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SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203.




SEM / YEAR : VI / III year B.E.



What is the significance of gain of an antenna?

Define effective aperture of an antenna.
Define monopole.
Define retarded vector potential.
Define gain and directivity of an antenna.
What are patterns of antenna?
What are dBi and dBa? Write their significances.
Define half power beam width.
If the radiation resistance of an antenna is 65 ohms and loss resistance is 10 ohms, find its
10. What is an elementary dipole and how does it differ from infinitesimal dipole?
11. What is the significance of radiation resistance of an antenna?
12. Draw E plane and H plane radiation pattern of dipole.
13. Define Radiation intensity
14. Distinguish between power gain and directive gain .
15. Define Directivity
16. What is meant by Polarization?
17. What is meant by isotropic radiator?
18. What is meant by reciprocity Theorem?
19. Define an antenna.
20. Define different types of aperture.
1. What are Hertizian dipoles? Derive the electric and magnetic field quantities infinitesimal
dipole and radiation pattern.
2. Explain the following properties of an antenna.
(i)Beam solid angle
(ii)Radiation pattern

3. Define the following parameters and their dependence on performance
(i)Input impedance
(ii)Antenna Temperature
(iii)Reciprocity of antenna
4. Derive the current and vector potential of hertizian dipole.
5. Writ notes on
(i)Radiation resistance
(ii)Capacitance heat
6. Derive the expressions for the radiation fields at a far point due to half-wave dipole. Also
derive the radiation resistance and power radiated from the dipole.
7. (i.)State and prove Lortenz Reciprocity Theorem for Antennas.
(ii)Derive the radiation resistance of an Oscillating Electric dipole.
8. (i)Explain the principle of reciprocity as applied to an antenna
(ii)Derive the Wave equation using Maxwells equation and obtain the solution of
wave equation
9. (i)What is the effective length of linear antenna?
(ii)Derive the Expression for the radiated fields of a center fed /2 dipole antenna. Sketch the
radiation pattern.
10. (i)Explain how Electric field lines are formed and get detached from short dipole antenna.(8)
(ii)The power radiated by a lossless antenna is 10 wattts .The directional characteristics of the
antenna are represented by the radiation intensity of

U = Bocos3
for 0< 2 and 0 < 2
Find the maximum power density at a distance of 1000m , assuming far field distance . Specify
the angle where this occurs and find the directivity and half power beamwidth of the
1. Why loop antenna called as magnetic dipole?
2. Define pattern multiplication.
3. Compare short dipole from half wave dipole.
4. What are the advantages of antenna array?
5. What is uniform linear antenna array?
6. State the advantage of folded dipole over half wave dipole.
7. What are application of loop antenna?
8. How a dipole antenna can be formed from a 2 wire open circuited transmission line?
9. What are the conditions to obtain end fire array antenna?
10. What is the pattern multiplication and draw the pattern of 2 point sources separated by /2.

11. A uniform linear array contains 50 isotropic radiation with an inter element spacing of /2.
Find the directivity of broadside form of arrays.
12. What is point source?
13. What is meant by array and what are the types of array?
14. What is the need for the Binomial array?
15. What is the advantage of pattern multiplication?
16. Define array factor.
17. What is Broad side array?
18. What is meant by uniform linear array?
19. Draw the radiation pattern of a vertical dipole.
20. Define beam width of major lobe.
1. Derive the field quantities and radiation resistance of a half wavelength dipole.
2. An antenna array consists of two identical isotropic radiators spaced by a distance of d=/4
meters and fed with currents of equal magnitude but with a phase difference . Evaluate the
resultant radiation for =00 and therby identify the direction of maximum radiation.
3. Derive the electric and magnetic field components of a dipole antenna and show its current
distribution with respect to its length in terms of wavelength.
4. (i)Derive the expression for the field produced by linear array and deduce it for an end fire
(ii)Compare End fire and broad side array.
5. (i)Explain about pattern multiplication.
(ii)Derive the expression for directions of pattern minima, pattern maxima, BWFN due to
broad side array.
6. (i)Derive the directivity of half wave dipole antenna.
(ii)Explain the differences between half wave dipole and quarter wave monopole antenna.
7. (i)Explain about the loop antenna and discuss the radiation pattern.
(ii)Derive Array factor of a uniform linear array. Explain the significance of array factor.
8. Derive the near field and far field electric and magnetic component of a finite length dipole
and obtain radiation pattern for various values of length.
9. What is binomial array? And Draw the pattern of 10 element binomial array with spacing
between the elements of 3 /4 and /2.
10. (i) Derive the expression for field pattern of broad side array of n point sources.(10)
(ii)A linear broadside array consists of 4 equal isotropic inphase point sources with /3
spacing . Find the directvity and beamwidth. (6)


