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Dyslexia

Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning


disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice
Burr, E., Haas, E., and Ferriere, K. (July 2015). Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning
disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education
Sciences, Regional Educational Laboratory at WestEd.
This review of research and policy literature — aimed at district and state policymakers — distills several
key elements of processes that can help identify and support English learner students with learning disabilities. It also
describes current guidelines and protocols used by the 20 states with the largest populations of English learner
students. The report informs education leaders who are setting up processes to determine which English learner
students may need placement in special education programs as opposed to other assistance. The report acknowledges
that the research base in this area is thin.

On the Importance of Listening Comprehension


Hogan TP1, Adlof SM, Alonzo CN. (2014) On the importance of listening comprehension,International Journal of
Speech-Language Pathology June 16 (3):199-207.
The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual
differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening
comprehension. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence
on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children
who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills
(i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration
during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.

The State of Learning Disabilities


The National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (Third Edition). New
York: NCLD
This report summarizes the latest facts, figures, and information about individuals with learning disabilities in the U.S.
The report details basic statistics about learning disabilities, public perceptions, LD in schools and beyond school, and
much more. The report also addresses several important issues for which more reliable data are urgently needed,
including: Response to Intervention (RTI), Common Core State Standards and Assessments, online learning,
Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM), charter schools, school vouchers and juvenile justice.

Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading


Disabilities

Connor, C., Alberto, P.A., Compton, D.L., and O'Connor, R.E. (February 2014) Improving Reading Outcomes for
Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Contributions from the Institute of Education
Sciences Research Centers, U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special
Education Research.
This report describes what has been learned about the improvement of reading outcomes for children with or at risk
for reading disabilities through published research funded by the Institute of Education Science (IES). The report
describes contributions to the knowledge base across four focal areas: assessment, basic cognitive and linguistic
processes that support successful reading, intervention, and professional development.

Intact but Less Accessible Phonetic Representations in Adults with


Dyslexia

Bart Boets et al. (2013) Intact But Less Accessible Phonetic Representations in Adults with Dyslexia. Science 6
December 2013: 342 (6163), 1251-1254. [DOI:10.1126/science.1244333]
People with dyslexia seem to have difficulty identifying and manipulating the speech sounds to be linked to written
symbols. Researchers have long debated whether the underlying representations of these sounds are disrupted in the
dyslexic brain, or whether they are intact but language-processing centers are simply unable to access them properly.
This study indicates that dyslexia may be caused by impaired connections between auditory and speech centers of the
brain. The researchers analyzed whether for adult readers with dyslexia the internal references for word sounds are
poorly constructed or whether accessing those references is abnormally difficult. Brain imaging during phonetic
discrimination tasks suggested that the internal dictionary for word sounds was correct, but accessing the dictionary
was more difficult than normal.

Don't DYS Our Kids: Dyslexia and the Quest for Grade-Level Reading
Proficiency

Fiester, L. (2012). Don't DYS Our Kids: Dyslexia and the Quest for Grade-Level Reading Proficiency . Commissioned by
the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation in partnership with the Campaign for Grade-Level Reading.
About 2.4 million children across the nation have been diagnosed with learning disabilities but how successful is the
U.S. education system in teaching these students to read? This new report provides a far-reaching overview of the
history and progress in understanding and meeting the needs of children with dyslexia, as well as the persisting

challenges that must be overcome, to ensure that all students can read proficiently by the third grade. The report also
highlights best practices and examples of solutions that are already working in communities. Based on interviews with
nearly 30 experts, the report includes a collection of recommended actions for advancing this movement.

