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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA

PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
(CPE642)

NAME
KARIM

STUDENT I.D

: 2014490934

EXPERIMENT

: LAB 4

DATE PERFORMED

: 5 OCTOBER 2015

SEMESTER

:5

PROGRAM

: EH220

Lab 1
Control loop

A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a control loop feedback

mechanism (controller) commonly used in industrial control systems. A PID controller continuously
calculates an "error value" as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint.
The controller attempts to minimize the error over time by adjustment of a control variable, such as the
position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to a heating element.
In this model, P accounts for present values of the error (e.g. if the error is large and positive, the control
output will also be large and positive), I accounts for past values of the error (e.g. if the output is not
sufficient to reduce the size of the error, error will accumulate over time, causing the controller to apply
stronger output), and D accounts for predicted future values of the error, based on its current rate of
change.
A system can be built with an inherent delay. Delays are units that cause a time-shift in the input signal,
but that don't affect the signal characteristics. An ideal delay is a delay system that doesn't affect the
signal characteristics at all, and that delays the signal for an exact amount of time. Some delays, like
processing delays or transmission delays, are unintentional. Other delays however, such as
synchronization delays, are an integral part of a system. An ideal delay causes the input function to be
shifted forward in time by a certain specified amount of time. Systems with an ideal delay cause the
system output to be delayed by a finite, predetermined amount of time.
As a PID controller relies only on the measured process variable, not on knowledge of the underlying
process, it is a broadly useful controller. By tuning the three parameters of the model, one can design a
PID controller for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms
of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the
setpoint, and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not
guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability.
There was three experiments have been conducted. The control loop was prepared by setup the process

5
s +10 s
2

and 1 respectively. The time delay were set to 5. The PID

controllers parameters P, I, and D are 0.2, 0.01, and 0 respectively. Then, simulation parameter was set
for 600s. The experiment was run. Then, the graph of experiment 1 was obtained. For experiment 2 and 3,
the time delay changing to 7 and 9 respectively. After that, all experiments were comparing to each other.
The experiment 1 was oscillating low than 2 and 3. The experiment 1 was going stable to setpoint than 2

and 3. This show that when value time delay higher the system oscillate more where system takes time to
stable.