1. State Babinets principle and how it gives rise to the concept of complementary antenna.
2. The aperture dimension of a pyramidal horn are 12 x 6 cm and operating at a frequency of
10 GHz. Find the beam width and directivity.

3. State Huygens Principle.

4. What are the features of pyramidal horn antenna?
5. What is the difference between slot antenna and its complementary dipole antenna?
6. What is called method of imaging?
7. What are the various feeds used in reflectors?
8. What is the basic concept of reflector antenna?
9. What are the advantages of lens antenna?
10. What is back lobe radiation?
11. Which antenna is complementary to the slot dipole?
12. How spherical waves are generated?
13. What are the different types of horn antennas?
14. Define refractive index of lens antenna?
15. What are secondary antennas? Give examples?
16. What is Lunenburg lens?
17. State field equivalence principle
18. What do you meant by sectoral horn?
19. What is meant by resonant and non resonant antenna?
20. What are the merits and applications of offset feed reflector antenna?
1. Explain the radiation mechanism of Microwave Horn antenna with diagram. (16)
2. Explain the special features of Parabolic Reflector antenna and discuss on different types of
feed used with neat diagram. (16)
3. (i)Explain the radiation mechanism of slot antenna with diagram. (10)
(ii)Explain the construction and principle of pyramidal horn antenna . A pyramidal horn
antenna having aperture dimensions of a =5.2 cm and b=3.8 cm is used at a frequency of
10GHz. Calculate its gain and half power beam widths. (6)
4. Describe the radiation patterns and fields on the axis of an E-plane and H-plane sectoral
5. Explain about the Radiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (Huygens source) (16)
6. (i) Explain how a paraboloidal antenna gives a highly directional pattern. (6)
(ii) Explain in detail about the feeding structure of parabolic reflector antenna. (8)
(iii) Compare flat reflector and corner reflector antennas.(2)
7. (i)Explain the radiation from a rectangular aperture . (10)
(ii)Explain the image theory and its application in detail. (6)
8. (i)Derive the field components radiated from a thin slot antenna in an infinite cylinder .(8)
(ii)Derive the various field components radiated from circular aperture and also find
beamwidth and effective area ? (8)
9. (i)Explain the effect of earth on radiation patterns above earth. (8)
(ii)Discuss in detail the methods of feeding slot antenna. (8)
10. (i)Find the diameter of a dish antenna that will form a beam having 0.5deg , half power beam
width (HPBW) at a frequency of 8.2GHz.Assuming an efficiency constant of 0.6 , calculate
the antenna gain and effective aperture. (8)
(ii) Write detailed notes on Frequency independent antennas (8)