Human Voice Recognition Depends on Language Ability


Perrachione, T., Stephanie Del Tufo, S., Gabrieli, J. Human Voice Recognition Depends on Language Ability. Science 29
July 2011: 595.
The ability to recognize people by their voice is an important social behavior. Individuals differ in how they pronounce
words, and listeners may take advantage of language-specific knowledge of speech phonology to facilitate recognizing
voices. Impaired phonological processing is characteristic of dyslexia and thought to be a basis for difficulty in learning
to read. The researchers tested voice-recognition abilities of dyslexic and control listeners for voices speaking
listeners native language or an unfamiliar language. Individuals with dyslexia exhibited impaired voice-recognition
abilities compared with controls only for voices speaking their native language. These results demonstrate the
importance of linguistic representations for voice recognition. Humans appear to identify voices by making
comparisons between talkers' pronunciations of words and listeners' stored abstract representations of the sounds in
those words. Related article: Study Sheds Light on Auditory Role in Dyslexia.

Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and Vision


American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Ophthalmology, Council on Children with Disabilities et al. (2009).
Pediatrics 2009;124;837-844; originally published online Jul 27, 2009. Retrieved January 7, 2010 from
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/124/2/837.
This joint statement of pediatric ophthalmologists and pediatricians concerned with learning disabilities states: most
experts believe that dyslexia is a language based disorder. Vision problems can interfere with the process of learning;
however, vision problems are not the cause of primary dyslexia or learning disabilities. Scientific evidence does not
support the efficacy of eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted filters or lenses for improving the
long-term educational performance in these complex pediatric neurocognitive conditions. Diagnostic and treatment
approaches that lack scientific evidence of efficacy, including eye exercises, behavioral vision therapy, or special tinted
filters or lenses, are not endorsed and should not be recommended.

Dissecting Dyslexia

May, T.S. (2006). Dissecting Dyslexia. BrainWork, the Neuroscience Newsletter from the Dana Foundation.
Genetic differences in the brain make learning to read a struggle for children with dyslexia. Luckily, most of our brain
development occurs after we're born, when we interact with our environment. This means that the right teaching
techniques can actually re-train the brain, especially when they happen early.

Remediation Training Improves Reading Ability of Dyslexic Children


Trei, L. Remediation Training Improves Reading Ability of Dyslexic Children. Stanford Report, 25 May 2003.
For the first time, researchers have shown that the brains of dyslexic children can be rewired after undergoing
intensive remediation training to function more like those found in normal readers.

Progress in Understanding Reading: Scientific Foundations and New


Frontiers

Stanovich, Keith E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York:
Guilford Press.
From a nationally known expert, this volume summarizes the gains that have been made in key areas of reading
research and provides authoritative insights on current controversies and debates. Each section begins with up-todate findings followed by one or more classic papers from the author's research program. Significant issues covered
include phonological processes and context effects in reading, the "reading wars" and how they should be resolved,
the meaning of the term "dyslexia," and the cognitive effects and benefits of reading.

Repeated Reading and Reading Fluency in Learning Disabled Children

Rashotte, C. & Torgesen, J. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading
Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.
This study investigated whether improved fluency and comprehension across different stories in repeated reading
depend on the degree of word overlap among passages and whether repeated reading is more effective than an
equivalent amount of nonrepetitive reading. Non-fluent, learning disabled students read passages presented and
timed by a computer under three different conditions. Results suggest that over short periods of time, increases in
reading speed with the repeated reading method depend on the amount of shared words among stories, and that if
stories have few shared words, repeated reading is not more effective for improving speed than an equivalent amount
of non-repetitive reading.

About Reading
Kids & Family Reading Report: 5th Edition
Scholastic (2015) Kids & Family Reading Report: 5th Edition. New York: NY.
This biannual survey explores the reading attitudes and experiences that most influence children's reading habits, including reading
aloud at home, independent reading at school, presence of books in the home, and more. Findings from the 2014 survey show that
just over 1,000 children ages 6 to 17, only 31 percent said they read a book for fun almost daily, down from 37 percent four years
ago. The report asks what makes children frequent readers, creating two models for predicting children's reading frequency-one each
among kids ages 611 and 1217-constructed through a regression analysis of more than 130 data measures from the survey.
Across both groups, three powerful predictors that children will be frequent readers include: (1) the child's reading enjoyment; (2)
parents who are frequent readers; and (3) the child's belief that reading for fun is important.

