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Srimad Bhagavad Gita Chapter 15

Purana Purushothama Yoga

Why is this Chapter special?


Write-up as a seva, by:
V.Prabhakar Rao, Singapore Oct 09

Dedication

I am writing this on the sacred day of Sri Vijaya Dasaru Aradhana. My


namaskara to my Guru Sri Raghavendra Guru Rayaru and to Sri Vijaya Dasaru,
seeking their inspiration .
Nimma Olimeyindha

Overview of Chapter 15
(A)

Swarupa of the world: In the first two and a half slokas


Lord explains the swarupa of the world.

(B)

Sadhanas to reach God: In the next two and a half slokas


He talks about the ways (sadhanas) to reach Him.

(C )

Bhagavath Swarupa: The next six slokas see Him


describing the Bhagavath swarupa.

(D)

Hari as sarvantharyami: The following four slokas explain


that Lord Hari is the sarvantharyami.

(E)

Hari Sarvothamatva: Finally, the the last five slokas of the


chapter proclaim Lord as the Sarvothama.

Overview of Chapter 15

It is said that:
Mahabharatha is the most celebrated among the shasthras
Bhagavad Gita is the most important part of Mahabharatha
The 15th chapter is the most important one in Bhagavad Gita
And the slokas 16 to 19 are the most important ones in this chapter
It is said that Srimad Acharya has used these slokas in many of his works

Sriman Madhwa Siddhantha


& Chapter 15

The slokas 16 to 19 contain the gist of Sriman Madhwa Siddhantha:


1.

Hari Sarvothama

Sloka 18

2.

Sathyam Jagath

Sloka 17

3.

Pancha bedha

Slokas 16/17/18

4.

Jeevas as Haridasas

Sloka 17

5.

Tharathamya of jeevas

Sloka 16

6.

Mukthi of satvika jeeva

Sloka 20 (and slokas from


ch 14)

7.

Bhakthi as Moksha sadhanam

Sloka 20

8.

Pramanas

Slokas 16/17/18

9.

Knowing Lord through Vedhas

Sloka 19

I. Swarupa of the world

sri-bhagavan uvaca
urdhva-mulam adhah-sakham ashvattham prahur avyayam
chandamsi yasya parnani yas tam veda sa veda-vit (15:1)
adhas cordhvam prasrtas tasya sakha guna-pravrddha visaya-pravalah
adhas ca mulany anusantatani karmanubandhini manushya-loke (15:2)
na rupam asyeha tathopalabhyate nanto na cadir na ca sampratishtha (15:3A)

These two and a half slokas explain the swarupa of the world. World is like
an Aswaththa tree, but with its roots on top and branches below. Sri Vishnu,
Sri Lakshmi and Jadaprakrithi are the roots. Vedas are the leaves. This
world is dynamic but eternal .
This swarupa of the world is not understood and Sri Vishnu, who is the
Creator, Sustainer & Destroyer of this world, is also not understood.

II. Sadhanas to reach God

ashvattham enam su-virudha-mulam asanga-sastrena drdhena chittva


(15:3B)
tatah padam tat parimargitavyam yasmin gata na nivartanti bhuyah
tam eva cadyam purusham prapadye yatah pravrttih prasrta purani (15:4)
nirmana-moha jita-sanga-dosa adhyatma-nitya vinivrtta-kamah
dvandvair vimuktah sukha-duhkha-samjnair gacchanty amudhah padam
avyayam tat (15:5)

These two and a half slokas talk about the sadhanas to reach God.
With the help of the weapon called Gnana, strengthened with detachment, one
should cut this tree, one should seek this Sri Vishnu and take refuge in Him.
Those without ahankara and detached from vishayas . ever involved in
bhagavath vichara away from desire equally detached from pleasures &
pains .. such mukthi-yogyas reach the Lord.

III. Bhagavath Swarupa


na tad bhasayate suryo na sasanko na pavakah
yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama (15:6)
mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah
manah-sasthanindriyani prakriti-sthani karshati (15:7)
sariram yad avapnoti yac capy utkramatishvarah
grhitvaitani samyati vayur gandhan ivasayat (15:8)

The next 6 slokas (6 to 11) narrate the Swarupa


of the Lord.
Lord says that His is the exalted swarupa which
when the Gnanis reach they never return to
samsara. He says Sun, Moon and even Agni
are not the ones who instill the brightness in His
swarupa. .
Jeevas are binna amsa of Sri Vishnu and their
indriyas are made active & dynamic only by Sri
Vishnu. Hence to cut the worldly tree of
samsara, one should take refuge at the lotus
feet of Sri Vishnu.

III. Bhagavath Swarupa (contd)


srotram caksuh sparshanam ca rasanam ghranam eva ca
adhisthaya manas cayam visayan upasevate (15:9)
utkramantam sthitam vapi bhunjanam va gunanvitam
vimudha nanupasyanti pasyanti jnana-caksusah (15:10)
yatanto yoginas cainam pasyanty atmany avasthitam
yatanto py akritatmano nainam pasyanty acetasah (15:11)

Bhagavan uses the indriyas of the jeevas


and experiences the vishayas (sabdam,
roopam, sparsham, rasam, vasana). Such
a Bhagavan, who is residing in the jeevas,
is seen by the Gnanis. Agnanis are unable
to. Those who know the gnana upaya do
take the efforts, earn the required gnana
and thus see the Lord, who is inside.
Those who do not have this buddhi, do
not succeed even if they try.