1. Mention the types of feeding structures used for microstrip patch antennas.
2. Design a 3 element Yagi - Uda antenna to operate at a frequency of 200 MHZ.
3. What are the applications of microstrip antenna?
4. What are near and far field measurements?
5. What are the features of microstrip antenna
6. What are the limitations of rhombic antenna?
7. What are the two types of rhombic antenna design
8. Mention the requirements of Anechoic Chamber.
9. What is the difference between Yagi Uda antenna and Log periodic antenna?
10. Draw the structure of 3-elements yagi-uda antenna and give the dimensions and spacing
between the elements in terms of wavelength?
11. What are the applications of log periodic antenna?
12. Give the expressions for design ratio, spacing factor and frequency ratio, of log periodic
13. Differentiate V antenna and Rhombic antenna.
14. What is frequency independent antenna?
15. What is LPDA?
16. What are the applications of log periodic antenna?
17. What are the types of antenna measurements?
18. Define pitch angle of a helical antenna.
19. Mention any two applications of turnstile antenna
20. Define Gain of antenna.
1. With a neat sketch, explain the construction and operation of Turnstile Antenna. (16)
2. Explain the principle of operation of Yagi-Uda array with neat schematic diagram. (16)
3. Explain about rhombic antenna(16)
4. With neat diagram explain helical antenna and briefly describe its operation in the axial mode.
How does it differ from other antennas?
5. With neat block diagram how Radiation pattern and Gain of an antenna can be measured.
6. Describe the methods for measuring the Power gain, Radiation efficiency and Transmission
bandwidth of an antenna. Discuss Anechoic Chamber measurement.
7. (i)Explain the construction and characteristics features of frequency independent
(ii)Illustrate the reciprocity in antenna measurements. (8)
8. Define the characteristic impedance of biconical antenna?Bring out the expressions for
voltage across the feed points of the biconical antenna and current flowing through the surface
of the cone?
9. (i)With a suitable diagram explain the construction and principle of operation of a log
periodic antenna. (8)

(ii)Explain the radiation characteristics of yagi uda antenna (8)

10. With necessary illustrations explain the radiation characteristics of microstrip antenna and
mention its possible application. (16)
1. Find the maximum distance that can be covered by a space wave, when the antenna heights
are 60m and 120m?
2. What is fading? And how it is compensated.
3. Define maximum usable frequency.
4. Define Critical frequency.
5. What is meant by Faraday rotation?
6. What are the effects of ground plane on low frequency transmission?
7. Define Troposphere
8. What are the various types of diversity reception?
9. Differentiate virtual height from actual height.
10. Define space wave
11. What are height ranges of different regions in the ionosphere?
12. Define Space diversity Reception.
13. What is free space loss factor?
14. Define Frequency Diversity reception.
15. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves?
16. Define skip distance.
17. Define gyro frequency.
18. What is inverse and multi path fading?
19. Define Magneto-Ions Splitting.
20. Define wave velocity and Group velocity
1. Explain the mechanism of ionospheric propagation with neat diagram. (8)
(ii) Discuss the effects of Earths magnetic field on ionosphere radio wave propagation? (8)
2. (i)Explain important features of ground wave propagation? (10)
(ii) Explain the terms:
(1) Optimum working frequency
(2) Skip distance
(3) Virtual height. (6)
3. (i) Explain the mechanism of space wave propagation over ideal flat earth with a neat
(ii) How does the earth affect ground wave propagation? (8)
4. (i) Describe the Troposcatter propagation. (8)

(ii) Explain the effect of Earths magnetic field on ground wave propagation. (8)
5. Describe the theory of propagation of Electromagnetic wave through the ionosphere in the
presence of external magnetic field and shows that the medium acts as doubly refracting
crystal. (16)
6. (i)Explain the advantages of tropospheric wave propagation and sky wave propagation? (10)
(ii)Explain the following terms with diagram (a)Duct propagation (b) Skip zone
7. (i)The receiver and the transmitter are located out of the LOS on the earth. For such a case,
find the distance between these two points on the earth (12)
(ii)Explain the importance of line of sight propagation . (4)
8. (i) Write short notes on whistlers and Faraday rotation. (6)
(ii) Discuss the effects of diffraction on EM Waves. Explain about the models of
diffraction. (10)
9. Explain the tropospheric scatter propagation phenomenon. Discuss Its advantages and
disadvantages. (16)
10. (i) Obtain an expression for refractive index of an ionospheric layer(8)
(ii)Draw a 2 ray model of sky wave propagation and explain in detail.(8)