in the region

Muslim and non-Muslim alike. Commercial aspects as

could also be encouraged to use sukuk in financing their

well as the ethical and religious underpinnings would

operations. The financing can be organized onshore or

need to be emphasized.

offshore, and can be arranged without having to establish


an institutional base in the Bangsamoro or even in the

A program is also recommended for developing the

Philippines.

necessary capacity and skills of public institutions

65

53

Bangsamoro Development Plan

national and regionalfor overseeing the development

Together with the BIMP-EAGA, the AEI will increase

of Islamic banking and finance. There is a dearth of

market opportunities for goods and services produced by

skills relating to Islamic financial instruments in the local

member countries.

banking and financial industry that needs to be addressed.


Some of it can be addressed through technical assistance

The Bangsamoro regions limited production and export

and overseas training, but local academic support would

capability may prevent it from immediately accessing the

be critical. There will also be a need to explore means to

enlarged market base provided by region-wide economic

support financially the development of suitable courses in

cooperation.

academic establishments.
However,

BIMP-EAGA

presents

an

important

Of immediate concern is the capacity of the national

opportunity for Bangsamoro entrepreneurs to learn

institutions

and

the dynamics of international trade and eventually to

administrative groundwork for establishing an Islamic

access the regional export market given the advantage

banking and finance system, and the capacity of the

of physical proximity to the other ASEAN countries of

Bangsamoro authorities to oversee its on-the-ground

the BCT. Aside from export markets, these countries

penetration. Immediate efforts would be needed to obtain

markets for competitively priced food and fuel and

technical assistance, and to organize a core team within the

other production inputs could induce their investors to

Bangsamoro to interface with the BSP and the FSF in laying

consider the Bangsamoro region as a viable production

the groundwork for the legislative and institution agenda.

location.

B.2.6. Promoting Active Participation in Regional


Economic Cooperation

The Bangsamoro Government, through intergovernmental

The Bangsamoro is one of the Philippines closest points

that it is represented in trade missions and negotiations in

to the rest of the ASEAN region. Trade between its islands

the AEI and the BIMP-EAGA. It would need to encourage

and neighboring islands in Malaysia and Indonesia was

the Bangsamoro private sector to participate in these

extensive prior to Western colonization. The establishment

events actively, as they will lead the development of a

of the Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the

Bangsamoro export industry.

to

lay

the

necessary

legislative

bodies created for this purpose, would need to ensure

Philippines-East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA)

67

recognized these historical ties among the islands in the

B.2.7. Labor Market Policies

sub-region and declared that its founding was merely

The segmentation of the labor market between the

a reassertion of the pre-colonial ties binding these


places together. The sub-regional economic grouping
consequently

gained

traction

immediately

after

its

establishment, with private-sector groups in the four


countries

spearheading

economic

cooperation

and

their governments providing the policy environment for


increasing trade.
In 2015, the economies of the ASEAN member-countries
will be integrated under the ASEAN Economic Integration
(AEI) program, under which restrictions on the movement
of most goods, the provision of services and the movement
of persons will be brought down to essential levels.

54

the

formal and informal sector is more pronounced in the


Bangsamoro because a sizeable part of the labor force
is in the latter. Informal employment in the Bangsamoro
can be explained by a situation of both exclusion and
voluntary exit. In the former, the lack of productive
employment option and of unemployment insurance
compels the poor segment of the society to take lowproductivity jobs, typically in the informal sector, rather
than to end up being unemployed.68
In the latter, informality has been associated with lack
of productive economic opportunities, which are often
attributed to scale and prevalence of violent conflict

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

in the region. This means that informal arrangement is a

promote further informality with adverse consequences

preferred setup by the households and enterprises to cope

on overall productivity and economic performance.

with conflict risks.69


Labor policies should be flexible and less restrictive.
Deepening of the economy demonstrated by an influx of

Employment protection programs must reflect local

local and foreign direct investments in the Bangsamoro will

conditions in setting welfare standards. At the very

not happen overnight. It is expected that the excess labor

least, ensuring safe working environment, protection of

supply in the Bangsamoro will not be absorbed immediately

child labor, and non-voluntary social assistance (e.g.,

into the formal sectorexcept for those who will be

Conditional Cash Transfer) must be instituted in the

running the new regional government administration.

informal sector. Along with Pag-IBIG and Social Security


System contributions, these employment protection

It will gain its momentum once the Bangsamoro

programs will be extended to the formal sector and

consolidates its economy over the medium and the long

scaled up over time.

term.
Among labor rules in the formal sector that stand
Hence, the labor market policies that the Bangsamoro

out to have adversely affected domestic and foreign

shall adopt will need to put a premium on increasing

companies in the countryand this will hold true in the

productivity in the region through attraction of labor-

Bangsamoroare the non-consultative determination

intensive

in

of minimum wage, lack of freedom in the application

education and trainings on specific skill sets. This should

of fixed term contracts (e.g., six-month minimum

be complemented by other active labor market assistance

requirement for regularization of new employees), and

such as job facilitation services by the Department of

restrictive policies governing dismissal of workers. To

Labor and Employment (DOLE)70 or the Bangsamoro

facilitate investment and job creation, there should

labor ministry, and it can even start much earlier among

be preference to relying on collective bargaining

students through guidance counseling services at schools.

mechanisms in minimum wage setting to reflect the

At the same time, labor policies must avoid excessive

local market conditions and to give companies greater

job protection that can otherwise impede job creation or

flexibility in hiring workers.71

investments

and

sustained

investments

55

Bangsamoro Development Plan

C. Summary of Priority Programs


Table 15: Priority Economy and Livelihood Programs
Objectives
Increasing farm productivity
and income

Priority Programs
Bangsamoro Sustainable Agriculture
Program

Assisting in ensuring food


security particularly to
vulnerable groups
Increasing halal-certified
producers and service
providers

Support for smallholder farmers and fishers,


including enterprise development and training and
incentive programs
Irrigation, postharvest facilities
Support to private sector value-chain and
commercial development
Develop the halal food industry
(including organic farming)
Integrated Area Development, including study
on how to transform MILF camps into flourishing
enterprise units in the Bangsamoro
Study of promoting climate-resilient agriculture
through integrated area development planning
Develop Cash-for-Work Program, particulalry for
vulnerable groups

Massive Job Creation Packages, including


Creative Service Delivery

Scholarships/trainings, functional literacy


programs, skills and jobs matching
Support for micro and small entrepreneurs
Small skills programs (i.e. skills training, capacity-building,
proposal making, etc.)
Hiring of community facilitators for scaled-up
community-driven development (CDD-BRIDGE)
Mass mobilization of health and education workers

Bringing back out-migrated


human and financial capital

Balik-Bangsamoro Program

Incentives for increased banking/investment in


the Bangsamoro, including remittances
Incentives for young Moro professionals
(scholarships and trainings, with required technical posts)

Trade openness (long-term)

Establishing Open Trade in the Bangsamoro

Feasibility studies for Polloc and Bongao Ports


and other areas as manufacturing and trading hubs in the
Bangsamoro
Mainstreaming cross-border trade
Study on the impact of adopting an open
trading policy in the export processing zones
Representation of Bangsamoro Government
and private sector in trade missions and negotiations

Improving access to credit

Banking and Finance

Bangsamoro Fund Facility


Microcredit according to Shariah finance system
Study on promoting the development of Islamic banking
and finance

Peace Tourism: Its Even More Fun in the


Bangsamoro

Scoping for eco-, cultural, and resort tourism in


the Bangsamoro areas
Support infrastructure
Specific normalization efforts (governance and security)
IEC campaign, skills training (livelihood)

Assessing/Prospecting the Viability of the


Extractive Industry Sector

Development of geological database


Analysis of institutional and capacity
development requirements for management and
regulation of extractive industries
Feasibility studies of development of extractive industry

Higher labor force participation


(especially for inactive youth)
Higher household income
Bridging the labor supply gap

Support for long-term fiscal


autonomy and development
(for medium- to long-term
measurement)

56

Components

Economy and Livelihood

CH A PT ER

NOTES
48 The population of ARMM was estimated at 3.3 million as of August 2010 (Philippine Statistics Authority and UN World Food Programme).
49 The National Statistical Coordination Board (now under the PSA) adopted a new methodology that updates the computation of the gross regional
income accounts beginning 2009. Hence, caution should be exercised in comparing the levels and growth rates of the GRDP time series before
and after 2009.
50 See Lara and Schoofs (2013) and International Alert (2014).
51 Dy and Adriano (2013).
52 Japan International Cooperation Agency (2010).
53 The World Bank (2011) and Lara and Schoofs (2013).
54 The World Bank (2014).
55 Refer to Annex E (Poorest Provinces and Municipalities in the Philippines) for the list of the poorest provinces and municipalities in the
country.
56 World Food Programme and World Bank (2011).
57 World Food Programme (2013).
58 Proposed Bangsamoro Basic Law, Article XIII, Section 23.
59 Ibid., Section 24.
60 The concept of food security has four dimensions: (a) food availability, the physical presence of food in sufficient amounts;( b) food access, the
ability to acquire food, whether by producing or purchasing food; (c) food utilization, the nutritional value of food as well as the ability of the body
to make use of the nutrients in food; and (d) stability, the ability to maintain food availability, access, and utilization at all times, especially during
emergency and post-emergency situations, in cases of local or global price increases, and other shocks and stresses. Refer to UN-WFP (2014). The
first relates to the agricultural productivity objective; the second on the efficient distribution of food (supply chain or logistics); the third requires
informing and educating the public on maintaining proper nutrition; and the fourth pertains to maintaining buffer stock to meet the emergency
requirements of the public in times of emergency or sudden supply shortfall of strategic food commodities. Attaining food security therefore
requires planning for each of these dimensions.
61 Attaining food security is the first order goal of increasing farm productivity and income given the urgent need to immediately improve the welfare
of the poor Bangsamoro.
62 Refer to Dy (2004 and 2005) and Wallace (2003).
63 The rise in the agricultural development ladder can be accelerated if the Bangsamoro Government promotes the development of agricultural
products wherein it has revealed comparative advantage. See Yifun Lin (2012). Aldaba (2014) further expounded on this by identifying the
following crops/products wherein Mindanao (including the Bangsamoro area) has revealed comparative advantage. These were fixed vegetable
fats, oil and others; tobacco, unmanufactured; vegetable fibers; tropical agriculture such as fruits and nuts, fruits preserved and prepared, etc.;
fish prepared and preserved; wood manufactures; raw materials such minerals and non-mineral resources; and labor-intensive industries such as
garments manufacturing. Also refer to Adriano (2014).
64 Certificates of ownership in a pool of underlying assets in which the certificates are of equal value.
65 The Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) has taken steps toward Islamic finance. It has announced 61 of its listed companies as Shariah compliant
stocks. The ultimate goal is to develop a market index of these Shariah compliant issuers, which the PSE hopes to launch in 2015.
66 Donors could be encouraged to expand their programs involving financial support to small farmers based on Islamic principles. These could be
channeled through rural banks wishing to move away from conventional banking towards Islamic financing, cooperatives, and accredited NGOs.
Associated with the financial support could be appropriate technical support, so enhancing the capacity of these organizations to sustain their
programs over the longer term without the support of donors.
67 Brunei Darrusalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area.
68 de Dios and Dinglasan (2014).
69 The World Bank (2011).
70 DSWD also offers job matching services for the poor.
71 Sicat (2010).

57

Bangsamoro Development Plan

58

Infrastructure

CH A PT ER

Infrastructure

59

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Infrastructure

Infrastructure72 is indispensable to promoting sustained

Philippines where agglomeration has spawned rapid

growth

social

growth. At present, many existing national, provincial,

cohesion. It facilitates travel and trade by reducing

municipal, and barangay roads in the ARMM are

transaction costs and creating markets. It facilitates the

dilapidated. The ARMM and the surrounding conflict-

and

development

and

encouraging

mobility of people in search of better lives and economic


reward, and it provides better access to social services.

Figure 15: National Road Density (2012)

However, chronic insecuritycombined with rentseeking by local officials, local political clans, and private
armed groupshas driven up the costs of infrastructure
development and deterred contractors who fear for
their lives and safety. As a result, despite substantial
capital investment from the Central Government, the
Bangsamoro suffers from a significant infrastructure
deficit.

A. Context: A Fragmented and


Overstretched Infrastructure Network

Figure 16: Ratio of Paved National Roads (2012)

A.1. Road Network


Good infrastructure enables cheaper and faster movement
of people and goods and services. It enables farmers,
fishers, and other producers to get their products to the
markets efficiently, thereby maximizing their returns. It
increases labor mobility and, by reducing the financial
and opportunity costs of travel, improves opportunities
for viable tourism.
Connective

infrastructure

will

be

crucial

for

the

Bangsamoro to benefit from a spillover of growth from


production centers in Mindanao and elsewhere in the

60

Note: Bangsamoro figures do not include data from six municipalities in Lanao del
Norte and 39 barangays in North Cotabato due to difficulty of data attribution.
Source: BDP-CPT estimate and JICA-Philkoei International, Inc. (using DPWH, DPWHARMM data)

Infrastructure

affected provinces have a road density of only 0.028

CH A PT ER

Figure 17: Ratio of Paved Farm-to-Market Roads in ARMM (2005)

kilometer of road per square kilometer of land area (see


Figure 15). This is the worst road penetration rate in the
country.
The ratio of paved national roads in the ARMM is better
than in the rest of Mindanao and the rest of the Philippines
(see Figure 16). However, the percentage of paved farm-tomarket roads (FMRs) in the ARMM is very low (see Figure
17). As a result of poor connection of tertiary roads to the
main highway, farmers face great difficulties and price
disadvantages in bringing their goods to processing and
marketing centers.73

Source: JICA-Philkoei International, Inc. (using DAR-ARMM and the World Banks
2005 Joint Needs Assessment of Conflict Areas in Mindanao report)

Figure 18: Ratio of Irrigated to Estimated Irrigable Area


(20002012)

The dilapidated condition of roads in the ARMM, low


pavement ratio, slow road network development, and poor
road design indicate institutional and capacity deficiencies.
The factors for these include poor maintenance procedures,
inadequate provision of maintenance funds, and poor
project implementation by agencies such as DPWH,
DPWH-ARMM, and engineering offices of LGUs. These
could be traced to neglect by past administrations, which
led to low productivity and limited income opportunities
for rural communities.
In the short term, priority will need to be given to,

Source: DA-BAS

addressing the main bottlenecks of connectivity, including

developed according to the requirements of the locality

the poor condition of FMRs and the incomplete and

and the type of crops. The needs of a growing population

unpaved national roads and main arterial roads. Ongoing

for potable water and the needs of farms for water to

projects included in the General Appropriations Act (GAA)

increase their productivity will need to be balanced.

could be completed during the transition period.

Construction of irrigation facilities will also have to


consider adaptability to climate change.

A.2. Irrigation
Irrigation, which allows several harvests per season, is vital

The priority needs for the irrigation subsector in BCT

to increasing farmer productivity, particularly in the rice

include: (a) development and construction of national

subsector. The ARMM has the lowest irrigated area relative

and communal irrigation systems and (b) development of

to potentially irrigable land, at only 25.8% (see Figure 18).

LGU capacities to assist in maintaining irrigation canals

It should be noted, however, that irrigation requirements

and communal irrigation systems.

differ among crops. Rice requires a relatively abundant


supply of water, while corn, cassava, coconut, and banana,

A.3. Airports and Seaports

which are the main crops in the Bangsamoro, require less

Three principal airports (Awang, Sanga-Sanga, and Jolo)

water. Different irrigation systems and facilities need to be

and three community airports (Malabang, Cagayan

61

Bangsamoro Development Plan

de Sulu, and Wao) serve the BCT (see Map 6). The

ASEAN region and to release the economic potential of the

Bangsamoro has no international airport. The principal

Bangsamoro.

airports in nearby regions (i.e., Laguindingan in Cagayan


de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga City) serve as

The priority needs of airports in the BCT include new

important entry points to the BCT. There are four base

passenger terminal facilities, security equipment, baggage-

ports (Jolo, Bongao, Lamitan, and Malabang), 11 sub-ports,

handling equipment, parking facilities, firefighting equipment,

and five private ports managed by the ARMMs Regional

navigation facilities, and widening and lengthening of

Ports and Management Authority. The Regional Economic

runways and aprons. In seaports, the priority concerns are

Zone Authority manages Polloc Port, a key facility for

the underutilization of Polloc Port and the need to improve

regional economic development. The Philippine Ports

or rehabilitate port facilities. Institutional and capacity

Authority manages Isabela Port in Basilan.

weaknesses are likewise serious concerns, as evidenced by


unclear delineation of responsibility, poor maintenance, and

Despite intermittent improvements and rehabilitation


efforts, key facilities (Awang Airport and Polloc and
Bongao Ports) require comprehensive upgrading to

A.4. Power Sector

international standards, as these will be needed to

The challenges in power generation and supply in the island

promote trade in the BIMP-EAGA sub-region and

provinces of Bangsamoro are different in character from

Map 6: Major Airports and Seaports in Mindanao (2014)

Source: DPWH (2014)

62

inadequate allocation of funds for maintenance.

CH A PT ER

Infrastructure

those in the mainland provinces of Mindanao. The five

supply; (b) increased collection efficiencies of ECs; (c)

electric cooperatives in Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi have

viable solutions to the problem of illegal connections;

small loads,74 high supply-chain costs, and a dispersed

and (d) improving the capacity of ECs to forge innovative

customer base. They lack large industrial or commercial

arrangements that will encourage power generation

loads.

while raising collection fees. In Basilan, Sulu, and TawiTawi, the top priority involves availability and reliability

On the main island, the two electric cooperatives (ECs)

of electricity supply, and the promotion of a culture of

(i.e., LASURECO in Lanao del Sur and MAGELCO in

payment for service among consumers.

Maguindanao) are connected to the main Mindanao grid


and, therefore, benefit from the much lower cost of bulk

A.5. Flood Control

power (see Table 16). However, these networks have

Flooding in low-lying areas of the BCT, particularly in

been starved of investment, and although there are some

Maguindanao, is a continuing concern. The problem is

industrial or commercial loads, the two ECs suffer from

perennial in river systems of the Mindanao River Basin

frequent power shortages in the Mindanao grid as a whole.

(MRB)such as the Rio Grande de Mindanao, AmbalSimuay River, Kabulnan River, and Libungan-Alamada

As a result, though coverage at the municipal and barangay

Riverand wetlands, such as Ligawasan Marsh, Ebpanan

levels is nearly universal across the Bangsamoro, the

Marsh and Libungan Marsh. During the rainy season

household electrification rate is only 34% as compared

or periods of high precipitation in the upper reaches

with the national rate of 74%; illegal connections are

of the MRB, excess run-off water flows toward the sea,

pervasive; and service fee collections are poor.

passing near Cotabato City, causing flooding there and


in surrounding areas. The most flood-prone areas in the

For mainland Mindanao, the priority gaps/needs in the

BCT are Cotabato City in Maguindanao; Sultan Kudarat

power subsector include: (a) a more reliable electricity

(Nuling) and Parang in Maguindanao; Munai in Lanao

Table 16: Status of Electrification in ARMM (2013)

ARMM Status of Electrification

Municipalities/
Cities
Coverage
Energized

Tawi-Tawi Electric Cooperative, Inc.

100

Siasi Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Sulu Electric Cooperative, Inc.


Basilan Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Barangays
Energized
completed

186

186

100

100

66

66

100

16

100

330

330

14

100

269

100

Lanao del Sur Electric Cooperative,


Inc.

41

Maguindanao Electric Cooperative,


Inc.

Cagayan de Sulu Electric


Cooperative, Inc.

Total

Potential

Connections
Unenergized Potential

Energized
completed

47,000

12,137

26

13,000

3,604

28

100

85,000

24,218

28

269

100

75,000

38,818

52

17

17

100

5,000

1,895

38

100

1,175

1,175

100

138,000

56,357

41

30

100

404

398

99

116,000

26,303

23

114

100

2,447

2,441

99

479,000

163,332

34

Source: NEA (2013)

63

Bangsamoro Development Plan

del Norte; Balo-i Kapatagan, Bubong, Ditsaan-Ramain,

to begin by ensuring the security of telecommunications

Taraka, Tamparan, Lumbayanague, and Masiu in Lanao

personnel and investments.

del Sur; Pikit in North Cotabato; Jolo in Sulu; and Isabela


City in Basilan.

B. Strategic Goals

Some BCT areas are also prone to other types of disasters,

The overall strategic goal is to develop a well-planned,

including

storm

surges,

heavy

siltation/landslides,

earthquakes, and tsunamis. Maguindanao, which is a


particularly high-risk area for earthquakes, is also among
the areas in the BCT that are at higher risk of earthquakeinduced shallow landslide. BCT areas that are vulnerable

needs-based, and sustainable infrastructure network and


facilities that support five targeted strategies, as shown in
Table 17.
B.1. Roads and Bridges

to tsunamis include Cotabato City, Parang, Maguindanao,

During the transition, the strategy for roads and bridges

the coastal towns of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sultan

will be to: (a) sustain current efforts to improve national

Kudarat, Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Isabela City in

roads through rehabilitation, reconstruction, upgrading,

Basilan. Further discussion of disaster vulnerability in the

and maintenance; (b) address the most immediate and

Bangsamoro can be found in Chapter 10.

most un-served needs/gaps, especially at the barangay


or community level by paving FMRs and building new

The pressing need to mitigate flooding in the BCT

ones; and (c) develop capacity in infrastructure planning,

calls for the following measures: (a) preventing rapid

feasibility preparation, project supervision/management,

deforestation and denudation of forest areas that help

and monitoring and evaluation for infrastructure staff.

prevent heavy siltation in river systems; (b) prohibiting


conversion of primary forests/forestlands into croplands

The river network in the BCT can be tapped as an

and settlement areas; and (c) strict implementation of

alternative and low-cost mode of transport, especially for

laws and policies relating to land use and garbage/waste

passenger and agricultural produce. Construction of river

disposal.

wharves would encourage development of this mode of


transport and enhance open access to hard-to-reach areas.

A.6. Telecommunications
Mobile phones in the Philippines numbered just over

Construction of FMRs would facilitiate transport of

100 million as of the end of 2012, according to data from

farm produce to municipal, provincial, and national

local telecommunications companies. Internet access in

roads leading to processing and marketing centers. A

the country was limited to 33% of the population as of

Bangsamoro road master plan will be formulatedwith

end September 2011, compared with the Southeast Asia

emphasis on the connectivity within the hierarchy of road

regional average of 38%.

networks, identifying the priorities for new construction,


rehabilitation, and regular maintenance workand will

In 2010, according to the latest available data, 74% of

have a dedicated plan for FMRs.

all ARMM had access to cellular phone signal, and 4%

64

had access to landline telephone systems.75 From the

In the short term, FMRs for which regular funding from

transition period to the long term, the need for modern

the ARG and national government is available should

telecommunications

the

be constructed without delay. Feasibility studies should

full range of development purposes, from promoting

be undertaken for those given priority by Bangsamoro

economic activity to building social cohesion. Attracting

communities in the CVEs so they can be included in the

massive commercial interest in this sector would have

priority projects for the Special Development Fund (SDF).

infrastructure

will

include

Infrastructure

CH A PT ER

Table 17: Infrastructure Strategies and Project Types


Targeted Strategies

Project Types

a. Infrastructure to connect to economic growth


centers

National, provincial roads and bridges; airports and seaports;


telecommunications

b. Infrastructure to support production

Farm-to-market roads (FMRs), irrigation facilities, small landing ports, energy


requirements for economic activity

c. Infrastructure for access/social justice

Access roads, household electrification (especially off-grid) for far-flung areas

d. Infrastructure to support security and


normalization outcomes

Investments for the six priority camps and other requirements targeted for
normalization

e. Infrastructure for climate-resilience, DRRM

Flood control, retrofitting of existing infrastructure

During the transition period, national road projects will

In the case of communal irrigation systems (CIS),

be implemented by the Department of Public Works and

the responsibility for improving, rehabilitating, and

Highways (DPWH), while provincial and municipal road

maintaining existing systems and developing new

projects will be done by the DPWH-ARMM (see Map 7).

systems had been devolved to LGUs under the Local

Barangay road and FMR projects shall be implemented

Government Code (LGC) of 1991. As the limited

by the Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of

financial resources of LGUs have placed irrigation at

Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)-ARMM, Department of

a low spending priority, the Bangsamoro Government

Agrarian Reform (DAR), and DAR-ARMM.

would be in the best position to intervene in this respect

The passage of the BBL, the successful conduct of a

during the medium-term.

plebiscite, and the creation of the BTA in 2016 are

In the short term, a Bangsamoro Irrigation Master Plan

envisioned to usher in a seamless transfer of functions and

will be needed, taking into consideration the different

turnover of national, local, and barangay/FMR projects

irrigation needs of various agricultural crops and the

that are still ongoing, under terms and conditions spelled

areas where they are planted. While current irrigation

out.

efforts of the national government is biased toward rice


production, these will not properly respond to the crop

To prepare for this event, teams of qualified Bangsamoro

mix found in the Bangsamoro, given the predominance

personnel could be created and the team members

of other crops (i.e., cassava, corn and coconut) grown in

subsequently be appointed to leadership positions in

the area.

planning, project implementation and supervision, and


monitoring of road and bridge projects particularly for

Also, if growing of more high-value crops (i.e., banana,

local roads and barangay/FMRs.

palm oil, coffee, cacao, pineapple, and rubber) is to

B.2. Irrigation

be promoted, these will require different irrigation


systems. These requirements will have to be inputted in

The development strategy for irrigation in the Bangsamoro

the Irrigation Master Plan. Climate change adaptability

is to provide the funding needed to rehabilitate, improve,

measures in the construction of irrigation facilities should

and maintain existing systems and construct new ones.

also be factored into the master plan.

65

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Map 7: Transportation Network in the Bangsamoro (2014)

Source: DPWH (2014) and DOTC (2010)

B.3. Airports and Seaports

B.4. Power Sector

For airports and seaports in the BCT, the development

For the power subsector, the strategy calls for: (a)

strategy is to continue and expedite efforts to raise their

monitoring by the Bangsamoro leadership of the Central

service levels through rehabilitation, improvement, new

Governments and the private sectors development

construction, and maintenance. Preliminary engineering

efforts in the Mindanao grid, and (b) formulation and

and feasibility studies would need to be undertaken

implementation of programs and projects to develop

during the transition period to determine the viability of

renewable energy, particularly for off-grid areas.

establishing an international airport in the BCT and of

66

building more airports to form part of a viable multi-modal

The

transport system in the region. Free and unhampered

mechanisms through which institutional and technical

movement of people and goods through airports and

arrangements on power generation, transmission, and

seaports connected to an efficient land transport system

distribution may be best coordinated with the Central

and good roads would be an important way of speeding

Government,

up development of the BCT, especially considering

exclusive powers over Lake Lanao,

the economic potential of domestic and international

by two hydroelectric plants in the BCT (Agus 1 and Agus

tourism. It is noted that safety and security challenges may

2) is delivered to the Mindanao grid. The BTA would

continue and severely impact travel in the region.

need to study and arrange with the National Electrification

Bangsamoro

as

leadership

the

will

need

Bangsamoro
76

to

identify

Government

has

and power generated

Infrastructure

CH A PT ER

Map 8: Barangay Access to Electricity and Electrification Projects in the Bangsamoro (20142015)

Percent of households with


access to electricity

0 - 20.00

Source: NHTS (2009) DOE-NEA (2014)

Administration (NEA) and the Central Government how the

already providing servicesbut also the potential for

seven ECs operating in the BCT can be made responsible

other players (NGOs, investors, private energy services

to the BTA.

providers, and communities) to play important roles, in


some cases in partnership with each other and with the

For the short term, the strategy includes raising the quality

ECs.

of electricity services to realistic levels while laying the


groundwork for full improvement in the medium and the

A strategy to accelerate access to modern energy in

long term, which will be crucial to the regions sustainable

the Bangsamoro should attempt to: (a) strengthen

socioeconomic growth (see Map 8). This strategy includes:

the electrification function of the ECs both for grid

(a) electrification and energy services; (b) EC support to

connections and solar home systems; (b) ensure credit

private sector commercial and industrial investment; and

and subsidy flows to the ECs where grid rehabilitation,

(c) institutional strengthening of the Bangsamoro ECs.

extension, and intensification are necessary and viable;

B.4.1. Electrification and Energy Services

(c) ensure that non-EC providers have non-discriminatory


access to subsidy funds for solar home system

The strategy to increase connections has to recognize

solutions, such as those provided for in photovoltaic

that additional connections must be commercially viable.

(PV) mainstreaming; and (d) support service providers

Any proposed solution would need to recognize not

with targeted information and educational campaigns,

only the unique positions of the ECssince they are

particularly among households and communities on the

67

Bangsamoro Development Plan

critical role that fair and transparent fees-for-service play


in ensuring sustainable services.
B.4.2. Renewable Energy
The BCT has renewable energy (RE) resources that
have significant potential. Geothermal manifestations
are found in the mountains of Dakula, Malabang, and
Tuayan. Its complex river systems give the BCT an
estimated 7,380 megawatts of potential hydroelectric
power, in addition to those already being harnessed.
However, watershed degradation, aggravated by climate
change impacts, is affecting river flows that could

applications, especially for productive purposes.


B.4.3. Electrical Cooperative Support to Commercial
and Industrial Investment
To provide good-quality, reliable, and cost-effective
power that will encourage private-sector investment,
which in turn will generate employment, the BDP
recommends an engagement strategy (similar to that being
proposed by Unifrutti with MAGELCO)79 that will benefit
all stakeholders: the new investors that need power
solutions, the ECs that will be strengthened operationally

compromise hydropower availability.

and financially, and households that will have new

The Bangsamoro also has wind resources that can be

also be promoted in declared export-processing zones

harnessed for small wind systems for basic energy


services and rural electrification projects. As with the
rest of the country, solar and wind energy in the BCT can
be harnessed for rural electrification. Biomass is another
significant power source for the region. The extent of
biomass potential has recently been established for the
BCT, pioneered by Lamsan Power Corporation in Sultan
Kudarat, Maguindanao,77 which installed a 15-megawatt
(MW) power plant. Green Earth Enersource Corporation
has signified its intent to invest in a 4.6-MW biomass
power plant, as has the Philippine Trade Center, which
is also putting up its own power plant for its cornstarch
milling plant in Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao.
For ocean energy, a promising site for ocean thermal
conversion (OTEC) lies 18 kms from the town of
Omosmorata, in Basilan.78 These potentials will have
to be considered with long-term financial viability and
sustainability in mind. To translate these potentials
into reality, the Bangsamoro Government will need to
undertake the following:
a. Inventory of the available RE sources through
resource assessments;
b. Formulation of RE Development Plans to translate
RE resource potential to reliable sources of power,
especially for off-grid communities; and

68

c. Showcase household and community level RE

opportunities for electrification. This approach could


in the region, for potential locators with large energy
requirements. Excess power generated in the zones could
be sold to outside consumers at lower costs.
This model can be applied to all major investments that
require dedicated infrastructure, although cases will have
to be assessed on an individual basis. The lack of a grid
in Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi will be a constraining
factor, as generating reliable power there will involve at
least some oil-fired power generation (even if the system is
hybridized by also incorporating renewable energy).
B.4.4. Institutional Strengthening of the Bangsamoro
Electrical Cooperatives
A key challenge confronting the Bangsamoro Government
involves the seven ECs operating in the BCT. While the
Bangsamoro has exclusive power over the regulation of
power generation, transmission, and distribution operating
exclusively in the BCT, the Small Power Utilities Group
of the Central Governments National Power Corporation
(NPC) will continue to provide its technical expertise
during the transition period in increasing generating
capacities that feed electricity to consumers through ECs
operating in Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.
There needs to be a focus on building capacity in
energy services, emphasizing not only the connection

Infrastructure

CH A PT ER

aspect, but also important long-term relationships with

to all EC consumers that business as usual with regard

customers of all kinds. This has not been straightforward

to nonpayment of electric bills would no longer be

in the Bangsamoro, where utility company employees

tolerated.

have often been injured and sometimes killed by


customers, and where today, for example, some of the

B.5. Flooding

secured meter installations that have been rolled out in

Flooding in the BCT can be addressed by creating and

LASURECO have been vandalized or destroyed.

maintaining partnerships with the local communities


for watershed protection and through rehabilitation

Technical assistance is being extended to MAGELCO

programs. Only through such sustainable partnerships

with respect to: (a) working with private-sector investors;

can successful reforestation programs be implemented

(b) executing front-end engineering design (FEED) and

on a sustainable basis. If people living in the forest

detailed engineering design (DED) studies for sub-

areas participate in reforestation programs and are

transmission assets; (c) conducting competitive and

compensated for protecting the forestlands or for planting

transparent procurement; (d) supervising contractor

trees, they will have greater motivation to protect the

installation of lines and substations; (e) working

forest. The needs will have to be regularly monitored to

with lenders on satisfactory security and collateral

ensure that reforestation targets are met.

provisions; (f) managing commercial relationships with


large customers; and (g) managing processes related

The challenge is to make people living in forestlands

to environmental, social, and gender impacts in their

aware and cognizant of the dire consequences of

investment operations. Similar assistance should be

deforestation to those living in flood plains. Likewise, it

extended to other ECs across the Bangsamoro.

is a challenge to the Bangsamoro leadership to provide


people living in the forests with sources of livelihood

Mounting debts to the NEA and NPC seriously affect

other than using fallen trees (which are typically

the ECs financial condition, which results in further

converted into charcoal).

deterioration

of

services.

There

are

possibilities,

however, of legislation under which interest charges of


ECs arrears to the NEA and NPC directors may also be
changed. The Bangsamoro leadership could reach out

C. Summary of Priority Programs


Table 18 sets out priority infrastructure interventions.

69

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 18: Priority Infrastructure Programs


Objectives
Increase volume of passengers
and goods, road density

Priority Programs
Strengthening the Bangsamoro
Infrastructure and Logistics System

Increase household access to


electricity

Energy

Enhance capacity of
Bangsamoro communities
to adapt to climate change
and undertake DRRM for
social justice and to mitigate
displacement

CCA/DRRM-Responsive Infrastructure

Components
Roads and bridges (FMRs), airport and seaport upgrading
for the islands
Developing a transport and logistics masterplan
(including a dedicated plan for FMRs) for the Bangsamoro
that identifies and prioritizes road network development of
FMRs, municipal, provincial and national roads
Tapping the river network of the BCT as alternative and
low-cost mode of transport
Improving drainage system
Study feasibility of reopening Balo-i and Malabang
airports and developing an international airport for the
Bangsamoro
Establishment of quick roads/bridges repair and
maintenance system in BCT
Energy and household electrification investments (grid
and off-grid)
Identifying mechanisms on the use of Lake Lanao waters
for power generation
Establishing mini-hydro electric power plants
Revisiting and reviewing the Mini-Hydro Power Generation
Study
Inventory and assessment of Renewable Energy sources,
including feasibility and engineering studies
Renewable Energy Development Plans for BCT provinces
Showcasing stand-alone household and community
renewable energy applications
Strengthening Bangsamoro Electric Cooperatives through
better partnerships with private investors and institutional
development programs
Ambal-Simuay River Flood Control
Slope protection
Creating and maintaining partnerships with local
communities for watershed protection and rehabilitation
programs

NOTES
72 This chapter deals only with economic physical infrastructure. Infrastructure relating to social services (schools, hospitals, water and sanitation,
etc.) is discussed in Chapter 9.
73 In the absence of FMRs, traders who have access to transportation can more easily monopolize trade in the area. This allows them to dictate the
farmgate prices paid to the farmers, particularly for perishable goods.
74 Electricity demand in terms of connected megawatts (MW) and energy consumption in kilowatt/hours (kWh).
75 Philippine Statistics Authority-Census on Population and Housing (2010).
76 This is one of the powers exclusive to the Bangsamoro Government as provided in the Annex on Power Sharing of the FAB.
77 Philippine Information Agency, PhP 2.5 B investments poured in ARMM in 1st semester of 2014.
78 Benito (2014).
79 Unifrutti, an agribusiness investor, is contemplating a major investment in banana plantations. It will need reliable power for the companys deep
bore well irrigation systems and packing sheds; the load of close to 10 MW will double MAGELCOs current peak load and give it a no-loss, fullpaying customer. Technical losses on the MAGELCO system will be cut in half, the collection rate will double, and revenues will more than double.
By far the cheapest solution for Unifrutti will involve 69 kV sub-transmission lines and associated substations that will be owned and operated
by MAGELCO; these facilities will support an expansion of MAGELCO services to other users as well, such as the existing households and market
areas and new ones that will come as Unifrutti makes its investments. However, MAGELCO is not creditworthy; the key to it being able to play its
role reliably is to do so in partnership with Unifrutti, lenders, government agencies, and donors. An emerging concept would enable MAGELCO to
borrow to construct the power infrastructure, with revenue for electricity services to Unifrutti sequestered so that lenders are assured of payment.

70

Social Services

CH A PT ER

Social Services

71

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Social Services

A. Context: Education, Health, and WaSH in


the Bangsamoro
The Bangsamoro registers some of the countrys worst
social indicators, particularly in the areas of education,

Figure 19: Human Development Index in the Bangsamoro


(20002009)

health, and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH).


Limited access to social services is one of the sources
of injustices that have fueled conflict in the region.80
Years of protracted conflict, underdevelopment, and
mismanagement of public funds have led to destruction
of facilities, loss of equipment, and discouragement of
donors, social service providers and workers.
The result is low educational attainment, poor health
outcomes, and widespread child malnutrition. Though
the high poverty incidence in the Bangsamoro can be

Source: Philippine Human Development Report (2005 and 2012/13)

attributed partly to the lack of good governance and

five

livelihood opportunities, the highly inadequate provision

proportion has completed high school (see Figure 21).

of social services is also a major factor in the decline in the

That this is no artifact of the regions age-structure but

overall welfare of the population, which disproportionately

a real deficiency is confirmed by the large numbers of

affects poor households vis--vis other households.

functionally illiterate adults in the region.

adults has no schooling at all and only a small

These significant barriers to development, compounded


by

repeated

cycles

unfavorable

The Bangsamoros net enrolment rates (SY 2012 and

largely explain why the Human

2013) of 72.5% in primary school and 26.1% in

Development Index (HDI) in the region is significantly

secondary school, respectively, are far below the national

below the national average and has even fallen in recent

averages (95.2% and 64.6%, respectively),82 despite

years (see Figure 19).

recent improvements. Cohort survival is also significantly

neighborhood effects,

of
81

violence

and

A.1. Education

72

lower than the national average. In SY 2011-12, of


students who had enrolled in Grade 1, only 23.1% had

The most telling and relevant fact regarding the state

made it to Grade 6, compared with the national average

of education in the Bangsamoro is that one in every

of 70.9% (see Map 9). In the secondary level, only

Social Services

CH A PT ER

Map 9: Barangay Access to Primary Education Facilities and Distribution of Population by Barangay (612 Years Old) (2010)

Source: PSA-CPH (2010)

Figure 20: Education Attainment, All Ages (2010)

Note: Mindanao refers to Mindanao excluding ARMM.