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Gender
Gap in Reading, Effects of the Common Core, and Student Engagement
Loveless, T. The 2015 Brown Center Report on American Education How Well Are American Students Learning? With sections on the
gender gap in reading, effects of the Common Core, and student engagement (March 2015) Washington, D.C. The Brown Center on
Education Policy, The Brookings Institution.
Part I of the 2015 Brown Center Report on American Education: Girls score higher than boys on tests of reading ability. They have for
a long time. This section of the Brown Center Report assesses where the gender gap stands today and examines trends over the past
several decades. The analysis also extends beyond the U.S. and shows that boys reading achievement lags that of girls in every
country in the world on international assessments. The international dimension recognizing that U.S. is not alone in this
phenomenon serves as a catalyst to discuss why the gender gap exists and whether it extends into adulthood.

Hemispheric specialization for visual words is shaped by attention to


sublexical units during initial learning
Yoncheva, Y.N., Wise, J., and McCandliss, B. Hemispheric specialization for visual words is shaped by attention to sublexical units
during initial learning, Brain and Language, Volumes 145146, JuneJuly 2015, pages 23-33.
This study investigated how the brain responds to different types of reading instruction. Results indicate that beginning readers who
focus on letter-sound relationships, or phonics, instead of trying to learn whole words, increase activity in the area of their brains
best wired for reading. To develop reading skills, teaching students to sound out "C-A-T" sparks more optimal brain circuitry than
instructing them to memorize the word "cat." And, the study found, these teaching-induced differences show up even on future
encounters with the word. The study provides some of the first evidence that a specific teaching strategy for reading has direct
neural impact. The research could eventually lead to better-designed interventions to help struggling readers.

The Next Chapter: Supporting Literacy Within ESEA


Haynes, M. (August 2015). The Next Chapter: Supporting Literacy Within ESEA. Alliance for Excellent Education, Washington, D.C.
Noting that 60 percent of both fourth and eighth graders currently struggle with reading, this report urges the U.S. Congress to focus
on students literacy development from early childhood through grade twelve as it works to rewrite of the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act (ESEA). As part of a solution, the report highlights proposed federal legislation, the Literacy Education for All, Results
for a Nation (LEARN) Act, which would encourage schools and educators to use research-based strategies to teach reading and
writing within subject areas and across grade levels. In addition to its legislative recommendations, the report examines why
students struggle to read and measures the success of other federal efforts to improve literacy, including Reading First and the
Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program.

Early Reading Proficiency in the United States


Early Reading Proficiency in the United States (2014) The Annie E. Casey Foundation
Children who are proficient readers by the end of third grade are more likely to graduate from high school and to be economically
successful in adulthood. This KIDS COUNT data snapshot finds 80 percent of fourth-graders from low-income families and 66 percent
of all fourth-graders are not reading at grade level. While improvements have been made in the past decade, reading proficiency
levels remain low. Given the critical nature of reading to childrens individual achievement and the nations future economic success,

the Casey Foundation offers recommendations for communities and policymakers to support early reading. Early reading proficiency
rates for the nation and each state are provided.

The Joy and Power of Reading: A Summary of Research and Expert Opinion
Bridges, L. (2014) The Joy and Power of Reading: A Summary of Research and Expert Opinion. New York: Scholastic.
This summary of research and expert opinion highlights the importance of reading volume, stamina and independent reading and
how that builds comprehension, background knowledge, vocabulary and fluency skills. The report also discusses the value of reader
choice and variety in developing motivation and confidence; guided reading and interactive read alouds in schools; and reading aloud
plus talk at home.

Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind


Kidd, D. C. & Castano, E. (2013) Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind. Science, 18 October 2013: 342 (6156), 377-380.
Theory of Mind is the human capacity to comprehend that other people hold beliefs and desires and that these may differ from one's
own beliefs and desires. The currently predominant view is that literary fiction often described as narratives that focus on in-depth
portrayals of subjects' inner feelings and thoughts can be linked to theory of mind processes. The researchers in this study provide
experimental evidence that reading passages of literary fiction, in comparison to nonfiction or popular fiction, does indeed enhance
the reader's performance on theory of mind tasks a set of skills and

Is Retaining Students in the Early Grades Self-Defeating?