IV. Sarvantaryamitva of Bhagavan


yad aditya-gatam tejo jagad bhasayate khilam
yac candramasi yac cagnau tat tejo viddhi mamakam (15:12)
gam avisya ca bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa
pusnami causadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah (15:13)
aham vaisvanaro bhutva praninam deham asritah
pranapana-samayuktah pacamy annam catur-vidham (15:14)
sarvasya caham hridi sannivisto mattah smritir jnanam apohanam ca
vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham (15:15)
In these four slokas 12 to 15, Bhagavan explains that He is present everywhere
in various rupas (sarvantaryami). Lord declares that the shakthi of Sun, Moon &
Agni which brightens the world, actually is His. In the glorious sloka 13, Lord
says that he gets inside the earth and supports everything and that He is the one
who is inside the Moon and helps all plants to grow. Lord also declares that He is
the one who is inside everyone as Vaisvanara and, along with Prana & Apana,
digests the four types of food. Further, He states that He gets into everyones
heart and from Him, memory, intellect and illusion are created. He categorically
declares that He is the one to be seen through Vedas. He is the one who
understands the true import of Vedas and has created the Vedantha.

V. Hari Sarvothamatva
dvav imau purushau loke ksharas cakshara eva ca
ksharah sarvani bhutani kuta-stho kshara ucyate (15:16)
uttamah purushas tv anyah paramatmety udahrtah
yo loka-trayam avisya bibharty avyaya ishvarah (15:17)

As the grand finale of this chapter, in the slokas 16 to 20, Lord Krishna
declares Himself as the Sarvothama. The Hari Sarvothamatva is anchored
in these slokas. Let us look at this most important part a bit in detail.

In sloka 16 Lord says that there are two types of chetanas. Those
(Brahmadhi jeevas) whose chetanas get destroyed (kshara) and the one
(Sri Lakshmi) whose chetana does not get destroyed (akshara). But the
Uthama Purusha is above both these types of chetanas. He is the
Easwara who enters the three lokas (bhooh, bhuvah, svah) and maintains
them and is indestructible.

V. Hari Sarvothamatva
yasmat ksharam atito ham aksharad api cottamah
ato smi loke vede ca prathitah purushottamah (15:18)
yo mam evam asammudho janati purushottamam
sa sarva-vid bhajati mam sarva-bhavena bharata (15:19)

The One who is thus above Ksharas


and Akshara and is glorified as
Purushothama in the world and in
Vedas, is none other than me (Lord
Krishna)
And Lord Krishna further states that
he who knows Him thus, as
Purushothama, has understood the
meaning of entire Veda shasthras and
he will be worshipping Him with every
type of Bhakthi.

V. Hari Sarvothamatva
iti guhyatamam shastram idam uktam mayanagha
etad buddhva buddhiman syat krita-krtyas ca
bharata (15:20)

Thus this sasthra (that Vishnu is like the root of


the tree that is samsara, that Vishnu is
sarvantharyami and that Vishnu is Sarvothama) is
to be learnt. It is a secretive knowledge taught by
Me. He who learns it will become a gnani
(aparoksha gnani) and one who has performed
what should be performed (mukthan) Lord
Krishna

Om tat sat ithi srimad bhagavadgitasu upanishadsu brahma vidyayaam


yogashasthrey srikrishnarjuna samvadhe puraana purushoththama yogonaama
panchadasodhyaya:

Dwadasha Stotra 9-15 (Sri Madhwacharya)

The 15th sloka in the 9th Dwadasha stotra is a brief summary of the entire 15th chapter of
Bhagavad Gita.
For the entire Jagat He is the creator. He is responsible for the destruction. He is the
one responsible for bringing in the ananda in moksha. He surpasses both ksharas as
well as aksharas and is unique

Dwadasha Stotra 3-2 (Sri Madhwacharya)

The 2nd sloka in the 3rd Dwadasha stotra reflects the essence of the entire 15th chapter
of Bhagavad Gita.
There is none other than Sri Hari who is Purushothama. Nowhere anyone is found
equal to Him or above Him. There is no reason to have too much attachments in the
worldly affairs. The devotee should constantly keep his mind on the lotus feet of Sri Hari

The mahima of the final five slokas

It is said that doing a


parayana of the last five
slokas is as effective as
doing a parayana of the
entire 15th chapter. Such
is the mahima of these
slokas.

DHARMA BRINGS HAPPINESS

Sri Krishnarpanamasthu

Srimad Bhagavad Gita Chapter 15


Purana Purushothama Yoga

Acknowledgements with thanks:


Srimad Bhagavad Gita - a book by Sri Kumbakonam M.
Ramarao based on Sri Raghavendra Guru Rayarus Gitartha
sangraha
Heart of Bhagavat Gita by Sri T.S.Raghavendran a
SMSO publication
Worldwide net