Source: PSA-CPH (2010)

Figure 21: Education Attainment, 18 Years Old and Above (2013)

Source: PSA-LFS (2013)

73

Bangsamoro Development Plan

45.1% of students who had enrolled for first-year high

The leading causes of morbidity and mortality are

school stayed on up to fourth year; the national average

noncommunicable

is 74.2%. Considered altogether, only one in every 10

country, while tuberculosis and respiratory infections

students who begin elementary education will finish high

are prevalent infectious diseases. Lack of potable water

school. Given the low enrolment and high dropout rates,

and inadequate sanitation and hygiene result in high

less than 6% of children in the ARMM will graduate high

levels of diarrheal diseases. Malnutrition as manifested

from school.

in wasting and stunting is also a significant problem

diseases,

as

elsewhere

in

the

in the Bangsamoro, with very low micronutrient


This situation is the product of a complex of factors,

supplementation levels. Deworming activities have

including the displacement of people owing to conflict,

reached only a limited number of beneficiaries.

ill health, lack of economic opportunities that justify


literacy and formal education, poor delivery of education

Access to essential maternal health services urgently

services, and cultural factors, particularly the low priority

requires improvement. The ARMM is the only region

given to achievements of women and girls. The low

in the country where the proportion of women that

educational attainment and associated high levels of

received antenatal care, at 52.8%, is lower than the

illiteracy compound the development challenges in the

national average of 95.4%.85 Facility-based delivery is

Bangsamoro and further limit livelihood opportunities.

exceptionally low at 12.3%, and only 20.4% of all live


births are attended by a skilled health professional, such

A.2. Health

as a doctor, nurse, or midwife. Absence of maternal

Health outcomes in the ARMM are significantly worse

health services is a major cause of maternal mortality,

than in the rest of the Philippines. Maternal mortality is

with the vacuum being filled by reliance on traditional

67.35 per 100,000 live births in the ARMM, compared

birthing by hilot (practitioners of traditional native

with the national average of 64.76 per 100,000 live

methods). The ARMM also has one of the lowest rates of

births.

full immunization coverage at 29.4% (see Figures 22 and

83

Infant mortality is at 32 per 1,000 live births

in the ARMM, compared with 23.9 nationally.

Figure 22: Percent of Children (1223 Months Old) with No


Vaccinations (19982013)

Note:

84

23).

Figure 23: Percent of Children (1223 Months Old) Who


Received All Basic Vaccinations (19982013)

For 2008 and 2013 figures, data on basic vaccines include BCG, measles and three doses each of DPT and polio,
and hepatitis B, while for 1998 and 2003 figures, basic vaccines exclude hepatitis B.
Source: PSA-NDHS (1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013)

74

Social Services

CH A PT ER

Map 10: Barangay Access to Health Centers and Distribution of Population by Barangay (2010)

Source: PSA-CPH (2010)

With less than half (46.7%) of households having


access to healthcare facilities (see Map 10), provision of

Figure 24: Government Health Workers per 100,000


Population (2011)

preventive and palliative care is similarly limited. This


is partly because of insufficient skilled and licensed/
registered medical personnel and health workers (see
Figure 24) working on full-time basis, especially in the
provision of primary healthcare at rural health units.
Poorly equipped and poorly staffed health facilities and
deficient transportation, communication, and referral
systems further contribute to this problem. In addition,
violent conflict often disrupts the existing healthcare
network, as it destroys infrastructure and interrupts
access and telecommunications networks. High-level

Note: * Expressed per 10,000 population


Source: DOH-FHSIS (2011)

care, access to medication, and hospital services are

there are no tertiary hospitals in the region. The only

also insufficient, with 2,326 hospital beds in the ARMM

tertiary facility in the BCT is the Cotabato Regional

unable to meet the existing DOH standards. Significantly,

Medical Center (CRMC), which is outside of ARMM.

75

Bangsamoro Development Plan

The prohibitive cost of medical care and hospitalization


prevents households from seeking formal healthcare,
which results in a very low utilization rate in the region.
Only 43.7% of ARMM households have access to health
insurance coverage, compared with 63.9% in Mindanao
and 62.8% nationwide in 2013. Similar pattern is true for
health insurance coverage among women (see Figures
25 and 26). Both supply-side and cultural factors are
also important barriers to expanding health insurance
coverage. PhilHealth still does not accredit many
hospitals in the region, and a non-Shariah compliant
insurance system is considered haram.
Figure 25: Percent of Households with Health Insurance (2013)

A.3. Nutrition
Despite some improvement between 2011 and 2013,
the ARMM ranked 7th, 2nd, and 5th highest among
regions in the Philippines in prevalence of underweight,
stunting, and wasting, respectively, among children
below five years old (see Table 19). Given the adverse
consequences of a high malnutrition rate among children
on the quality of human capital in the future, the
Bangsamoro Government will need to devote special
attention and considerable resources to this concern
during the short and the medium term.

Figure 26: Percent of Women (1549 Years Old) with


Health Insurance (2013)

Source: PSA-NDHS (2013)

Table 19: Prevalence of Undernutrition Among Children (05 Years Old) in ARMM (20082013)
Year

Area

% Underweight

% Stunting

% Wasting

2008

Philippines

20.7

32.4

6.9

ARMM

24.4

39.7

10.3

Philippines

20.2

33.6

7.3

ARMM

26.2

43.5

10.0

Philippines

19.9

30.3

7.9

ARMM

21.9

39.0

8.5

2011
2013

Source: DOSTFNRINNS (2008, 2011, and 2013)

76

Social Services

A.4. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WaSH)


Despite abundant water resources, ARMM communities

CH A PT ER

Figure 27: Percent of Households with Access to Improved


Safe Water Supply (2011)

have limited access to safe drinking water and sanitation


facilities (see Map 11). Access to safe water supply and
sanitary toilet by households is low (see Figures 27
and 28), which is a major factor in regular outbreaks
of water-borne diseases. There are conflicting data on
access to safe water supply (DOH-FHSIS 2011: 57.1%
vs. FIES 2012: 36.6%) and sanitary toilets (DOH-FHSIS
2011: 26.9% vs. FIES 2012: 22.5%), which needs to be
addressed to give a better grasp of the true situation in
the BCT. However, the current dominant practice in the
area is the use of readily available water sources, such as
dug wells and spring water, which are likely to be easily
contaminated.

Figure 28: Percent of Households with Access to Sanitary


Toilet Facilities (2011)

Among the key challenges in the WaSH sector is the


project-type approach of providing these facilities in
the region, which has led to WaSH provision that is
fragmented at best. WaSH provision is not only a health
issue but also concerns economic, social, environmental,
governance and cultural issues. Moreover, cycles of
displacement over the years due to outbreaks of conflict
and natural disasters have also affected population
and settlement patterns, which confound attempts to
determine the coverage of supply and the populations
access to WaSH services in the Bangsamoro territories.
Source: DOH-FHSIS (2011)

A.5. Housing
Shelter is a basic right of every person. The 827,032

(backlog plus new households) in the region at 80,896

households in the region86 are unevenly distributed

units in 2014.

within the ARMM (see Table 20). Settlements tend to


cluster along the main road network of the mainland

More than 20,000 families in the Bangsamoro are informal

and along the coastline/seashore of island provinces. As

settlers or live in areas without consent of owners.

a result, most facilities and services are inaccessible to

According to a 2011 survey of the National Housing

many people living in the hinterland or islands. A big part

Authority (NHA), most of them were in Sulu. The second

of the rural population is overlooked in the provision of

and third highest numbers of informal settler families (ISF)

these facilities and services.

were in Tawi-Tawi and Basilan. Most of the houses were


built during the past 15 years. These are made of wood,

The Housing and Urban Development Coordinating

bamboo and sawali-matted bamboo strips, and makeshift

Council (HUDCC) recorded the total housing needs

materials.87

77

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Map 11: Barangay Access to Waterworks System and Distribution of Household Population by Barangay (2010)

Source: PSA-CPH (2010)

Table 20: Housing Needs Estimate by Housing Indicator in ARMM (20102017)


2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

21,230

21,910

22,326

22,750

23,182

23,622

24,071

24,528

186

188

192

196

200

204

208

212

Dilapidated/ Condemned

2,835

2,871

2.926

2,983

3,041

3,100

3,160

3,221

Doubled up Households

37,545

38,024

38,760

39,510

40,274

41,053

41,847

42,656

9,181

9,356

9,534

9,715

9,899

10,087

10,279

71,174

73,560

74,973

76,412

77,878

79,373

80,896

1. Accumulated Need
Rent-free w/o consent of
owners + informal settler
Homeless

2. Future / Recurrent Needs


New Households
Total
Source: HUDCC (2014)

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Social Services

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About 10% of the ISFs will need resettlement because

medium term. This highlights the distinctive88 policy

they live in danger areas in Lamitan City in Basilan,

reforms in a post-conflict environment.

Bangungul in Sulu, and Panglima Sugala in Tawi-Tawi.


During the transition period, interventions shall be
Land ownership is a major and complex problem, being

geared toward the social services by increasing access

a result of a series of events spanning decades that have

to quality basic services and reducing the risk of conflict

influenced the internal development in the Bangsamoro.

recurrence by making the peace dividends felt by

It is also often the cause of rido.

affected communities.

A.6. Gender and Development

Programs and projects in the medium term shall be

As the Bangsamoro Government faces the challenge of


rebuilding a society, it is noted that women in all sectors
can play in an important role in a post-conflict setting.
At present, women are still marginalized in the political,
economic, and social structures.
The

highest

Gender Disparity Index (GDI)

anchored in enhancing the human capital formation


in the Bangsamoro, through the deepening of the
implementation of universal access to basic education
and health, and creating a skilled and able workforce,
to support the long-term prospects of high and stable
growth.

in

the Philippines was registered in the provinces of


Maguindanao, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, and Basilan. Compared
with men, women in these areas are disadvantaged in
terms of standard of living, educational attainment, and
life expectancy.
A number of Muslim women have left for work in foreign
countries to help support their families. Like other
migrant workers, they are subjected to or face the risk of
exploitation and physical abuse, and the situation is often
exacerbated by their having low education and lacking
awareness of their rights.
In the Bangsamoro area, most cases of gender-based
violence (GBV) against women and girls go unreported
because of a culture of silence. GBV constitutes a breach

Greater attention will be given to delivering social


services to women, the youth, and vulnerable groups
who occupy the tail-end of the social development
ladder. Special institutional arrangements, including
creative/alternative mechanisms for service delivery,
will have to be forged by the Bangsamoro Government
during the short and the medium term to ensure that
their social development needs are adequately met.
B.1. Education
The short-term strategies in the area of education include
the following:
B.1.1. Intensifying Delivery of Learning, Competency,
and Skills Development Programs for the
Illiterate Inactive Youth Population (1524
Years Old) in the Bangsamoro

of the fundamental right to life, liberty, security, dignity,

Providing jobs to unskilled young adults, MILF members,

nondiscrimination, and physical and mental integrity. It

and their communities would significantly influence the

reinforces gender inequality and limits the participation

pace of the Bangsamoro economys recovery during

of women in meaningful development.

the short term, and reduce the potential for renewed

B. Strategic Goals
Providing access to basic services to the Bangsamoro
people entails both a targeted strategy in the short term
and a spatially- and socially-blind strategy over the

conflict. At the same time, unskilled labor will need to be


provided with skills to be absorbed into the productive
sphere. In 2013, some 26.1% of the ARMMs 132,119
inactive youth population (1524 years old) were
unschooled or had not completed elementary level
education.89

79

Bangsamoro Development Plan

During the transition period, priority will be given to

early childhood development programs under which

formal or skills/competency-based training through the

Community Learning Centers are being built near

Balik Eskwela program and other programs for out-of-

elementary schools in remote areas of the ARMM.

school youth, including the Department of Educations


Alternative Learning System (ALS), the Abot-Alam

Similar initiatives that will provide platforms for skills

program, technical-vocational training provided by

development to transform small business ideas into

TESDA and accredited service providers. Job training and

reality among the entrepreneurial adults should be

apprenticeship schemes in private companies could also

supported in the Bangsamoro. Innovations that combine

support this objective.

adult literacy, entrepreneurial skills development, and


business mentorship will target the entrepreneurial and

The content of existing technical-vocational and skills

the vulnerable adults, particularly women. Completion

development modules will need to be reviewed to

of the training program would give trainees eligibility to

address the unique economic and political landscape of

apply for a small loan to start a business.

the post-conflict Bangsamoro and the growing concern


about the apparent mismatch between demand in the

A tie-up on the adult literacy program and the DSWDs

private sector and the supply of skills. The problem is not

Sustainable Livelihood Program, which provides two-

peculiar to the Bangsamoro; TESDA figures for the whole

track training for micro-enterprise development and

country show that in 2008 and 2009, only 28.5% of

employment, is useful. On-air radio adult literacy

TESDA scholars were absorbed into the labor force after

programs have also proved useful. The Magbassa Kita

graduation.

Foundation, Inc. provides a three-month literacy and


numeracy course for illiterate adults that incorporates

B.1.2. Intensifying Delivery of Literacy Programs in the


Bangsamoro

peaceful resolution of conflict in its lessons, under its

There are 319,815 illiterate adults90 in the ARMMby

The Learning Livelihood for Food Security of the ARMM

itself a significant barrier to achieving the Millennium

Social Fund that provides community-based livelihood

Development Goals and the objective of Education for

and skills training for illiterate adult women can be

All. Improving adult literacy, especially among mothers,

replicated for scaling up in the Bangsamoro.

Literacy for Peace and Development (LIPAD) Project.

generates economic and social returns that can limit the


transmission of poverty from generation to generation.

Adult literacy programs in the Bangsamoro, especially in


the ARMM provinces, have thus far been uncoordinated

Improving adult literacy and child literacy and helping

and donor-dependent. A comprehensive assessment of

people better appreciate the value of education are

existing adult literacy programs, including a review of

associated with a wide range of beneficial results, from

instructional materials in the region, will therefore be

better nutrition to improved social trust and confidence.

necessary for the program to become part of the future


operational program of the Bangsamoro Government.

A number of existing initiatives by the Central


Government, donors, and CSOs can be supported to
push the agenda of promoting adult literacy in the
Bangsamoro. Through the ALS supported by ARMMBEAM (Basic

Education

Assistance

in Mindanao),

both teachers and parents can gain functional literacy


and learn livelihood skills. This is supplemented by

80

B.1.3. Improving Access to Basic Education for


Internally Displaced Children in Temporary
Schools, Evacuation Centers, and Camps
Improving access to basic education together with
supplemental provisions of medical, psychosocial, and
feeding programs, particularly for children in temporary

Social Services

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schools such as in camps, would be key to any initial

access to basic education, both English and Arabic,

attempts at integrating IDPs into the mainstream national

and also IP education, in all sectors. The adoption of

education system.

the K-12 program in the national education system will


likely put an additional strain on the already stretched

According to the WFP-WB survey91 on IDPs in 2011, a

basic education in the Bangsamoro if the inadequacy

significant portion of IDP households with children six

of school inputs is not properly addressed. There are

to 12 years old missed attending elementary school at

not enough educational facilities with functional toilets,

least once a week (mainland: 36%; islands: 51%), mainly

electricity, and drinking water. There is a prevalence of

because of poor health (see Table 21).

under-qualified or unqualified teachers, and there is a


proliferation of ghost teachers and ghost schools.

In households that have experienced prolonged or


multiple cycles of displacements and which decide

Full-scale development of culture-sensitive instructional

to return home, special accreditation of learning for

materials, including textbooks, would not only address

returnees would be indispensable. Without it, school

the need to accommodate the cultural diversity of the

children may be forced to reenter the education system

Bangsamoro in the national educational system but also

at lower level because their prior learning would be

signal the start of a fundamental reform.

inadequate. Teachers and school administrators in camps


who have developed skills in multi-grade teaching may

Years of protracted conflict in the Bangsamoro have

also be given opportunities to engage in curriculum

disrupted schooling, with plausible consequences on

development.92

the supply side: rapid increase of incomplete schools,

B.1.4. Enhancing Access to Basic EducationEnglish,


Arabic, and also IP Educationby
Improving School Facilities, Instructional
Materials, and Other Resource Factors
These

targeted

interventions

should

be

pursued

simultaneously with continuing efforts at improving

and emergence of schools that offer multi-grade classes,


at the primary level. Absence of complete primary
schools makes it impossible for children to finish primary
schooling in some Bangsamoro areas.
However, incomplete primary schools, rather than being
restricted, should be strengthened and made complete.

Table 21: Access to Education for Internally Displaced Persons (2011)


Mainland

Islands

% of IDP households with children 612 years old

67%

75%

% of IDP households with children attending


elementary schools

97%

93%

% of IDP households with children 612 years old


missing school for at least once in the last 6 months
(from survey period)

36%

51%

Top 3 reasons for missing school

Sickness (58%)
Sickness (74%)
School is too far (19%)
School is too far (57%)
Children do not want to go (15%) Cannot afford school (39%)

Source: WFP and WB (2011)

81

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 22: Distribution of Elementary Schools by Type (SY 2013 and 2014)
Total No. of
Schools

Incomplete
Schools

Multi-Grade
Schools

Multi-Shift
Schools*

ARMM

2,210

32.9%

22.4%

2.1%

Mindanao (excluding
ARMM)

9,169

6.2%

36.3%

1.5%

38,689

8.4%

31.7%

3.3%

Philippines

Note: * Refers to both regular and SPED elementary schools


Source: DepEd-ARMM-EBEIS (SY 2013 and 2014)

This is in view of the school supply gap and the

Interventions to address the needs of multi-grade schools

diminished stock of human capital resulting from conflict

include adoption of a multi-grade curriculum that treats

and out-migration. Special accreditation would also be

subjects or courses as part of an integrated continuum of

important to facilitate ease of mobility of students across

discourse, school and classroom management processes

the education ladder and curtail non-completion among

that instill the value of peer collaboration and self-study,

learners.

availability of in-service teacher training/preparation,


multi-grade

teacher

recognition,

distribution

of

There is also an urgent need to deploy community-

supplementary modular instructional or learning materials

based/resident teachers who will be recruited from the

to facilitate flexible classroom organization and learning

local population based on some flexible arrangements

processes, assessment based on individual learners pace,

on competency to deliver the task assigned. Their

as well as involvement of families and community, all for

deployment

the purpose of fostering active learning among learners.

shall

be

matched

with

salary-based

incentives to compensate for the risks and hazards that


community-based/resident teachers will face once

A multi-grade class system, as an alternative delivery

deployed in far-flung or conflict-affected areas.

mechanism, provides learners a chance to resume


schooling after dropping out for various reasons, at

The perennial problem of deficiencies in school

any time possible, especially in a tenuous post-conflict

resources and the proliferation of IDP communities have

landscape. Multi-grade education has been practiced

prompted some schools to adopt multi-grade classes.

since the distant past in traditional Islamic schools in the

In most places, however, many multi-grade schools are

Bangsamoro, where it is seen as a more effective pedagogy

poorly equipped to implement multi-grade education, as

to promote the potentials of the learner and as a force that

they still unsuitably employ mono-grade curricula and

fosters community cooperation. In some madaris, elements

the teachers lack the needed preparation for effective

of multi-grade schooling still remain at its core of training

delivery of the pedagogy. Despite the low number of

so that the Department of Educations current efforts at

multi-grade schools in the ARMM relative to the national

upgrading madaris education into the public education

average (see Table 22), the importance of learning from

system should accommodate this multi-grade system.

the previous experience of the Multi-Grade Program in

82

Philippine Education, especially in the context of conflict-

The Bangsamoro Parliament shall enact a Bangsamoro

affected areas where uneven distribution of pupils in a

Educational System that will be responsive to the needs,

classroom is the norm, will be useful.

aspirations of the Bangsamoro.

Social Services

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B.1.5. Supporting Efforts at Improving Basic School


Data Generation and Monitoring Capability of
the Bangsamoro Transition Government

However, only 5.3% of its population in 2010 had college

It will be necessary to have a full accounting of the

administration, business administration, entrepreneurship

number and locations of schools and an assessment

and

of the quality of facilities and instructional materials

community

and programs, including the curricula of ibtidaiya

possibly research and development to staff the regional

(elementary school) and thanawiya (secondary school)

government, economy and civil society. Considering the

in MILF communities (BCT) and catchment areas before

urgent need to recruit such personnel, especially among

these are accredited to the national educational system.

the local population, it will be useful to experiment with

This will be pursued simultaneously with the ongoing

more flexible arrangements that emphasize competency for

efforts to map out the state of educational facilities and

the tasks to be assigned.

degrees. Deliberate efforts will be needed across a wide


range of subjects, including teacher-training, public
accounting,

health

development,

and

social-welfare

agricultural

services,

extension

and

status of teachers, principals, and students under the


incumbent regional government, in order to weed out

As part of the revitalization of tertiary education system,

fictitious schools and underperforming schools and

issues on allocative efficiency, quality, access, and

ghost teachers and ghost students.

relevance are present and must be dealt with, as the region


gears toward calls for modernizing its higher education

Over the medium term, the Bangsamoro Government

institutions attuned to the demands and needs of the

shall deepen the implementation of universal access

regional and global economies.

to basic education and create a mass of educated


reformists.

B.1.7. Upgrading Social Services to Encourage Skilled


Workers to Return

B.1.6. Building a Critical Mass of Educated Human


Resources in the Bangsamoro

Skilled and healthy workers have a high propensity to

Building a healthy, educated, and skilled resource base

diaspora of such workers from the Bangsamoro. A solution

in the Bangsamoro is a key factor in accelerating long-

is to encourage them to return because they will be needed

term economic growth, as having improved human

in the regions socioeconomic development, including the

capital tends to engender knowledge spillover and

delivery of quality basic education and health services. The

innovation. Toward that goal, it will be essential to

challenge is to provide them with employment, livelihood,

create a critical mass of educated people in the medium

and business opportunities, together with quality education

term. Providing scholarships for higher education,

and health services for them and their families.

escape a conflict situation,94 and so there has been a

domestic and international, and training in executive


programs and specialized technical skills would be a

In the medium term, the Bangsamoro Government will

major step in institution-building.

invest in upgrading the education and health facilities


as well as the deployment of skilled health workers and

The Bangsamoro also needs to revitalize its tertiary

teachers. Private-sector sponsorships of some components

education system to enhance its human capital stock

of educational facilities or services, through the Adopt-

and to generate a human resource base that can adapt

a-School Program, can be a congenial arrangement to

and compete in whatever fields or industry they are

encourage the participation of the private sector in meeting

immersed in the Bangsamoro. There are six universities

the social objective of education for all. Similar efforts

with

State

shall be undertaken in the health sector, such as Adopt-

University, Notre Dame University, and the University of

a-Hospital Program or Adopt-a-Health-Center Program,

Southern Mindanaoand 93 colleges and academies.93

especially in remote areas in the Bangsamoro.

three

satellite

campusesMindanao

83

Bangsamoro Development Plan

B.1.8. Strengthening the Madrasah Educational System,


and also IP Education

services is a paramount concern of the Bangsamoro in

The madrasah system, and also the IP educational system,

lessons learned from the previous experience of the ARG95

will be strengthened to encourage more Bangsamoro to

with the following essential measures to be undertaken by

enroll and to ensure that they gain the knowledge and skills

the Bangsamoro Ministry of Education: (a) strengthening

that will enable them to be productively employed.

social

the medium to the long term. The BDP can build on the

accountability

through

citizen

engagement

in

school management in collaboration with government and


A review of curricula is necessary to reflect both the

NGOs to emphasize the evolving parental choice and civil

educational policies of the Central Government and

the

society participation in terms of school choice; (b) adopting

Bangsamoro Government. There shall be accreditation of

results/performance-based budgeting and accountability

madaris and schools offering IP education, as well as training

management to foster fiscal discipline combined with

of teachers and professionalization of asatidz (teachers)

transparency of targets, budget, and performance; and

not only in traditional fields of learning but also in English

(c) ensuring integration of education budget to align

and technical and science courses, in order to create an

education priorities with policy or plans. The third item

environment conducive to acquiring technical and scientific

will be extremely useful in encouraging a fiscal culture of

proficiency.

predictability of the budgeting framework.

The Bangsamoro Government shall adopt a system of

B.2. Health

education consistent with the culture, traditions, and

The strategic thrust of the health sector during the transition

customs of the Bangsamoro. As such, it shall examine the

period is to expand the implementation of universal quality

present curricula in order to suit the educational needs of

healthcare, starting in areas most disrupted by conflict and

the Bangsamoro.

in areas where the most vulnerable are clustered. Focusing


on these areas would have a significant impact on regional

B.1.9. Scaling Up Technical and Vocational Skills


Development

health indicators.

Courses oriented toward developing vocational and other


skills will be offered based on the requirements of employers
inside and outside the Bangsamoro area. Partnerships with

B.2.1. Improving Access to Quality Healthcare


Services in Camps, Key Secondary Cities, and
Isolated Communities

the private sector will be formed in designing/updating

Coordinated and implemented by a Project Task Force, the

vocational and technical curricula and creating internship

strategy can be achieved through:

or apprenticeship arrangements in response to the specific


human capital needs of companies in a new politico-

a. Health caravan for the Bangsamoro. This will be

economic environment. Special adult education programs

a medical and dental outreach program consisting

will be undertaken, focusing on areas of the Bangsamoro

of, but not limited to: consultations; minor surgical

with a high incidence of adult illiteracy, such as areas in the

procedures; mobile diagnostic clinics (e.g., in buses

island provinces. Similarly, programs geared at maintaining

and boats); health education and promotion of proper

and increasing school enrollment levels and special training

nutrition; healthy lifestyle and noncommunicable

programs for out-of-school youth will be launched.

diseases prevention; oral health/hygiene promotion;

B.1.10 Institutional Strengthening in the Delivery of


Educational Services
Institutional

strengthening

to

create

an

enabling

environment for effective and efficient delivery of education

84

information on PhilHealth benefits; cancer prevention;


water, sanitation, and hygiene; campaign against
smoking and chronic respiratory diseases; campaign
against infectious diseases; and promoting program for
family planning and responsible parenthood.

Social Services

CH A PT ER

vaccines to rural health units (RHUs). This will

B.2.2. Supporting Efforts at Improving Basic Health


Data Generation and Monitoring Capability

supplement current allocations in Bangsamoro areas

Continued efforts in mapping out the location, the

with the greatest need. Some 87,606 children (0-2

quantity and quality of health infrastructure, and status

years old) in the ARMM have not received any basic

of medical personnel will be pursued to ascertain the

vaccination to meet the 2013 national percentage-

true state of affairs in the delivery of quality health

average.

services in the Bangsamoro. A comprehensive needs-

b. Provision of equipment, devices, medicines, and

assessment of health facilities and personnel is also


c. PhilHealth

beneficiary

awareness

campaign.

necessary.

Information on PhilHealth enrollment and benefits,


including existing health facilities, will be provided to
communities. In the ARMM alone, 106,419 households
have no form of health insurance coverage whatsoever.
Their needs must be addressed if the region is to attain
the 2013 national percentage-average.96

The poorest of the poor shall be reached through


PhilHealths Indigent Program. MILF members and their
communities most in need will also be sought out in
line with the universal healthcare policy.

will connect the field health workers to their rural health


physicians and, if necessary, to physicians in cities
elsewhere in the Philippines via telecommunications.
f. Media and information campaign on all health
programs. A Bangsamoro-wide information campaign
popularizing the various health programs that can be
availed of in all RHUs and Barangay Health Stations
(BHSs) will be launched in partnership with the media.
This demand generation activity will be led by a Project
Health Team and will ensure that the Bangsamoro
themselves

of

health

services,

especially during the health caravan.


g. Public-Private Partnerships. Private sector participation
in Bangsamoro public sector health programs could be
explored especially in areas related to strengthening
public health services, maternal and child healthcare
and nutrition, educating the public, and provision of
infrastructure and facilities.

on a Bangsamoro Health Takaful, a Shariah-compliant

B.2.4. Scaling Up the Existing CCT and CDD and


Other Social Protection Programs in the
Bangsamoro
Existing programs that focus on improving health and
education outcomes in the Bangsamoro, including the

e. Launching of the Bangsamoro Telehealth Project. This

avail

An analytical and feasibility study will be conducted


social health insurance system.

d. Distribution of sponsored PhilHealth insurance cards.

constituents

B.2.3. Conducting Analytical and/or Feasibility Study


on the Bangsamoro Social Health Insurance
System

CCT and the CDD programs under the ARMM Social


Fund

Program (ASFP) and the Mindanao Trust Fund-

Reconstruction and Development Program (MTF-RDP),


will be accelerated and their coverage expanded.
There is need also to continue programs for persons with
disabilities and programs for the elderly, and healing
programs for traumatized women and children from
armed conflict and domestic abuse.

Implementation

issues related to under-reporting among victims of


domestic abuse and disability should be seriously
assessed

to

address

bottlenecks,

as are non-

accreditation of support health facilities for PhilHealth,


and wide use of PhilHealth cards as collateral for
small loans by

CCT beneficiaries. Establishment of

a residential care facility for the elderly, similar to


the current program of DSWD, may not be culturally
feasible, as it might overcrowd the existing informal
social arrangement such as tabang or kapamamagawida
where local culture values filial home care of the elderly
and shuns families who commit the aged to externallysponsored residential care facilities.

85

Bangsamoro Development Plan

In the medium term, the Bangsamoro Government will

Establishment of a Shariah-compliant social health

need to deepen the implementation of universal access to

insurance program provider, as an attached agency of the

healthcare, taking into account the cultural diversity and

Bangsamoro Ministry of Health, will be explored based on

sensitivity in the provision of quality healthcare.

the findings of the analytical study conducted during the

B.2.5. Strengthening the Human Resource Capacity


Competencies of health service providers in the Bangsamoro,
especially in maternal, newborn, and child health and
nutrition (MNCHN), will be upgraded to enable them to
provide quality health services. The scholarships and return
service contracts described above will be continued. In
addition, there will be management training for health
modules,

including

modules

on

good

governance,

transparency, accountability, leadership, and management, as


well as moral values transformation.
B.2.6. Upgrading Health Facilities and Expanding
PhilHealth Accreditation of Hospitals
To build on findings of the comprehensive needs-assessment
of health facilities that will be carried out during the
transition years, the Health Facility Enhancement Program
(HFEP) of the Central Government will be tapped to upgrade
existing health facilities. Equipment, devices, supplies, drugs
and medicine will also need to be provided and replenished
regularly.
B.2.7. Intensifying the Referral System of Healthcare
Services in Remote Areas both in the Mainland
and in Island Provinces

transition years.
B.3. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH)
B.3.1. Adopting a Governance-Oriented Approach to
WaSH
Water resources in the Bangsamoro areas are limited
and at risk, and have to be managed for the good of
everyone.

Water

supply,

sanitation

provision,

and

hygiene promotion will need to be a priority component


of poverty reduction initiatives and to be treated as a
service.97
a. Decentralization and subsidiarity. Consistent with
the spirit of autonomy that underpins the creation
of the Bangsamoro, the delivery and management of
WaSH will have to be based on decentralization and
subsidiarity, and be supportive of good governance.
WaSH service delivery and management will need
to involve providers and other stakeholders at the
lowest appropriate levels.
b. Participation. It is essential to promote systematic
participation

and

enhanced

accountability,

responsiveness and transparency of Bangsamoro

This will build on the gains of the Bangsamoro telehealth

governance bodies in the provision of WaSH. A

initiative in order to address the shortage of physicians in

governance-oriented approach to WaSH entails

hard-to-reach areas, particularly in the rural health units.

systematic participation of many stakeholders in

HFEP resources will be tapped for the provision of effective

different roles, such as communities, various levels

telecommunications equipment. The project could be

of local governments, regional bodies, national

implemented in collaboration with the National Telehealth

agencies, CSOs, the private sector, and international

Center of the University of the Philippines, Manila.

partners. The involvement of these actors and

B.2.8. Expansion of Social Health Insurance System


Implementation of the government-sponsored Sajahatra

stakeholders will have to be managed, and the


Bangsamoro Governments capacity to do so will
have to be strengthened.

Philhealth will need to be intensified. Efforts will be needed

86

to provide PhilHealth cards to all eligible beneficiaries, and

c. Standards. Provision of WaSH services in the

information provided on services (including at point-of-care

Bangsamoro region should be consistent with

services), and PhilHealth focal points stationed in hospitals.

Philippine National Standards for Water Supply

Social Services

CH A PT ER

and Sanitation Facilities. Any water service intervention

b. WaSH Development Roadmap. An overall roadmap for

should be at Level 2, at the minimum, to avoid the

WaSH in each locality will be the basis for initiatives

perennial problem of the communitys inability to sustain

that build on one another progressively to achieve

the operations and maintenance of a Level 1 water

the WaSH vision and targets. The roadmap has to be

system.

based on data, technically sound, and developed in a


participatory manner. Essential to these roadmaps are

In addition, interventions should be compliant with the

data on water demand98 and supply. Subsequent WaSH

Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water,

projects will have to use the local roadmap as reference

the standards on appropriate water and sanitation

and will be supportive of the set directions and targets.

technology,

plumbing,

The Bangsamoro Government will need to develop a

household water treatment and storage, and other criteria

regional framework or roadmap to provide strategic

and benchmarks provided by law. Not achievable

guidance, targets, and support to the local units with

overnight,

respect to WaSH planning.

those

these

related

are

to

domestic

standards

to

which

WaSH

stakeholders in the Bangsamoro should aspire.


c. Imputing value to WaSH services. A progressive
d. Database. An inventory of WaSH service facilities,

approach to WaSH also means helping communities

implemented as early as possible during the Bangsamoro

regard it as a valued service. By learning to value

transition, is crucial to ascertain the existing condition of

WaSH, households will be discouraged from engaging

supply and sanitation, and determine actual demand.

in

B.3.2. Adopting Graduated and Integrated Approaches


to WaSH Development Within Integrated Water
Resource Management and Climate Change
Adaptation
a. Alignment with broader frameworks. Comprehensive
delivery and management of WaSH in the Bangsamoro
will need to be approached in a graduated manner and in
a way consistent with the frameworks of Integrated Water
Resources Management (IWRM) and climate change
adaptation.
WaSH service delivery cannot be treated in isolation
from the other natural resources in the locality such
as watersheds, water bodies, and coastal ecosystems.
WaSH initiatives should be designed with the ecosystems
in mind and should not be pursued at their expense.
WaSH development also needs to factor in the economy
by taking note of the water requirements of economic
activities such as agriculture, energy and industry, and
the pressures of pollution-causing economic activities.
Extreme weather conditions and other uncertainties
created by climate change will require that WaSH
initiatives have to be climate-proofed.

wasteful

consumption

and

pollution-causing

activities. Enough resources can be generated locally


for the operations and maintenance of WaSH systems.
Over time, communities can be assisted through
a variety of strategies that include different forms
of payment (such as payment in kind, in labor or
skills provision, with connection charges phased in
gradually; flexible payment terms), minimal charges
that are fair and affordable, among others. A privatepublic partnership shall be explored to encourage
entrepreneurs to provide suitable and acceptable
technologies, such as water services using mobile
filtering technologies, among others.
Service providers should be prepared to reduce the
indirect costs of water, even by initially subsidizing
low-income households and other vulnerable groups to
make sure that no one is denied access. A minimal tariff
may be adopted, at least to sustain the operations and
maintenance of the system, while service providers can
take advantage of scale to cover the capital expenditure.
Setting the appropriate tariff for WaSH will need to
consider affordability and determine the viability gap to
be subsidized, so as not to hinder household ability to
procure other essential goods and services.99

87

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Regulatory bodies would need to ensure that

change at the household level. The Bangsamoro

such practices as profiteering and price-fixing

Government may encourage households to invest in

are avoided. The commitment to keep WaSH

improved water supply and sanitary toilets in exchange

affordable also entails selection of appropriate

for household durable goods such as solar power

technologies and other resources, from construction/

packages.

implementation, operation and maintenance to


future growth. The selection will also need to

B.3.4. WaSH in Emergency Response


In more recent times the ability of responders from

consider climate change resilience.

government, civil society, and international partners


d. Capacity-building. The orientation of the Protect,

to provide WaSH support in emergency situations

(Ruggie

has improved in relative terms with the creation of

Framework) shall be promoted. In addition, the

coordinating mechanisms, better information-sharing,

capacity of the regulatory and implementing bodies

more targeted responses, and the use of the SPHERE

at different levels will have to be enhanced in terms

standards.

Respect,

and

Remedy

Framework

of their ability to: (1) carry out technical functions or


tasks, (2) commit and engage, (3) relate and attract

Appropriate WaSH facilities are important to ensure that

resources and support, (4) continuously improve

women and children are not subjected to sexual and

(adapt and self-renew), and (5) balance diversity and

other forms of violence in emergency settings. A state

coherence.

of readiness to provide WaSH emergency response will

100

have to be maintained and measures taken to address


persistent issues encountered in more recent dislocations

B.3.3. Promoting Behavior Change


Community groups and CSOs with a WaSH mandate
will be encouraged to initiate or respond positively to
engagements with regional and local governments and

such as variability in the emergency WaSH kits provided


by different responders.

conduct resource inventory; identify priorities, service

B.4. Housing (Sustainable Bangsamoro Settlements


Program and Special Housing Needs Assistance
Package)

levels, and options; determine technology, human,

A Sustainable Bangsamoro Settlements Program with a

financial and other resource requirements; monitor and

Special Housing Needs Assistance Package (SHNAP) will

evaluate the implementation of WaSH responses and

be launched to include the following in the short term:

service providers. To be developed are the abilities to:

communicate the results of the monitoring and evaluation.


B.4.1. Priority Housing for IDPs
Local leaders (religious, traditional, and community), the
media, and educational institutions and other culturebearing bodies can make significant contributions to
prevent or modify unhelpful behavior and introduce
better ones. The Ulamah in particular can help Muslims
in the Bangsamoro better appreciate the connections
between

purity/cleanliness

and

worship

and

thus

improve WaSH practices. These local leaders will need


to be supported in their information, education, and
communication efforts. Incentive designs and schemes
are powerful and effective tools to influence behavioral

88

Particular

focus

will

need

to

be

devoted

to

noncombatants who were displaced by the armed


conflict. In areas where growth and development
are hampered by internal displacement, IDPs can be
bridges of peace in the Bangsamoro, given their
extensive family ties and connection with groups in
conflict with the government. Conversely, when IDPs
feel neglected, are without stable living conditions and
isolated from mainstream society, they can be multipliers
of social discontent.101 Community housing programs
could be undertaken where suitable and appropriate.