West, M.R. Is Retaining Students in the Early Grades Self-Defeating? (2012) Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families.
Whether a child is a proficient reader by the third grade is an important indicator of their future academic success. Indeed,
substantial evidence indicates that unless students establish basic reading skills by that time, the rest of their education will be an
uphill struggle. This evidence has spurred efforts to ensure that all students receive high-quality reading instruction in and even
before the early grades. It has also raised the uncomfortable question of how to respond when those efforts fail to occur or prove
unsuccessful: Should students who have not acquired a basic level of reading proficiency by grade three be promoted along with
their peers? Or should they be retained and provided with intensive interventions before moving on to the next grade? This paper
looks at the background on grade retention, a case study of test-based promotion in Florida, and policy implications.

Third Grade Literacy Policies: Identification, Intervention, Retention


Rose, S. and Schimke, K. Third Grade Literacy Policies: Identification, Intervention, Retention (2012) Education Commission of the
States.
This paper examines policies to promote 3rd-grade reading proficiency, including early identification of and intervention for struggling
readers, as well as retention as an action of last resort. The authors outline case studies in both Florida and New York City, and
identify decisions policymakers must consider as they implement policies around 3rd-grade literacy.

Writing to Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading


Graham, S., and Hebert, M.A. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time
to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
Writing to Read is a new Carnegie Corporation report published by the Alliance for Excellent Education which finds that while reading
and writing are closely connected, writing is an often-overlooked tool for improving reading skills and content learning. Writing to
Readidentifies three core instructional practices that have been shown to be effective in improving student reading: having students
write about the content-area texts they have read; teaching students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text; and
increasing the amount of writing students do.

Family and Neighborhood Sources of Socioeconomic Inequality in Children's


Achievement
Sastry, Narayan, and A.R. Pebley. 2010. "Family and Neighborhood Sources of Socioeconomic Inequality in Children's
Achievement." Demography, 47(3): 777-800.
Researchers examined family and neighborhood sources of socioeconomic inequality in children's reading and mathematics
achievement using data from the 2000-2001 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The researchers found no inequality in
children's achievement by family income when other variables in the model were held constant. Mother's reading scores and average

neighborhood levels of income accounted for the largest proportion of inequality in children's achievement. Neighborhood economic
status appears to be strongly associated with children's skills acquisition.

PreK-Grade 3 Reading and Literacy Practices That Matter


Ryan, M. PreK-Grade 3: Reading and Literacy Practices That Matter. (2010). Education Commission of the States. New York, NY.
This snapshot of five recent research studies addresses reading and literacy in the early grades. Policy recommendations on practices
that matter are included for each of the five studies.

Are Achievement Gaps Closing and Is Achievement Rising for All?


Chudowsky, N., Chodowsky, V., and Kober, N. (2009). State Test Score Trends Through 2007-08: Are Achievement Gaps Closing and
Is Achievement Rising For All? Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.
This report examines testing data from all 50 states to determine if achievement gaps between subgroups of students are narrowing.
The report also looks at the achievement trends of subgroups of students at the elementary school level.

How to get recreational reading to increase reading achievement


Kamil, M. (2008). How to get recreational reading to increase reading achievement. In Y. Kim, V. J. Risko, D. L. Compton, D. K.
Dickinson, M. K. Hundley, R. T. Jimnez, & D. Well Rowe (Eds.), 57th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 3140). Oak
Creek, WI: National Reading Conference.
The conclusion from these studies is that recreational reading by itself has no effect on reading achievement teachers and
instruction are the critical variables in the relationship of recreational reading to reading ability. The current research provides a
strong test of the notion that having students read a lot will produce reading achievement gains. This holds true for the entire range
of measures used from alphabetics to comprehension. However, instruction can leverage recreational reading to produce some gains
in reading achievement, most notably in fluency and comprehension. When recreational reading is encouraged in the context of
improved instruction, there are improvements in fluency and comprehension, although not in vocabulary.