Social Services

CH A PT ER

B.4.2. Integrated Return and Development Programs for


the Economically Displaced Bangsamoro (IRDPEDB)

the medium and the long term.

The effects of the lack of economic programs and good

development of their own homeland. Also, it will also

governance are manifold in terms of insecurity and the loss

ensure that the dividends of peace are fairly distributed

of moral ascendancy. They transfuse from one family to a

among the various residents of the Bangsamoro region,

larger family---the clanor from one family to other families

given their active participation in the development

in the community. Further, violence is also vulnerable due

process.

This will aid the

Bangsamoro to realize their full potential and fulfill


their collective creativity

as they contribute to the

to scarcity of economic opportunities where the people vie


against one another in every way to get hold of the limited

As the situation of the Bangsamoro evolves affirmatively,

resources in the area.

the BDP recognizes the imperative need to address


surmountable

issues

and

concerns

affecting

the

One of the effects is the influx of Bangsamoro people in

economically displaced Bangsamoro people. They have

the various part of the metropolitan of Luzon and Visayas

moved from their place and dwelled susceptibly outside

to find a living is caused by the dismal economic condition

the Bangsamoro area. The Bangsamoro Government shall

and the absence of livelihood opportunities in the different

implement integrated and sustainable socioeconomic

localities of the Bangsamoro. It has been exacerbated the

programs and projects for them.

people living condition when most of these people engaged


in hazardous business just to generate income if not to

B.4.3. Housing Finance

survive. Some of them are caught by committing crimes

Alternative funds will be created that will spur housing

which brought them mostly at several jails in Metro Manila.

production. A financing window will be made available


to low-income families, aside from regular housing

This

unwelcome

condition

that

proliferate

in

the

programs of the national government, such as the

Bangsamoro area contributes to unproductive growth in the

Community Mortgage Programs, the NHFMC or Pag-IBIG

region. It has also created more dissatisfaction in life which

Fund, and the like. The participation of NGOs shall also

made them coursed to an aberrated path from focusing

be expanded in socialized housing, building of strong

on the proper utilization of potential resources they have

public-private partnership, and increasing the capacity

in their place especially on agriculture and fishery and

of low-income earners. Studies and consultations will be

disappearance of workforce in the likely zones of economic

made to provide incentives and explore ways to get tax

progress. The number of these Bangsamoro migrants will

and fiscal incentives for developers. Alternative tenurial

continue to multiply for as long as the economic fortune

arrangements such as lease or usufruct will also be

of the region is not drastically altered. Tragic stories of the

adopted to reduce the cost of land.

Bangsamoro living in urban ghettos under dismal conditions


will continue to increase if the conducive economic

In the medium term, the program will support the

environment for them to stay in their communities of origin

following:

is not provided.

B.4.4. Tenure Security

Similarly, a policy of trying to entice Bangsamoro to return

A considerable number of families do not live on their

to their community of origin can only be effective if the

own lands. This situation can cause land disputes that

appropriate economic conditions are put in place. For this

can render more people land-insecure. Local Housing

reason, the Bangsamoro Government, through the proper

Boards shall be created in every LGU and serve as the

implementation of the BDP, will ensure the installation

governing bodies in planning and implementing housing

of the appropriate environment for the Bangsamoro in

programs especially for Bangsamoro IDPs.

89

Bangsamoro Development Plan

B.4.5. Site Development

Specific focus is also needed on improving prevention

Attention will be given to identification of sites for


settlement development. This undertaking will need
to take into consideration the distance between the
areas where families live and the areas of livelihood.
The Comprehensive Land Use Plans of LGUs need to
be completed to identify buildable lands for settlement
development.

In

building

sustainable

communities

through rational utilization of land, regulations on


developing residential subdivision projects for formal
and informal settlers are linked to the enforcement
of comprehensive land use plans that consider a
combination of functions and amenities based on
environmental standards. Ultimately, these sites will need
to be chosen and designed to sustainable by providing
minimum service standards in light of the global climate
change phenomenon.

consideration. Changes in climate may result in: (a)


water shortages in settlements; (b) declining air and water
quality; (c) reduced hydropower generation potentials;
and (d) disruption of settlements, commerce, and transport
due to flooding, among others. If settlement areas are
haphazardly selected and/or developed, there potentials
arise for population migrations and loss of property and
lives.

In the short term, the Bangsamoro Government will:


a. Organize awareness campaigns and information
drives in the media, LGUs, schools, etc., on laws
on violence against women and children and on
the available services and protection mechanisms;
b. Conduct gender training using modules that deal
with sectoral issues and themes, e.g., GBV,
trafficking, illegal recruitment;
c. Establish and strengthen the GBV referral pathway
to address GBV cases by engaging the traditional
mechanisms for dispute resolution as well as
through the activation and functionalization of local
d. Improve access of women and girls to local
protection mechanisms.
In the medium term, strategies will include:
a. Developing comprehensive human rights education
curriculum in all levels of education;
b. Reviewing existing traditions and cultural practices
that violate womens rights and promote the
meaningful representation of women;
c. Ensuring the implementation of GAD budgeting;

B.5. Gender
the

Bangsamoro

Government

becomes

more

established, another shift that will need to be considered


is the development of its humanitarian action capabilities
to enable it to lead and manage emergency responses.
Where in the past, civil society, international partners and
the national government were more involved, the recent
experiences of LGUs in other regions show that local
officials have taken the leadership role for the better in
handling emergency situations.

90

gender or disability.

government protection mechanisms; and

The effects of climate change shall also be taken into

As

and response to GBV and discrimination based on

d. Providing opportunities and establishing structures


for the active participation of women in conflict
prevention and resolution; and
e. Developing comprehensive support programs and
services to address the needs of women in conflictaffected and post-conflict areas, such as sustained
protection, increased access to justice and healing,
rehabilitation, and development.

Social Services

CH A PT ER

C. Summary of Priority Programs


Table 23 presents the list of priority social programs.
Table 23: Priority Social Programs
Objectives
Increase household access to
WaSH

Priority Programs

Components

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH) Scaled-up access to water and sanitation facilities through
adoption of graduated and integrated approaches to
WaSH development

Increase access to quality


health services and reduce risk
of conflict reversal

Health

Improve access to quality


education and reduce risk
of conflict reversal, toward
creating a skilled and able
workforce in the Bangsamoro

Education

Increase % of population with


secure housing tenure

Sustainable Bangsamoro Settlements

Provide safety nets and


increase access to services for
vulnerable groups

Protective Services

Provision of PhilHealth cards


Mass immunization and feeding programs
Health caravans
Upgrading of health facilities
Creative delivery mechanisms: support trainings for BIAF
medics and traditional healers

Technical and vocational skills training including


entrepreneurship
Functional literacy programs for out-of-school and inactive
youth and illiterate adults
Private sector apprenticeship for OSY
Curriculum development and review of madaris system
(ibtidaiyah, thanawiyah, and kulliyah)
Supply-side inputs for primary and secondary education
Modified GI Bill-Veterans Benefit Packages for families of
MILF combatants
Mobilization of alternative teachers
Special Housing Needs Assistance Package for IDPs
PPP for socialized housing
Policy reform on land rights, housing tenure, security and
economically displaced Bangsamoro
Packages for vulnerable groups: senior citizens, PWDs,
women, widows, youth, orphans, etc.

91

Bangsamoro Development Plan

NOTES
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101

92

The World Bank (2005).


Human Development Network and United Nations Development Programme (2013).
ARMM Regional Development Plan.
Department of Health-Field Health Services Information System (2012).
Philippine Statitics Authority-National Demographic and Health Survey (2013).
Ibid.
Department of Social Welfare and Development data for 2014.
A more thorough assessment of housing needs in the Bangsamoro is crucial to account for the informal sector including those displaced by conflict.
Collier (2007).
Philippine Statistics Authority-Labor Force Survey (2013).
Philippine Statistics Authority-Census on Population and Housing (2010). Further, 715,173 adults who did not finish elementary school, including those
without education. Magbassa Kita Foundation estimates a total 600,000 adult illiterates in the ARMM.
The World Bank and World Food Programme Survey Data (2011). Areas covered: mainland (Lanao del Norte, North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Lanao
del Sur, Maguindanao and Cotabato City); islands (Tawi-Tawi, Sulu, Basilan)
Buckland (2006).
Commission on Higher Education raw data as of September 2014.
Collier (2007).
The World Bank and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2013).
Extrapolated from the 2008 National Health and Demographic Survey data and 2010 Census of Population and Household data. Percentage of total
household population with health insurance coverage (Philippines: 42.0%, ARMM: 17.5%); and percentage of total population of women aged 15 to 49
years with health insurance coverage (Philippines: 42.8%, ARMM: 15.7%).
In sanitation, the notion of service involves not just government providing free facilities to each household but government, through policies, programs,
projects or other measures, creates an environment in which households can easily access facilities that can also be provided by the private sector.
Water demand is influenced by the following factors: (a) service levels to be implemented; (b) size of the community; (c) standard of living of the
populace; (d) quantity and quality of water available in the area; (e) water tariffs that need to be shouldered by the consumers; (f) climatological
conditions; and (g) habits and manners of water usage by the people. See the World Bank (2012).
A related standard is that expenses for water and sanitation should not exceed 5% of the disposable income of a poor household.
Baser and Morgan (2008).
Mindanao Development Authority, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, and United Nations Development Programme (2006).

Environment and Natural Resources

CH A PT ER

10

10

Environment and
Natural Resources

93

Bangsamoro Development Plan

10

Environment and
Natural Resources

A. Context: Rich but Fragile Natural


Resources and Ecological Heritage
Equitable and sustainable development is at the heart of the

The environment is at the center of both the economy

BBL. Recognizing the rich environmental heritage of the

and the cultural heritage of the Bangsamoro. Many of its

Bangsamoro, the BBL commits the Bangsamoro Government

peoples identify deeply with their environment and are

to planning development taking into consideration the

named after aspects of itthe Maranaw are the people of

natural resources that are available for its use and for the

the lake, the Tausug are thepeople of the current, the

use of future generations.

In this regard, the Bangsamoro

Yakan are the people of the hill, and Maguindanaoans

Government shall develop a comprehensive framework for

are the people of the flooded plain. The Bangsamoros

sustainable development through the proper conservation,

environment is also characterized by its rich assemblage

utilization and development of natural resources.

The

of varied species and ecosystems. It is home to 10

success of this framework will be determined largely by such

of the 128 Key Biodiversity Areas in the Philippines,

factors as an enabling environment, availability of capable

including areas of global ecological significance, whose

and responsive institutions, a competent bureaucracy

conservation is essential for the very survival of the

manned by efficient and effective personnel, and an

Bangsamoro people. With AFF accounting for 63.5% of

enlightened and proactive constituency.

output (20092012 average) in the ARMM, achieving

102

103

sustainable development and growth is intrinsically linked


To manage the competing dynamics of social justice,

to having a vibrant and sustainable environment.

environmental conservation and economic development, an


intergovernmental Bangsamoro Sustainable Development

However, such activities as deforestation, conversion

Board (BSDB) will be established to ensure harmonization

of forest lands to agricultural areas, illegal fishing,

of environment and development and formulate common

and irresponsible mining and extraction are rapidly

environmental objectives between the Central Government

undermining the potential for sustainable development.

and the Bangsamoro Government.

Poor planning and weak governance are adding to this


critical situation, as is climate change, which is threatening

This chapter sets out the current context, strategic goal,


programs, and interventions to achieve this vision and
translate the potential of the Bangsamoros physical assets

94

to render the Bangsamoro people more vulnerable.


A.1. Forests and Watersheds

and natural capital into wealth for the wellbeing of its

Approximately 665,000 hectares, about half of the total

people, while forestalling recurrent costs from external

BCT land area, is legally classified as forestland and

threats like natural hazards and climate change.

inalienable. Of this, 35% is under the National Integrated

Environment and Natural Resources

CH A PT ER

10

Protected Areas System (NIPAS), 24% is under some

period from 2003 to 2010 was still 46,900 hectares,105

form of management agreement, and the rest is open

which was also considered true for the BCT. The national

access. Data from the 2012 Philippine Forestry Statistics

reforestation average rate for the said period increased

show 45% of BCT forestlands have forest cover.

significantly from 30,000 ha/year to around 250,000 ha/


year, which was assumed to extend also to the BCT.

While this reflects a net increase in forest cover from


2003 to 2010 because of an increase in open canopy

As shown in Table 25, the BCT has four proclaimed

forests and mangrove areas, the data also reveal a

watersheds: (a) Lake Lanao (180,460 ha) is a source of

significant decrease in closed canopy forests for the same

hydroelectric power and domestic water for Lanao

period. As forest cover is depleted, biodiversity is also

del Sur and adjacent towns; (b) Kabulnan (4,726 ha)

decimated. Although poorly documented, deforestation

provides irrigation and domestic water supply; (c) South

and degradation of forestsnot only in the BCT but

Upi (1,894 ha) provides domestic water supply; and

across Mindanaois attributed to various factors, such as

(d) Dimapatoy (3,765 ha) provides potable water for

direct damages caused by armed conflict, illegal logging,

Cotabato City and adjacent municipalities.106

encroachment by IDPs seeking temporary shelter, and


land conversion. Other factors include weak enforcement

These watersheds face increasing incidence of drought

of laws and limited capacity to monitor sustainable use

and clogging of waterways and irrigation canals due to

of forestlands due to manpower constraints (i.e., there is

siltation and water hyacinth infestation. Another issue

only one ranger for every 1,820 ha).

is water pollution from agriculture and industry. Further

104

pressures come from resettlement in watershed areas,


The Bangsamoro forests are home to many indigenous

poor and uncoordinated administration of watersheds

species of fauna and flora. The reduction in primary

by national and local government agencies, lack of

forests puts a severe stress on preserving them as part of

employment opportunities in the lowlands, and improper

a balanced ecology. It also has a significant impact on

waste disposal.

watershed areas and their ability to provide water for

A.2. Aquatic Resources

local communities and to regulate water levels. Forest


cover data (see Table 24) may seem to negate the forest

The Bangsamoro has rich and significant marine and

cover observation but the Forest Management Bureau

freshwater resources that are closely linked to the

(FMB) confirms that the annual rate of deforestation in the

sustenance of its people and the economic development

Table 24: Forest Cover Change in ARMM in Hectares (20032010)


Province

Land Area

Total Forestland

Basilan

132,723

Lanao del Sur

Forest Cover

Change in Forest Cover (20032010)

2003

2010

Ha

47,149

16,505

21,320

4,815

29.2

387,289

254,154

174,745

150,151

(24,594)

(14.1)

Maguindanao

504,760

198,138

16,354

52,351

35,997

220.1

Sulu

160,040

112,353

24,701

30,839

6,138

24.8

Tawi-Tawi

108,740

53,357

18,041

47,233

29,192

161.8

665,151

250,346

301,894

51,548

20.6

ARMM Total

1,293,552

Source: DENR-FMB and Philippine Forestry Statistics (2011 and 2012)

95

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 25: Proclaimed Watersheds in ARMM (2012)


Watershed

Legal Basis

Location

Land Area (ha.)

Major Use

Lake Lanao

Proclamation No. 871


(1992)

All municipalities and


city within Lake Lanao
watershed

18,460

Hydroelectric power,
domestic water source for
Lanao del Sur and adjacent
towns

Kabulnan

Proclamation No. 06
(1992)

Salman and Saniag,


Municipality
of Ampatuan,
Maguindanao

4,726

Irrigation under the KIADP


program and domestic
water supply source for the
province

South Upi

Proclamation No. 65
(1987)

Municipality of Upi,
Maguindanao

1,894

Domestic water supply


source

Dimapatoy

Proclamation No. 18
(2001)

Municipalities of Datu
Odin Sinsuat and North
Upi, Maguindanao

3,765

Potable water supply


source for Cotabato City
and adjacent municipalities

Source: DENR-ARMM (2012)

of the region and the Philippines as a whole.

species such as the Philippine eagle, the Philippine duck,

Environmental degradation is significantly affecting the

and the Philippine crocodile. In view of this, 43,900 ha of

productive capacities of these aquatic resources with

Ligawasan Marsh has been declared a Game Refuge and

a disproportionate impact on the poorest segments of

Bird Sanctuary and is globally recognized as an Important

society who rely on them for survival.

Bird Area.

A.2.1. Freshwater Resources

These water bodies are suffering from increasing siltation

The Lake Lanao, the largest freshwater lake in the

caused by soil erosion and from pollution and declining

country, and the only ancient lake in Southeast Asia,

biodiversity.

is the biggest protected area in the Bangsamoro. It is a

conversion in the upper watersheds; regulated river

biodiversity site of global significance, being home to 18

flow because of dams constructed primarily for irrigation

endemic species of freshwater fish and supporting a large

and hydropower plants; conversion of marsh areas to

number of bird species.

agriculture and fishponds; resettlement along the coastal

Deforestation

and

large-scale

forestland

areas; and charcoal-making have led to degradation of


It is also critical to hydroelectric power production,

the BCTs aquatic resources, threatening their continued

supplying 65% of total energy in Mindanao.107 Ironically,

capability to sustain the Bangsamoro.

the host province of Lanao del Sur has the highest


poverty incidence in the Philippines.108 This indicates

Although water demand is projected to remain within the

that the benefits of the BCTs natural resources have not

supply capacity of the Mindanao River, environmental

extended to its people.

degradation may affect the recharge potential of the


regions groundwater reservoirs and watersheds, which

The Ligawasan Marsh, fed by the Mindanao River Basin,


has a combined area of 285,000 ha, close to 20% of the
total land area of the Bangsamoro region. It is the major

96

will seriously threaten water availability in the near term.


A.2.2. Marine Resources

source of livelihood in 20 municipalities and one city,

The BCT has 3,232 km of coastline and 18,426,613

and it straddles Maguindanao, North Cotabato, and Sultan

hectares of territorial ocean waters, including a portion of

Kudarat. It is cultivated during the dry season and fished

the Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, which is one of the richest fishing

during the wet season. It supports threatened endemic

grounds in the country and the epicenter of global marine

Environment and Natural Resources

CH A PT ER

10

biodiversity. This large marine ecosystem is one of the

urban land reform program and land use program; and

most diverse and productive in the world, recognized

(c) as a function of transitional justice, restoration or

for the variety of habitats it supports, from reefs to

reparations arising from any unjust dispossession of

mangroves and the second highest seagrass diversity in

territorial and property rights, the quality, quantity and

the world.109

status thereof to be determined mutually by both the


Bangsamoro Government and the Central Government.

It hosts the Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary in TawiTawi, one of the first trans-boundary marine protected

The various problems in land administration at the

areas involving the Philippines and Malaysia. It is one

national level are magnified in the Bangsamoro region.

of only 10 turtle nesting areas in the world and the only

These include: (a) multiple agencies with duplicating

one in the ASEAN region. This marine ecosystem is also

and overlapping functions and complex processes;

considered a biodiversity hotspot. The participation of the

(b) multiple applicable laws, causing inconsistencies,

Bangsamoro in the trans-boundary management of these

especially on agency functions and mandates; (c)

marine resources remains minimal and insignificant.

multiple land titling processes, with the emphasis on a


judicial mode of titling (in contrast to the rest of Southeast

major

Asia which uses an administrative mode of titling); (d)

livelihoods, particularly in Sulu, Basilan, and Tawi-Tawi,

multiple forms of ownership; (e) multiple standards for

contributing to 18% of the national fisheries and 72% of

land valuation; and (f) multiple agencies undertaking

the national seaweed production.110

valuation.112

There are increasing threats to coastal and marine

The situation is further exacerbated by (a) inefficient land

resources and their biodiversity from inappropriate

record management (thus, the limited formal data on land

fishing and overfishing, pollution, illegal trade of

ownership and usage in the Bangsamoro); (b) incomplete

endangered species, and haphazard foreshore land use

and deficient cadastral survey; (c) large number of

caused by policies that do not respond to the needs of

untitled parcels; (d) weak monitoring of land policy;

the growing population.111 A splintered governance

(e) limited public participation in land use planning

framework among the ARG, the Central Government,

processes; (f) lengthy and expensive appeal processes;

and LGUs complicates the management of marine

and (g) weak framework for large scale land investments,

resources.

resulting in land conflicts, uneven sharing of benefits,

Fishing

and

seaweed

production

are

the

and increased investor risks and costs.


A.3. Land Governance
While land is an environmental resource, it has

For example, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform

widespread cross-sector implications, as briefly discussed

Program in the ARMM covers about 340,000 ha,113 of

in Chapters 7 and 12.

which 70% had been accomplished by 2011, benefitting


83,000 beneficiaries. Based on Commission on Audit

Given the complex issues surrounding land rights in

reports, evasion and plunder under Voluntary Land

the Bangsamoro, the CAB and the BBL provide for

Transfers (VLT) and Voluntary Offers to Sell (VOS) is

administrative powers on land administration and

worse in the ARMM than in the rest of the Philippines.114

management to the Bangsamoro Government. Related


exclusive powers granted to the Bangsamoro Government

A.4. Mineral Resources and Other Extractives

include: (a) management of ancestral domain, in

Little geological assessment work has been conducted

recognition of IDPs right to pusaka inged (native titles);

in ARMM to date, resulting in a dearth of reliable and

(b) adoption and implementation of a comprehensive

current geologic information to assess the regions

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

mineral and other extractives potential. The potential for

In capital cities and towns, solid waste management

mineralization is deduced from the presence of specific

is consistently identified as one of the main sources of

geologic and tectonic settings that are favorable for

dissatisfaction. Only one sanitary landfill receives the

mineral deposition. The reported presence of minerals in

combined wastes of 128 municipalities and four cities,

specific areas is also used for inferring the potential for

estimated at 940 MT per day and expected to reach

mineralization.115

972.14 MT per day in 2016.117 The region also has 19


materials recovery facilities (MRFs) serving 19 barangays.

Of the Philippines total petroleum resources of about


nine billion barrels fuel of oil equivalent (bfoe) (or about

With a high concentration of urban areas along

690 MTOE), more than half (or about five billion bfoe) is

waterways, poor waste management results in flooding

estimated to be deposited in the offshore of West Palawan

and water supply contamination. Only three LGUs have

and Sulu Sea regions.

approved solid wastes management plans in compliance


with the Ecological Solid Wastes Management Act.

The BCT is said to hold vast deposits of natural gas and


oil, especially Maguindanao along Central Mindanaos

As discussed in Chapter 9, the ARMM has been cited as

220,000-hectare

known

having persistently low coverage rates for safe water and

exploration work, however, was in 1997 by the Malaysian

sanitary facilities. It has the poorest access to safe water

petroleum giant Petronas Carigali and the Philippine

and to sanitary toilets, at 55% and 34%, respectively.118

Liguasan

Delta.

The

last

National Oil Company. Maguindanao is also said to hold


108,000,000 MT in coal deposits.

Consequently, it has the highest reported incidence of


water pollution from sewage and the highest reported

Map 12 illustrates the permissible mining areas based on

incidence of sanitation and hygiene-related diseases. The

Executive Order No. 79 series of 2012. This includes the

DENR-EMB has designated several BCT water bodies as

existing nickel mining operation in Languyan, Tawi-Tawi.

Water Quality Management Areas (WQMA) for which

A.5. Renewable Energy


As discussed in Chapter 8, the BCT has various renewable
energy resources, including geothermal, wind, solar, and
hydroelectric power, providing potential for a sustainable
energy base. Biomass is another potentially significant
power resource. These existing and potential resources
could be explored in line with the overall objective of

quality within the water bodys classification or improve


the quality to higher classification.
A.7. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management
Like many other parts of the Philippines, the Bangsamoro
is prone to natural hazards, many of which are

environmentally-sustainable human development.

aggravated by climate change. These include flooding,

A.6. Urban Areas and Residuals Management

surges, and earthquakes. Flooding around the Mindanao

Four urban areasthe cities of Marawi in Lanao del


Sur, Lamitan and Isabela in Basilan, and Cotabato City
in Maguindanaoaccount for 18% of the Bangsamoro
population, with an average density of 1,070 per sq km.
In these cities and in the 128 municipalities in the region,
only 47 comprehensive land use plans are in effect,
mostly from the 1980s and 1990s.116

98

management plans will be drawn up, to keep water

rain-induced

landslides,

volcanic

eruptions,

storm

River Basin frequently causes large-scale displacement.


Cotabato City and many municipalities in Lanao del
Sur, Maguindanao, North Cotabato are vulnerable to
rain-induced landslides. North Cotabato, Lanao del Sur,
Lanao del Norte, Maguindanao, and Sultan Kudarat are
earthquake-risk areas, with Maguindanao considered
high-risk.

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Map 12: Integrated Mining Map (EO 79) (2013)

Source: DENR-MGB (2013)

There are at least five volcanic complexes in and around

through the BCT. However, the same number of cyclones

the BCT: (a) Lanao Volcanic Complex; (b) Ragang

passed through the area in just the past four years (2011

Volcanic Complex; (c) Mt. Parker; (d) Mt. Matutum

to 2013), indicating a radical change in pattern for this

Volcano Complex; and (e) Mt. Dajoh.

hazard.

119

Particularly vulnerable to storm surges and tsunamis

Climate change projections by PAGASA include an

are the coastlines of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. The

increase of 1.0-1.2oC in the short term (2020) and 2.0-

periodic El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which

2.4oC in the medium term (2050) in ARMM temperatures.

caused the highest economic losses in Maguindanao in

Rainfall in the short term is projected to increase by

1998, also threatens the region.

as much as 7.2% from December to February and


decrease by as much as 7.4% from June to August. The

While typhoons are infrequent in the ARMM, the

frequency of extreme events is also expected to increase

peripheral

significantly. The number of days with temperatures

effects

of

typhoon

passing

through
120

exceeding 35oC is projected to rise at least eightfold

PAGASA data show that in the period from 1955 to

from the observed baseline. The number of dry days is

2010, a span of 55 years, only four cyclones (one tropical

projected to increase by more than 150%, and days with

depression, two tropical storms, and one typhoon) passed

extreme rainfall by at least 250%.

neighboring provinces can be felt in the region.

99

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Despite these significant risks, the BCT has had no

both poverty alleviation and wealth creation needs in host

vulnerability and disaster risk assessments and has limited

communities, and improve the environmental and natural

capacity for disaster risk reduction and management and

resources base quality for sustainability. The two sectoral

climate change adaptation (see Map 13).

goals are: (a) enhancement of the environment and natural

B. Strategic Goals
Sharp focus will be needed on regional and local
institution-building for environmental governance to

resources of the Bangsamoro and (b) increased resilience of


local communities to natural hazards and climate change.
To attain these goals, the BDP will aim to:

enable the Bangsamoro to manage the environmental

1. Conserve and enhance the ecological integrity of the

threats caused by indiscriminate exploitation and

Bangsamoro region in the context of comprehensive

degradation121 and cope with the impacts of natural

sustainable development and vicegerency and

hazards and climate change. This will need to be

2. Enhance the Bangsamoro communities capacity

complemented by environmental baseline establishment

to manage disaster risks from natural hazards and

and quick-impact programs and projects to address

develop resilience to climate change impacts.

Map 13: Vulnerability (2008)

Note: DENR-MGB describes the degrees of landslide susceptibility as follows:


Very High SusceptibilityAreas usually with steep to very steep slope, and are underlain by weak materials. Recent landslides, escarpments and tension cracks are
present. Human initiated effects could be an aggravating factor.
High SusceptibilityAreas usually with steep to very steep slopes, and are underlain by weak materials. Areas with numerous old/inactive landslides.
Medium SusceptibilityAreas with moderately steep slopes. Soil creep and other indications for possible landslide occurrence are present.
Low SusceptibilityGently sloping areas with no identified landslides.
Source: SERD-CAAM (2008)

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Environment and Natural Resources

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C. Strategies
C.1. Environmental Governance

C.2. Forest and Watershed Restoration

Preserving the rich ecosystem across the Bangsamoro

The regions forest cover has been dramatically shrinking

has wide-ranging effects on the wellbeing and economic

over the past decade, and the effects on communities

potential of the region. Sustainable management of

and the ecosystem are evident, with rampant flooding,

environmental resources will improve the ability of

landslide, temperature increases, etc. This concern will be

communities to benefit from their natural surroundings,

addressed through:

reduce the prevalence of flooding, and contribute toward


developing a tourism industry in the region. This will

a. The restoration and enhancement of degraded

require a strong environmental governance regime that

and denuded forestlands, including nurseries, and

will include:

coastal and marine ecosystems will not only ensure


future sustainability of these habitats and their

a. Formulation of a comprehensive framework for


sustainable development in the Bangsamoro and a

resources, but can also double up as labor creation


opportunities;

Strategic Environmental Management Plan (SEMP);

b. The protection of hedgerows through planting of

b. Capacity-development of Bangsamoro environment

appropriate species that will hold the soil nutrients

and

sustainable

development

institutions,

and prevent from erosion, and siltation;

including a Bangsamoro Sustainable Development

c. The immediate forest based livelihoods from non-

Board (BSDB) and the envisioned Ministry of

timber forest products (NTFP) and agro-forestry in

Environment;

support of forest protection;

c. Integrated Environmental Governance systems to

d. Forest boundary delineation to define the extent

have a broader form of management for areas of

of forest cover for both protection and production

particular ecological significance, such as Lake

purposes; and

Lanao and the Ligawasan Marsh;

e. A strong monitoring mechanism to ensure that

d. A mechanism for equitable sharing in the use of

efforts are sustained. This will include hiring of

Lake Lanao waters as a source power generation

forest guards and sea guardsjob positions that can

for the effective development of the watershed

lend themselves well to the out-of-school youth and

ecosystem;

decommissioned forces.

e. Strong policies under the Bangsamoro Waters and


Zone of Joint Cooperation agreed by the Central

C.3. Land Governance

Government and the Bangsamoro Government;

The BDP recommends formulating an interim land policy

f. A comprehensive natural resource assessment,

that will lead to development in the medium term of a

especially of biodiversity and of mineral deposits;

strong and unified policy and legal framework on land

g. A culture-based information drive to help the

rights, with the objective of restoring public confidence

people of the BCT realize the importance of

in the land administration system and building the

sustainably managing the environment; and

foundations of reconciliation and trust-building. This

h. An ecotourism development strategy based on

would include a sound institutional framework, with one

preserving landscapes, seascapes, and abundant

land administration agency for land registration, cadastral

biodiversity in the BCT. As discussed in Chapter 7,

survey and mapping, and collection of land and related

the ecotourism potential has high implications on

fees. It would also call for fair, impartial, and streamlined

the regions economic growth and promotion of

procedures and reasonable transaction costs that would

social cohesion.

encourage participatory policymaking.

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

C.3.1. Short-Term Actions (2015 and Mid-2016)

an interagency body on land use and physical

To reduce the risk of a strong increase in land conflicts

planning,

and associated violence and instability in the postCAB environment, three policy actions in the transition
period are recommended:

was

recently

strengthened

and reformed as a NEDA Board Committee.


The following land-related analytical studies could
also be undertaken:

a. Ensuring adequate and timely information on land


conflicts by strengthening the local institutions
capacity to monitor land conflicts and establishing
an early warning system that allows for a

i. Inventory of laws and regulations relating to


land and property rights in the Bangsamoro;
ii. Assessment of the capacity of the formal judicial

rapid response aimed at preventing escalation.

and informal/traditional dispute mechanisms in

The initial task will be setting up a geographic

iii. Intentions survey among displaced persons

information system to capture data on land


disputes

and

conflict

prevalence,

initially

focusing on areas where the prevalence of land


conflicts is considered the highest and/or the
risks of escalation are considered the greatest.
This would include existing data on rights from
DENR, LRA, DAR, and NCIP and on land
classification,

particularly

the

boundaries

of

alienable and disposable land from the DENR;


mapping of ongoing and potential conflicts
related to natural resources and plantations, with
particular attention given to the special issue
surrounding indigenous peoples and ancestral
domains; and mapping of areas likely to be of

key locations;
and combatants, to provide an indication of
potential population movements and areas
where tensions relating to land may emerge;
and
iv.
Documentation

of

potential

areas

for

commercial plantations, including assessing


the availability of land and willingness of small
holders to participate in plantation ventures.
b. Limiting the number of land conflicts that may
arise from the CAB by implementing a joint
information

campaign

aimed

at

discouraging

people to take land matters in their own hands and


encouraging respect for past and current land rights.

interest to agribusiness and mining investors.

c. Ensuring that existing land conflicts can be

This information would help focus initial efforts

institutions to mediate land conflicts, especially

to: understand the nature and extent of disputes;


test appropriate mechanisms to resolve them;
and provide the basis for selecting initial areas to

resolved by strengthening the capacity of local


through improved coordination, communication
and learning among the different actors involved.
These mechanisms would need to provide for

pilot efforts to register land rights systematically.

sustainable

It would inform ongoing initiatives, such as the

Establishment of an ad hoc mediation body for

DENR-Land Management Bureaus memorandum


of

agreement

with

the

ARG

to

undertake

jointly the cadastral survey in Maguindanao


and Basilan, and facilitate coordination with
the National Land Use Commission (NLUC),

102

which

settlements,

framing

jurisdictions

acceptable to the law of the community and Islam.


dealing with land dispute that cannot readily be
dealt with the local level could also be considered.
All the above actions would need to reflect the cultural
sensitivities to the traditional forms of land ownership,

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especially in some Moro communities, and also in some

management program across the BCT, including

IP communities, where, among other things, individual

installation of additional waste treatment facilities;

titles are not necessarily desired or feasible at this time.

and

C.3.2. Medium-Term Actions (Mid-2016 to 2022)


A land policy will be needed to provide the basis for the
legislative agenda of the Bangsamoro Government on land
tenure, with the objective of developing a participatory,
systematic, and cost-effective registration process. Given
that a significant number of existing land titles are in
dispute, it would be important to have a comprehensive
communication and outreach program.
C.4. Urban Ecosystem and Waste Management
Program
The Bangsamoro urban areas are crowded and their being
located along rivers and coastlines contributes significantly

c. Work with LGUs to establish and operationalize solid


waste management councils.
C.5. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk
Reduction
Communities across the Bangsamoro are vulnerable to
climate change and disasters, and have very little capacity
for prevention. The Bangsamoro Government would need
to:
a. Conduct Comprehensive Vulnerability Assessments
across the region;
b. Support LGUs to formulate risk-based comprehensive
land use plans (CLUP); and
c. Build the capacity of officials in LGUs and the

to pollution in the region. To tackle this, the Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro

Government would need to:

adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

a. Formulate a Bangsamoro Core Territory Sustainable

Government

for

climate

change

Cities/Towns Plan and initiate redevelopment in pilot

D. Summary of Priority Programs

areas to serve as a model for urban management in

The programs to achieve the goals and objectives and

the region;

respond to the problems identified in the region are

b. Develop and implement a comprehensive residuals

described in Table 26.

management program and a comprehensive waste

103

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 26: Priority Environment and Natural Resource Programs*


Objectives

Priority Programs
Environmental Governance

To preserve the
ecological integrity of
the Bangsamoro in the
context of comprehensive
sustainable development
Urban Ecosystem and Waste
Management Program

Components
Formulation of a comprehensive framework for sustainable development in the
Bangsamoro comprising key legislative measures and a Strategic Environmental
Management Plan (SEMP)
Capacity-development of Bangsamoro environment and sustainable
development institutions, including creation of a Bangsamoro Sustainable
Development Board (BSDB) and a Ministry of Environment
Integrated Development for Lake Lanao and Liguasan Marsh
Strengthen and support Community Empowerment for Environmental
Conservation and Protection
Policy for the Bangsamoro Waters and Zones of Joint Cooperation
Comprehensive Biodiversity Assessment of the Bangsamoro
Restoration and enhancement of degraded/denuded forest lands (including
nurseries) and comprehensive coastal and marine reform program
Establishment of monitoring mechanisms (including hiring of forest guards and
sea guards)
Formulation of BCT Sustainable Cities/Towns Model Plan(s) and initiation of
redevelopment
Development and implementation of a BCT-wide comprehensive residuals
management program
Establishment and operationalization of LGU-level solid waste management
councils
Ecological Solid Waste management program

Reduce land conflict


(short-term and long-term)

Comprehensive Land
Administration and
Management Reform Program
for the Bangsamoro

To enhance Bangsamoro
communities adaptive
capacity for climate
change and DRRM

CCA/DRRM for Social Justice Comprehensive Vulnerability Assessments and Watershed Characterization
and Mitigation of Displacement Formulation of risk-based Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs) for all LGUs
in the Bangsamoro
CCA/DDRM capacity-building

Mapping and analytical work on land rights and land conflict


Strengthening of conflict mediation mechanisms

* Programs on mineral resources and other extractives can be found in Chapter 7.

NOTES
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121

104

Proposed Bangsamoro Basic Law, Article XIII, Section 2.


Ibid., Section 3.
This was confirmed by DENR-ARMM FMS Director Ismael Mabaning during a meeting discussion on August 19, 2014 at the DENR-ARMM office.
National Mapping and Resource Information Agency (2010).
Department of Energy and Natural Resources-Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2012).
Japan International Cooperation Agency (2014) and Benito (2014).
Philippine Statistics Authority (2012).
World Wildlife Fund (2014).
Malik and Alcos-Cabangbang (2013).
Mindanao Development Authority (2012).
See Tiamson and Ballesteros (2013).
According to the Census of Agriculture, this figure is well below the 520,000 ha of temporary and permanent crops, suggesting a large number of
exclusions at the scoping stage.
Gutierrez and Borras (2004).
Japan International Cooperation Agency (2014).
Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2014).
National Solid Waste Management Commission (2014).
Department of Health (2011).
MRBIMDP (2012) and PDPFP Sulu (2013).
Tio (2014).
The ARMM Regional Development Plan (2013) identified the causes of environmental degradation and exploitation of resources as weak
enforcement of laws, low level of awareness on the benefits of the environment, lack of LGU support, and climate change vulnerability.

Culture and Identity

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11

Culture and Identity

105

Bangsamoro Development Plan

11

Culture and Identity

The CAB and the BBL affirm the distinct cultural heritage
and birthright of the Bangsamoro people to their ancestral
homeland and right to self-determination. Their principles
include recognition, respect, and celebration of the
many identities and cultures of the various peoples in the
Bangsamoro.
Culture and language are covered by an exclusive power
vested upon the Bangsamoro Government. The CABs and
the BBLs provisions on economy, social development,
environment, governance, and justice and security are
formulated in harmony with customary laws and traditions,
while ensuring cultural, gender, and intergenerational
inclusivity.
The BBL provides for the creation of a Bangsamoro
Commission for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
(BCPCH) and has specific policy recommendations relating
to Shariah-compliant justice and financing, regulations
and practices on halal, and organization of hajj and other
religious related travels, as well as the various rights
and practices of the Bangsamoros indigenous cultural
communities, including the right to pusaka inged (native
titles).
In this light, the BDP gives priority to culture and identity
as critical elements of sustainable human development and
peacebuilding.

106

A. Context: The Diverse Culture in the


Bangsamoro
The Bangsamoro society consists of 13 Muslim ethnolinguistic groups,122 about 20 non-Islamized indigenous
peoples (IP) groups, and settlers of various origins (see
Map 14). The CAB and the BBL define the Bangsamoro
identity in terms of those who at the time of conquest
and colonization centuries ago were considered natives
or original inhabitants of Mindanao and the Sulu
archipelago and its adjacent islands, including Palawan,
and their descendants whether of mixed or full blood
shall have the right to identify themselves as Bangsamoro
by ascription or self-ascription.
The BBL specifies the historical governance structures of
the Moro Sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao, Kabuntalan,
and Buayan, the Royal Houses of the Maranao, while
guaranteeing the freedoms and rights of settlers and of
IPs.
Figures 29 and 30 illustrate the high level of ethnic
and religious diversity in the Bangsamoro. In the
spirit of unity and social cohesion, the Bangsamoros
cultural diversity highlights the need for inclusivity and
localized solutions, while preserving its rich heritage
and knowledge practices. Further details on the ethnolinguistic groups in the Bangsamoro are provided in
Annex F (Cultural Diversity in the Bangsamoro).

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Map 14: Ethnic Diversity Index (2010)

Source: PSA-CPH (2010), DSWD-NHTS (2010), PhilGIS (2013)

Figure 29: Ethnic Diversity in the Bangsamoro (2010)

Figure 30: Religious Diversity in the Bangsamoro (2010)

Note: The numbers are estimates using index of fractionalization as a measure of social diversity along various
social cleavages such as ethnicity and religious affiliations
Source: BDP-CPT estimate (using PSA-CPH 2010 data)

107

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Initiatives that recognize and preserve Bangsamoro culture

The sectoral goal is, therefore, to support practices

and identity are scarce, leaving much of its language,

and build foundations for institutions that preserve and

historical narratives, and artifacts to be eroded by time and

strengthen the Bangsamoros diverse cultural resources

modernity. Many important historical figures, events, and

and heritage, in line with the objectives of sustainable

places are no longer in public memory, especially for the

human development and peacebuilding.

younger generation. The practice of indigenous sports and


games, music, visual art, literature, dance, and crafts have

In achieving this goal, the strategy on culture and identity

been largely relegated to the margins. There are no codified

is articulated around the following three objectives:

rules and regulations on burying the dead, and so graves


are scattered without designated maqaabir al-aam (public

1. To assist communities to identify and preserve their


cultural resources, traditions, values, and practices;

cemeteries).

2. To establish and strengthen cultural institutions


The

cultural

implications

on

sustainable

human

to

protect,

conserve,

nurture,

and

promote

development are immense. Traditional health practices are

Bangsamoros tangible and intangible cultural

still prevalent in remote areas in the absence of adequate

heritage; and

public services. There have been no significant measures to

3. To promote creation and sustainability of local

align mainstream health service delivery with those through

culture, heritage, and art groups through various

the waliyan (midwives) and taligamot (traditional healers).

forms of incentives and assistance.

Some initiatives toward the use of indigenous mechanisms

B.1. Conservation of Cultural Heritage

for conflict resolution and peacebuilding have yielded

As described in the BBL, the BCPCH will be created

positive results. However, traditional leadership structures

primarily to record the history of the Bangsamoro people

and titles, while prevalent, are largely nominal and have

and to establish and sustain the cultural institutions,

limited interface with present governance structures.

programs, and projects in the Bangsamoro component


areas. To assist the BCPCH in the full exercise of its

The enhanced scope of powers vested in the Bangsamoro

functions upon creation of the Bangsamoro Government,

Government as embodied in the BBL therefore provides an

multiple studies will need to be conducted during the

opportunity to address these institutional and developmental

transition period. These will include:

concerns, including IP rights.

B. Strategies
In line with the UNESCO definition of culture as inclusive
of creative expression, skills, traditional knowledge and
the cultural resources that form part of the lives of peoples
and societies, serving as bases for social engagement and
enterprise development, all plans, policies, and programs in
the Bangsamoro will necessarily be framed in the context of
cultural sensitivity and inclusivity, as a means of addressing
longstanding sources of dissatisfaction among Bangsamoro
communities.

108

a. Formulation of a comprehensive framework for


heritage, culture and the arts in the Bangsamoro,
including the various elements of indigenous sports
and games, music, visual art, literature, dance,
crafts, tribal attire, holidays, and languages, among
others.
b. Generation of baseline data on heritage, culture and
the arts in the Bangsamoro, including the provision
of research grants to cultural and academic
institutions.
c. Feasibility of establishing public museums and
libraries, including a Bangsamoro Museum to

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CH A PT ER

11

take charge of collation, collection, preservation,

policies and programs throughout the transition period,

and promotion of remaining relics and artifacts of

to ensure that all development interventions are designed

Bangsamoro culture. This will include retrieval

with a bottom-up framework in mind.

of artifacts that may be stored in museums


and national archives both in and outside the

Culture has to be seen also as a key resource for

Philippines.

the Bangsamoro. Weaving, brass-making, and other


indigenous handicrafts and metal crafts should be

Quick-impact projects will be implemented during the

revived and promoted, used to develop cultural tourism

transition period in line with confidence-building and

and other related public-private partnerships, in tandem

stabilization components of the CAB, as well as with the

with the improvement the institutional, infrastructure,

requirements of transitional justice during normalization.

and security bases for investment.

This may include installing historical markers to


commemorate the Bangsamoro struggle, and building

Likewise, the health system will be strengthened, by

maqaabir al-aam (public cemeteries) in priority sites.

providing birthing facilities and forming partnerships

B.2. Culture and Education

among Muslim religious leaders and traditional and


western-trained midwives, and to optimize the mix of

In accordance with BBL provisions on establishing an

modern and traditional reproductive health elements,

educational framework that will be relevant to the needs,

while remaining respectful of history and culture.

ideals, and aspirations of the Bangsamoro, efforts will be


undertaken to support cultural initiatives that can enrich
the Bangsamoro educational system, including:

B.4. Promotion of Culture and the Arts


Bangsamoro

heritage,

culture

and

arts

will

be

popularized through the media and by encouraging


a. Provision of grants for textbook and module writing
that will commemorate the Bangsamoro struggles;
b. Support for establishment of an Institute of Bahasa
Bangsamoro, in order to develop a Bangsamoro
language;

indigenous cultural activities (such as the use of


traditional attire, musical instruments, and cuisine) in
schools, offices, and community gatherings.
B.5. Intercultural Exchange and Cooperation

c. Revival of Bangsamoro cultural sports;

Grants and scholarships for regional, national, and

d. Establishment of schools of living traditions; and

international intercultural exchange and cooperation will

e. Support for artistic excellence.

be created, in line with the development priorities of the

B.3. Culture and Development

Bangsamoro Government.

The mainstreaming of Bangsamoro culture and identity

B.6. Culture and Peace

in governance and development is at the heart of the BBL

This includes grants for the conduct of dialogue

and the BDP, as evidenced in the structure and function

initiatives, youth peace camps/trainings, and other

of the proposed Bangsamoro Parliament, as well as the

cultural projects that can support peacebuilding and

inclusion of such culturally relevant mechanisms as

unity among Bangsamoro communities.

Shariah-compliant finance and justice, among others.

C. Summary of Priority Programs


This will be realized through the mainstreaming of
cultural sensitivity in the actual implementation of such

A summary of the priority plans and programs for the


transition can be found in Table 27.

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 27: Priority Culture and Identity Programs


Objectives

Assist communities to identify


and preserve their cultural
resources, traditions, values,
practices

Establish and strengthen


cultural institutions to protect,
conserve, nurture, and promote
Bangsamoros tangible and
intangible cultural heritage

Promote creation and


sustainability of local culture,
heritage, and art groups through
various forms of incentive
assistance

Priority Programs

Components

Quick-Impact Projects

Historical markers
Bangsamoro public cemeteries (maqaabir al-aam)

Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Policy work on the creation of the Commission on


the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Establishment of Bangsamoro Peace Memorial
Museum

Culture and Education

Grants for textbook writing on Bangsamoro


culture, history, language, arts, etc.; and
establishment of Schools of Living Tradition

Support for Artistic Excellence

Grants and incentives for community artists/


artisans, researchers, cultural workers

Culture and Development

Support for and mainstreaming of various


culturally-responsive development initiatives:
Shariah, halal and hajj
Social marketing and advocacy
Cultural tourism, Public-Private Partnership

Culture and Peace

Dialogue/intercultural initiatives

NOTES
122 Dwyer and Guiam (2010) identified them as the Maguindanaon of Cotabato provinces; Meranaw of Lanao; Tausug of the Sulu archipelago; Sama
of Tawi-Tawi; Yakan of Basilan; Iranun (between Maguindanao and Lanao Sur provinces); Jama Mapun of Cagayan de Sulu islands; Kalagan of
Davao provinces; Kalibugan of Zamboanga Peninsula; Melebuganon of Palawan; Palawani of Palawan; Sangil of Sarangani; and Badjaw (Sama
Dilaut), originally from Sulu Archipelago. Also refer to Lingga (2010).

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12

12
Governance

111

Bangsamoro Development Plan

12

Governance

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

technical capacity; (c) political patronage and political

commenced as an Autonomous Regional Government (ARG)

dynasties; and (d) accountability deficits.

in 1989. The establishment and administration of the ARMM


proved too arduous, and the ARMM Government has been

A.1.1. Lack of Genuine Autonomy

constantly associated with weak governance. The transition

The

to the Bangsamoro Government will offer an opportunity to

barangaycomprising the ARMM are not formally

address structural problems and reconfigure the relationship

subordinate to the regional government. The LGUs are

among the national, regional, and local governments. It

pre-existing entities with their own elected local officials

will also open up the chance to strengthen accountability

and receive automatic appropriations from the Central

mechanisms, particularly those that engage communities in

Government. As such, they are effectively autonomous

local governance, in line with the Bangsamoro vision for self-

from the ARMM. Given then that the ARMM is less

determination based on strong community engagement.

autonomous

LGUsthe

than

provincial,

local

city,

municipal,

governmentsand

and

more

subservient and dependent on the National Government


As Chairman Murad said at the launch of the Sajahatra

than any other political sub-division in the country,123

Bangsamoro

the ARG has struggled to build consensus around

Program

in

February

2013,

further

development can only be effective when it is people-

regional priorities and implement regional policies.

centered. One that is determined and undertaken by its


ultimate beneficiaries. One that empowers people and its

A.1.2. Weak Technical Capacity

processes empowering.

Given the poor education outcomes in the ARMM, the


regional and local governments have a shallow pool

This chapter discusses the governance challenges facing the

of technocrats, particularly for such key governance

region, presents the transition imperatives from the current

skills like planning, budgeting, and accounting. Due to

ARMM to the Bangsamoro Government in mid-2016, and

politicization, appointments are often based on affiliation

proposes interventions and targets to achieve these.

rather than qualification, discouraging qualified staff from

A. Context: Governance Structures and


Systems in the Bangsamoro

remaining in government.
A.1.3. Lack of Accountability

A.1. Governance Structure and Intergovernmental


Relations

Lack of technical skills is compounded by weak or

Since its creation, the ARMM has been faced with the

community engagement in local development bodies,

challenges of: (a) lack of genuine autonomy; (b) weak

112

nonexistent public accountability systems.124 Minimal


weak public oversight of service delivery, and lack

Governance

of a performance-based framework that links access to


public funds to performance have meant that the current

CH A PT ER

12

Figure 31: Principal Sources of Government Funds to ARMM


(20092011)

system of governance neither rewards good performance


nor punishes poor performance. The Internal Revenue
Allotment (IRA), given as an automatic appropriation
to LGUs125 regardless of performance, is often used as a
personal slush fund of local chief executives or used to
resolve rido.126
A.2. Revenue and Budget Management
A.2.1. Weak Fiscal Autonomy
Although the ARG has instituted a number of governance
reforms, the region remains highly dependent on Central
Government transfers. Figure 31 shows only 2% of the
total amount of government funds available in the ARMM

Source: DFAT-Australia and WB (2013)Basic Education in ARMM

(including LGU IRA and Central Government line agency

driven development projects run by the BDA and the

spending) is raised in the region. As a result, this allows the

ARG.129 Mandatory community participation in local

budget to be subjected to national control.127

development councils is usually nonexistent. The


Bangsamoro region has a number of capable civil society

A.2.2. Poor Budget Management

networks and organizations that are active in such

Budget management has generally been weak in the region.

fields as human rights, conflict monitoring, and public

A 2010 study on the ARMMs education budget control


institutions found weak internal control systems and
no clear guidelines for reporting on budget utilization by
the implementing units, and more importantly, a report
correlating budget spent with achievement of physical

service delivery monitoring. However, transparency and


accountability to the public remains limited.
Strengthening participation in local health boards,
parent-teacher

associations,

and

other

community

outputs or performance targets is nonexistent.128

organizations active in service delivery would help to

With limited reporting on results and outcomes, the Central

to the public. Increasing access to information on

Governments trust and confidence in the ARMM has


fallen. This, in turn, has created a vicious cycle of mistrust,
reduced funding, and diminished autonomy as the Central
Government

increasingly

implemented

development

improve the relevance of services and accountability


government performance is also critical to fostering
public accountability.
A.4. Judicial Institutions

programs in the ARMM through neighboring regional

Injustice is at the heart of the Bangsamoro struggle

offices of national line agencies rather than through the

for self-determination. It is also the main driver of

regional government.

violent conflict and poverty in the BCT. Strengthening


judicial institutions to promote social justice and

A.3. Civil Society and Community Engagement in


Governance

correct historical wrongs is central to the BDP. And yet,

Direct community engagement in governance has been

members of the community characterize the delivery of

very limited in the ARMM outside of major community-

justice services in the Bangsamoro.

impunity and limited access to justice for marginalized

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

A.4.1. Legal Pluralism in the Bangsamoro


The BBL recognizes, protects, and guarantees the customs,
beliefs and traditions of the people of the Bangsamoro
and shall adopt measures to ensure mutual respect and
protection of these for the Bangsamoro people and the
other inhabitants of the Bangsamoro. Article X of the BBL
provides the framework for the administration of justice in
the Bangsamoro, including:
a. Strengthening of the Shariah justice system and
expanding its jurisdiction to include civil, commercial
and criminal cases;
b. Establishing an Office for Traditional/Tribal Justice
System and enacting legislation that will promote and
support traditional/tribal justice system appropriate to
IPs;
c. Recognizing the powers of other local courts and
improving their capacity; and
d. Establishing an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
system, including provisions for prior recourse to
ADR in recognition of the principles of conciliation
and mediation.

are the majority of complainants, there are only three


female judges in the entire system, and cases filed by
women are more likely to be dismissed than those filed
by men.
A.5. Managing Conflict and Strengthening Security
The success of the Bangsamoro Government will largely
be determined by progress made on reducing conflict
and increasing security. With respect to the ceasefire and
the success of the Joint Coordinating Committee on the
Cessation of Hostilities (JCCCH) and the IMT, the stateminority contestation has been a relatively minor source
of violent conflict over the last six years. Rather, recent
data indicate that the incidence of inter-communal and
inter-elite conflict is the main driver of violence in the
Bangsamoro.130
Ensuring peace and security in the Bangsamoro will
therefore require the dismantling of the estimated 43
private armed groups operating in the ARMM,131 in
addition to the redeployment of military forces, the
establishment of an effective Bangsamoro police force,
and the disarmament of combatants.

A.4.2. Access to Justice


Access to justice in the Bangsamoro is generally weak.
Only half of the mandated State Shariah Courts are fully
operational, because of major resource constraints. Access
to legal aid is similarly minimal in a region that has very
few legal professionals. As a result, most disputes are
resolved through community-based justice mechanisms at
the village level. Elders and community leaders wield local
authority and legitimacy, but in general they run these
village-level institutions with no training in mediation and
limited knowledge of the law. Significant capacity-building
will be needed to strengthen these institutions.
A.4.3. Women and Access to Justice

As discussed in Chapter 10, the resolution of competing


land claims has interlocking environmental, economic,
governance, and security implications. Land management
institutions struggle with limited capacity, appear all
too often open to elite capture, and are insufficiently
resourced to withstand the politicization of land conflicts.
Land conflicts are related to historical grievances and
inadequate and/or failed land reform policies, and serve
as a trigger for rido.

B. Transition Period Phase


Besides the above governance issues that will require
significant time, effort, and resources to resolve, there are

Women suffer additional challenges in accessing justice.

immediate tasks that the Bangsamoro Government will

Community-based justice systems in particular tend to

need to address during the transition period. Adequate

reflect local power structures that often discriminate

responses to these will build the foundations upon which

against women, who are under-represented in positions of

solutions to these medium- and long-term challenges can

leadership. In the State Shariah Courts, although women

be resolved.

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12

The transition from the ARMM government to the final

element of building and uniting that constituency is

establishment of the Bangsamoro Government can be

therefore imperative, particularly with ethnically diverse

split into three phases, each with distinct governance

constituents. Moreover, in establishing unity, the role

arrangements:

of women must be recognized and harnessed, as a

1. BTC leadership from mid-2014 up to the passage of


the BBL;

sector that comprises half the constituency. Access to


information needs to be fostered as an important element

132

2. BTA leadership from the passage of the BBL up to the

in building trust in the Bangsamoro Government.

installation of the elected Bangsamoro Government;


and

To strengthen the constituents for the Bangsamoro

3. First term of the Bangsamoro Government.

Government, inclusivity must be fostered at various levels:


among ethnic groups that comprise the region; in the

The challenges and sequencing confronting the Bangsamoro

distribution of the benefits of the dividends of the peace

Government in each phase are summarized in Table 28 and

process; among groups belonging to different political

described fully in the following section.

factions, particularly among LGU officials, MNLF, among


others; and active participation of women in various facets

C. Transition Challenges, Features, and


Targets

of the development task.

This section describes in detail the critical challenges,


features, and targets for each phase of the transition (see

C.1.2. Intergovernmental Relations


By its nature, the Bangsamoro Government will need

Table 28)

to

C.1. Overall/General Transition Challenges

between itself and the Central Government. Ensuring

facilitate

Overall challenges in the transition period to the Bangsamoro


Government include: (a) constituency-building by the
Bangsamoro Government promoting inclusivity among its
various constituencies; (b) managing intergovernmental
relations; (c) restructuring regional governance; (d) redefining
relationship with local government units; and (e) encouraging
greater civil society participation and civic consciousness
among the Bangsamoro.

intergovernmental

harmony,

cooperation,

mechanisms
and

to

coordination

that concurrent powers are appropriately dispensed will


require establishing mechanisms that ensure the exercise
of exclusive powers are coordinated with the Central
Governments actions.
C.1.3. Regional Governance
The first phase in establishing the regional government
will consist of hurdling problems associated with
systems will have to adopt a national standard, some

Among the most challenging tasks faced by the Bangsamoro


Government is uniting its constituency. There are two sides
in a social contract: the governed (or the constituency) and
the government.

need to be modified to reflect the unique features of the


Bangsamoro parliamentary form of government. These
include administrative relations between the regional
parliament and the regional government as well as
between the regional government and its constituent local

The Bangsamoro identity as articulated in the BBL provides


a strong impetus for unity and engagement in governance.
In the past, there was no sustained effort to harness the
constituency

robust

transition. While most of Bangsamoros procedural

C.1.1. Constituency-Building and Inclusivity

regions

have

to

strengthen

governance.

The

government units. Budgeting procedures in the context


of the block grant and other Central Government funding
mechanisms and development approach will also have
to be adjusted to the unique structural features of the
Bangsamoro Government.

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 28: Challenges, Features, and Targets of Transition Phases I, II, and III
Phase I BTC leadership
April 2014 until Passage of the BBL

116

Phase II BTA leadership


The Passage of the BBL until May
2016

Phase III Bangsamoro Government


May 2016 onwards

Overall / General
Transition
Challenges

Critical Features of
Transition Phase

CAB, FAB and its Annexes, and


the proposed BBL are the primary
documents giving formal structure
to the Bangsamoro;
The BTC, a composite entity (GPHMILF), has a very limited mandate
and limited authority or resources
to implement projects or programs
on its own;
The BDA and BLMI, the MILFs
current primary implementation
organizations, remain nongovernment entities with no
authority over any government
program or body;
The BBL will not be in effect until
passed by Congress
The ARG remains the government
entity authorized to govern
and represent the GPH in the
core territory of the proposed
Bangsamoro.

The Bangsamoro is established


by law and the BTA is created; the
BTC will be dissolved;
The BBL is in effect;
Special Development Fund (SDF)
is released to the BTA by the
Central Government;
ARG shall have transferred its
authority over devolved agencies
to the BTA. ARG has ceased to
exist.
The elections will preoccupy both
the GPH and the BTA; and
Donor support for the Bangsamoro
is expected to be high.

Specific Transition
Targets

Organize and prepare a Transition


Team to support the Bangsamoro
Transition Commission (BTC) to
prepare for the establishment
of the Bangsamoro Transition
Authority (BTA)
Organize and prepare a Policy
Development Team to support the
BTC and BTA in addressing key
policy issues
Formulate the BDP containing
programs and projects and their
respective cost estimates that
can be funded by the Special
Development Fund
Establish, define mandates, and
operationalize transitional bodies
(JNC, IDB, TJRC, JPST/JPSC, etc.)
Coordinate with COMELEC on
management of the plebiscite

Turnover of reports, documents,


Reorganize Government and
functions, properties and other
establish new administrative
assets of the ARG is completed
systems
Ensure uninterrupted delivery of
Develop system support the
basic services
realization of fiscal autonomy
Help ensure conduct of a
Launch campaign to reform LGUs in
successful plebiscite (in
the Bangsamoro region
coordination with COMELEC)
Completion of all preparations for
the reorganization of the ARG into
the new Bangsamoro Government
including the transfer of functions
and administrative responsibilities
and a reorganization plan ready for
implementation.
Conduct and completion of studies
on urgent matters affecting the
establishment of the new regional
government
Implementation of a constituencybuilding campaign

Constituency-building by promoting inclusivity


Managing intergovernmental relationships
Restructuring regional governance
Redefining relationship with LGUs
Encouraging greater civil society participation and civic consciousness among the Bangsamoro
Devolution of functions to the
Bangsamoro is in full swing;
The Parliament and Cabinet are
installed and the Chief Minister
elected;
New sets of LGU officials are in
place;
The first amounts of block grant,
special funds and internal revenue
shares need to be appropriated and
allocated by the Parliament through
a regional budget process;
Donor support for the Bangsamoro
is expected to remain high; and
Depending upon the results of the
plebiscite and elections, indications
of private sector interest to invest in
the Bangsamoro begin to show.

Governance

C.1.4. Local Government


The Bangsamoro Government will be inheriting a
convoluted local government system. It will also face
a structure that has thrived on patronage entrenched
through years of misdirection and non-supervision. It
will have to redefine its relationship with the LGUs
to promote greater transparency and accountability
among LGU officials to improve overall welfare of the
Bangsamoro, stabilize the peace and order situation,
and foster prospects of growth and development in the
region under its leadership. The Bangsamoro Parliament
will have to formulate and pass the law that will redefine
this relationship toward a more efficient delivery of basic
services to local communities.
C.1.5. Civil Society
The Bangsamoro Government will need to create
an environment for civil society to adjust to the new
condition of transition and stability. The focus of most
CSOs has been more on peacebuilding and livelihood
development and less on governance and security issues
and improvement of the delivery of basic services by the
regional government. Through partnership with donor
agencies, Bangsamoro CSOs can be strengthened in their
capacity to help effective delivery of the basic services.
The Bangsamoro Government will have to promote
greater civic consciousness among its constituents,
as the development problems confronting the region
will require cooperation and contribution from all
stakeholders to address them successfully.
C.2. Critical Features of Each Transition Phase

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12

the Region, in conjunction with the MILFs BDA and the


BLMI.133
The critical features of the first (BTC) phase include the
following:
a. The CAB, FAB and its Annexes, plus the proposed
BBL, are the primary documents giving formal
structure to the Bangsamoro;
b. The BTC, a composite GPH-MILF entity, has a
very limited mandate and limited authority and
resources to implement programs and projects on
its own;
c. The

BDA,

BLMI,

implementation

and

the

organizations

MILFs

current

remain

to

be

nongovernment entities with no authority over any


government program or body;
d. The BBL in draft form is submitted for deliberation
and approval of Congress; and
e. The ARMM remains as the government entity
authorized to govern and represent the GPH in the
BCT.
Given that limitations of the BTC and the MILF during this
context, this phase is best suited to policy development
initiatives, conducting important research studies, and
organizing for the transition process, preparatory to the
establishment of the Bangsamoro Government.
C.2.2. Phase IIBTA Leadership (Passage of BBL until
May 2016)
The second phase is marked by the passage of the BBL
calling for the formal establishment of the Bangsamoro
Government and the creation of the BTA as an interim

The characteristics of each phase limit the types and

arrangement.134 The critical features of this phase include

nature of activities that can be implemented.

the following:

C.2.1. Phase IBTC Leadership (April 2014 until the


Passage of the BBL)
The mandate of the BTC is limited to: (a) drafting the BBL;
(b) identifying possible Constitutional issues that bear on
the authority of the Bangsamoro Government; and (c)
coordinating with GPH agencies and NGOs to assist in
identifying and coordinating development programs in

a. The Bangsamoro Government is established by law


and the BTA is created as an ad-interim body;
b. The BBL is in effect;
c. SDF is released to the BTA by the Central
Government;135
d. ARG shall have transferred its authority over
devolved agencies to the BTA;136

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

e. The plebiscite and then the regular election for

Depending on the results of the plebiscite and the

Bangsamoro Parliament members will preoccupy

elections, indications of private sector interest to invest in

both the GPH and the BTA; and

the Bangsamoro may begin to show.

f. Donor support for the Bangsamoro is expected to


be high.

C.3. Transition Targets: What Need to be Done


Each of the phases during the transition period will

The BTA will have fewer limitations during this phase,

require different sets of targets/activities, as detailed in

but the plebiscite and the regular election are expected

the following section.

to preoccupy everyone, including the MILF. It is a crucial


stage in the transition process for two reasons: First,
it represents the turnover stage from the ARG to the
Bangsamoro Government through the BTA. At this time,

C.3.1. Phase IBTC Leadership (April 2014 until the


Passage of the BBL)
In Phase I, the targets/activities will be:

there will be events requiring detailed and meticulous


planning and various nuts-and-bolts issues will likely

a. To organize and prepare a transition coordination

arise. A good transition team would have to be formed

team to support the BTA in performing its mandate;

for the tasks. Second, it represents the handover stage,

b. To organize and prepare a policy development team

from the BTA to the first Bangsamoro Government-elect.

to support the BTA;


c. To formulate a BDP that identifies programs and

Between these two milestones, the BTA will have to

projects and their cost estimates that will be funded

ensure that the continued functioning of government in

by the SDF;

the area of autonomy is exercised pursuant to its mandate


under the BBL.

d. To establish and follow through on implementation

That means that while in office the

of the transitional bodies (i.e., JNC, IDB, TJRC,

BTA will need to guarantee uninterrupted delivery of

JPSTs, JPSCs) and task forces on camps and

public services while new institutions are being created

amnesties and pardons;

137

and their capacity is being enhanced.

e. To establish a body to manage the policing

C.2.3. Phase IIIFirst Term of the Elected Bangsamoro


Government (May 2016 onwards)

challenges; and
f. To coordinate with the Commission on Elections
(Comelec) on overseeing the plebiscite.

The third phase is the take-off phase for the new


Bangsamoro

Government,

during

which

high

expectations will need to be managed carefully. The


critical features of the third phase will include:
a. Devolution

of

functions

to

the

Bangsamoro

Government is in full swing;


b. The Parliament and the Cabinet are installed and
the Chief Minister is elected;
c. New sets of LGU officials are in place;
d. The Parliament appropriates and allocates the first
amounts of block grant, and special funds through
a regional budget process; and
e. Donor support for the Bangsamoro Government
(according to pronouncements) is high.

118

C.3.1.1. Organizing the CT4T138


A Coordination Team for the Transition (CT4T) should be
organized to perform the following tasks:
a. Facilitate the transfer of properties, official records,
and books of accounts;
b. Receive and review official reports and documents,
as well as properties to be turned over by the ARG;
c. Help identify and act on other immediate issues
confronting the BTA regarding the transition
process; and
d. Help ensure that all functions mandated to the
Bangsamoro Government are transferred to it by
the ARG.

CH A PT ER

Governance

12

As of November 2014, the GPH-MILF negotiating parties

BTC would need to be regularly updated on the progress of

had signed terms of reference for the Coordination Team

these bodies, as they are critical in determining the outcome

for the Transition to the BTA; otherwise known as the

of the concerns assigned to them.

CT4T.
C.3.1.2. Organizing a Policy Development Team139

Of particular importance is the establishment of a body


that will manage policing operations. The Independent

A Policy Development Team would need to be organized

Commission on Policing (ICP) has made concrete proposals

to conduct research and policy studies urgently needed

on reforms that will be needed in policing the Bangsamoro

to inform the BTA and, eventually, the Bangsamoro

region within the stipulations of the agreements between

Government on priority issues. It could conduct the

the GPH and the MILF. A unit would need to be created to

policy researches itself, or contract the services of

ensure implementation of these proposals.

outside experts to undertake such studies. Under the


latter arrangement, its role would be to ensure that the
contracted consultants produce high-quality outputs
and that their studies addressed appropriate and critical
policy issues confronting the BTA and/or Bangsamoro
Government. The Team would have to be composed of
highly qualified individuals from various disciplines in
the development field with long experience in policy

C.3.1.5. Coordinating with COMELEC on the


Management of the Plebiscite
While

awaiting

approval

of

the

BBL

in

Congress,

representations could be made with the COMELEC on


preparations for the plebiscite on the BBL as electoral
exercises normally take considerable time and manpower.

research and development.

C.3.2. Phase IIBTA Leadership (Passage of the BBL


until May 2016)

C.3.1.3. Special Development Fund (SDF)

Phase II has five major target activities:

The MILF (with support from BDA and other relevant


units) is expected to provide an estimate of the
development assistance it will require during the
transition period. The BTA is expected to implement or
start implementing selected development programs and
projects during its incumbency. However, the ARG will
have a working budget up to 2015 and the BTC will have
to determine whether the proposed priority programs and
projects of the ARG are covered by the ARG submission
for 2015. If not, these priority programs and projects will
have to be funded by the SDF and other funding sources.
C.3.1.4. Establishing and Following Through on
Implementation of the Transitional Bodies
The CAB and the BBL provide for the creation of a
number of transitional bodies (JNC, IDB, TJRC, JPSTs,
JPSCs, the Task Forces on the Six Camps and the Task
Force on Amnesties and Pardons) that will address
specific concerns during the transition process. Some of
these bodies have begun working and others are still to
be established or at the initial organizational stage. The

a. Turnover of reports, documents, functions, properties,


and other assets of the ARG is completed in an orderly
manner with minimal complications;
b. Uninterrupted delivery of basic services;
c. All preparations for reorganization of the ARG into
the Bangsamoro Government, including the transfer
of functions and administrative responsibilities, are
completed and a reorganization plan is ready for
implementation;
d. Conduct and completion of studies on urgent matters
affecting the establishment of the new regional
government to be approved by the Bangsamoro
Government; and
e. A constituency-building campaign is underway.
C.3.2.1. Completing the Turnover
As the detailed instructions and authority to implement the
turnover are not contained in the BBL, the CT4T will need
to formulate these guidelines for signing and issuance by
the Office of the President. Also, the CT4T will need to

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Bangsamoro Development Plan

assist in receiving and reviewing the various reports to

of delivery. If none is provided in the BBL, this plan

be submitted by the ARG. These will include financial

will detail the establishment of a regional government

reports, property inventories, personnel inventories, and

agency that will be responsible for implementing

others, which would be the basis for the formal turnover.

technical assistance programs to line agencies and

Milestone events of this activity will include the turnover

capacity-building programs for line agency staff.

of physical properties and financial assets and the proper


disposal of those physical assets according to auditing
rules, if needed.

d. Completion of an Organizational Performance


Implementation

140

Framework

and

Performance

Evaluation System (OPIF-PES). Until the current


In addition to the inventory of financial and nonfinancial

administration,

assets and official records, the ARG could prepare a

monitoring and evaluation framework in the ARMM

comprehensive baseline on the state of the different

disabled attempts to evaluate regional operations

sectors in the ARMM (i.e., the Open Data project).

at the outcome level. This inability contributed to

This would be an important document that the CT4T

inefficiencies attributed to the ARG and stymied

members could preserve and which the BTA and the

attempts to establish organizational and individual

Bangsamoro Government could maintain and continue.

accountability. The OPIF is an effective framework

C.3.2.2. Completion of Preparations for Reorganization


Preparations for reorganization will cover the following:

absence

of

performance

for planning line agency programs and activities


based on strategic objectives. It follows the design
of an administrative bureaucracy and organizational
structure. Given the differences between the ARMM

a. Design

and

Approval

of

Administrative

Bureaucracy and Organizational Structure. This

and the Bangsamoro Government, a new OPIF-PES


will be needed.

document will detail the organizational structure


of each agency defined in the BBL, the mandatory

e. Organization of a Transition Oversight Committee

associated

and Completion of a Monitoring Framework for

with each mandatory position, and the required

Transition. An oversight committee with defined

competencies.

mandates and composition will be needed to

positions,

qualification

standards

shepherd the transition process. It would need to be


b. Drafting and approval of an Organizational

composed of high-level officials of the GPH and the

Rationalization Program. This will outline in

MILF, and could also include some members of the

detail what line agencies and what positions are

Third Party Monitoring Team (TPMT) as the transition

to be retained, the process of personnel transfer/

involves implementing provisions of the peace

separation, hiring/rehiring, amount of separation

agreement.141 Based on the ARMM experience, it is

pay, grievance management system, and others.

important to have strong oversight of the transition

This will ensure that the rights of civil servants

process, to facilitate resolution of issues as these are

are protected. The program will be guided by the

encountered.

approved BBL.
c. Drafting of a Capacity-Building Plan. Staff of all
line agencies of the Bangsamoro Government
will need to undergo intensive reorientation and
training. This plan will outline the capacity-building
requirements of the line agencies and the manner

120

C.3.2.3. Completion or Commencement of Policy


Studies on Matters Needing Immediate
Attention by the BTA/Bangsamoro Government
a. Drafting a new regional administrative code for
consideration by the Bangsamoro Parliament. An
administrative code serves as guide to government

Governance

CH A PT ER

12

operations and decision-making. It can include a

boundaries. Decisions on whether or not business

definition of territory and constituency as well as

transactions are within the region will depend on

administrative procedures to guide civil servants in

this study. The study will contain reference maps,

their day-to-day tasks. It delineates functions among

which will need to be closely coordinated with

the different line and staff agencies and other units of

the National Mapping and Resources Information

the regional government.

Authority (NAMRIA) of the Philippines. It should


provide guidance on what to do with orphan LGUs

b. Review

and

enactment of a regional electoral

(municipalities or barangays) that have decided to

code. The enactment of a Bangsamoro Electoral Code

join the Bangsamoro and have to be carved out of

is a priority. As proposed in the draft BBL, the first

their provinces or municipalities.

regular election for the Bangsamoro Government in


May 2016 shall be governed by this electoral code,

e. Creating regional special bodies on audit and civil

although National Omnibus Election Code shall apply

service. The BBL provides for creation of special

suppletorily, where appropriate.

bodies for audit and civil service administration. It


will be important to study how these bodies relate

c. Review and approval of the regional revenue code.

to the regional government and to their parent

The BBL identifies the revenue sources of the regional

organizations and the range of powers within the

government. These would form the basis for a review

region. The Commission on Audit and the Civil

of the present regional revenue code, or its repeal,

Service Commission are both constitutional bodies

as the case may be, based on the study results. Work

and their integration into the regional government

on this matter would be urgent, as action on a new

will need diligent and careful study.

revenue law would be among the first items in the


agenda of the Parliament. It would include drafting

f. Review and approval of regional local government

specific guidelines for establishing tax bases, tax rates,

code. The LGUs are likely to pose a serious concern

remittance of shares from internal revenue collections,

to the new regional government. Ambivalence on the

income from natural resource extraction, incomes of

part of both the Central Government and the regional

government corporations from operations in the region,

government has led to LGUs functioning practically

and other sources. These would help the BTA discuss

on their own. The present regional local government

procedural matters pertaining to fiscal autonomy with

code may need to be reviewed and revised. In the

the Department of Finance. The task would involve

context of a parliamentary form of government,

working with an interim Intergovernmental Fiscal

the Bangsamoro Government will need to define

Policy Board (IFPB)and later a permanent IFPB.

new relationships between itself and its constituent


LGUs. It will need the LGUs for revenue generation

This is one of the four priority legislations to be

purposes (collection of fees and regional taxes), and

accomplished by the BTA, including the Bangsamoro

the systems and procedures for that purpose need to

revenue code, the Bangsamoro Electoral Code, and the

be tightened.

Bangsamoro Civil Service Code.


g. Conducting a study on promoting the Shariah
d. Conducting a study defining the land and water

justice

system.

consistent

demand

of

the

boundaries of the region based on the results of

Bangsamoro peace negotiators was promotion of

the plebiscite. The Bangsamoro Government and

the application of Shariah justice system in the

the Parliament will need this study because many

region as part of their adherence to Islamic values

decisions will rely on the accuracy of regional

and respect for their distinct cultural identity. It is

121

Bangsamoro Development Plan

important that a study on the feasibility of its

performance-based

budgeting

system

could

be

expanded application be undertaken, taking into

expected with the introduction of the Organizational

consideration the pluralistic nature of the justice

Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF). The budget

system prevailing in the region. The study would

system would need to allow the regional government

inform discussions in the Bangsamoro Parliament

to access funding for identified priority projects that are

on promoting wider application of Shariah

still covered by national government mandates.

justice. Further details on Shariah justice are in


k. Inventory,

the next section.

review,

and

adaption

of

relevant

administrative procedures. This task covers two


h. Drafting a law to delineate the rights of IPs

sets of procedures. The first pertains to procedures

in terms of exploitation of natural resources

governing relations between the legislature and the

within their territories. Section 11 of Article XIII

executive (Bangsamoro Parliament and Bangsamoro

(Economy and Patrimony) of the BBL specifies

Government) in a parliamentary system. The second

that a law will be drafted to define the rights of

pertains to procedures for government operations such

the IPs in the exploitation of natural resources

as procurement, government accounts management,

within their territories. This is consistent with the

personnel management and other similar systems.

BBLs declaration that it recognizes and respects


the rights of IPs residing within the BCT (Section
5, Article IX Basic Rights of the BBL).

l. Formulating
between

procedures

the

legislative

pertaining
and

to

relations

executive

organs

of the regional government. Rules, regulations,


i. Guidelines on receipt of grants and donations

and procedures governing relations between the

from foreign and local donors. The BBL allows

Parliament and the Government (i.e., the Cabinet) in

receipt of grants and other donations from

a parliamentary environment need to be documented.

foreign and domestic entities.The first three

Such documentation would guide not only officials

years of the regional government will see many

and staff of the Parliament, the Chief Minister (and

donors wanting to contribute to the success of

his/her Deputy) and the Cabinet Ministers, but also

the Bangsamoro experiment. For transparency, it

the ministry and Parliament staff who will have to

would be important to have rules on receipt by

deal with each other. This is particularly important as

the Bangsamoro Government of donations and

parliamentary procedures are alien to most Filipinos.

foreign assistance.
m. Formulating procedures on procurement, government
j. Modifying the regional budgeting and budget

122

accounts

management,

personnel

management

management system. With the block grant

and others. One of the major issues on regional

and SDF as predictable sources of funds from

administration

the

Bangsamoro

Agreement was the late adoption and documentation

Government may now prepare budgets from

of administrative procedures, which caused confusion

a single regional fund, whereas previously

and disorganization. To avoid this mistake, the new

there were two: allocations in the General

regional government will have to do an inventory

Appropriations Act, and the local fund. The

to all relevant manuals pertaining to government

systems and procedures on budgeting, execution,

administration, and adapt these to its operations. These

and monitoring will need to be reviewed and

procedures may need to be reviewed in the context of

modified

the ministerial form of governance. Some procedures

Central

Government,

substantially.

the

more

substantive

in

the

1996

GRP-MNLF

Peace

Governance

CH A PT ER

12

may need to be incorporated into the administrative

With the installation of the first Parliament and the

code.

Bangsamoro Government, the activities/targets for this


phase are: (a) the regional government is reorganized

n. Optional creation of provisional intergovernmental

and its administrative systems are in place; (b) systems to

bodies. The FAB and its Annexes provide for

support the realization of fiscal autonomy are installed; and

creation of six intergovernmental special bodies

(c) the campaign to reform LGUs in the Bangsamoro region

relevant to governance, and other special bodies for

begins.

the normalization process. The BTA may decide to


form provisional intergovernmental bodies during its
mandate. The GPH and the BTA will coordinate and
cooperate on the composition of these bodies and

C.3.3.1. The Regional Government is Reorganized and


its Administrative Systems are in Place
Among the key activities under this agenda are:

on the mechanisms that will guide their operations.


Some of these may be created by legislative fiat,
depending on the advice of the study group.142

a. Implementation of the organizational rationalization


program.This program would best be placed directly
under the Chief Minister, who shall organize a

C.3.2.4. Implementation of a Constituency-Building


Campaign

rationalization program committee to oversee its

It would be essential for the BTA to show inclusiveness

representatives of the Civil Service Commission,

in its operations and decisions from the start in order to

members of the Cabinet, the employees of the

build a constituency for the Bangsamoro Government.

abolished

Demonstrating

participation

Government Service Insurance System, and the

of all stakeholders in each institution and act would

Pag-IBIG Fund, and a member of the CT4T. This

be critical to winning support from Non-Bangsamoro,

program will need to be coordinated closely with

settlers, and non-MILF constituencies. In building new

the reorganization of the regional administrative

institutions, there may be a need to capitalize on skills

bureaucracy.

representativeness

and

implementation. Committee members may include

ARMM

regional

government,

the

that are spread across all ethnic groups to ensure adequate


capacity to deliver on its mandate immediately and meet
expectations.

b. Reorganization of the line and support agencies and


offices of the regional government. The design of
the regional governments structure and designation

C.3.3. Phase IIIFirst Term of the Elected Bangsamoro


Government Officials (May 2016 onwards)

of mandates and functions to the different line

This phase covers the period from the inauguration of the

completed under the BTA. Guided by those, former

newly elected Parliament members to the end of 2019.

ARG departments that have been functioning on

During this period, the BTA will relinquish its mandate

an interim basis will be reorganized into the regular

in favor of the convened Parliament. The BBL defines the

service delivery units of the Bangsamoro Government.

(Ministries) and staff (Offices) units shall have been

functions and operations of the Bangsamoro Parliament,


the Office of the Chief Minister and the Cabinet, and the

With the structures defined and mandates allocated,

relationship between the Parliament and the Government.

position qualification standards are defined and the

An accepted practice in parliamentary democracies is

regional government embarks on a campaign to

that the executive sets most of the legislative agenda. At

attract the best and the brightest in the region. Staff

this point, the BTAs Policy Development Team could

members of the abolished ARG who are found to be

be formally integrated into the regional government to

highly qualified will be encouraged to apply for new

support its agenda-setting role.

positions.

123

Bangsamoro Development Plan

The reorganization will also cover the introduction of

process of approval. As discussed earlier, the Policy

the OPIF, against which each agencys and individual

Development Team would have to work with both the

staffs performance will be measured. A Performance

Parliament and the Cabinet to see the draft law pass.

Monitoring System would be needed to allow the


Bangsamoro Government to evaluate achievement of

e. Enactment of a law on Shariah justice. Similarly,

desired outcomes. Among the first major application of

the Parliament is expected to support this important

the OPIF would be the preparation of the Bangsamoro

legislation. The Policy Development Team could assist

Governments First Six-Year Plan. Being outcome-

the Parliament and the Cabinet in drafting the bill.

oriented, the OPIF should be able to provide the


regional line and service agencies, guidance in linking

f. Implementation of capability-building plan. A unit

goals and objectives to agency program, project, and

will be established that will focus on providing human

activity (PPA).

resource development services to the different line


and support agencies of the regional government. It

Use of the OPIF framework would facilitate its linkage

will be responsible for implementing a capability-

to the annual budgets as well as the Medium-Term

building plan.

Expenditure Framework (MTEF) and Medium-Term


Investment Program (MTIP). The reorganization may

g. Forming and operationalization of intergovernmental

include introduction of agency operations manuals.

bodies. The six intergovernmental bodies pertaining to

All staffs would be oriented not only in its use but

governance, mentioned earlier, will be the following,

also in relevant procurement, government accounting

in order of priority:

management, audit, evaluation and reporting systems.


i. Intergovernmental Relations Body (from interim to
c. Establishment of a regional budgeting and budget
management system. The regional budgeting and

permanent)
ii. Intergovernmental

budget management system, designed under the

Fiscal

Policy

Board

(from

interim to permanent)

BTA, will be established in close coordination with

iii. Congress-Parliament Bangsamoro Forum

the Central Governments Department of Budget and

iv. Intergovernmental Sustainable Development Body

Management. The IFPB and the Cabinet will review the

v. Shariah Supervisory Board

system before approval. The Policy Development Team

vi. Joint Body for the Zones of Joint Cooperation

members responsible for the scheme may provide


inputs for the review and approval process. The new
system will result in the preparation and review MTEFMTIP, which will dovetail with regional plans. The

C.3.3.2. Systems to Support the Realization of Fiscal


Autonomy are Installed
The key activities to meet this target will include:

new budget system will include a process to enable


the Bangsamoro Government and its constituent LGUs

a. Organizing the IFPB or converting its status from an

to access funding for region-identified priority projects

interim organ under the BTA to a permanent organ of

from national agencies.

the Bangsamoro Government;


b. A new regional revenue law is passed;

d. Enactment of an administrative code. The Parliament

c. Enforcing

guidelines

on

the

release of

is expected to support this basic and important

the annual block grant and other fund transfers from the

piece of regional legislation. The concerned Policy

Central Government;

Development Team member could shepherd the

d. Establishing a system of collecting regional taxes and


fees;

124

specific

Governance

e. Passing a law establishing a Shariah Supervisory Board

CH A PT ER

12

Annex on Revenue Sources and Wealth Sharing.


Similar to the revenue law, crafting this piece of

to promote Islamic banking; and


f. Setting guidelines on access to credit financing and use

legislation will need intergovernmental intervention.

of alternative financing modes such as public-private


iv. Establishing systems for collecting regional taxes

partnership, bond issuance, and others.

and fees. The regional government will continue


i. Organizing the Intergovernmental Fiscal Policy

to rely mainly on its constituent LGUs to collect

Board (IFPB). The IFPB is a strategic body necessary

regional impositions. To avoid the confusion

for sustaining fiscal autonomy. It could be envisaged

that characterized the past system, better defined

as the equivalent of a regional Department of

arrangements between LGUs and the Bangsamoro

Finance. The Cabinet, led by the Chief Minister, will

Government will have to be made.

be responsible for its formal creation, although an


interim IFPB may be needed to help guide studies

v. Establishing a Fiduciary Supervisory Board. There

pertaining to fiscal autonomy and secure the SDF. A

is need for more banks in the region to facilitate

Policy Development Team may assist the Cabinet in

access to credit, promote savings, and keep

planning out its establishment.

financial transactions secure. The third is critical


to the regions governance system because many

ii. Enacting a new regional revenue law. The Policy

LGUs are forced to stick to manual systems of fund

Development Team member assigned to study the

management in the absence of banks. The Policy

subject may shepherd the process of running the draft

Development Team could help the Cabinet draft

through the IFPB, the Cabinet, and the Parliament.

legislation establishing this board. The task will

The

pertaining

include undertaking a policy-focused study on the

to remittance of shares from internal revenue

regional governments position on the Al-Amanah

collections, income from natural resource extraction,

Islamic Investment Bank of the Philippines and the

incomes of government corporations from operations

Southern Philippines Development Authority.

law

could

include

guidelines

in the region, and other sources. These will cover


operational guidelines to be followed by the

vi. Formulating and disseminating guidelines on credit

Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) in withholding the

financing and use of other modes of financing.

Bangsamoro Governments share of internal revenue

Such guidelines will be important at an early stage

collections within the region. Crafting the law will

to assure the financial community that a policy

need inputs from relevant national government

framework for developing a regional financial sector

offices such as the BIR, the Bureau of Customs, the

is already being studied.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources,


and others.

C.3.3.3. The Campaign to Reform Constituent LGUs


Begins

iii. Setting guidelines on use of block grant and other

The BTA, with assistance from the Policy Development

fund transfers from the Central Government. The

Team, shall have developed a reform plan for defining

CT4T and the Policy Development Team could

the Bangsamoro Governments relationship with local

work with the Intergovernmental Relations Body

governments. That plan will be subject of review by the

in setting specific guidelines on the release of the

Cabinet and the Parliament. Among the concerns that

block grant and other fund transfers from the Central

will need to be addressed are: (a) that two laws on local

Government, as provided for in the BBL and the FAB

governments are in effect; (b) corruption and patronage;

125

Bangsamoro Development Plan

(c) proliferation of unqualified appointees; (d) monitoring

state justice mechanisms and through separate judiciaries

of performance in the delivery of public services; (e)

run by the MILF, which includes all aspects of the law,

action to be taken on municipalities that receive no

including commercial transactions and criminal justice.

allotments from the national budget; (f) greater civil


society engagement in local governance; and (g) the

Expansion of the jurisdiction of the government Shariah

issue of orphaned LGUs arising from their choice to

courts to cover commercial and criminal law was

join the Bangsamoro.

authorized under the ARMM Organic Act (Republic


Act 9054). However, the relevant enabling legislation

Among the actions expected under this reform agenda

was never adopted by the ARMM Regional Legislative

are: (a) decision on Muslim Mindanao Act (MMA) 25,

Assembly.

143

with the possibility of enacting a new regional law on


local governments; (b) implementation of an extensive

However, an expanded recognition of Shariah has

campaign to emulate the good and shame the bad local

also been accommodated in the CAB and in the draft

government leaders, and encourage the public to use

BBL, which stipulates that the Shariah courts in the

current reforms (such as the Full-Disclosure Policy) to

Bangsamoro shall have jurisdiction over Shariah law

expose malpractices through the media or by networking

enacted by the Bangsamoro Parliament pertaining to

with national civil society watchdog organizations;

persons and family relations, and other civil law matters,

(c) pressing for greater oversight by the Civil Service

commercial law, and criminal law.

Commission over personnel selection and appointments;


(d) standardization of cash management procedure and

On top of the existing District and Circuit Shariah Courts,

reporting, procurement, asset management, and third

the draft BBL proposes to establish a Bangsamoro Shariah

party monitoring of both nationally and locally funded

High Court that would exercise final and executory

projects; and (e) broader participation of the citizenry in

authority over matters of Shariah; a Shariah Public

monitoring the activities of LGUs.

Assistance Office; a Shariah Special Prosecution Service;

D. Promoting Shariah Justice


Shariah law has been applied in the Bangsamoro areas
for centuries to bring legal certainty and peace and order
to Muslim communities. Partial recognition of Islamic
law was extended by the Central Government in 1977
through Presidential Decree (PD) 1083, also known as
the Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines. PD
1083 covers family and personal law issues for Muslims
through a network of Shariah District Courts and
Circuit Courts in different parts of Mindanao, under the
supervision of the Supreme Court. Despite being underresourced, the formal Shariah courts are well regarded,
with surveys indicating relatively high levels of public
satisfaction.144
Parallel to the government Shariah courts, Islamic law
is also applied at the community level through non-

126

and a Shariah Academy.


Furthermore, the draft BBL establishes new standards for
Shariah judges, requiring that they have graduated from a
four-year course on Shariah or Islamic jurisprudence and
passed the Shariah bar examination.145
Making the Shariah justice system of the Bangsamoro
fully functional will require actions on multiple fronts:
institutional

development,

skills

development,

and

community access to justice.


D.1. Institutional Development
Institutional development will be supported in the
following areas:
a. Support

the

existing

Shariah

Courts.

The

existing Shariah Circuit and District Courts in the

Governance

Bangsamoro lack many basic facilities for handling


current caseloads. Circuit courts in many locations are
non-operational. To ensure that the existing Shariah
courts are adequately resourced and to prepare
for the expected expansion of the jurisdiction, an
institutional needs assessment will be launched as
a matter of priority. At the same time, coordination
within the existing courts system in the Bangsamoro
will be necessary and sharing of resources will have
to be discussed, given that caseloads from the civil
and criminal courts will be shifting across the Shariah
court system under the Bangsamoro.
b. Create the Shariah Academy. Establishing the Shariah
Academy is a top priority to ensure that appropriate
training is available to potential judges to fill the
bench of the Circuit Courts, District Courts and the
new High Court and to lawyers to fill the ranks of the
new Prosecution Service and Public Assistance Office.
Given the requirements laid out in the BBL, identifying
appropriate teaching staff, formulating the curriculum,
and establishing procedures for accreditation of
existing courses will be the immediate priorities.
c. Establish the Public Assistance Office (PAO). A PAO
for the Shariah courts has been envisaged for more
than a decade under the Expanded ARMM Organic
Act but has yet to be operational. As the jurisdiction
of the Shariah system expands into criminal cases, the
availability of affordable legal services becomes even
more important. In delivering these services, the PAO
could also consider cooperation with local legal aid
providers in the Bangsamoro.
d. Establish the Shariah Special Prosecution Service.
As noted in the BBL, the prosecution service will
be attached to the National Prosecution Service
of the Central Government. Detailed coordination
will therefore be necessary in the short term to
explore the transition of many functions from the
existing prosecutorial service to the Shariah Special
Prosecution Service.

CH A PT ER

12

D.2. Skills Development


Establishing the institutions of the Bangsamoro Shariah
Justice System will require a significant effort to build
necessary expertise with the qualifications required by
the BBL. Training on Shariah law principles and rollout
of the required four-year course on Shariah or Islamic
Jurisprudence would be the key priorities for the shortterm period. The BBL provides that all Shariah criminal
laws passed by the Bangsamoro Parliament shall be
in accordance with universally accepted principles
and standards of human rights. Accordingly, both the
Bangsamoro Parliament and agencies of the justice
sector will need knowledge not only on Shariah and
Islamic jurisprudence but also on international human
rights law.
Accordingly, a targeted skills development plan on
Shariah and human rights will be formulated for the
following target groups:
a. Existing judges
b. Members of Parliament and staff
c. Candidate judges
d. Lawyers
In addition to knowledge programs on Shariah and
human rights, many Shariah judges have had very
little skills training in the past decade or so. Given the
expressed preference for mediation for the resolution
of civil cases through the Shariah courts, a program of
mediation skills will be prepared for existing judges.
D.3. Community Access to Justice
The establishment of a PAO would fill an important gap
in terms of access to justice through the Shariah court
system. However, legal aid alone would not ensure
access to equitable justice services for the poor. Legal
awareness is a precondition, and yet legal outreach
campaigns have been very limited in the region.
Given the limitless need but finite resources, innovative
ways will be used to inform people of their rights and
obligations and of means of seeking legal redress. This

127

Bangsamoro Development Plan

could include working through NGOs, religious leaders,

the government. In the past, much of scarce public funds

and regular community meetings through development

were captured by rent-seeking officials, which resulted in

projects.

poor or absent basic services and in worsening poverty.

E. Strengthening Fiscal Autonomy in the


Bangsamoro

Significant deposits of mineral and non-mineral resources


have been reported in the BCT. If properly developed,

The ARMM generates only 2% of its budget internally.


Its heavy dependence on funding from the Central
Government has seriously weakened the ability of regional
officials to determine priority development projects in
the region and to address the development needs of their
people. It has also fostered a patron-client relationship
between Central Government officials and regional officials
whereby the political fortune of the latter depends greatly
on the amount of resources emanating from the former. The
institutionalization of the block grant formula in the BBL
is an attempt to strengthen the Bangsamoro Governments
fiscal autonomy.

revenue

measures

and

improve

collection

efficiency. As security and normality are restored and the


economy grows at an accelerated basis, private investments
are expected to come, which will expand the Bangsamoro
Governments

that can strengthen the Bangsamoro Governments fiscal


autonomy. However, there is a need for a scoping study
of mineral and non-mineral resources, and feasibility/
engineering studies for their extraction to determine
whether the available volume can be extracted in a way
that is economically viable and environment-friendly.
The concomitant appropriate fiscal regime vis-a-vis the
operations of mining firms could be formulated as a way of
encouraging their entry while ensuring maximum revenue
gains for the Bangsamoro Government.
An open trading regime in areas declared as export

The Bangsamoro Government will have to pass additional


internal

the extractive industry can provide huge revenue sources

revenue

base.

Initially,

however,

the

Bangsamoro Government may have to offer incentives,


including tax holidays, to interested investors. In the
medium and the long term, operations of these investors
will contribute significantly to Bangsamoro Government
revenues in terms not only of their tax payments but also of

processing zones (e.g., Polloc Port in Maguindanao and


Bongao Port in Tawi-Tawi) with neighboring countries
would encourage the flow of more goods and services in
the Bangsamoro. Consequently, economic activity and
potential revenue sources would increase. An open trading
regime could also reduce prices of basic commodities
for Bangsamoro consumers, as prime agricultural and
manufactured products in neighboring countries are priced
lower than in the Philippines.

F. Normalization and Development

tax payments and revenue-generating expenditures of their

Peace, security, and development are fundamental

employees.

aspirations of everyone in the Bangsamoro. The CAB,


together with the Annex on Normalization, provides

Enhancing fiscal autonomy will require judicious use of

the platform for new institutional arrangements that will

government funds. Expenditures will need to be targeted

ensure that communities affected by the decades-long

on activities that will promote greater economic efficiency

armed conflict in Mindanao can return to a peaceful life

and growth, reduce the incidence of poverty, and improve

and pursue economic activities and sustainable livelihoods

the human development indicators of the populace.

free from fear of violence and insecurity.

Transparency and accountability mechanisms will need to


be built to uphold the accountability of local officials in

Upon its establishment, the Bangsamoro Transition

the use of public funds. Participation of CSOs and ordinary

Authority (BTA) shall assist and support normalization and

citizens would need to be encouraged in the workings of

development in the Bangsamoro.

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Governance

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12

The Joint Normalization Committee (JNC) shall continue

G. Summary of Priority Programs

to coordinate the normalization process with the BTA as

A summary of the priority plans and programs for the

partner until the signing of an exit agreement.

transition period can be found in Table 29.

Table 29: Priority Governance and Justice Programs


Objective

Priority Programs

Components

Support for Transitional Bodies

As provided for in the CAB and BBL

Support for BBL and Plebiscite

IEC campaigns, voter registration, etc.

Capacity-Building, Organizational
Development, and Change Management
Requirements from ARMM to BTA

Training programs on management and leadership, values


transformation
Scholarships in priority technical courses
Drafting of ministry transition plans
Capacity-building for municipalities and barangays

Technical Assistance for Drafting of Key


Administrative Laws

Based on priorities set by the BBL/BTA

Baseline Data Generation

Data generation across all ministries, including a


comprehensive assessment of location, number and status
of infrastructure and personnel
Creation of Open Data platform for the Bangsamoro

Transparency and Accountability Program

Development of anticorruption strategy


Geotagging and third party monitoring of programs and
projects

Access to Justice, including Shariah Justice

Policy and programmatic work on the improving access


to justice, including the Shariah justice system in the
Bangsamoro

Fiscal Autonomy

Reform of government corporations, regional economic


policy development, etc.

129

Bangsamoro Development Plan

NOTES
123 Bacani (2005).
124 Despite more than 10 years of significant technical capacity-building support for LGUs across the region through the Canadian-funded Local
Government Support Program for ARMM (LGSPA), ARMMs own reporting showed little improvement in the quality of governance in terms of both
fiduciary standards and service delivery outcomes. This experience suggests that the absence of accountability, rather than technical deficiencies,
is at the core of ARMMs government challenges.
125 Only 6% of LGUs in ARMM received the Seal of Good Housekeeping from the DILG in 2013, compared to the national average of 76.6%.
126 Torres (2007), page 109.
127 Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and World Bank (2014).
128 Tribal Helm (2010), pages 32 to 34.
129 The Mindanao Trust Fund-Reconstruction and Development Program (see www.bangsamorodevelopment.org) and the ARMM Social Fund
Project.
130 Refer to the Bangsamoro Conflict Monitoring System (BCMS) and International Alert (2014).
131 Institute of Bangsamoro Studies and the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (2011).
132 The debate on the draft law could continue through the first quarter of 2015.
133 Executive Order No. 120, Constituting the Transition Commission and for Other Purpose, December 2012.
134 The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, Section VII, Item 9.
135 See Annex on Revenue Generation and Wealth Sharing, Section V, Article B.
136 The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, Section VII, Item 9.
137 Ibid., item 10.
138 The CT4T ideally will be supported by professionals with skills corresponding to those of the heads of line and major support departments of the
ARG: Public Works and Highways, Health, Education, Local Government, Social Welfare and Development, Transportation and Communications,
Science and Technology, Agriculture and Fisheries, Environment and Natural Resources, Trade and Industry, Regional Planning, Budgeting,
Treasury and Accounting, and others that may be identified later.
139 The Policy Development Team, preferably consisting of professionals with stellar experience in action and policy research, would need expertise or
specialization in such fields as economics, including agricultural economics, business management or administration, public administration, law
including Shariah justice, local government administration, taxation, banking and finance, and others that may be identified by the BTA.
140 It may be necessary to create a joint ARG-BTA Turnover Committee to settle problems encountered in the turnover of reports, physical assets,
personnel, documents/records, and financial assets. The committees formation could be discussed by the ARG and the BTA early on.
141 The TPMT is mandated to monitor the implementation of the CAB.
142 About six intergovernmental bodies are identified in the Annex on Normalization, together with mechanisms to facilitate consultative process
between the parties in the appointment, employment and deployment of the existing police force and the Traditional Justice and Reconciliation
Commission. Those bodies are germane to the issue of security.
143 Two laws on local governments apply in ARMM: the Muslim Mindanao Act No. 25 (approved by the Regional Legislative Assembly in 1994) and
the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991. The latter devolved functions from the Central Government to LGUs, including functions pertaining to
delivery of social and economic services such as health, agriculture, social welfare, and environment. Under the LGC, LGUs are entitled to their
respective shares in internal revenue allotments (IRA) to fund the performance of those devolved functions. On the other hand, MMA 25 did not
devolve functions relating to the delivery of health, agriculture, social welfare, and environmental services. Most ARMM LGUs, notwithstanding
receipt of IRA allocations from the national government, refuse to perform those four aforementioned functions because according to them, these
have not been devolved.
144 See Guerrero, Barra, Mangahas, and Licudine (2007).
145 Presidential Decree 1083 requires judges in the District Courts to have the same qualifications as their counterparts in the regular court system, as
well as passing the Shariah bar. Shariah Circuit Court judges are required to have high school education and to have passed the Shariah bar.

130

Proposed Implementation Arrangements and Financial Modalities

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13

13

Proposed Implementation
Arrangements and
Financial Modalities

131

Bangsamoro Development Plan

13

Proposed Implementation
Arrangements and
Financial Modalities

The experience of the ARMM shows that well-planned

The establishment of the Bangsamoro Government will

interventions with significant financial support from

see a transition from Central Government-led delivery

the Central Government and ODA partners are not

to full ownership by the Bangsamoro, initially through

enough to deliver stability and prosperity in the absence

the BTA and eventually through the Bangsamoro

of strong, transparent, and inclusive implementation

Government. The implementation arrangements of

arrangements. While the technical recommendations

the BDP therefore need to remain flexible to account

lay out a framework for stabilization and socioeconomic

for the mandate of the BTA to design the institutional

recovery of the Bangsamoro, the ability of the

structure for the Bangsamoro Government. Until

Bangsamoro Government to deliver lasting change rests

the establishment of the BTA, existing Bangsamoro

on the institutional arrangements and processes for

institutions, including the BDA and the BLMI, will work

implementation.

closely with Central Government agencies and ARMM

A. General Principles
The CAB emphasizes the leadership of the Bangsamoro
in planning, delivering, and monitoring socioeconomic,
political, and cultural interventions in the Bangsamoro. It
commits the parties to cooperation for its implementation
and to continuing multisector dialogues that ensure
inclusivity, accountability, and gender balance to all
stakeholders in the Bangsamoro. These principles anchor
the proposed implementation arrangements for the BDP.
The BDP is also mandated by the CAB to guide overall
alignment of all post-Agreement economic interventions
in the Bangsamoro, regardless of funding source.
Implementation will, therefore be based on partnership
among the Bangsamoro, the GPH, and development
partners to provide the needed technical assistance funds
and operational support, while building the capacity

agencies, private sector investors, LGUs, civil society,


and international development partners to deliver
development programs.
Development efforts shall encourage a bottom-up
approach,

consciously

empowering

Bangsamoro

citizens to actively participate in decision-making,


implementation,

and

monitoring

and

evaluation

of interventions in their communities. There are a


number of civil society networks and organizations in
the Bangsamoro that are active in monitoring public
service delivery. The strong links and relationships that
the MILF has forged with CSOs will be drawn upon to
strengthen the relationship between the state and society
and encourage increased accountable governance that
is people-centered.

B. Proposed Implementation Arrangements

of the BTA to assume all the devolved powers of the

Article XVI, Section 7 of the proposed BBL states that an

Bangsamoro upon its establishment.

Interim Cabinet shall be created under the BTA. It shall

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Proposed Implementation Arrangements and Financial Modalities

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13

be composed of 10 primary offices, with sub-offices for

The BTA may empower the interim Chief Minister to

matters covered and priority ministries, as follows:

create other ministries and primary offices, upon a


determination of the majority of its members that these

1. Governancein charge of budget and finance,

are necessary for achieving the twin goals of continuity of

accountability, and such similar or other related

social services and transitioning to the regular Bangsamoro

matters

Government.

2. Social Servicesin charge of social welfare, and


such similar or other related matters

Recognizing these guiding principles, and in the spirit of

3. Developmentin charge of transportation and

a partnership, the proposed institutional arrangements

communications, regional investments, trade and

for delivering development projects during the transition

industry, agriculture, forestry and environment,

period is presented in Figure 32.

urban and rural development, and such similar or


other related matters

It is envisioned that two funding mechanisms will be

4. Education

created to support the transition: The Bangsamoro

5. Public Order and Safety

Trust Fund, and a Normalization Fund. Given the

6. Indigenous Peoples Affairs

highly intertwined needs of the combatants and their

7. Health

communities and that of the Bangsamoro as a whole,

8. Public Works

it is imperative that socioeconomic and development

9. Local Government

assistance be closely coordinated to produce a synergistic

10. Finance

impact on the overall welfare of the Bangsamoro people.

Figure 32: Proposed Implementation Arrangements

Source: BDP-CPT

133

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Close coordination between the JNC and the BTC/

as smoothly as possible to guarantee uninterrupted

BTA will be forged during the transition period. A

provision of basic services to the Bangsamoro people.

Coordinating

will

There is also the added challenge of accelerating the

be established to regulate the administration and

provision of these services, considering the need to

coordination of socioeconomic interventions in the

narrow the huge development gaps between the BCT

Bangsamoro during the transition.

and the other regions of the country. Combined with

Body

for

Development

(CBD)

the shortage of personnel in the BCT who are assigned


The CBD will set policy directions, strengthen linkages

to deliver these basic services, there will be a need to

between the Bangsamoro Government and national

introduce innovative institutional arrangements, on

government agencies, and ensure the alignment and

an ad hoc basis for two to three years, until existing

strategic complementation of development programs with

ministries within the BTA and the Bangsamoro

the BDP and BDF. The head of the BTC/BTA will chair

Government are adequately capacitated.

the CBD with suitable representation from the national


and ARMM governments, the BDA and the BLMI, the

Task forces can be created to provide specific services

Third Party Monitoring Team, the International Contact

(i.e., provision of safe water, immunization of infants

Group, civil society, private sector, and international

and children, conduct of adult literacy programs,

development partners, subject to agreement of the

etc.) and reporting directly to a CBD composed of

parties.

representatives of the Bangsamoro, national government


agencies, and development partners.

A technical committee should be formed to support the


operations of the CBD, communicate socioeconomic

Outsourcing of such services to INGOs, local NGOs, or

development in the Bangsamoro, and oversee the

reputable institutions specializing in the needed service

monitoring and evaluation of the plan.

is recommended to ensure that service delivery is run


by capable and professional staff who can quickly

Bangsamoro-led institutions, such as the BDA and the

deliver the service, particularly during the transition

BLMI, will lead the implementation in collaboration

period.

with

relevant

national

and

regional

government

counterpart agencies, specialized Bangsamoro agencies,

C. Relationships with Key Partners

and development partners as appropriate. Civil society


will play a critical role in bottom-up accountability of
financing and results.

C.1. Phase I (From 2015 to Mid-2016)


C.1.1. Relationship with ARMM

A Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation (RbM&E)

Since the ARGs mandate, structures, and budget

body will be created to ensure full transparency,

allocation under the General Appropriations Act

accountability, and efficiency of delivery. Ministry-

will cease only upon installation of the BTA,

specific RbM&E units may also be lodged with the

close coordination among the ARMM, the Central

different Bangsamoro-led implementing institutions. Each

Government, and Bangsamoro institutions will be

ministerial unit will be directly accountable to the overall

imperative to ensure uninterrupted delivery of basic

RbM&E body.

services

and

the

accelerated

implementation

of

development projects in the Bangsamoro area. Existing


It is important that the transition from the ARMM to

development programs under the ARMM for FY 2014

the BTA and to the Bangsamoro Government proceeds

and FY 2015 are accordingly factored into the BDP.

134

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Proposed Implementation Arrangements and Financial Modalities

C.1.2. Relationship with Normalization Bodies


Section G of the Annex on Normalization stipulates
that efforts shall be made to align socioeconomic
interventions with the overall Bangsamoro Development
Plan. As such, the CBD shall establish relationships

13

of socioeconomic activities may be discussed by the


intergovernmental relations mechanism.

D. Role of Community Leaders and


Organizers

(see Figure 32) with the transitional bodies under the

For reforms in the Bangsamoro to be introduced

normalization process, including the Joint Normalization

effectively, the impetus for change from the top will

Committee (JNC) and the task force mandated to oversee

need to be complemented by contributions from local

the socioeconomic development of the six identified MILF

communities, especially in critical areas. Capacity-

camps. This shall further guarantee the balance of short-

building and participatory engagement at the local

term confidence-building peace dividend requirements

level will be necessary to rebuild social cohesion and

with medium- and long-term development goals.

set the foundations for rule of law, transparency, and

C.1.3. Relationship with Private Sector Investors

accountability mechanisms to promote good governance


and sustainable development.

In recognition of the private sectors role in developing


private-public

Community-Driven Development (CDD) and Community-

partnerships and other methods of encouraging the active

Driven Reconstruction (CDR), as in the MTF-RDP and

engagement of the business sector in the Bangsamoros

the ARMM Social Fund, have proven to be effective

economic transformation will be promoted.

methods of promoting community participation in the

sustainable

livelihood

opportunities,

implementation of development projects in impoverished


C.2. Phase II (From Mid-2016 to 2019)

and conflict-affected areas in Mindanao. They promote

Upon dissolution of the BTA and election of the

a participatory process in identification, selection and

Bangsamoro Government in mid-2016, implementation


functions shall be transferred to the relevant ministries of

implementation of projects, strengthen social cohesion,


and promote transparency and accountability. The

the Bangsamoro.

networks of community organizers and facilitators from

To support the vision of a self-reliant Bangsamoro, an

leveraged to encourage continued community feedback

exit strategy for transitional/external support structures


established in Phase I shall be developed for Phase II,
with clear timelines and metrics for building institutional

current and previous CDD programs in Mindanao can be


into the development planning process and as field based
monitors of effective implementation.

capacity in regular organs of the Bangsamoro government.

E. Training and Strategic Research

This may be formulated in conjunction with the GPH and

While the BDA is experienced in the implementation of

MILF Panels and the Third Party Monitoring Team (TPMT),

CDD/CDR through the MTF-RDP, the BLMI, by the very

as a possible contribution to the socioeconomic aspects

nature of the organization, should specialize in training

of the Exit Agreement upon the full implementation of

potential leaders of the Bangsamoro in operational

the CAB, the signing of which shall signal the official

excellence

termination of the peace negotiations between the GPH

development projects).

(i.e.,

managing

and

implementing

and the MILF.


A separate body may also serve as a Bangsamoro
Further delineation of the Bangsamoros continuing

think tank, or policy and strategic research unit, to

relationship with Central Government in the conduct

tackle policy and strategic issues that will confront the

135

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Bangsamoro Government and to provide the policy

process, funding stream, and risk metricit is imperative

position for various Bangsamoro units in dialoguing with

that the overall funding and aid management architecture

their national agency counterparts. Local organizations

reflects the spirit and intent of the Agreement, in honoring

currently engaging in this arena include the Institute of

the partnership between the GPH and the MILF, while

Bangsamoro Studies (IBS) and the Bangsamoro Study

allowing for the Bangsamoros leadership and continuous

Group (BSG). Both have demonstrated marked capacity,

capacitation as it prepares for autonomous governance.

but will require various additional specialists (i.e., in


economics, agriculture and agribusiness, statistics and

Another key challenge is to use these various funding

econometrics, fiscal management, etc.) in their rosters.

platforms, regardless of the funding source, in pursuit of


a unified, coherent, and well-coordinated strategic agenda

F. Possible Financing Modalities

to rebuild the Bangsamoro, with maximum transparency,

Given the post-Agreement landscape of the Bangsamoro,


implementation of the BDP will require a mix of funding
mechanisms and channels, covering both national
government

and

bilateral

and

multilateral

donor

modalities.

The following sections recommend funding options as


applicable to Phase I and Phase II implementation.
F.1. Phase I (From 2015 to Mid-2016)

The CAB specifies three special funding mechanisms


to be established and implemented by the transition
government:

While the financing modalities for the Bangsamoro are


delineated, and prior to establishment of the BTA, existing
programs and budget platforms would need to be rapidly
aligned with the requirements of the transition process.

1. A block grant from the Central Government as


an automatic appropriation to the Bangsamoro
Government, the specific formula for which is
provided in the BBL;

amount for rehabilitation and development after the


ratification of the BBL; and
Trust

This would include:


a. Central Government budgetary allocations for the
Bangsamoro regions special development needs;
b. The ARMM budget for FY 2015, including program

2. Special Development Fund (SDF), a specified

3. Normalization

speed, efficiency, and accountability.

Fund,

funds for special development programs such as


PAMANA;
c. Multi-donor

trust

governance structure
which

may

pool

government funds and multilateral donor support


for activities relating to normalization. The CAB
provides for setting criteria for eligible financing
schemes, which include priority areas of capacitybuilding, institutional strengthening, and economic

fund(s)
146

with

an

inclusive

that can provide on- and

off-budget support to a wide range of implementing


partners; and
d. Bilateral donors supporting direct execution and
channelled funding arrangements.
F.1.1. Government Funding

facilitation for return to normal life affecting

In light of the Aquino administrations policy of

combatant and noncombatant elements of the MILF

heavy peacebuilding investments, as in the case of

and their communities, and the Bangsamoro People.

the ARMM-TISP and PAMANA, it is expected that the


Central Government will retain significant funding and

Despite the variety of modalities and platforms available

operational responsibilities until the BTA is in place,

each with a different goal, timeframe, decision-making

particularly for normalization.

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Proposed Implementation Arrangements and Financial Modalities

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13

For FY 2015, realignment of existing fund sources, including

Program (IARCDSP), and the World Banks Philippine

development programming under the ARMM Regional

Rural Development Program (PRDP) are designed for

Government, is a likely bridge scenario until the formal

sector-specific socioeconomic interventions. Where

SDF is set as provided for by BBL and mobilized through

relevant and appropriate, ODA partners should consider

the General Appropriations Act.

how to align their existing programs with the BDP.

Given the nature of post-conflict reconstruction and

F.1.4. Multi-Donor Trust Funds

rehabilitation, however, budget lines will need to be

Experience shows that fund-pooling mechanisms, in

fungible and quick-disbursing, with built-in flexibilities given

the form of multi-donor trust funds (MDTFs) are central

that final programming will be based on extensive needs

to efficient and coordinated ODA support in post-

assessments as provided for by the CAB. Such flexibilities

conflict financing environments. MDTFs have proven

would be crucial in meeting community expectations and

to be important instruments for policy dialogue and risk

restoring confidence. Lengthy delays due to bureaucratic

management, and can provide a platform for effective

disbursement processes would need to be avoided at all

resource mobilization and broad participation around

costs, without sacrificing good public financial management

the BDP.

practices.
Similarly, the use of MDTFs can ensure predictability

F.1.2. Private Sector Investment

and flexibility of financing, streamline Bangsamoro and

It is expected that the public sector will play a crucial role in

national government coordination with contributing

job creation and provision of social safety nets until private-

donors, and lower transaction costs to ensure that more

sector investments come in. However, as stated in earlier

funding support is channeled to development projects

sections, public works programs and cash-for-work schemes

instead of administrative and fiduciary costs.

will not be enough, and efforts will need to be made


to encourage private investments to generate extensive

More than one MDTF may also be created, tailored

income earning opportunities even as the transition is still

to specific technical requirements. The Bangsamoro

in progress.

Normalization Trust Fund as provided for in the CAB,

F.1.3. Official Development Assistance (ODA)

for example, can be complemented by a longer-term


facility for broad development needs. Alternatively, a

A wide variety of ODA-funded programs are currently

broader facility with a common governance structure

programmed for the ARMM and the transition.

can be established with multiple windows addressing


the different financing needs for the various programs.

Some, such as the MTF-RDP, the WB-UN Facility for


Advisory Support for Transition Capacities (FASTRAC),
and

JICAs

Comprehensive

Capacity

F.1.5. Bilateral Arrangements

Development

While consolidation of funding around an MDTF or

Project (CCDP) are geared to support the technical

similar coordinating platforms is preferred, this is likely

requirements of the GPH-MILF peace process, while

to be supported by bilateral or other kinds of pooled

others, such as the Australian-funded Basic Education

assistance for specific sectoral needs. This can range

Assistance in Mindanao (BEAM-ARMM), Japan-Bangsamoro

from direct-execution type of arrangements to channel-

Initiatives for Reconstruction and Development (J-BIRD),

funding through UN agencies and NGOs. Budget

JICAs Mindanao Sustainable Agrarian and Agriculture

support to the BTA may also be encouraged, pending

Development Project (MINSAAD), Italian Assistance to

the setup of sound financial management systems and

the Agrarian Reform Community Development Support

ground-level delivery mechanisms. Although working

137

Bangsamoro Development Plan

through national institutions is initially slower than

Bangsamoro is likely to attract substantial investments

direct execution by international agencies, it offers

during the transition period, but will need to lock in

greater prospects for sustainable outcomes. In all cases,

donor commitment on the basis of the perceived or

maintaining coherence to the BDPs agenda would be

attained quality of economic policies, institutions, and

paramount to ensure maximum strategic impact and

governance.

avoid fragmentation.
F.2. Phase II (From Mid-2016 to 2019)

If peace and stability is secured in the Bangsamoro,


it is anticipated that there will be significant private

Once the Bangsamoro Government comes to power

sector interest in locating their operations in the area.

in mid-2016, the Bangsamoro block grant as provided

Vast areas of fertile lands and expansive coastal strips

for in the BBL will be disbursed to the parliamentary

in geographically advantageous locations protected

government for its direct control. While SDF and

from the ill-effects of climate change, benefitting from

other established modalities will remain in place, the

rich deposits of mineral and non-mineral resources,

Bangsamoro will need to confront issues of internal fiscal

and inhabited by relatively skilled workers provide

management, both on how revenue is raised and how

strong incentives for the private sector to participate

expenditures are implemented.

in the regions economic growth efforts. Given the


huge capital, knowhow and technology in the hands

Another challenge will be continuing to attract large

of the private sector, they will play a leading role

and sustained inflows of international aid in Phase II

in promoting the growth and development of the

and beyond. As in typical post-conflict scenarios, the

Bangsamoro economy.

NOTES
146 The main elements to be decided in setting up a MDTF are: (a) choice of Administrator; (b) governance structure; (c) the nature of the funding
model, including degree of earmarking; and (d)) channels for disbursement (e.g., on-budget, off-budget, or a mix of the two; and potential
implementing agencies). In all these elements, the GPH and international development partners have rich experience to tap to avoid past
weaknesses of previous MDTF arrangements.

138

Challenges and Mitigating Measures

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14

14

Challenges and
Mitigating Measures

139

Bangsamoro Development Plan

14

Challenges and
Mitigating Measures

Though of critical importance to ensuring stability and

replication programs could be undertaken in other

normalization over the short and the medium term, the

areas.

BDP as a development plan is constrained in delving


deep into the political, administrative, and security

b. Land Disputes. These have caused many violent

aspects of the peace process. However, the CAB and

conflicts and are keenly felt particularly in Lanao

its Annexes provide for establishment of a number

del Norte, Lanao del Sur, North Cotabato, and parts

of institutions specifically mandated to address these

of Maguindanao. There is need for a dedicated body

concerns. This chapter calls attention to these non-

to address these, and for pertinent empirical studies.

socioeconomic issues and offers possible mitigation

A Bangsamoro land use map could be developed to

measures for consideration by these institutions. The

help protect watersheds and to promote judicious

following political, administrative, and security concerns,

use of lands, given that increased interest in mining

among others, will need the immediate attention of the

is anticipated, which would generate employment

Bangsamoro

and revenues.

decision-makers,

Central

Government

officials, donors, and other peace stakeholders.


c. Need for Inclusivity. Inclusivity is needed at
a. Security Problems in Bangsamoro Core Territory.

various levels, such as in: (a) decision-making so

The results of the CVEs in BCT reveal growing

that various stakeholders will be involved and

lawlessness in the island provinces and in Central

besides the Bangsamoro, will be encouraged to

Mindanao, such as in the case of kidnap-for-

participate actively and genuinely in the process;

ransom activities and drug trafficking. Most of the

(b) recruitment of Bangsamoro Government staff, so

incidents have remained unreported. The residents

that competence will be the foremost consideration,

have identified this situation as a major source of

regardless of ethnic, religious and group affiliation;

insecurity and violence that make life extremely

and (c) distribution of peace dividends among

difficult for ordinary citizens. The Bangsamoro

the various stakeholders, to avoid perception of

Government and the Bangsamoro regional police

favoritism or patronage.

force will need to counter the operations of these

140

criminal groups. A fragile law and order situation

d. Need for a Clearer Definition of the Working

would make development projects difficult to

Relationships between Bangsamoro Government

undertake. Where there will be progress and

and LGUs. The latter are needed for effective and

lessons learned in countering these criminal groups,

efficient delivery of basic services to communities.

a monitoring system could be put in place so

This is also necessary because, unlike LGUs outside

Challenges and Mitigating Measures

CH A PT ER

14

of ARMM which are mandated/expected to deliver

the passage of the BBL. Once the BBL is approved,

services to their constituents and for which the IRA

preparation will be underway for a plebiscite

(internal revenue allocation) is provided for by the

within 120 days. With time needed to canvass

national government, LGUs in the ARMM are not

votes, officially declare areas under the jurisdiction

mandated to provide these services in view of MMA

of the BCT, and formally appoint BTA members,

No. 25, passed by the ARMM Regional Assembly in

the BTA may be officially established in late 2015

1995. The result is that LGUs in the ARMM use their

at the earliest. The BTA will have barely three to

IRAs based on identified priorities by local officials

four months to deliver expected peace dividends

rather than prioritizing delivery of basic services to

before the start of the campaign period for the 2016

their constituents since MMA 25 had the effect of

national elections.

assigning that primordial function to the regional


government.

g. Manpower

Shortage.

Many

of

the

regions

highly qualified people have left because of


e. Peoples Expectations. The signing of the FAB and its

the

protracted

conflict.

Without

them,

the

Annexes and of the CAB has raised high expectations

Bangsamoro Government may find it difficult to

among the Bangsamoro people that stability will be

govern effectively. This urgent issue will need

immediately attained and that there will be quick

to be addressed in the transition period to ensure

and drastic improvement in their lives. Post-conflict

immediate delivery of results.

experience worldwide show hindrances in the


path of any peace process. It includes bureaucratic

A Balik-Bangsamoro program is included as a

administrative processes of governments and donor

priority in the BDP to address capacity inadequacy

partners that slow down the delivery of development

in activities requiring high technical competency.

projects. These rising expectations, therefore, should

However, it will likely create an incentive

be managed properly by leaders on both sides of the

imbalance among Bangsamoro professionals. The

peace process.

Bangsamoro Government would have to assure


its constituents that this incentive imbalance is

f. Time Constraints. The short timeframe for the transfer

a necessary but temporary measure for ensuring

of powers and responsibilities from the ARMM to the

delivery of peace dividends, while the capacity of

Bangsamoro Government presents risks in managing

young Bangsamoro professionals is being built to

expectations and ensuring uninterrupted delivery

take the reins of leadership in the immediate future.

of basic services. This is aggravated by the delay in

141

Bangsamoro Development Plan

142

Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

CH A PT ER

15

15

Results-based Monitoring
and Evaluation Framework

143

Bangsamoro Development Plan

15

Results-based Monitoring
and Evaluation Framework

Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation (RbM&E) is an

strong understanding of performance of development

essential component of this Plan. It describes a system

programs and projects in the region. It will document

that will track the performance, results, and quality, as

lessons learned in the implementation of recommendations

well as evaluate the outcomes and impacts of programs

and programs, which will be useful for future planning

and projects identified in the BDP during the transition,

beyond the transition period.

on a periodic basis. The BDP-RbM&E system will be


useful for effective programming and strategic planning

Apart from the RbM&E, the BDP will also explore other

while

accountability

participatory and mixed methods in evaluation. It is

to the Bangsamoro constituency. With systematic

important that evaluation for social change demonstrate a

collection and analysis of relevant data, the findings and

connection from results-based to learning based evaluation.

recommendations that will come out of the RbM&E will

The BDP is aimed at ensuring that the evaluation process

inform policy making for the Bangsamoro, based on hard

will facilitate the capacity of the Bangsamoro to become

evidence.

learning-based

it

supports

transparency

for

communities

as

an

integral

part

of

sustainable human development.


This chapter proposes an RbM&E framework to monitor
phase by phase the attainment of development targets,
the quality of activities and outputs, and the resource
allocation. The monitoring component also spells
out how the reporting of progress will be made, what
management structure or option will be adopted to
implement RbM&E successfully, and what mechanisms
should be in place to identify problems and issues
encountered during the implementation of development
programs and projects outlined in the BDP, and ways to
address them.
The framework also provides the basis to evaluate
outcomes, impact, results and performancewhat would
work and what would not. It lays out the initial criteria
for evaluation and summary descriptions of key methods
that are applicable to the Bangsamoro, to produce a

144

A. Objectives
The overall purpose of the BDP RbM&E is to measure
and clearly assess the progress of programs and projects
identified in the BDP in order to manage development
results. To achieve this aim, the RbM&E will undertake the
following:
1. Provide a management information system to track
progress of activities;
2. Provide both quantitative and qualitative data by
which performance will be assessed against desired
targets and results;
3. Involve stakeholders in learning and informing
decisions

to

development
Bangsamoro;

improve

the

programs

and

implementation
projects

in

of
the

Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

4. Build

capacity

of

relevant

agencies

in

the

Bangsamoro to implement RbM&E effectively; and

CH A PT ER

15

3. Evidence-Based. The RbM&E will track and validate


outcomes and performance against desired results.

5. Support transparency for greater accountability

It will also document attainment, any departure

to the public using Open Data as anchor of the

from attaining the results, and the justifications for

BDP-RbM&E.

achievement or non-achievement. The assessment


will be done on a periodic basis. A rigorous and in-

B. Guiding Principles

depth assessment will be undertaken to gauge the

The BDP RbM&E shall adhere to the following guiding


principles:

non-target communities. Evidence will be obtained


through systematic data collection and validation,

1. Managing for Results. Monitoring will focus


on outcomes that are geared toward achieving
results. There will be periodic monitoring of
progress of various indicators, which will then
be compared to the baseline and targets. The
outputs of each project and programs in the
six

impact of BDP programs of interventions to target and

strategic

areas

of

intervention

(economy

and livelihood; social services; infrastructure;


environment and natural resources; culture and
identity, and governance) and their contributions
to achieving desired outcomes will be continuously
monitored. Monitoring inputs and key activities
will be integrated with monitoring outcomes
and results. Managing for results will require: (i)
establishment of baseline data and targets; (ii)
selection of indicators that captures outcomes; and
(iii) designing and streamlining mechanisms and
processes, including tools for data collection, data
and skills validation, consultations, and reporting.
2. Problem-Solving Based. The indicators and tracking
of progress will be based on the relevant policy
questions and priority areas that the transition
government would like to address. A problemsolving-based configuration has the advantage
of producing clear, focused, demand-driven and
results-oriented outcomes. A similar approach is
being pursued by the Open Data Initiative in the
ARMM, which the BDP-RbM&E can build on to
establish and adopt a performance-based framework
in managing resources.

reporting of progress, and evaluation activities.


4. Analysis. To improve the implementation of the
overall BDP strategy and the activities identified in
the six strategic areas of intervention, monitoring
and evaluation shall draw out critical analysis of
processes, relevant indicators and their relationships
to understand achievement and non-achievement
of outcomes. Monitoring and evaluation shall not
be confined to descriptive summary of statistics and
events. Analysis will pave way for learning.
5. Focused on Utilization. The RbM&E will be for
learning and accountability purposes. It will test
fundamental questions about the BDP program
and project designs and their implementations
while

providing

practical

lessons

learned

and

actionable recommendations for future development


programming when the Bangsamoro Government is
in place.
6. Transparency and Accountability. Setting up a
monitoring and evaluation system is for the purpose of
improving capacity, transparency, and accountability
by the Bangsamoro agencies to the public. The system
will inform the public not only about progress but also
about cost-effectiveness, efficiency as well as value
for money. It will hinge on the Open Data Initiative
especially in the collection and validation of baseline
data. The output of producing a common repository of
data and maps using user-friendly platforms and tools

145

Bangsamoro Development Plan

and the lessons learned experienced by the ARMM

established capacity in M&E, various national line

in M&E will be essential for the Bangsamoro.

agenciesincluding NEDA, PSA, and the statistical

The RbM&E will engage the community in the

units of functional national line agencieshave

collection and validation of relevant data to foster

accumulated a wealth of best practices and lessons

social accountability.

that the BDP RbM&E Body could use. Coordination


with the ARMM on establishing baseline data shall

7. Independence. The RbM&E Body must be an

also be conducted during the transition period.

independent unit directly accountable to the BTA


or the Office of the Chief Minister to maintain

9. Inclusiveness. All data will be disaggregated by

its integrity in carrying out its monitoring and

gender, sex and, where possible, other social

evaluation

classifications

functions.

Every

Bangsamoro-led

relevant

to

the

unique

social

implementing institution will have an RbM&E unit,

landscape of the Bangsamoro, such as ethnicity and

and each unit will be directly accountable to the

religion, to ensure inclusiveness.

BDP RbM&E Body.


Annex G (Results-Based Monitoring & Evaluation
8. Coordination. The RbM&E Body will closely

Framework) provides details on the BDP RbM&E

coordinate with the small RbM&E units and the

Framework, including its scope, logical framework and

various implementing agencies, through the CBD,

initial list of indicators to be monitored.

for building the database and for monitoring. With

146

A N N EX ES

Annexes

Annexes

147

Bangsamoro Development Plan

ANNEX A: BDP Priority Programs


Objectives

Priority Programs

Components

A. Economy and Livelihood


Increasing farm productivity
and income

Bangsamoro Sustainable Agriculture


Program

Assisting in ensuring food


security particularly to
vulnerable groups
Increasing halal-certified
producers and service
providers

Higher labor force participation


(especially for inactive youth)

Massive Job Creation Packages, including


Creative Service Delivery

Higher household income


Bridging the labor supply gap

Scholarships/trainings, functional literacy


programs, skills and jobs matching
Support for micro and small entrepreneurs
Cash-for-Work tied to public projects
Hiring of community facilitators for scaled-up
community-driven development (CDD-BRIDGE)
Mass mobilization of health and education workers

Balik-Bangsamoro Program

Incentives for increased banking/investment in


the Bangsamoro, including remittances
Incentives for young Moro professionals
(scholarships and trainings, with required technical posts)

Trade openness (long-term)

Establishing Open Trade in the Bangsamoro

Feasibility studies for Polloc and Bongao Ports


and other areas as manufacturing and trading hubs in the
Bangsamoro
Mainstreaming cross-border trade
Study on the impact of adopting an open
trading policy in the export processing zones
Representation of Bangsamoro Government
and private sector in trade missions and negotiations

Improving access to credit

Banking and Finance

Bangsamoro Fund Facility


Microcredit (including Shariah-compliant
finance)
Study on promoting the development of Islamic banking
and finance

Peace Tourism: Its Even More Fun in the


Bangsamoro

Scoping for eco-, cultural, and resort tourism


(Central Mindanao, Tawi-Tawi)
Support infrastructure
Specific normalization efforts (governance and security)
IEC campaign, skills training (livelihood)

Bringing back human and


financial capital from overseas

Support for long-term fiscal


autonomy and development
(for medium- to long-term
measurement)

148

Support for smallholder farmers and fishers,


including enterprise development and training and
incentive programs
Irrigation, postharvest facilities
Support to private sector value chain and
commercial development
Development of the halal food industry
(including organic farming)
Integrated Area Development, including study
on how to transform MILF camps into flourishing
enterprise units in the Bangsamoro
Study of promoting climate-resilient agriculture
through integrated area development planning

Assessing/Prospecting the Viability of the


Extractive Industry Sector

Development of geological database


Analysis of institutional and capacity
development requirements for management and
regulation of extractive industries
Feasibility studies of development of the extractive
industry.

A N N EX ES

Objectives

Priority Programs

Components

B. Infrastructure
Increase volume of passengers
and goods, road density

Increase household access to


electricity

Enhance capacity of Bangsamoro


communities to adapt to climate
change and undertake DRRM
for social justice and to mitigate
displacement

Strengthening the Bangsamoro


Infrastructure and Logistics
System

Energy

CCA/DRRM-Responsive
Infrastructure

Roads and bridges (FMRs), airport and seaport upgrading


for the islands
Developing a transport and logistics masterplan
(including a dedicated plan for FMRs) for the Bangsamoro that
identifies and prioritizes road network development of FMRs,
municipal, provincial and national roads
Tapping the river network of the BCT as alternative and
low-cost mode of transport
Feasibility study on reopening Balo-i Airport and
development of an international airport for the
Bangsamoro
Establishment of quick roads/bridges repair and
maintenance system in the BCT
Energy and household electrification investments (grid
and off-grid)
Identifying mechanisms on the use of Lake Lanao waters
for power generation
Establishing mini-hydro electric powerplants
Revisiting and reviewing the mini hydro power generation
study
Inventory and assessment of renewable energy sources,
including feasibility and engineering studies
Renewable energy development plans for BCT provinces
Showcasing stand-alone household and community
renewable energy applications
Strengthening Bangsamoro Electric Cooperatives through
better partnerships with private investors and institutional
development programs
Ambal-Simuay River Flood Control
Slope Protection
Creating and maintaining partnerships with local
communities for watershed protection and rehabilitation
programs

C. Social Services
Increase household access to
WaSH

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene


(WaSH)

Increase access to quality health


services and reduce risk of conflict
reversal

Health

Improve access to quality


education and reduce risk of
conflict reversal, toward creating
a skilled and able workforce in the
Bangsamoro

Education

Scaled-up access to water and sanitation facilities through adoption


of graduated and integrated approaches to WaSH development

Provision of PhilHealth cards


Mass immunization and feeding programs
Health caravans
Upgrading of health facilities
Creative delivery mechanisms: mainstreaming of BIAF
medics, traditional healers

Technical and vocational skills training including


entrepreneurship
Functional literacy programs for out-of-school and inactive youth and
illiterate adults
Private sector apprenticeship for out-of-school youth
Curriculum development and review of madaris system
(ibtidaiya, thanawiya, and kulliya)
Supply-side inputs for primary and secondary education
Modified GI Bill Veterans Benefit packages for families of MILF
combatants
Mobilization of alternative teachers

149

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Objectives

Priority Programs

Components

Increase % of population with


secure housing tenure

Sustainable Bangsamoro Settlements

Special Housing Needs Assistance Package for IDPs


PPP for socialized housing
Policy reform on land rights, housing tenure security for
economically-displaced Bangsamoro

Provide safety nets and


increase access to services for
vulnerable groups

Protective Services

Packages for vulnerable groups: senior citizens, PWDs,


women, widows, youth, orphans, etc.

D. Environment and Natural Resources


Environmental Governance

To preserve the ecological


integrity of the Bangsamoro in
the context of comprehensive
sustainable development

150

Formulation of a comprehensive framework for


sustainable development in the Bangsamoro comprising
key legislative measures and a Strategic Environmental
Management Plan (SEMP)
Capacity development of Bangsamoro environment and
sustainable development institutions, including creation
of a Bangsamoro Sustainable Development Board (BSDB)
and a Ministry of Environment
Integrated development for Lake Lanao and Liguasan
Marsh
Strengthening and support for community empowerment
for environmental conservation and protection
Policy for the Bangsamoro Waters and Zones of Joint
Cooperation
Comprehensive Biodiversity Assessment of the
Bangsamoro
Restoration and enhancement of degraded/denuded
forest lands (including nurseries) and coastal and marine
ecosystems
Establishment of monitoring mechanisms (including
hiring of forest guards and sea guards)

Urban Ecosystem and Waste Management


Program

Formulation of BCT Sustainable Cities/Towns Model


Plan(s) and initiation of redevelopment
Development and implementation of a BCT-wide
comprehensive residuals management program
Establishment and operationalization of LGU-level solid
waste management councils
Comprehensive waste management program

Reduce land conflict


(short-term and long-term)

Comprehensive Land Administration and


Management Reform Program for the
Bangsamoro

Mapping and analytical work on land rights and land


conflict
Strengthening of conflict mediation mechanisms

To enhance Bangsamoro
communities adaptive
capacity for climate change
and DRRM

CCA/DRRM for Social Justice and Mitigation


of Displacement

Comprehensive Vulnerability Assessments


Formulation of risk-based Comprehensive Land Use Plans
(CLUPs) for all LGUs in the Bangsamoro
CCA/DDRM capacity-building

A N N EX ES

Objectives

Priority Programs

Components

E. Culture and Identity


Quick-Impact Projects
Assist communities to identify
and preserve their cultural
resources, traditions, values,
practices
Establish and strengthen
cultural institutions to protect,
conserve, nurture, and promote
Bangsamoros tangible and
intangible cultural heritage
Promote creation and
sustainability of local culture,
heritage, and art groups
through various forms of
incentive assistance

Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Historical markers
Bangsamoro public cemeteries (maqaabir al-aam)
Policy work on the creation of the Commission on the
Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Establishment of a Bangsamoro Peace Memorial Museum

Culture and Education

Grants for textbook writing on Bangsamoro, history,


language, arts, and establishment of Schools of Living
Tradition

Support for Artistic Excellence

Grants and incentives for community artists/artisans,


researchers, cultural workers

Culture and Development

Culture and Peace

Support for and mainstreaming of various culturallyresponsive development initiatives: Shariah, halal and hajj
Social marketing and advocacy
Cultural tourism, Public-Private Partnership
Dialogue/intercultural initiatives

F. Governance and Justice


Support for Transitional Bodies
Support for the BBL and the Plebiscite

As provided for in the CAB and BBL


IEC campaigns, voter registration, etc.

Capacity-Building, Organizational
Development, and Change Management
Requirements from ARMM to BTA

Training programs on management and leadership,


values transformation
Scholarships in priority technical courses
Drafting of ministry transition plans
Capacity-building for municipalities and barangays

Technical Assistance in Drafting of Key


Administrative Laws

Based on priorities set by the BBL/BTA

Baseline Data Generation

Transparency and Accountability Program

Access to Justice, including Shariah Justice

Fiscal Autonomy

Data generation across all ministries, including a


comprehensive assessment of location, number, and
status of infrastructure and personnel
Creation of Open Data platform for the Bangsamoro
Development of anticorruption strategy
Geotagging and third party monitoring of programs and
projects
Policy and programmatic work on improving access
to justice, including the Shariah justice system in the
Bangsamoro
Reform of GOCCs, regional economic policy development,
etc.

151

Bangsamoro Development Plan

ANNEX B: BDP Governance Structure

The BDP Project Steering Committee (PSC) provided the

Development Program (MTF-RDP) and all its

overall leadership through provision of oversight and

donor partnersthe European Union; Australias

technical guidance in the formulation of the Bangsamoro

Department

Development Plan (BDP). A Core Planning Team (CPT)

Canadas Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade

served as the secretariat of the PSC and concurrently

and Development; New Zealands Ministry of

acted as the project management unit. The BDP Advisory

Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Swedish International

Council provided technical advice and other assistance

Development Agency; and the United States Agency

to the formulation of the BDP, including facilitating

for International Developmentin collaboration

access to the CPT and the Cluster Teams in the conduct

with the Japan International Cooperation Agency,

of their duties/responsibilities and field activities.

the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank,

of

Foreign

Affairs

and

Trade;

the Asia Foundation, the Foundation for Economic


Overall support was provided by the World Bank-

Freedom, and the International Organization for

managed Mindanao Trust Fund-Rehabilitation and

Migration.

Table 30: BDP Project Steering Committee


Name
Dr. Saffrullah M. Dipatuan

Designation
Chairperson

Organization
Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Executive Director

Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process


(OPAPP)

Uz. Mohammad S. Yacob, PhD

Executive Director

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ustadz Abdulkadir K. Abdullah

Member, Board of Directors

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Usec. Luisito G. Montalbo

Usec. Margarita Songco


Dir. Baintan A. Ampatuan
Mr. Motoo Konishi
Mr. Matthew James Keir Stephens

Deputy Director-General

National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)

Executive Director

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Regional


Planning and Development Office (ARMM RPDO)

Country Director

The World Bank in the Philippines

Senior Social Development


Specialist

The World Bank in the Philippines

Mr. Noriaki Niwa

Chief Representative

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)-Philippines

Ms. Luiza Carvalho

Resident Coordinator

United Nations

Mr. Guiamel M. Alim

Chairperson

Consortium of Bangsamoro Civil Society (CBCS)

Table 31: BDP Advisory Council


Name

Organization

Mr. Jamel D. Macaraya

Member, Board of Directors

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Hadji Hashim S. Casinto

Member, Board of Directors

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ustadz Abusaliha M. Macacuna

Member, Board of Directors

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ustadz Mohamad Taha U. Abdulgapor

Member, Board of Directors

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Urooj S. Malik, PhD

Senior Advisor

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Ayesah U. Abubakar, PhD

Senior Advisor

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Management Consultant

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Engr. Nasser G. Sinarimbo

152

Designation

A N N EX ES

Table 32: BDP Joint Review Committee


Name

Designation

Organization

Dr. Saffrullah M. Dipatuan

Chairman

BDA Board of Directors

Dr. Rizaldy L. Piang

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Hadji Taupiq Alagasi

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Hadji Hashim S. Casinto

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Mr. Jamel D. Macaraya

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Ustadz Abusaliha M. Macacuna

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Mr. Rhadzni M. Taalim

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Atty. Almanzor B. Taug

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Hadji Mohamad B. Salih

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Ustadz Mohamad Taha U. Abdulgapor

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Ustadz Abdulkadir K. Abdullah

Member

BDA Board of Directors

Mr. Jun Mantawil

Member

MILF Special Team

Dr. Maguid Makalingkang

Member

MILF Special Team

Mr. Alih S. Anso

Member

MILF Special Team

Mr. Toks Ebrahim

Member

MILF Special Team

Ustadz Mahmod S. Akmad

Member

MILF Special Team

Engr. Abdullatip C. Mustapha

Member

MILF Special Team

Mr. Khaled Amar

Member

MILF Special Team

Note: The committee was tasked by the MILF-CC and BDA to review the technical soundness of the consolidated BDP prior to its publication.

Table 33: BDP Core Planning Team


Name
Engr. Windel P. Diangcalan

Designation

Organization

Team Leader

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Beamine B. Ubpon

Member

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Rhadzni M. Taalim

Member

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Fermin Adriano, PhD

Member

The World Bank

Mr. Assad Baunto

Member

The World Bank

Ms. Ica Fernandez

Member

The World Bank

Ms. Mitch Abdon

Member

The World Bank

Mr. Nick Leffler

Member

The World Bank

Mr. Emmanuel S. de Dios, PhD

Member

United Nations Country Team

Mr. Hirotaka Kawakami

Member

United Nations Country Team

Engr. Renato Sabado

Member

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)-Philippines

Ms. Diolina Mercado

Member

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)-Philippines

153

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 34: Thematic Area Focal Persons


Name
Mr. Abdulmannan L. Gayak, PhD

Designation

Organization

Economy

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Minang D. Sharief, PhD

Social

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Zainal D. Kulidtod, PhD

Politics

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Guimba B. Poingan, PhD

Culture

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Abdul S. Pagayao, PhD

Security

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Abdul-Jalil S. Umngan

Environment and Natural


Resources

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Zarah Kathleen T. Alih

Gender, Youth and other


Vulnerable Groups

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Peacebuilding

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Fiscal Autonomy

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Ismael G. Kulat


Mr. Acram O. Latiph, PhD

Table 35: BDP Support Team


Name

Organization

Mr. Mohammad Abdulfarid M. Delna

Information, Communication
and Learning Officer
(JanuaryAugust)

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Misuari G. Abdulmanap

Information, Communication
and Learning Officer
(SeptemberPresent)

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Finance Officer

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Anwar S. Abdullah


Mr. Ismael S. Mamokan, Jr.

154

Designation

Geographic Information System Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)


Officer

Ms. Almirah O. Arba

Administrative Assistant
(January-May)

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Sarah G. Panglima

Administrative Assistant
(JunePresent)

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Faridiah A. Bandar

Finance Assistant

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Aliuddin U. Haron

TWG Team Leader

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Candao G. Alang

Cashier

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Engr. Mohammad Saud Alon

Research Associate

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Mr. Jordan M. Juanday

Research Assistant II

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Nishreen Y. Hashim

Research Assistant

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

Ms. Moniesa S. Husain

Administrative Support Staff

Bangsamoro Development Agency (BDA)

A N N EX ES

Table 36: Thematic Area Consultants


Name
Mr. Luisito Uy
Ms. Rizalyn Vale

Organization

Thematic Area

Philkoei International, Inc./


Economy
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Sub-Theme
Agriculture, Fisheries and Agro-Industry

International Labor Organization (ILO)

Economy

Economy and Livelihood

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Economy

Economy and Livelihood

UN World Food Programme

Economy

Food Security

Mr. Alex Casiple

Foundation for Economic Freedom (FEF)/


Mindanao Trust Fund

Economy

Agribusiness

Mr. Humza Jamil A.T. Olermo

Foundation for Economic Freedom (FEF)/


Mindanao Trust Fund

Economy

Halal Industry

Mr. Ikram Tawasil

Foundation for Economic Freedom (FEF)/


Mindanao Trust Fund

Economy

Islamic Finance

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Economy

Regional Cooperation

Mr. Rolando A. Torres


Ms. Marilen J. Danguilan

Ms. Suj Ronquillo, PhD


Mr. Joselito Supangco

Philkoei International, Inc./


Economy
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Infrastructure

Engr. Hussein Lidasan, PhD

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Economy

Infrastructure

Engr. Saeed Gogo

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Infrastructure

Ms. Pilar P. Bautista, PhD

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and


Trade (DFAT)

Social

Education

Ms. Rufa C. Guiam, PhD

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and


Trade (DFAT)

Social

Reproductive Health

Ms. Magdalena Cabaraban

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

Social

Child Health and Nutrition

Mr. Selahuddin Y. Hashim

United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF)

Social

Ms. Ma. Victoria Z. Maglana

United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF)

Social

Mr. Juan Ragrario

WaSH

The Asia Foundation

Governance

Mr. Hamid A. Barra, PhD

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Governance

Mr. Asnawil G. Ronsing

The Asia Foundation

Security

Ms. Nadine Ragonjan

The Asia Foundation

Security

Redeployment of the AFP

Ms. Kathline Tolosa

The Asia Foundation

Security

Decommissioning

Shariah Justice System

Ms. Maribel Dato

Philkoei International, Inc./


Environment and
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Natural Resources

Natural Resources (including Mines and


Extractive Minerals)

Mr. Emmanuel Bate

Philkoei International, Inc./


Environment and
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Natural Resources

Power

Mr. Jemuel Perino

Philkoei International, Inc./


Environment and
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Natural Resources

Disaster Risk Reduction Management


and Watershed Management

Ms. Amelia Dulce Supetran

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and
Natural Resources

Mr. Benjamin Bagadion

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and
Natural Resources

Mr. Eduardo Queblatin

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and
Natural Resources

Forests and Watersheds

155

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Name

Organization

Thematic Area

Sub-Theme

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Convention and Nonconventional


(Renewable) Energy and Climate Change
Mitigation

Ms. Noela Lasmarias

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Ecological Services

Mr. Jacob Tio

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Hazard, Risk and Emergency Response


and Urban Ecosystems Management

Mr. Ronaldo Gutierrez

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Climate Change Adaptation

Ms. Nerissa Juan

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Ecotourism

Ms. Amy Lecciones

United Nations Development Programme


(UNDP)

Environment and Natural


Resources

Biodiversity Protection and Conservation

Mr. Francis Benito

Mr. Moner Bajunaid, PhD

International Organization on Migration


(IOM)

Cross-cutting

Gender and Development

Ms. Indai Lourdes Sajor

UN Women

Cross-cutting

Gender and Women

Ms. Soraya Ututalum

The World Bank

Ms. Pam Clavio-Galenzoga

The World Bank

Mr. John Christian Castillo

The World Bank

Communications Consultant
GIS
Creative Designer

Ms. Johanna Go

SRDP / JICA

GIS

Ms. Claire Reyes

SRDP / JICA

GIS

Mr. Adelino Racusa

The World Bank

Mr. Jamaile A. Edsa

International Organization on Migration


(IOM)

Technical Working Group

Mr. Nurhadi K. Guiam

International Organization on Migration


(IOM)

Technical Working Group

Mr. An-Nur H. Haron

International Organization on Migration


(IOM)

Technical Working Group

Engr. Usman Kamid

International Organization on Migration


(IOM)

Technical Working Group

Data Management

Table 37: National Government Agencies


Name
Mr. Howard B. Cafugauan

Organization

Assistant Secretary

OPAPP

Director

OPAPP

Ms. Prisci Val Bulanhagui

Office of the Executive Director

OPAPP

Mr. Max Africa

Office of the Executive Director

OPAPP

GPH-MILF Panel

OPAPP

Office of the Executive Director

OPAPP

Assistant Director-General

NEDA

Director IV

NEDA

Mr. Arvin Chua

Ms. Kristine Wee


Ms. Vanessa Estrano
Ms. Rosemarie G. Edillon
Mr. Jonathan Uy

156

Designation

A N N EX ES

Name

Designation

Organization

Ms. Remedios Endencia

OIC, Director for Regional Development Coordination Unit

NEDA

Ms. Mercedita Sombilla

Director, Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment Staff

NEDA

Mr. Joseph Capistrano

Public Investment Staff, Asia Pacific Division

NEDA

Senior Economic Development Specialist

NEDA

Ms. Dinna Manlangit

SREDS

NEDA

Ms. Maria Lourdes Lopez

SREDS

NEDA

Ms. Cherryl B. Tienzo

SREDS

NEDA

Ms. Fresi Araneta

Ms. Susan Valerio


Ms. Maria Pilar C. Dagayanon
Mr. Francisco T. Varela
Mr. Roger Masapol

OIC- Assistant Director

NEDA Region 9

Senior EDS

NEDA Region 9

Undersecretary for Finance and Administration

DepEd

Chief, Planning and Programming Division

DepEd

Mr. Austere Panadero

Undersecretary

DILG

Ms. Tina Rose Canda

Assistant Secretary

DBM

Ms. Edilberto de Luna

Assistant Secretary

DA

Ms. Vener Dilig

Senior Agriculturist, Field Operations, Monitoring and Coordination Division

DA

Mr. Rudy Guieb

Director

DA

Assistant Secretary for Visayas and Mindanao Cluster


Deputy Project Director, KALAHI-CIDSS

DSWD

Ms. Vilma Cabrera

Assistant Secretary

DSWD

Ms. Janet Lopoz

Executive Director

MinDA

Director IV, Policy, Planning and Project Development Office

MinDA

Technical Staff

MinDA

Assistant Secretary for Regional Operations in Visayas and Mindanao

DPWH

Project Manager IV of the Project Management Office (PMO)

DPWH

Mr. Camilo Gudmalin

Mr. Reyzaldy B. Tan


Mr. Carlos Ceresa
Mr. Dimas Soguilon
Mr. Abdul Fatak Pandapatan
Dr. Romulo Busuego, MD
Dr. Venancio Ang, MD

Assistant Secretary for the Mindanao Area Cluster

DOH

Medical Specialist II (Technical staff for Bangsamoro Task Force)

DOH

Mr. Roger Masapol

Chief, Planning and Programming Division

Mr. Earl Saavedra

Commissioner Representing Mindanao

NYC

Mr. Mel Santilla Jr.

PSO VI

NYC

Mr. Alvin Alcid

Division Chief

DepEd

NHCP

157

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 38: ARMM Line Agencies


Name

Organization

Atty. Laisa Alamia

Executive Secretary

Engr. Mlang Madal

Assistant Director

Regional Planning Division Office (RPDO)

Ms. Norolhaya Mamarion-Haron

Planning Officer III

Regional Planning Division Office (RPDO)

Project Officer V

Regional Planning Division Office (RPDO)

Ms. Melanie M. Indar

Office of the Executive Secretary

Atty. Macmod Mending

Regional Secretary

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)

Mr. Alexander Alonto, Jr.

Assistant Secretary

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)

RFRDC Manager

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)

Ms. Ramla Macatabang

Gender and Development


Coordinator

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)

Mr. Kalunsian Dimalen

Chief Operation Division

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF)

Mr. Macmod D. Mamalangkap

Ms. Manioba M. Domaot


Ms. Ruby Andong

Planning Officer
Senior TESD Specialist

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR)


Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA)

Mr. Sakiran A. Hajan

Regional Secretary

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

Mr. Abubakar Datumanong, PhD

Assistant Secretary

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

Ms. Susana Y.S. Anayatin, PhD

Chief Technical Managament


Services

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

Senior Trade and Industry


Development Specialist

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

Chief Investment Specialist on


Research

Regional Board of Investments (RBOI)

Ms. Sarah Mamdra


Mr. Larzon G. Santos
Ms. Pombaen Karon-Kader

Assistant Secretary

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Ms. Princess Nhahra Mapages

Administrative Assistant III

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Dr. Dibagulun R. Mamainte, MW

Medical Officer V

Department of Health (DOH)

Medical Specialist III

Department of Health (DOH)

Dr. Tato Usman


Mr. Pipalawan Macacua

Education Program Specialist

Commission on Higher Education (CHED)

Atty. Anwar Malang

Regional Secretary

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Ms. Tonina Mabang

Chief Director/OIC Director

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Mr. Ardan Sali

Director

Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BCH)

Mr. Toto Biruar

Administrative Officer

Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BCH)

Ms. Fatima Kanakan

Director

Mr. Matanog Mapandi

Assistant Secretary

Department of Energy (DOE)

Mr. Norodin Manalao

Executive Director

Regional Reconciliation and Unification Commission (RRUC)

Mr. Kahal O. Kedtag

Regional Secretary

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

Mr. Paul P. Sambulawan

Executive Assistant III

Department of Environment and Natural Rsources (DENR)

Mr. McMillan A. Lucman

OIC- Regional Secretary

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)

Assistant Director IV

Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)

Mr. Pendatun Mambatawan

158

Designation

Mr. Mohammad M. Galo

Chief Information Officer

Mr. Muslimin A. Jakilan

Regional Secretary

Office of the Southern Cultural Communities (OSCC)

Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)


Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)

A N N EX ES

ANNEX C: Relevant National and Regional Development Plans


The Presidents
Guideposts/
Social Contract with the
Filipino People

Philippine
Development
Plan 20102016
Midterm Update

Mindanao
Development
Strategic Framework
20102020 (NEDA)

Mindanao 2020: Peace


and Development
Framework Plan
20112030 (MinDA)

ARMM Regional
Development Plan
20102016

ARMM RDP
20102016
Midterm Update

VISION
1. A reawakened sense of
right and wrong, through
the living examples of our
highest leaders;
2. An organized and widely
shared rapid expansion
of our economy through
a government dedicated
to honing and mobilizing
our peoples skills and
energies as well as the
responsible harnessing of
our national resources;
3. A collective belief that
doing the right thing
does not only make
sense morally but also
translates into economic
value; and
4. Public institutions are
rebuilt on the strong
solidarity of our society
and its communities.

The current PDP


does not clearly
state a vision for
the 20112016
period. Rather,
it declares its
overall societal
goal as inclusive
growth, which
is defined as
poverty reduction
in multiple
dimensions
and massive
creation of quality
employment.

A peaceful and
socially-inclusive
Mindanao with a
strong, sustainable,
competitive, ICTdriven, agroindustrial,
and resource-based
economy that
is responsive to
local and global
opportunities.

Mindanaons of
all cultural and
socioeconomic
backgrounds have
attained a sustainably
uplifted quality of life
through collective
achievement of a
peaceful, developed,
autonomous and
integrated Mindanao that
is the vanguard for the
countrys sustainable
development.

We, the
Bangsamoro
people, under the
guidance of the
Almighty in our
continuing quest for
self-determination,
envision a peaceful,
progressive society
through social
justice, human
equity, responsive
governance with
empowered people,
distinct cultural
heritage and
identity, sustainablymanaged patrimony,
and with established
international amity.

By 2015, the
reformed ARMM
is prepared to
transition to the
new Bangsamoro
entity, having
empowered people
and communities
encouraged
by responsive
government
propelled by
improved systems
and processes
of governance
anchored on propeople, transparent,
and accountable
leadership.

STRATEGIES/GOALS
The objectives of the Presidents Guideposts
Strengthening of
and the PDP have been translated to five Key
economic and
Result Areas (KRAs) under Executive Order 43, as
physical linkages
follows:
Upgrading of
Mindanaos
1. Transparent, accountable, and participatory
human resource
governance
capabilities
2. Poverty reduction and empowerment of the
Peace and social
poor and vulnerable
inclusiveness
3. Rapid, inclusive, and sustained economic
Good governance,
growth
broad peoples
4. Just and lasting peace and the rule of law
participation and
5. Integrity of the environment and climate
strong publicchange adaptation and mitigation
private cooperation
Delivery of basic
services for
vulnerable groups
More equitable
distribution of
resources

Definite and lasting


peace through a
gun-free Mindanao
society, with families,
communities and
institutions rebuilt and
healed from conflict,
war, epidemics, and
past natural disasters;
Overall wellbeing
marked by good health,
ample education and
social cohesion;
Economic and
ecological integration
and inclusive wealth
creation
Sustainable natural
resource use

GPS (Governance, Peace and Security) and


Socioeconomic development reforms shall
be undertaken with the following goals:
Open, transparent, accountable, and
inclusive governance in the ARMM;
Preparation for transition to Bangsamoro
and the creation of an environment for
more secured communities;
Establishment of an operational system
of rapid humanitarian protection,
assistance and response at the regional,
provincial, municipal, and barangay
levels;
Increase of productivity, income,
employment and investment for an
inclusive and sustained economic
growth;
Provision of adequate, reliable, and
efficient infrastructure utilities and
support facilities;
Improvement of quality of life of poor
households in the region; and
Protection and management of natural
resources.

159

Bangsamoro Development Plan

ANNEX D: Clamor from the Ground

A. The Community Visioning Exercises:


Methodology and Results

upland areas. Efforts were undertaken to give adequate

A.1. Background/Rationale

A.4. Methodology

The Bangsamoro Development Plan (BDP) provides

The one-day CVEs mainly involved group discussions,

short- and medium-term vision and strategies for the

workshop

recovery and development of the Bangsamoro area. This

participants were asked to respond to the following

Plan will cover the transition period of 2015 to 2016

questions:

representation to women and to MNLF and other groups.

exercises,

and

deepening

inputs.

The

and includes recommendations for the years beyond.


The process was designed to be inclusive of all major
stakeholders as well as grassroots communities.

a. What is their vision of a Bangsamoro society? (A


general description of the society they want)
b. What issues adversely affect their communities?

Toward this end, the Bangsamoro Development Agency


(BDA) spearheaded a series of Community Visioning
Exercises (CVEs) in the core areas of the Bangsamoro and
in adjacent non-Bangsamoro areas, specially addressing

c. What are the causes of these problems and what


are the possible solutions?
d. What are their needs, and can these be addressed
through projects and programs?

the needs of the communities. While formulation of


the comprehensive plan was Bangsamoro-led, experts

A.5. Program Design and Activities

and consultants in various fields (Bangsamoro and

After the preliminaries, the participants were reminded of

non-Bangsamoro) were invited to contribute to the

the history of the Bangsamoro struggle, from the time of

development planning.

the Sultanate-led resistance to the present. This included

A.2. Objectives

the timeline of the peace negotiations that resulted in


the incremental successes of the GRP-MNLF Tripoli

The overall goal of the CVEs was to define the kind

Agreement, the 1996 Final Peace Agreement (FPA), and

of society the Bangsamoro would like to pursue

the GPH-MILF peace talks that culminated in the signing

in the future as an expression of their right to self-

of Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB).

determination. Specifically, the exercise sought to:


The brief historical account enabled the participants to
a. Determine problem areas and/or sources of

understand the important stakeholder interests in the

dissatisfaction/grievances in the communities, their

Bangsamoro struggle. It was emphasized that the two

causes and possible solutions;

agreements (GRP-MNLF, the 1996 FPA, and the CAB)

b. Identify the needs and define the aspirations of the

were conflicting but supplementary.

Bangsamoro for their envisioned society; and


c. Determine projects and programs that would

Basic Law (BBL), the Bangsamoro Transition Authority

to 2016.

(BTA), and the BDP was done to give the participants a

A.3. Participants

160

An explanation of the importance of the Bangsamoro

respond to these needs in the transition from 2015

background for defining their vision of the Bangsamoro.

Participants in the CVEs included community leaders

Participants also identified present issues and concerns

(formal and informal), farmers/fishers, women, IPs, and

that adversely affected their lives, their pressing needs and

settlers, who represented communities in low-lying and

aspirations, and how these needs might be addressed.

A N N EX ES

A.6. Schedule of CVEs, Venues Held, and Participants


Date

Coverage (Provinces)

4 February 2014

Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Cotabato


City

Estosan Garden Hotel, Cotabato City

37

Maguindanao, Lanao del Norte

EM Manor Hotel and Convention Center,


Cotabato City

26

12 February 2014

Bukidnon, Cotabato, Maguindanao

EM Manor Hotel and Convention Center,


Cotabato City

31

15 February 2014

Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao, Cotabato

Estosan Garden Hotel, Cotabato City

31

17 February 2014

Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del


Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay

Casa Mea Hotel, Ipil

34

19 February 2014

Basilan, Zamboanga City

OMI Formation Center, Isabela City

36

26 Februrary 2014

Lanao del Norte

Crystal Inn, Iligan City

33

Lanao del Sur

BUAD Agricultural School, Inc., Marawi


City

65

2 March 2014

South Cotabato, Sarangani

Phela Grande Hotel, General Santos City

36

4 March 2014

Davao del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao


Oriental, Davao Occidental, Compostela
Valley

Ritz Hotel, Davao City

49

20 March 2014

Sulu

Sulu State College Hostel, Jolo

63

23 March 2014

Tawi-Tawi

Rachel's Place, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi

95

Maguindanao

Mangudadatu Gym, South Upi

Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Cotabato


City

Estosan Garden Hotel, Cotabato City

10 February 2014

28 February 2014

5 April 2014
4 February 2014

TOTAL

Location

Participants

323
37
859

A.7. Consolidation of Outputs


Based on an analysis by the BDP Core Planning Team,

amount of nuancing was evident in the outputs across

the outputs were classified into six broad themes: (a)

the provinces in the Bangsamoro, reflective of the

economy; (b) social; (c) governance; (d) environment;

cultural diversity, the overall messages, as described in

(e) culture and identity; and (f) security. While a certain

Chapter 5, provided useful framework for the BDP.

161

Bangsamoro Development Plan

B. Community Validation Exercises

B.3 Participants
The participants of the Community Validation (CV)

B.1. Rationale

included members of some of the communities engaged

Part of the BDP formulation was the validation and

during

consolidation of development interventions identified

Bangsamoro core territories and adjacent areas. They

from the different activities conducted by the BDP

represented the student and youth sector, political

Core Planning Team and development partners. This

committees, MILF line agencies in the community,

validation was conducted through intensive activities

indigenous peoples (IPs), Bangsamoro Islamic Armed

from the ground up to the national stakeholders and

Forces (BIAF), Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF),

partners.

local government units (LGUs), Christians, and included

the

CVEs

conducted

across

the

proposed

tribal and traditional leaders.

B.2. Objectives
The general objective of the validation was to

B.4. Methodology

inform and formulate appreciation from the different

The CV was a one-day exercise that included group

stakeholders regarding the content of the formulated

discussions and workshops, and involved deepening

BDP. Further comments and suggestions were gathered

of inputs. The participants responded to the following

and integrated in the draft thereafter. Specifically, the

questions:

validation aimed to:


a.

a. What are the top priority projects to be implemented

Identify needed development interventions;

b. Identify specific areas and locations for programs


and projects; and

in their respective areas?


b. Where specificually should the programs and
projects (e.g., one project for whole municipality) be

c. Prioritize proposed programs and projects based


on the requirements.

done?
c. What would be the estimated cost of the proposed
programs and projects?

B.5. Schedule of Community Validations, Venues Held, Participants


Date

162

Coverage (Provinces)

Location

Participants

5 July 2014

Maguindanao, Cotabato City

Darapanan, Simuay, Sultan Kudarat

71

7 July 2014

Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat

Kurintem, Datu Odin Sinsuat

59

8 July 2014

Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat

Lambayong, Sultan Kudarat

93

9 July 2014

Bukidnon, Cotabato

Manarapan, Carmen

49

10 July 2014

Cotabato, Maguindanao

Pagalungan

52

4 August 2014

Lanao del Norte

Balo-i

60

5 August 2014

Lanao del Norte

Balo-i

71

A N N EX ES

Date

Coverage (Provinces)

7 August 2014

Location

Participants

Lanao del Sur

Butig

59

Lanao del Sur

BUAD, Agricultural School, Inc., Marawi


City

57

12 August 2014

Basilan

BDA-RMO ZamBas, Isabela City

93

13 August 2014

Basilan

BDA-RMO ZamBas, Isabela City

122

14 August 2014

Basilan

Kailih, Al-Barkah, Basilan

101

17 August 2014

Tawi-Tawi

Beach Side Inn, Bongao

118

18 August 2014

Tawi-Tawi

Beach Side Inn, Bongao

122

20 August 2014

Sulu

Notre Dame Learning Center, Jolo

101

21 August 2014

Sulu

Notre Dame Learning Center, Jolo

165

22 August 2014

Sulu

Notre Dame Learning Center, Jolo

126

15 September 2014

Zamboanga del Norte

Sirawai

16 September 2014

Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga


Sibugay

Ipil

18 September 2014

Zamboanga del Sur

Dinas

74

23 September 2014

Sarangani

Malapatan

37

24 September 2014

South Cotabato

Durian Garden, Polomolok

57

26 September 2014

Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat

Maitum

88

27 September 2014

Davao del Sur

Sta. Cruz

62

28 September 2014

Davao del Norte, Compostela Valley

Madaum, Tagum City

45

29 September 2014

Davao Oriental

Tagabakid, Mati City

72

8 August 2014

80
100

TOTAL

2134

C. Consultations on the Bangsamoro Basic


Law (BBL)
C.1. Background
In October 2013, the Bangsamoro Transition Commission
(BTC) signed a Memorandum of Agreement with the

and pertinent regions in Luzon and Visayas; and


c. Broaden the constituency for establishment of the

Mindanao Civil Society Organizations Platform for Peace


(MCSOPP)

to

conduct

community

engagements

Bangsamoro.

and

consultations in the drafting of the BBL. The main objectives

As a loose organization of civil society organizations

of conducting public engagements and consultations were

across the Bangsamoro, the MCSOPP had a large

to:

geographical

a. Promote transparency, inclusiveness, and active

coverage

for

conducting

community

consultations. Over 100 of these were conducted from

participation of the local stakeholders to generate

December 2013 to April 2014. While the engagement

massive public support and ownership of the BBL;

was

primarily

targeted

around

the

political

and

b. Set a machinery for public engagement and multi-

institutional development process of establishing the

stakeholder participation within the proposed core

Bangsamoro Government, community engagements also

territory of the Bangsamoro, the target expansion areas,

revealed other concerns of stakeholder communities.

163

Bangsamoro Development Plan

C.2. Cross-Validation with Community Visioning


Exercise Outputs
A rapid analysis of the consolidated outputs by the BDP

as appropriate to address the socio-economic and other

Core Planning Team revealed significant overlapping of

development concerns of communities in the Bangsamoro.

the aspirations, priorities, and sources of dissatisfaction


uncovered by the CVEs. This confirmed the BDP framework,

Table 39 presents an overview of the MCSOPP outputs as a

anchored in the CVE and the current situational analysis,

reference for comparison with the CVE results.

Table 39: Overview of MCSOPP Consultation Outputs


Issues/Concerns

Remarks/Recommendations
Peace and Security

Clan feud (rido)


Drug trafficking
Robbery
Drug users
Drug lords
Loose firearms
Private armies
Lost command armed groups
Banditry

Every barangay should provide or have an assigned policeman


to monitor the peace and order situation in the area
There should be a committee of elders to mitigate clan wars
and they should be given honorariums
Impose strong penalties on all crimes
Organize peacekeepers in every municipality/barangay
Disband all private armies
Traditional leaders to handle rido
Government

Nepotism
Transparency
Unemployment and underemployment
Corruption in all levels of government institutions; among
department heads/immediate supervisors
Lack of good leaders
Inadequate salaries for government workers
The need for youth representatives in legislative and policy
making bodies
No Ulamah sector representative
Political dynasty
Violation of womens rights
Lagayan system (bribery)
Untrustworthy or questionable people who handle government
projects
Non-implementation of Shariah Law
Equality of human rights and free legal services
Change the present form of government
Conflict between Shariah Law and Philippine Constitution
No strong political will in enforcement of laws, especially on
illegal drugs
Traditional leaders

164

Retaining Muslim Mindanao in the Bangsamoro Government


Full implementation of Shariah Law according to Islamic laws
and principles
A reserved seat for the Ulamah in the Bangsamoro Parliament
Exercise of political will to strictly implement anticorruption
laws
Creation of jobs down to municipal and barangay levels, with
reasonable salary rates and possibly above the minimum wage
A seat for traditional leaders in the Bangsamoro Transition
Authority (BTA)
Creation of a Bangsamoro Professional Regulation Commission
intended for the Bangsamoro
Creation of a Baital Mal (House of Treasury) for hajj purposes.
Abolish election process; appointing of potential leader/s must
have following qualifications
Religious people
Project contractors who are trusted by the people
With good moral character and with no criminal record
Limit to one family member of each clan to run for any
government position
Develop, enact, and implement policies that ensure protection
and security, especially of IP and Moro women affected by
armed conflict
Support programs and capability of LGUs, other agencies, and
CSOs in providing legal, economic, educational, psychosocial
support, and spiritual services for women and girl survivors of
armed conflict
Strengthen the criminal justice system in accordance with
human rights and international humanitarian law, and enabling
laws to address violence against women especially in the
context of armed conflict

A N N EX ES

Issues/Concerns

Remarks/Recommendations
Develop nondiscriminatory policies that address the situation
of women in the security sector
Respect for delineated territory
Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) on governance and
other decision-making matters
FPIC exploration, development, and utilization of natural
resources
Representation and participation in governance (reserved seats
for IP in Parliament and other governance mechanisms)
Culture-sensitive policing structure taking into consideration IP
mechanisms for policing their own territory
IP participation in the ranks of the police force
Incorporate role of women in preventing and resolving conflicts
and coordinating with the Bangsamoro Police regarding
community concerns
Incorporate and strengthen the use of customary and
traditional conflict-resolution mechanisms within the
Bangsamoro, while addressing any discriminatory practices
involved therein
Indicate a provision of reparations in land conflicts, such as the
return of disputed land to aggrieved parties
Respect for traditional governance system
Education

Lack of assistance to Islamic education


High tuition costs in private schools
Low salaries for Islamic teachers
Lack of school facilities, i.e., books, libraries, and research centers
Minimum standard on Islamic education
Lack of recognition of Islamic teachers in board exams
Lack of support for Islamic teachers
Problem of ghost schools and ghost teachers
Ignorance of Shariah law
Absentee teachers
Volunteer teachers in DepEd to have permanent positions
Improvement of the madrasah educational system
Full implementation of madaris system
Difficulty in accessing the TESDA programs for out-of-school
youth
Salary grade inequality between madaris and DepEd teachers
Need for scholarship grants to deserving students and poorest of
the poor
Unfair treatment of Arabic-education teachers vis--vis Westerneducation teachers
Growing number of out-of-school youths

That there shall be equal education for all


The recognition of Islamic teachers by the government
Provide a standard board exam or qualification test for Islamic
education
Recognition of Islamic education as equivalent to Western
education
Madaris teachers should receive the same salary grade with
that of the DepEd teachers or its equivalent
Volunteer teachers to receive the same salary with regular
teachers
The Bangsamoro Government should provide free college
education
Recognition of madaris by the LGUs
Shariah courts must be in placed in all municipal levels so that
Muslims in the Bangsamoro can have immediate access in
their filing of complaints
Recognition of Arabic Certificate/Diploma from the Middle East
in practicing Shariah law in the Philippines
Recognition of Islamic educators

165

Bangsamoro Development Plan

ANNEX E: Poorest Provinces and Municipalities in the Philippines


Table 40: Ranking of Poverty Incidence in the Philippines, by Province (2006, 2009, and 2012)
Rank

166

Province/City

2006 PI

Province/City

2009 PI

Province/City

2012 PI

PHILIPPINES

26.6

PHILIPPINES

26.3

PHILIPPINES

25.2

Zamboanga del Norte

65.5

Zamboanga del Norte

68.5

Lanao del Sur

73.8

Maguindanao

54.6

Agusan del Sur

60.0

Maguindanao

63.7

Agusan del Sur

53.8

Surigao Del Norte

57.9

Eastern Samar

63.7

Masbate

53.6

Saranggani

57.7

Apayao

61.4

Northern Samar

53.4

Lanao del Sur

56.6

Zamboanga del Norte

54.4

Surigao Del Norte

52.7

Eastern Samar

56.4

Camiguin

53.6

Tawi-Tawi

52.4

Masbate

56.3

Saranggani

53.2

Sultan Kudarat

52.0

Davao Oriental

54.4

North Cotabato

52.4

Antique

51.6

Surigao Del Sur

53.7

Masbate

51.3

10

Eastern Samar

51.3

Zamboanga Sibugay

52.7

Northern Samar

50.2

11

Zamboanga Sibugay

50.7

Mountain Province

52.2

Negros Oriental

50.1

12

Davao Oriental

50.5

Maguindanao

52.2

Western Samar

50.0

13

Abra

49.3

Northern Samar

52.1

Lanao del Norte

49.1

14

Saranggani

49.0

Sultan Kudarat

51.5

Bukidnon

49.0

15

Bohol

48.2

Abra

48.8

Sultan Kudarat

48.5

16

Camarines Sur

47.8

Camarines Sur

47.9

Agusan del Sur

48.1

17

Kalinga

47.3

Misamis Occidental

46.5

Sulu

45.8

18

Apayao

46.8

Lanao del Norte

46.2

Davao Oriental

45.8

19

Surigao Del Sur

46.5

Bukidnon

46.0

Zamboanga Sibugay

44.8

20

Romblon

46.1

Agusan del Norte

45.9

Cotabato City

44.3

21

Lanao del Sur

44.7

Apayao

45.7

Southern Leyte

43.3

22

Agusan del Norte

44.1

Aklan

44.7

Misamis Occidental

42.8

23

Mountain Province

44.1

Antique

44.3

Ifugao

42.4

24

Misamis Occidental

44.0

Bohol

43.7

Surigao Del Norte

41.8

25

Oriental Mindoro

43.7

Southern Leyte

43.1

Basilan

41.2

26

Bukidnon

43.6

Western Samar

42.5

Camarines Sur

41.2

27

Occidental Mindoro

43.2

Romblon

41.9

Albay

41.0

28

Negros Oriental

42.9

Camarines Norte

41.8

Sorsogon

40.7

29

Isabela City

41.9

Sulu

41.6

Romblon

40.5

30

Aklan

41.8

Sorsogon

39.3

Leyte

39.2

A N N EX ES

Rank

Province/City

2006 PI

Province/City

2009 PI

Province/City

2012 PI

31

Catanduanes

41.4

Biliran

39.2

Occidental Mindoro

38.1

32

Sorsogon

41.2

Albay

36.7

Mountain Province

37.6

33

Camarines Norte

41.1

Compostela Valley

36.6

Abra

37.4

34

Lanao del Norte

40.7

Basilan

36.6

Bohol

36.8

35

Sulu

40.7

Leyte

36.3

Compostela Valley

36.7

36

Marinduque

40.5

Oriental Mindoro

36.1

Surigao Del Sur

36.0

37

Western Samar

40.4

Occidental Mindoro

35.9

Agusan del Norte

34.7

38

Basilan

39.0

Tawi-Tawi

35.3

Catanduanes

33.8

39

Leyte

38.4

Cotabato City

34.0

Davao del Norte

33.4

40

Compostela Valley

37.7

Marinduque

33.6

Batanes

33.3

41

Albay

36.4

Negros Oriental

33.2

Marinduque

32.9

42

Palawan

35.2

Ifugao

32.1

Siquijor

32.6

43

Camiguin

34.6

Davao del Norte

32.0

Negros Occidental

32.3

44

Cotabato City

34.4

South Cotabato

31.6

Zamboanga del Sur

32.0

45

Southern Leyte

33.7

Zamboanga del Sur

31.6

South Cotabato

32.0

46

Quezon

33.5

Siquijor

31.0

Antique

30.9

47

Misamis Oriental

32.0

Palawan

30.9

Aurora

30.8

48

South Cotabato

31.7

North Cotabato

30.6

Oriental Mindoro

29.3

49

Davao del Norte

31.7

Negros Occidental

30.4

Camarines Norte

28.7

50

Zamboanga del Sur

31.7

Kalinga

30.1

Tawi-Tawi

28.6

51

North Cotabato

31.4

Nueva Ecija

29.9

Capiz

27.8

52

Aurora

30.5

Quezon

29.8

Quezon

27.5

53

Cebu

30.4

La Union

29.3

Biliran

27.5

54

Capiz

29.9

Catanduanes

29.1

Kalinga

26.8

55

Biliran

29.8

Capiz

29.0

Palawan

26.4

56

Isabela

29.6

Misamis Oriental

28.9

Iloilo

26.2

57

Cagayan

29.6

Isabela

28.9

Guimaras

25.2

58

Pangasinan

28.7

Cagayan

27.8

Nueva Ecija

25.2

59

Negros Occidental

28.2

Isabela City

27.4

Aklan

25.0

60

Ifugao

28

Cebu

26.8

Davao del Sur

24.4

61

Nueva Ecija

26.5

Iloilo

26.6

Isabela

24.4

62

La Union

26.0

Camiguin

25.5

Misamis Oriental

23.4

167

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Rank

Province/City

2006 PI

Province/City

Province/City

2012 PI

63

Guimaras

25.3

Davao del Sur

24.8

Cebu

22.7

64

Davao del Sur

23.7

Pangasinan

22.3

Isabela City

22.1

65

Zambales

23.6

Guimaras

20.7

Quirino

21.2

66

Siquijor

22.7

Aurora

18.2

Nueva Vizcaya

20.7

67

Iloilo

21.8

Ilocos Sur

18.1

Pangasinan

20.4

68

Ilocos Sur

20.8

Tarlac

17.5

Cagayan

19.7

69

Tarlac

18.1

Zambales

17.3

Batangas

19.0

70

Ilocos Norte

17.7

Batangas

17.1

La Union

18.5

71

Batanes

16.6

Quirino

15.6

Ilocos Sur

17.3

72

Nueva Vizcaya

15.0

Ilocos Norte

14.7

Tarlac

16.6

73

Quirino

14.6

Batanes

14.4

Zambales

16.0

74

Batangas

14.4

Nueva Vizcaya

13.3

Ilocos Norte

9.9

75

Bataan

9.7

Rizal

8.6

Pampanga

7.6

76

Bulacan

7.3

Laguna

8.4

Bulacan

7.3

77

Benguet

5.8

Bataan

7.7

Bataan

7.1

78

Laguna

5.5

Bulacan

6.9

Laguna

6.4

79

1st District*

4.9

Pampanga

6.9

1st District*

6.2

80

2nd District*

4.9

Benguet

6.1

Rizal

6.1

81

3rd District*

4.6

1st District*

5.1

4th District*

4.8

82

4th District*

4.4

3rd District*

4.5

3rd District*

3.8

83

Rizal

3.3

2nd District*

3.3

Benguet

3.7

84

Pampanga

2.7

Cavite

3.2

Cavite

3.4

85

Cavite

1.8

4th District

2.4

2nd District*

2.4

Note: * Refers to the congressional districts of the National Capital Region (NCR).
Source: PSA

168

2009 PI

A N N EX ES

Table 41: 100 Poorest Municipalities and Cities in the Philippines (2006 and 2009)
Rank

Municipality/City

Province

2006 PI

Municipality/ City

Province

2009 PI

San Andres

Quezon

78.30

Siayan

Zamboanga Del Norte

79.86

Concepcion

Misamis Occidental

76.54

Bucloc

Abra

77.18

Boliney

Abra

76.02

Baliguian

Zamboanga Del Norte

75.31

Batuan

Bohol

75.25

Jose Abad Santos


(Trinidad)

Davao Del Sur

72.32

Carmen

Bohol

74.99

Sarangani

Davao Del Sur

72.12

Jomalig

Quezon

74.90

Godod

Zamboanga Del Norte

71.06

Cagayancillo

Palawan

74.52

Gutalac

Zamboanga Del Norte

70.41

Buenavista

Quezon

74.41

Tandag

Maguindanao

70.1

La Paz

Agusan Del Sur

74.19

Tagoloan

Lanao Del Norte

69.38

10

Magsaysay (Linugos)

Misamis Oriental

73.85

Mabuhay

Zamboanga Sibugay

68.86

11

Don Victoriano
Chiongbian (Don
Mariano Marcos)

Misamis Occidental

73.73

Manukan

Zamboanga Del Norte

68.24

12

Siayan

Zamboanga Del Norte

72.3

Sibuco

Zamboanga Del Norte

68.21

13

Tinglayan

Kalinga

72.02

Jose Dalman (Ponot)

Zamboanga Del Norte

68.00

14

Bulalacao (San
Pedro)

Oriental Mindoro

71.28

Nunungan

Lanao Del Norte

67.87

15

Patnanungan

Quezon

71.20

Kibungan

Benguet

67.86

16

Gutalac

Zamboanga Del Norte

71.05

Guindulungan

Maguindanao

67.68

17

Baliguian

Zamboanga Del Norte

70.37

Munai

Lanao Del Norte

67.47

18

Loreto

Agusan Del Sur

70.25

Tangcal

Lanao Del Norte

67.36

19

Luuk

Sulu

70.20

Lacub

Abra

67.23

20

Tongkil

Sulu

69.80

Gen. S. K. Pendatun

Maguindanao

67.12

21

San Luis

Agusan Del Sur

69.66

Pilar

Bohol

67.08

22

San Narciso

Quezon

68.65

Tagoloan Ii

Lanao Del Sur

67.08

23

Esperanza

Agusan Del Sur

66.86

Panglima Estino (New


Panamao)

Sulu

66.78

24

Tanudan

Kalinga

66.58

Poona Piagapo

Lanao Del Norte

66.75

25

Bonifacio

Misamis Occidental

66.56

La Paz

Agusan Del Sur

66.71

26

Tabuelan

Cebu

66.48

Don Marcelino

Davao Del Sur

66.54

27

Tagoloan

Lanao Del Norte

66.45

Talusan

Zamboanga Sibugay

66.52

28

Mulanay

Quezon

66.29

Kabuntalan (Tumbao)

Maguindanao

66.48

29

Sibuco

Zamboanga Del Norte

66.00

Pres. Manuel A. Roxas

Zamboanga Del Norte

66.34

169

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Rank

170

Municipality/City

Province

2006 PI

Municipality/ City

Province

2009 PI

30

Dagohoy

Bohol

65.87

Bacungan (Leon T.
Postigo)

Zamboanga Del Norte

65.96

31

San Jose

Romblon

65.78

Kalawit

Zamboanga Del Norte

65.83

32

Sirawai

Zamboanga Del Norte

65.47

Sergio Osmea Sr.

Zamboanga Del Norte

65.80

33

Jimalalud

Negros Oriental

65.31

Don Victoriano
Chiongbian (Don
Mariano Marcos)

Misamis Occidental

65.66

34

Basilisa (Rizal)

Surigao Del Norte

65.11

Paglat

Maguindanao

65.43

35

Santa Fe

Cebu

65.02

Silvino Lobos

Northern Samar

64.78

36

Kalingalan Caluang

Sulu

65.00

San Isidro

Bohol

64.01

37

Danao

Bohol

64.69

Malita

Davao Del Sur

63.82

38

Catigbian

Bohol

64.31

Bien Unido

Bohol

63.72

39

San Miguel

Bohol

64.23

Palimbang

Sultan Kudarat

63.68

40

Matuguinao

Samar (Western)

64.18

Siocon

Zamboanga Del Norte

63.56

41

Bacungan (Leon T.
Postigo)

Zamboanga Del Norte

63.93

Madalag

Aklan

63.34

42

Tangub City

Misamis Occidental

63.82

Payao

Zamboanga Sibugay

63.25

43

San Francisco
(Aurora)

Quezon

63.51

Sultan Sa Barongis
(Lambayong)

Maguindanao

62.89

44

Linapacan

Palawan

63.44

Pilar

Surigao Del Norte

62.75

45

Jose Dalman (Ponot)

Zamboanga Del Norte

63.40

San Benito

Surigao Del Norte

62.62

46

Sibagat

Agusan Del Sur

63.34

Talaingod

Davao Del Norte

62.60

47

Talitay

Maguindanao

63.00

Alegria

Cebu

62.36

48

Veruela

Agusan Del Sur

63.00

Libacao

Aklan

62.33

49

Datu Unsay

Maguindanao

63.00

Tarragona

Davao Oriental

62.31

50

Tineg

Abra

62.86

Concepcion

Misamis Occidental

62.3

51

Alegria

Cebu

62.68

Danao

Bohol

62.09

52

Gen. S. K. Pendatun

Maguindanao

62.60

Pres. Carlos P. Garcia


(Pitogo)

Bohol

62.09

53

Mangudadatu

Maguindanao

62.60

Sapad

Lanao Del Norte

62.04

54

Paglat

Maguindanao

62.40

Sallapadan

Abra

62.00

55

Dumaran

Palawan

62.24

San Luis

Agusan Del Sur

61.99

56

Pilar

Bohol

62.15

Esperanza

Agusan Del Sur

61.94

57

Sultan Sa Barongis
(Lambayong)

Maguindanao

61.80

Sirawai

Zamboanga Del Norte

61.66

58

San Pascual

Masbate

61.70

Olutanga

Zamboanga Sibugay

61.65

A N N EX ES

Rank

Municipality/City

Province

2006 PI

Municipality/ City

Cebu

61.69

Malitbog

59

Aloguinsan

60

Pandag

Maguindanao

61.60

61

Godod

Zamboanga Del Norte

62

Hadji Panglima Tahil


(Marunggas)

63

Bunawan

64

San Francisco

65

Province

2009 PI

Bukidnon

61.42

Buldon

Maguindanao

61.13

60.91

Datu Anggal Midtimbang

Maguindanao

61.07

Sulu

60.90

Jipapad

Eastern Samar

60.58

Agusan Del Sur

60.82

Mangudadatu

Maguindanao

60.28

Cebu

60.66

Magsaysay (Linugos)

Misamis Oriental

60.27

Cagdianao

Surigao Del Norte

60.64

Salug

Zamboanga Del Norte

60.19

66

Motiong

Samar (Western)

60.63

Maslog

Eastern Samar

60.16

67

Guindulungan

Maguindanao

60.50

Jetafe

Bohol

60.14

68

Badian

Cebu

60.45

Sultan Naga Dimaporo


(Karomatan)

Lanao Del Norte

59.91

69

Corcuera

Romblon

60.41

Bindoy (Payabon)

Negros Oriental

59.90

70

Kalawit

Zamboanga Del Norte

60.39

Pantao Ragat

Lanao Del Norte

59.68

71

Sevilla

Bohol

59.88

Gigaquit

Surigao Del Norte

59.64

72

Silvino Lobos

Northern Samar

59.84

Datu Abdullah Sanki

Maguindanao

59.5

73

Libjo (Albor)

Surigao Del Norte

59.84

San Francisco

Cebu

59.49

74

Siocon

Zamboanga Del Norte

59.78

Tungawan

Zamboanga Sibugay

59.45

75

Siasi

Sulu

59.70

Sibagat

Agusan Del Sur

59.41

76

Pres. Manuel A.
Roxas

Zamboanga Del Norte

59.64

Matungao

Lanao Del Norte

59.25

77

Malabuyoc

Cebu

59.40

Magsaysay

Lanao Del Norte

59.18

78

Sergio Osmea, Sr.

Zamboanga Del Norte

59.30

Garchitorena

Camarines Sur

58.97

79

Natonin

Mountain Province

59.15

Rajah Buayan

Maguindanao

58.93

80

Mamasapano

Maguindanao

59.00

Del Carmen

Surigao Del Norte

58.87

81

Placer

Masbate

58.95

Manay

Davao Oriental

58.67

82

Katipunan

Zamboanga Del Norte

58.92

Rapu-Rapu

Albay

58.64

83

Manukan

Zamboanga Del Norte

58.85

Kabayan

Benguet

58.61

84

Las Navas

Northern Samar

58.83

Veruela

Agusan Del Sur

58.48

85

Lutayan

Sultan Kudarat

58.83

Mabini

Bohol

58.42

86

Lacub

Abra

58.82

Catarman

Camiguin

58.39

87

Paluan

Occidental Mindoro

58.69

Mapanas

Northern Samar

58.35

88

Guihulngan

Negros Oriental

58.57

Lope De Vega

Northern Samar

58.22

89

Tuburan

Cebu

58.42

Pagagawan

Maguindanao

58.21

171

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Rank

Province

2006 PI

Municipality/ City

Albay

58.32

Caraga

Zamboanga Del Norte

58.22

91

Jovellar

92

Sindangan

93

Bucloc

Abra

94

Trinidad

95

Maslog

96

Province

2009 PI

Davao Oriental

58.00

Ginatilan

Cebu

57.96

58.04

Talacogon

Agusan Del Sur

57.95

Bohol

57.93

Mamasapano

Maguindanao

57.89

Eastern Samar

57.81

Mutia

Zamboanga Del Norte

57.82

Tapul

Sulu

57.70

San Jose De Buan

Samar (Western)

57.75

97

Pio Duran

Albay

57.66

Dinagat

Surigao Del Norte

57.63

98

Lupi

Camarines Sur

57.48

Talipao

Sulu

57.57

99

Tayasan

Negros Oriental

57.40

Matuguinao

Samar (Western)

57.48

100

Ronda

Cebu

57.25

Pantar

Lanao Del Norte

57.45

Source: PSA

172

Municipality/City

A N N EX ES

ANNEX F: Cultural Diversity in the Bangsamoro


Table 42: Location and Population of ICCs/IPs in ARMM, Lanao del Norte,
North Cotabato, and the Cities of Isabela and Cotabato
Province
Lanao del Sur

Maguindanao

Sulu

ICCs / IPs*
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Abelling
Abiyan
Aeta
Atta
Batak
Batangan
Binukid
Higaonon
Ibanag
Ivatan
Kankanai
Manobo
Tagakaolo
Tiruray

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Abelling
Abiyan
Badjao, Sama Dilaut
Batak
Batangan
Blaan
Binukid
Higaonon
Ibanag
Ikalahan
Ilongot
Kankanai
Kolibugan
Malaueg
Mamanwa
Mandaya
Manobo
Mansaka
Subanen
Tboli
Teduray
Tinggian
Tiruray

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Abeling
Abiyan
Atta
Badjao, Sama Dilaut
Balangao
Cimaron
Ibanag
Kanakanai
Manobo

Population** (2010)

4,893

55,841

16,472

Municipalities with IP
Population
1. Balindong
2. Balabagan
3. Bayang
4. Binidayan
5. Budaiposo-buntong
6. Bubong
7. Bumbaran
8. Butig
9. Lumba-Bayabao

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Ampatuan
Barira
Buldon
Datu Odin Sinsuat
Datu Paglas
Gen K. S. Pendatun
Kabuntalan
Pagagawan
Pagalungan
Parang
South Upi
Sultan Kudarat
Sultan Sa Barongis
Talayan
Upi

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Kalingan Caluang
Indanan
Lugus
Maimbong
Pandami
Pangutaran
Parang
Siasi
Talipao
Tapul
Tongkil

Municipalities/Cities
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

12.
13.
14.
15.

Maguing
Malabang
Marantao
Marawi City
Marugong
Masiu
Piagapo
Taraka
Tagoloan II
Tugaya
Wao

Old Panamao
Panglima Estino
Pata
Patikul

173

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Province
Tawi-Tawi

ICCs / IPs*

Population** (2010)

Municipalities with IP
Population

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Abelling
Aeta
Badjao, Sama Dilaut
Ibanag
Kankanai
Manobo
Sama Bangenge
Sama Dilaya

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Abeling
Abiyan
Badjao, Sama Dilaut
Binukid
Ibanag
Illanun/Llanuan
Kankanai
Kolibugan
Manobo
Sama Dilaya
Subanen

Lanao del Norte

1.
2.
3.

Abelling
Ibanag
Kankanai

North Cotabato

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Abelling
Abiyan
Bagobo
Blann
Ibanag
Ilongot
Kanakanai
Mamanwa
Manobo
Tiruray

10,908

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abelling
Badjao, Sama
Dilaut
Ibanag
Ilanun
Kankanai
Subanen

3,020

Isabela City

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Batangan
Ibanag
Ilongot
Kankanai
Malueg
Mamanwa
Manobo
Teduray
Tiruray

2,138

Cotabato City

Basilan

Isabela City

Cotabato City

Total

123,783

5,772

172

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sibutu (16)
Simunul (15)
Sitangkai (9)
South Ubian (31)
Tandubas (20)
Sapa-sapa (23)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Lamitan
Lantawan
Maluso
Tabuan Lasa
Tipo-Tipo
Sumisip

Municipalities/ Cities
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Mapun (15)
Languyan (3)
Panglima Sugala (5)
Turtle Island (2)
Bongao (10)

1. Baloi
2. Pantar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Aleosan
Carmen
Kabacan
Midsayap
Pigkawayan
Pikit

222,949

Notes:
* IP groups (whether native or non-native of Bangsamoro areas); included in the table are only those with population > 20 persons, based on CPH 2010.
** Refers to total population of all IP groups.
Source: PSA-CPH (2010). See www.ncip.gov.ph.

174

A N N EX ES

ANNEX G: Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation Framework

The following are proposed institutional conditions

will

for effective and efficient RbM&E implementation of

making

provide
to

better
these

and

informed

decision-

agencies/organizations/groups.

the recommendations contained in the Bangsamoro


Development Plan (BDP).

2. Logical Framework. See Tables 44, 45, and 46 for

A. Operationalizing the BDP RbM&E System


To ensure effective monitoring and evaluation of plans,
projects, and programs, the regular planning agency/
agencies, project development and RbM&E units/offices
of functional agencies under the Bangsamoro Transition
Authority (BTA) and the Bangsamoro Government shall
be given the responsibilities listed on Table 43.

B. BDP RbM&E Framework and its Elements

the Logical Framework Matrix of the BDP to convey


the complexities of the goals identified under the six
strategic areas of intervention.
3. Data Collection. See Table 46 for the methods
and tools of data collection to the BDP logframe
indicators. Monitors and evaluators will need to gather
and analyze relevant data that are disaggregated
by gender, ethnicity, and religion to determine if
the development initiatives, including the flagship
programs outlined in the BDP, have improved

1. Inventory of Information Needs. A listing of

access and welfare of various social groups within

the information needs of relevant oversight and

the Bangsamoro. All unit/agency staff responsible

functional departments of the Central Government,

for RbM&E in the BTA may undergo training in data

the BTA, and other organizations supporting the

collection, validation, analysis, and reporting. Critical

BDP initiatives vis--vis their M&E responsibilities

coordination with government and nongovernment

will be necessary when the Bangsamoro Basic

organizations involved in M&E (e.g., the ARMMs

Law (BBL) has taken effect. Clustered by the

Open Data) will be essential to complementing and

six strategic themes of the BDP, the inventory

building on initial efforts at data building and analysis.

Table 43: Proposed Implementation Arrangements for RbM&E


Agencies

RbM&E Responsibilities

Coordinating Body for Development

Sets into policy actions the findings and recommendations of


the RbM&E Body to support effective and efficient
implementation of development programs

Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation (RbM&E) Body

Develops and implements an integrated and comprehensive


results-based monitoring and evaluation system to
provide findings and recommendations to aid the proper
implementation of development and strategic interventions,
and formulation of future plan in the Bangsamoro
Coordinates with Central Government and Bangsamoro
statistical agencies
Directly accountable to the BTA/Office of the Chief Minister, and
independent of the Coordinating Body for Development or the
implementing agencies

Results-based Monitoring and Evaluation (RbM&E) Units

Implement the RbM&E system per specific sector/theme


Lodged at each Bangsamoro-led implementing agency or
ministry
Directly accountable to the RbM&E Body

Bangsamoro Statistical Agency

To be determined by the BTA

175

Bangsamoro Development Plan

4. Baseline. It is highly imperative for the RbM&E

economy that will strengthen institutions, promote

Body, in coordination with its units, to conduct

more equitable access to economic opportunities,

citizen security and justice; and (c) quarterly datasheets

rapid

assessment/appraisal

survey

in

the

Bangsamoro region to establish the baseline

on relevant indicators based on demand.

with which the performance and progress of


various interventions in the thematic and strategic

8. Capacity Needs. Staff, including field workers, who

areas will be compared, from the transition

will be involved in the implementation of RbM&E will

period through to 2022. Ideally, the rollout of

need to undergo training and capacity-development on

the baseline survey shall take place once the

data gathering, data validation, data analysis, results or

Bangsamoro geographic scope is finalized based

performance evaluation, data management, as well as

on the outcome of the BBL plebiscite. Operational

reporting/communication, to ensure that they dispense

planning for the baseline survey can be done

their functions and responsibilities efficiently and

beginning 2015. The baseline data in Table 45 will

effectively.

be updated or revised to align with the incumbent


geographic scope to indicators (ARMM) with the
outcomes of the BBL plebiscite.

9. Evaluation Plans. A mid term and end-of-term


evaluation shall be undertaken on the performance,
results and impact of the BDP initiatives. It will apply

5. The critical steps in making a rigorous impact

mixed methods because the programs and projects

evaluation is to delineate control and determine

will be undertaken in the context of the complex

treated/intervention groups or areas, alongside

and

establish

and organizational settings of the Bangsamoro, and

well thought-out evaluation plan before any

emphasize the consultative process. The RbM&E Body

development intervention in areas of interest.

shall prepare guidelines on the structure of evaluation

the

baseline

figures

based

on

fluid

social,

historical,

economic,

political,

and evaluation reports.


6. Review Meetings. The RbM&E Body and its
component units in the various Bangsamoro-led

The performance, results, and impact of BDP programs

implementing agencies will conduct periodic

and projects will be evaluated according to the

review meetings to facilitate the learning process.

following criteria:

In coordination with the Coordinating Body for


Development and the implementing agencies,

a. Impact. Has the BDP attained the targets of the

the RbM&E Body shall establish a mechanism to

specific activities, projects, programs implemented,

process the outputs of the learning process and

as identified in the six strategic themes? What are

to use the learning outputs as inputs to influence

the intended and unintended impacts, both positive

policy dialogues, based on demand.

and negative, of all the elements of the BDP? Is the


intervention logic robust and logical?

7. Reporting. The BDP RbM&E adopts three types

176

of reporting: (a) monthly progress reports on

b. Relevance and Appropriateness. Do the objectives,

achievements in the six strategic themes, including

themes, priorities, and approaches specified in

the flagship programs; (b) yearly progress reports

the BDP have direct links to establishing a just

on achievements in the six strategic themes, with

economy? Are the interventions and activities

the highlights of best practices, in relation to the

relevant given the development challenges in

overall goal of building the foundations of a just

Bangsamoro? Are the specific interventions aligned

A N N EX ES

BDP?

with the Plan?


c. Effectiveness. To what extent have the strategies

g. Lessons Learned. What intervention practices in

and objectives of the BDP been achieved? Have

the BDP work best and what do not prove to be

the targets been achieved in a timely fashion? What

effective?

major factors have influenced the achievement


or non-achievement of the objectives? Are the

10. Commitment. Firm commitment of implementing

specific BDP interventions targeted based on the

agencies for program and project results and impact

most appropriate needs and demand, to achieve

monitoring, as well as efficiency in monitoring and

the greatest impact? Do the expenditure patterns

evaluation.

of the program activities reflect priorities, areas


of focus and targets of the BDP? To what extent is
the delivery of the BDP interventions consistent
with international best practices in the context of
recovery and post-conflict environment?
d. Efficiency. How cost-effective are the BDP strategic
interventions and program activities delivered to
achieve the targets? Are the implementing tools and
management structure efficient? Have the activities
been properly managed and supported? To what
extent is the RbM&E Body able to appropriately
monitor and evaluate the success of the BDP
strategic interventions and program activities?
e. Inclusiveness. Have the BDP strategic interventions,
program activities, delivery, and approaches been
designed and implemented to reflect gender roles,
a more equitable participation of beneficiaries
in various social cleavages, including categories
based on ethnicity and religious affiliation, nonBangsamoro, settlers, vulnerable groups, such as
persons who are differently abled, youth, senior

C. Scope of BDP M&E


The proposed M&E framework will focus on seven
clusters: (1) economy and livelihood; (2) infrastructure,
(3) social services; (4) infrastructure; (5) environment and
natural resources; (6) culture and identity; (7) governance
and justice. These include support for normalization and
development. Strategic priorities are indicated for each
cluster. Building on the recommendations in Chapters
7 to 12, Tables 44, 45, and 46 detail the overall and
cluster strategy goals. It also lays out the logical structure
of verifiable indicators, results, outcomes, targets, and
impacts.
Monitoring of these elements will indicate how welfare,
attitude, and behavior have changed when stated goals
have been achieved. The set indicators will be based on the
recommended programs. Baseline data on the indicators
will be collected to measure initial conditions. While
the focus of RbM&E is on results and performance, and
ideally, on impact, the RbM&E system will also monitor
intermediate inputs and outputs in attaining the goals.

citizens, children, among others? Were the projects


benefits equitably shared?
f. Sustainability. To what extent will the benefits
of the BDP strategic interventions, including the
flagship programs, continue once funds are out or
once the Bangsamoro Government replaces the
BTA? What factors influence the sustainability or
nonsustainability of the various elements of the

177

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 44: Overall Goal and Strategies of the BDP


Agencies
Overall Goal: Build the foundations of a functioning just economy that will
strengthen institutions, provide equitable delivery of social services and promote
jobs and livelihood, and establish security and rule of law.
Strategies: Address the development challenges in the Bangsamoro:
Through use of an integrated approach to transform the institutions of the
state and restore confidence among citizens to build a society that is resilient
to external stresses;
By giving priority to socioeconomic interventions tailored to the local
environment; and
By targeting those areas most prone to social exclusion, poverty, and violence.
More specifically, the BDP shall pursue:
Investments for social justice;
Support for economic growth and production; and
Support for conflict-vulnerable and environmentally vulnerable areas.

Table 45: Logical Framework Matrix


Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs

Baseline

Targets

1. Economy and Livelihood


a. Increase productivity

Increased utilization of
arable land
b. Increase number of halal- Increased production
certified producers and
Improve land productivity
service providers
Increase labor productivity
(particularly in agriculture)
c. Higher labor force
Increased number of
participation
registered enterprises
Increased number of halal
d. Higher household income
certified establishments
Improved farming and
e. Bridge labor supply gap
fishing practices
Lower underemployment
f. Bring back out-migrated
rates
human and fiscal capital Higher labor participation
rates
g. Trade openness
Higher GDP per capita
Higher household incomes
h. Improve access to credit Stable prices
Lower transaction costs
for farmers from farm to
market
More skilled workforce
Development of camps
Recommendations based
on the completed studies

178

Support to smallholder
farmers and fishers
Irrigation and postharvest
facilities
Support for private sector
Establishment of halal
certification agency and
laboratories
Establishment of registered
and halal-certified
establishments
Support to micro and small
entrepreneurs
Cash-for-work public projects
Hiring of community
facilitators for scaledup community-driven
development
Mobilization of health and
education workers
Incentives for increased
banking/investment in the
Bangsamoro, including
remittances
Incentives for young Moro
professionals

Labor productivity in
TBD
agriculture: PHP 70,822
(current prices); PHP
34,587 (2000 prices)
Establishment density
(no. of establishments
per sq. km. land area),
2012: 0.28 (total)
Ratio of establishments
to total population, 2012:
2.92 (total)
Banked municipalities
and cities (as of
September 2013):
nine (7.6% of total
municipalities and cities)
Unbanked municipalities
and cities (as of
September 2013):
110 (92.4% of total
municipalities and cities)
Total bank deposits (as
of 2013): PHP 6.2 billion
(0.1% total bank deposits,
nationwide)

A N N EX ES

Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs
Feasibility studies and
detailed engineering study for
Polloc and Bongao Ports and
other areas as manufacturing
and trading hubs in the
Bangsamoro
Mainstreaming cross-border
trade
Study on the impact of
adopting an open trading
policy in the export
processing zones
Representation of
Bangsamoro Government
and private sector in trade
missions and negotiations
Bangsamoro Fund Facility
Microcredit (including
Shariah-compliant finance)
Scoping for eco-, cultural and
resort tourism
Support infrastructure
Developing of geological
database
Analysis for institutional
and capacity development
requirements for
management and regulation
of extractive industries

Baseline

Targets

Total bank loans (as


TBD
of 2013): PhP 1 billion
(0.03% of total bank
loans, nationwide)
Loan-deposit ratio: (as
of 2013): 0.16
No. of institutions
engaged in microfinance
lending (as of 2011): 12*
No. of NCMF-accredited
halal-certifying bodies:
3*
No. of NCMF-accredited
halal laboratories: 1*
Source: * Based on
Foundation of Economic
Freedom BDP sector report,
citing figures from JICA 2011

2. Infrastructure
a. Increase volume of
people and goods, road
density
b. Increase household
access to electricity
c. Enhance Bangsamoro
communities adaptive
capacity for climate
change and DRRM for
social justice and to
mitigate displacement

Reduced travel time for


people and goods, including
those from rebel camps
to main urban and trade
centers
Faster processing of
passengers and cargoes in
seaports and airports
Increased households
access to electricity
Reduced power
interruptions
Reduced population
displaced by calamities

Improved and paved


% of households with
roads and bridges (FMRs),
access to electricity,
upgrading of airports and
ARMM: 58.1%
seaports
(FIES, 2012)
Development of a transport
and logistics master plan,
including detailed engineering
design and study
Use of river network of the
BCT as alternative and lowcost mode of transport
Feasibility study and
detailed engineering design
for the reopening of Balo-i
Airport and development an
international airport for the
Bangsamoro
Energy and household
electrification investments
(grid and off-grid)
Identified mechanisms on the
use of Lake Lanao waters for
power generation
Inventory and assessment of
renewable energy sources

% of households
with access to
electricity:
60-65%
(end-2016)
70-75%
(end-2022)

179

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs

Baseline

Targets

Participation rates,
ARMM:
Elementary: 70.4%
(201314)
Secondary: 26.1%
(201314)
% Inactive youth (1524
years old) in labor force:,
ARMM: 23% (2012)
% adults with at least
elementary education,
ARMM: 54% (2010)
% of households with
access to safe water,
ARMM: 36.6% (2012)
% of households with
access to sanitary toilets,
ARMM: 22.5% (2012)
% of children at age
1 with complete
immunization,
ARMM: 29% (2013)
% of population with
health insurance
coverage,
ARMM: 44.2% (2013)

Participation
rates (end-2016):
Elementary:
7580%
Secondary:
3540%
Participation
rates (end-2022):
Elementary:
8085%
Secondary:
5560%
% Inactive youth
(1524 years old)
to labor force:
1820%
(end-2016)
1517%
(end-2022)
% adults with at
least elementary
education:
5658%
(end-2016)
7274%
(end-2022)
% of households
with access to
safe water:
50-60%
(end-2016)
60-70%
(end-2022)

Renewable energy
development plans for BCT
provinces
Showcase of stand-alone
household and community
renewable energy
applications
Strengthening of Bangsamoro
electric cooperatives
through better partnerships
with private investors and
institutional development
programs
Ambal-Simuay River flood
control
Slope protection
Strengthened partnerships
with local communities for
watershed protection and
rehabilitation programs
3. Social Services
a. Increase household
access to WaSH

Increased households with


access to basic services
(e.g., access to water,
b. Increase access to
sanitation, and health
quality health services
facilities)
and reduce risk of
Increased households with
conflict reversal
higher education
Increased participation
c. Improve access to quality
in primary and secondary
education and reduce
education
risk of conflict reversal,
Increased adult and youth
toward creating a skilled
literacy
and able workforce in the Increased population with
Bangsamoro
high technical skills
Increased households with
d. Increase % of population
insurance coverage
with secure housing
Increase the share of fully
tenure
immunized children
Increased utilization of
e. Provide safety nets
formal health facilities and
and increase access to
professional health services
services for vulnerable
Increase the number of
groups
households with secure
housing tenure
Recommendations based
on the completed studies

180

Scaled-up access to water


and sanitation facilities
through the adoption of
graduated and integrated
approaches to WaSH
development
Provision of PhilHealth cards
Mass immunization and
feeding programs
Health caravans
Upgrading of health facilities
Creative delivery
mechanisms: mainstreaming
of BIAF medics, traditional
healers, accreditation of nonLET passer but technically
competent personnel to teach
Adult and IP education (ALS)
Technical and vocational
skills training including
entrepreneurship
Functional literacy programs
for out-of-school and inactive
youth and illiterate adults
Private sector apprenticeship
for OSY
Curriculum development and
review of madaris system
(ibtidaiya, thanawiya, kulliya)
and IP education
Supply-side inputs for primary
and secondary education

A N N EX ES

Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs

Baseline

Inventory of health
professionals and institutions
Modified GI Bill for families
of MILF combatants
Inventory and beneficiaries
of Special Housing Needs
Assistance Package
Inventory of Public Private
Partnership for socialized
housing
Policies on land rights,
housing tenure
Packages for vulnerable
groups: senior citizens, PWDs,
women, widows, youth,
orphans, etc.

Targets
% of households
with access to
sanitary toilets:
30-40%
(end-2016)
50-60%
(end-2022)
% of children
at age 1 with
complete
immunization:
40-45%
(end-2016)
60-70%
(end-2022)
% of population
with health
insurance
coverage:
50-55%
(end-2016)
60-70%
(end-2022)

4. Environment and Natural Resources


a. Preserved ecological
integrity of the
Bangsamoro in
the context of
comprehensive
sustainable development
b. Enhanced adaptive
capacity for climate
change and DRRM by
the communities in
Bangsamoro

Wider forest, aquatic,


coastal, and marine area
protected
Strong institutions for
integrated environmental
governance
Strong institutions to
manage and support urban
ecosystem and waste
management
Prepared Bangsamoro
communities to adapt
to man-made or natural
disasters
Recommendations based
on the results of the
completed pilot activities
Recommendations based
on completed studies

Comprehensive framework
and operational guidelines for
sustainable development in
Bangsamoro
Integrated Environmental
Governance in Lake Lanao
and Ligawasan Marsh
Policy for Bangsamoro
Waters and Zones of Joint
Cooperation
Comprehensive Biodiversity
Assessment of the
Bangsamoro
Comprehensive framework
and operational guidelines on
Urban Ecosystem and Waste
Management
Comprehensive Vulnerability
Assessments
CCA/DRRM capacity building
programs
Pilot of sustainable
forest management and
reforestation programs
completed
Pilot of reef and mangrove
rehabilitation completed
Forest guards and sea guards
recruited and fielded
Completed flood or slope
control infrastructure
programs

% of forestland to total
land area in ARMM =
51.4% (as of 2010)
No. of sanitary landfill in
ARMM = 1
Solid waste produced in
ARMM = 940 tons daily
Proclaimed watershed
areas in ARMM = 28,845
ha

Preserved
ecological
integrity of the
Bangsamoro in
the context of
comprehensive
sustainable
development
Enhanced
adaptive capacity
for climate
change and
DRRM by the
communities in
Bangsamoro

181

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs

Baseline

Targets

5. Culture and Identity


a. Preservation and
promotion of culture
and identity of the
Bangsamoro and
other groups in the
Bangsamoro
b. Strengthened cultural
institutions to protect,
conserve, nurture, and
promote Bangsamoro
tangible and intangible
cultural heritage
c. Established and
sustained local culture,
heritage, and art groups

182

Ethnically diverse and


tolerant community
Civil society knowledgeable
of the Bangsamoro and IP
identity and struggles
Visible and tangible
promotion of cultural
heritage and the arts
in schools, offices and
community gatherings
Institutions, infrastructure,
civil society and private
sector partnerships to
support and promote
cultural tourism
Strong institution that
support preservation
of cultural heritage in
Bangsamoro
Mainstreamed culturallyresponsive development
initiatives

Comprehensive framework
Ethnic fragmentation
and operational guidelines for
index in ARMM = 0.85
heritage, culture and the arts,
(where 0 = perfectly
indigenous sports and games,
homogenous, 1 =
music, visual arts, literature,
perfectly heterogenous)
dance, crafts, tribal attire,
holidays, language, cuisine
Inventory and baseline data
on heritage, culture and the
arts
Public museums, libraries,
historical markers, language
and cultural center, and public
cemeteries open to public
Policy paper on creation of
Bangsamoro Commission for
the Preservation of Cultural
Heritage
Grants for textbook and
module writing
Popularization of culture
and the arts through use
of media and other social
marketing programs, and
encouragement of indigenous
cultural activities in schools,
offices and community
gathering
Popularization of
Bangsamoro languages and
use of indigenous languages
for basic education
Revival of indigenous sports
in schools and interschool,
regional sports competition
Establishment of schools of
living traditions
Youth peace camps/trainings
awarded
Interfaith initiatives
Regional, national
intercultural exchange and
cooperation

Ethnic
Fragmentation
Index = 0.85 to
1.0 (perfectly
heterogenous)

A N N EX ES

Sector Strategy Goals

Outcomes

Outputs

Baseline

Targets

6. Governance and Justice


a. Smooth and peaceful
transition
b. More efficient public
service
c. Strong local and fiscal
autonomy
d. Improved institutional
and technical capacity
e. Improved public
accountability and
engagement with the
civil society
f. Improved budget
management
g. Improved access
to justice and legal
pluralism

More competent public


servants with the required
technical skills
Uninterrupted provision of
basic services
Reduced patronage and
corruption
Improved generation of
local revenues
Regular M&E reports
published
Improved land governance
Reduction of conflict and
crimes
Greater participation of civil
society and community in
decision making, service
delivery and monitoring
Recommendations based
on the completed policy
studies

More LGUs with DILG Seal of % of LGUs in ARMM with


Good Housekeeping
SGH = 6.6% (2013)
Key government institutions
set up governing the
transition and post-transition
periods
Beneficiaries of trainings and
capacity-building activities
Established Special Fund
for Rehabilitation and
Development
Improved M&E system set up
and institutionalized
Established Open Data and
open governance, and conflict
monitoring systems
Strong conflict management
body
Performance-based budget
management system with
strong internal audit and
control systems
Completed Organizational
Performance Implementation
Framework and Performance
Evaluation System
Strengthened Shariah and
traditional/tribal justice
systems and establishment of
alternative dispute resolution
system
Completed policy studies for
Bangsamoro Parliament

% of LGUs in
Bangsamoro
with SGH = 20%
(2016)

183

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Table 46: Indicators to Monitor and Evaluate


Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

% utilization of arable land


volume of agriculture output
No. of agricultural enterprises
No. of households engaged in
backyard farming
Value and volume of produce
from backyard farming
Farmers average selling price
Markets average selling price
Average size of farmers
agricultural land
Average size of agriculture
cooperative lands
Size of Islamic banks
Loans and deposits of Islamic
banks
Size of halal enterprises
Highlights and recommendations
from studies completed

Inventory of support for and


beneficiaries of smallholder farmers and
fishers
Irrigation and postharvest facilities
established
Inventory of support for beneficiaries of
private sector
Halal-certification agency and
laboratories established
Inventory of registered and halalcertified establishments
Inventory of support for and
beneficiaries of micro and small
entrepreneurs
Cash-for-work public projects and
benefiaries
Inventory of facilitators for scaled-up
community-driven development
Inventory of mobilized health and
education workers
Incentives for increased banking/
investment in the Bangsamoro, including
remittances
Inventory of studies
Representation of Bangsamoro
Government and private sector in trade
missions and negotiations
Bangsamoro Fund Facility
Geological database

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

1. Economy and Livelihood


a.

b.

Improved agricultural
land and labor
productivity
agriculture output
per labor employed
agriculture output
per hectare
average household
income
Increase number
of halal-certified
producers and service
providers
share of
halal-certified
establishments
in total of
establishments

c.

Higher labor force


participation rate
labor force
participation rate
employment rate,
underemployment
rate

d.

Higher household
income
household income

e. Bridge labor supply gap


skilled labor supply
f.

Bring back the outmigrated human and


fiscal capital

g. Trade openness
h.

184

Improve access to
credit

Onsite monitoring visit and


interview
Monitoring report form
Third party monitoring
Field survey
GIS-assisted mapping

A N N EX ES

Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

Number of passengers
transported
Volume of goods transported
Travel time for people and goods
Farm-to-market transport cost
Duration of power interruptions
Price of electricity
Number of people displaced by
natural disasters

Length of paved roads


Inventory of upgraded airports and
seaports
Transport and logistics masterplan
including detailed engineering design
and study
River networks as alternative and lowcost resource for transportation
Study feasibility and detailed
engineering design for reopening
Balo-i Airport and development an
international airport in the Bangsamoro
Number of electrified housholds
Identified mechanisms on use of Lake
Lanao waters for power generation
Inventory and assessment of renewable
energy sources
Renewable Energy Development Plans
for BCT provinces
Inventory of Ambal-Simuay River Flood
Control infrastructure projects
Inventory of slope protection
infrastructure projects

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

2. Infrastructure
a.
b.
c.

Increase volume of
passengers and goods,
road density
Increase household
access to electricity
Enhance Bangsamoro
communities adaptive
capacity for climate
change and DRRM for
social justice and to
mitigate displacement

Onsite monitoring visit and


interview
Infrastructure quality
survey assessment
Third party monitoring

185

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

3. Social Services
a.
b.

c.

d.

e.

186

Increase household
access to WaSH

Share of households with access


to clean water
Share of households with access
Increase access to
to sanitary toilets
quality health services Share of households with college
and reduce risk of
graduate members
conflict reversal
Participation rates in primary and
secondary education
Improve access to
Literacy rates
quality education and Share of skilled population
reduce risk of conflict Share of households with
reversal, toward
insurance coverage
creating a skilled and
Share of fully immunized children
able workforce in the
Utilization of formal health
Bangsamoro
facilities and professional health
services
Increase % of
Share of households with secure
population with secure
housing tenure
housing tenure
Recommendations based on the
completed studies
Provide safety nets
and increase access to
services for vulnerable
groups

Inventory of water and sanitation


facilities and beneficiaries
Number of PhilHealth cards issued and
number
Inventory of immunization and feeding
programs
Inventorty of health caravans
Inventory of upgraded of health facilities
Number of BIAF medics and traditional
healers incorporated into the
mainstream health profession
Number of accredited non-LET
(Licensure Exam for Teachers) but
technically competent teachers
Number of beneficiaries of adult and IP
education (ALS)
Inventory and beneficiaries of technical
and vocational skills training
Inventory and beneficiaries of functional
literacy programs for out-of-school and
inactive youth and illiterate adults
Inventory and beneficiaries of private
sector apprenticeship for OSY
Curriculum for madaris system (ibtidaiya,
thanawiya, and kulliya) and IP education
Inventory of classrooms and teachers
Inventory of health professionals and
institutions
Modified GI Bill for families of MILF
combatants
Inventory and beneficiaries of Special
Housing Needs Assistance Package
Inventory of PPP for socialized housing
Policies on land rights, housing tenure
Packages for vulnerable groups: senior
citizens, PWDs, women, widows, youth,
orphans, etc.

Onsite monitoring visit and


interview
FGDs
Monitoring report form
Third party monitoring
Field survey
GIS-assisted mapping

A N N EX ES

Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

4. Environment and Natural Resources


a.

Improved protection
of forest resources,
coastal marine
resources, and biodiversity
% of protected
forest, coastal, and
marine areas
% of forest,
coastal, and
marine resources
rehabilitated
Change in
the number
of protected/
endangered species

b.

Improved disaster
preparedness of
communities in
disaster-prone and
vulnerable areas
Change in the
number of
casualties of natural
disasters
Change in the
number of
households residing
in disaster-prone
areas
Change in the
number of people
displaced from
disaster-prone areas

Biodiversity index
Size of protected forest, coastal,
and marine areas
Size of rehabilitated forest,
coastal, and marine areas
Number of protected/endangered
species
Number of households in
disaster-prone areas
Number of households relocated
due to natural disasters
Population displaced by disasters
Number and types of disasters
Casualties of disasters to life and
property
Number and size of land allotted
to green/open space, greenery
landscape or park per barangay in
urban areas
Number, types, geographic
distribution, amount of disasterpreparedness programs, and
number of people served by the
programs

List of areas, and their sizes (hectares)


needing protection/reforestation/
rehabilitation
Number of forest guards and sea guards
hired
Number of people trained in disaster
preparedness
List and geographic distribution of
endangered species
Amount (tons per day) of solid waste
produced
Pilot of sustainable forest management
and reforestation programs completed
Pilot of reef and mangrove rehabilitation
completed
Forest guards and sea guards recruited
and fielded
List of vulnerable areas and their
locations and sizes (hectares)
Number size (hectares), and expenditure
amount of flood or slope control
infrastructure programs

Field survey
Onsite monitoring visit and
interview
FGDs
GIS-assisted mapping
survey
Rapid biodiversity
assessment survey
Third party monitoring

187

Bangsamoro Development Plan

Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

5. Culture and Identity


a.

Preservation and promotion


of culture and identity of the
Bangsamoro and other groups
in the Bangsamoro

Ethnic diversity index


Part of population
knowledgeable in
Bangsamoro including IP
identity and struggles
Number of initiatives
Number of visible and
approved and implemented
tangible activities that
for preservation and
promote cultural heritage
promotion of culture and
and the arts
identity of the Bangsamoro
Number of institutions
and other groups in the
engaged in cultural
Bangsamoro
tourism
Distribution (number and
Number of civil society
expenditure) of initiatives
groups (and their
on culture and identity
geographical distribution)
preservation, according to
that support and promote
ethno-linguistic or social
cultural tourism
groups (Bangsamoro and
Number and amount
settlers)
of investments related
to public-private
b. Strengthened cultural
partnerships on cultural
institutions to protect, conserve,
tourism
nurture, and promote tangible
Number of
and intangible cultural heritage
establishments, amount
of various social groups in
of investments
Bangsamoro
Number of employees
of and geographical
Number of cultural
distribution of
institutions, both
establishments engaged
government and
in cultural tourism
nongovernment, engaged
Number of mainstreamed
in protection, nurture, and
culturally responsive
promotion of tangible and
development initiatives,
intangible cultural heritage
and geographic
Number of programs,
distribution (halal industry,
projects, administrative
Shariah courts and
orders approved and
IP dispute resolution
implemented by government
system, madrasah and IP
cultural institutions for
education, etc.)
preservation, nurture and
promotion of cultural
heritage
c.

Established and sustained local


culture, heritage, and art groups
Number of registered groups
engaged in preservation,
nurture, and promotion of
culture, heritage, and local
art

188

Number of frameworks and


operational guidelines relevant
to promotion, preservation, and
support for cultural heritage and the
arts
Number and geographical
distribution of tangible cultural
heritage, public museums, public
libraries, historical markers, etc.
Number of land size, and
geographical distribution of public
cemeteries
Number of culturally-sensitive
textbooks and modules published
and distributed
Number and types of social
marketing campaigns that promote
the cultural heritage and arts of
Bangsamoro
Number of indigenous sports duly
recognized by education, sports and
culture ministries and are part of the
Physical Education curriculum in
basic education
Number, geographic distribution,
enrolment size, completion rate of
schools specializing in promotion of
living traditions
Number and geographic distribution
of youth peace camps/trainings
awarded
Number, geographic distribution,
and expenditure pattern of
interfaith initiatives, regional and
national intercultural exchange and
cooperation

Cultural mapping
Survey
Onsite visit, interview, and
FGDs
Monitoring report form
Third party monitoring

A N N EX ES

Strategy Goal Indicators

Outcome Indicators

Output Indicators

Number of days/hours
required to process
documents
Volume of business
transactions (e.g.,
business registrations,
permit and license
applications, birth
certificates) completed
daily
Number of public
officials with the
required qualifications or
specialized training
% of total budget spent,
by agency and sector, with
explicit alignment with
physical achievements or
physical targets
Number and amount,
by agency, sector
and program level, of
procurement through
competitive bidding
Number of public officials
or government employees
who have relatives in the
bureaucracy
Level and % of revenues
generated internally
Number of titled parcels
of land

Number of LGUs with DILG Seal of


Good Housekeeping
Number of beneficiaries of training
and capacity-building activities, by
sector and agency, program level.
and geographical distribution
Number of institutions and agencies
using peformance-based evaluation
Number of agencies and their
statistical units that actively
participate and contribute data/
information to Open Data-Open
Governance platform
Number of regular M&E reports
published
Number of Shariah courts, by
geographic distribution
Number of traditional/tribal judicial
or arbitration courts, by geographic
distribution
Number of courts or tribunal offering
alternative dispute resolution
mechanisms
Number and types of policy
studies completed and used as
input to deliberation on bills in the
Bangsamoro Parliament

Data Gathering Tools/


Methods

6. Governance and Justice


a.

Low incidence of vertical and


horizontal conflict

b. More efficient public service


Public service productivity index
c. Strong local and fiscal autonomy
% of locally generated revenues
in total budget
d. Improved institutional and
technical capacity
Employee attrition rates in
public offices
Employee turnover rates in
public offices
e. Improved public accountability
and engagement with civil
society
Number of institutions and
agencies using performancebased budgeting
Frequency, by agency and
program level, of engagements
with civil society groups on
budgeting or planning
f.

Improved budget management

Survey
FGDs, interview
Stakeholder analysis
Onsite visit
Third party monitoring

Number of institutions and


agencies using performancebased budgeting
g. Improved access to justice and
legal pluralism
Volume of cases filed by
secular courts, Shariah courts,
traditional/tribal courts, courts
offering alternative dispute
resolution, by geographic area
Volume of cases resolved by
secular courts, Shariah courts,
traditional/tribal courts, courts
offering alternative dispute
resolution, by geographic area

189

Bangsamoro Development Plan

BDP Background Papers


Economy and Livelihood
Malik, Urooj, Allen, Thomas, Casiple, Alex, Olermo, Humza Jamil, and Ikram Tawasil. (2014). Strategic Road Maps for the
Development of the Agribusiness Industry, Halal Food Industry, and Islamic Banking and Finance in the Bangsamoro. A report
prepared by the Foundation for Economic Freedom for the Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Ronquillo, Suj. (2014). Final Report on Regional Cooperation. A report commissioned by the Asian Development Bank for the
Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Vale, Rizalyn. (2014). Employment and Livelihood. A report commissioned by the International Labor Organization (ILO) for the
Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Torres, Rolando. (2014). Policy Brief on Bangsamoros Inclusive and Sustainable Agricultural Growth and Development. A report
commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Infrastructure
Philkoei International, Inc. (2013). Needs Assessment Report for the Bangsamoro Development Agency Transitional Plan. A study
commissioned by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency.
Social Services
Bautista, Pilar. (2014). An Integrative Report on the Adult Literacy Component of the Education Sector for the Bangsamoro
Development Plan. A report commissioned by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
_________. (2014). An Integrative Report on the Basic and Early Education Component of the Education Sector for the Bangsamoro
Development Plan. A report commissioned by Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
_________. (2014). An Integrative Report on the Out-of-School Youth Component of the Education Sector for the Bangsamoro
Development Plan. A report commissioned by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Guiam, Rufa. (2014). Logical Framework for Basic and Early Education. A report commissioned by the Australian Department of
Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Hashim, Selahuddin. (2014). A Report on the Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition (MCHN) Component for the Bangsamoro
Development Plan. A report commissioned by the United Nations Childrens Fund.
Kalim, Sherjan P. (2014). A Report on the Health Component for the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report commissioned by the
Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Maglana, Ma. Victoria (2014). A Report on the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Theme Component for the Bangsamoro Development
Plan. A report commissioned by the United Nations Childrens Fund.
Cabaraban, Magdalena. (2014). A Report on the Reproductive Health Component for the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report
commissioned by the United Nations Childrens Fund.
Environment and Natural Resources
Bagadion, Benjamin C. (2014). Peace, People, Planet: Proposed Short-Term Environment and Natural Resources Plan for the
Bangsamoro Transition Government. A report commissioned by the United Nations Development Program.

190

A N N EX ES

Benito, Francis. (2014). Final Report on the Energy Sub-Theme for the Environment Chapter of the Bangsamoro Development Plan.
A report commissioned by the United Nations Programme.
Juan, Nerrisa. (2014). Inputs on the Ecotourism Sub-Theme for the Environment Chapter of the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A
study commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Lasmarias, Noella. (2014). Inputs on Ecosystems Services for the Environment Chapter of the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A
report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Lecciones, Amy. (2014). The Environment Chapter of the Bangsamoro Development Plan: Final Report on Coastal, Marine, and
Freshwater Biodiversity Sub-Theme. A report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
_____________.(2014). Concept Note: Strengthening Capacity of the Bangsamoro Core Territory for Wealth Creation from Philippines
Biodiversity Genetic Pool. A report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Queblatin, Eduardo. (2014). Final Report on Forests and Watersheds Sub-Theme. A report commissioned by the United Nations
Development Programme.
Tio, Jake. (2014). Inputs on Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation, and Urban Ecosystem for the Environment Chapter
of the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Umngan, Abdul Jalil. (2014). Integrated Report on Environment, Natural Resources, and Energy for the Bangsamoro Development
Plan. An integrative report commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme.
Culture
Poingan, Guimba. (2014). Report on Bangsamoro Culture for the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report commissioned by the
Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Governance and Security
Barra, Hamid, Asnawil Ronsing, and Macacuna Moslem. Paper on Shariah Justice. A report commissioned by the United Nations
Development Programme.
Ragrario, Butch. (2014). Inputs on Governance Sub-Theme for the Governance Chapter of the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A
report commissioned by The Asia Foundation.
Ragonjan, N. and K. Tolosa. (2014). A Paper on the Security Theme for the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report commissioned
by The Asia Foundation.
Pagayao, Abdul. (2014). A Report on the Human Security Theme for the Bangsamoro Development Plan. A report commissioned by
the Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Crosscutting Issues
Alih, Kathleen Zarah. (2014). A Report on Bangsamoro Youth Development to Support the Bangsamoro Transitional Plan. A report
commissioned by the Bangsamoro Development Agency.
Sajor, Indai. (2014). Gender and Development (GAD) Support to the Bangsamoro Development Plan (BDP). A report commissioned
by United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women or UN Women.
Danguilan, Marilen. (2014). A Report on the Food and Nutrition Security Plan: Central Points for the Bangsamoro Development Plan.
A report commissioned by the United Nations World Food Programme.

191

Bangsamoro Development Plan

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Related Interests