Wrightslaw: No Child Left Behind


Wright, P.W.D., Wright, P.D., Heath, S.W. Wrightslaw: No Child Left Behind (2003). Harbor House Law Press.
The No Child Left Behind Act is confusing to parents, educators, administrators, advocates, and most attorneys. In this
comprehensive book, you'll find the full text of the No Child Left Behind Act with analysis, interpretation and commentary, advocacy
strategies, tips, and sample letters.

Using Research and Reason in Education: How Teachers Can Use


Scientifically Based Research to Make Curricular & Instructional Decisions
Stanovich, P. J. & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Using research and reason in education: How teachers can use scientifically based
research to make curricular & instructional decisions.Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development;
Department of Education; and Department of Health and Human Services.
As professionals, teachers can become more effective and powerful by developing the skills to recognize scientifically based practice
and, when the evidence is not available, use some basic research concepts to draw conclusions on their own. This paper offers a
primer for those skills that will allow teachers to become independent evaluators of educational research.

Progress in Understanding Reading: Scientific Foundations and New Frontiers


Stanovich, Keith E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.
From a nationally known expert, this volume summarizes the gains that have been made in key areas of reading research and
provides authoritative insights on current controversies and debates. Each section begins with up-to-date findings followed by one or
more classic papers from the author's research program. Significant issues covered include phonological processes and context
effects in reading, the "reading wars" and how they should be resolved, the meaning of the term "dyslexia," and the cognitive effects
and benefits of reading.

Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading


Should Know and Be Able to Do
Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to
do. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.
This foundational report reviews the reading research and describes the knowledge base that is essential for teacher candidates and
practicing teachers to master if they are to be successful in teaching all children to read well. Developed by the American Federation
of Teachers(AFT).

Literacy Instruction in Nine First-Grade Classrooms: Teacher Characteristics


and Student Achievement
Wharton-McDonald, R., Pressley, M., & Hampston, J.M. (1998). Literacy instruction in nine first-grade classrooms: Teacher
characteristics and student achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 99, 101-128.
Classroom observations and in-depth interviews were used to study 9 first-grade teachers from 4 districts who had been nominated
by language arts coordinators as outstanding or typical in their ability to help students develop literacy skills. Based on observational
measures of student reading and writing achievement and student engagement, 3 groups of teachers emerged from the original 9.
The following practices and beliefs distinguished the instruction of the 3 teachers (2 nominated as outstanding, 1 as typical) whose
students demonstrated the highest levels on these measures: (a) coherent and thorough integration of skills with high-quality
reading and writing experiences, (b) a high density of instruction (integration of multiple goals in a single lesson), (c) extensive use
of scaffolding, (d) encouragement of student self-regulation, (e) a thorough integration of reading and writing activities, (f) high
expectations for all students, (g) masterful classroom management, and (h) an awareness of their practices and the goals underlying
them. Teaching practices observed in 7 of the 9 classrooms are also discussed. The data reported here highlight the complexity of
primary literacy instruction and support the conclusion that effective primary-level literacy instruction is a balanced integration of
high-quality reading and writing experiences and explicit instruction of basic literacy skills.

Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children


Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy
Press.
In this report, we are most concerned with the large numbers of children in America whose educational careers are imperiled
because they do not read well enough to ensure understanding and to meet the demands of an increasingly competitive economy.
Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy. In a
technological society, the demands for higher literacy are ever increasing, creating more grievous consequences for those who fall
short. The U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services asked the National Academy of
Sciences to establish a committee to examine the prevention of reading difficulties. Our committee was charged with conducting a
study of the effectiveness of interventions for young children who are at risk of having problems learning to read. The goals of the
project were three: (1) to comprehend a rich but diverse research base; and (2) to translate the research findings into advice and
guidance for parents, educators, publishers, and others.

Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process


Lyon, G. (1998, March). Why reading is not a natural process. Educational Leadership, 55(6), 14-18.
Nearly four decades of scientific research on how children learn to read supports an emphasis on phonemic awareness and phonics in
a literature-rich environment. These findings challenge the belief that children learn to read naturally.

Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American


Children
Hart, B. and Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Brookes Publishing
Company
The landmark longitudinal study of parent-child talk in families. The researchers recorded one full hour of every word spoken at
home between parent and child in 42 families over a three year period, with children from seven months to 36 months of age.
Follow-up studies by Hart and Risley of those same children at age nine showed that there was a very tight link between the
academic success of a child and the number of words the child's parents spoke to the child to age three. See summary

Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print

Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
This book reconciles the debate that has divided theorists for decades over the "right" way to help children learn to read. Drawing on
a rich array of research on the nature and development of reading proficiency, Adams shows educators that they need not remain
trapped in the phonics versus teaching-for-meaning dilemma. She proposes that phonics can work together with the whole language
approach to teaching reading and provides an integrated treatment of the knowledge and process involved in skillful reading, the
issues surrounding their acquisition, and the implications for reading instruction.

Learning to Read and Write: A Longitudinal Study of 54 Children From First


Through Fourth Grades
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 80, 243-255.
In this study, of particular concern were these questions: Do the same children remain poor readers year after year? Do the same
children remain poor writers year after year? What skills do the poor readers lack? What skills do the poor writers lack? What factors
seem to keep poor readers from improving? What factors seem to keep poor writers from improving? The probability that a child
would remain a poor reader at the end of 4th grade if the child was a poor reader at the end of 1st grade was 0.88. Early writing skill
did not predict later writing skill as well as early reading ability predicted later reading ability. Children who become poor readers
entered 1st grade with little phonemic awareness. By the end of 4th grade, the poor readers had still not achieved the level of
decoding skill that the good readers had achieved at the beginning of 2nd grade. Good readers read considerably more than the poor
readers both in and out of school, which appeared to contribute to the good readers' growth in some reading and writing skills. Poor
readers tended to become poor writers.

Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in


the Acquisition of Literacy
Stanovich, Keith E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of
literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 360-407.
The Matthew Effects are not only about the progressive decline of slow starters, but also about the widening gap between slow
starters and fast starters. In reading, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. This report presents a framework for
conceptualizing development of individual differences in reading ability that emphasizes the effects of reading on cognitive
development and on "bootstrapping" relationships involving reading. It uses the framework to explain some persisting problems in
the literature on reading disability and to conceptualize remediation efforts in reading.

Why Johnny Can't Read: And What You Can Do About It


Flesch, R. (reprint, 1986). Why Johnny Can't Read: And What You Can Do About It. New York: Perennial Currents.
From

Amazon.com:

The classic book on phonics the method of teaching recommended by the U.S. Department of Education. Contains complete
materials and instructions on teaching children to read at home.

Ways With Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms
Heath, S.B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge University Press.
This book is a classic study of children learning to use language at home and at school in two communities only a few miles apart in
the southeastern United States. 'Roadville' is a white working-class community of families steeped for generations in the life of textile
mills; 'Trackton' is a black working-class community whose older generations grew up farming the land but whose current members
work in the mills. In tracing the children's language development the author shows the deep cultural differences between the two
communities, whose ways with words differ as strikingly from each other as either does from the pattern of the townspeople, the
mainstream blacks and whites who hold power in the schools and workplaces of the region. Employing the combined skills of
ethnographer, social historian, and teacher, the author raises fundamental questions about the nature of language development, the
effects of literacy on oral language habits, and the sources of communication problems in schools and workplaces.

Learning to Read: The Great Debate


Chall, J.S. (1967). Learning to read: The great debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.

From

Diane

Ravitchs'

tribute

to

Jeanne

Chall,

in

the

American

Educator,

Spring

2001:

In 1961, as the debate about how to teach reading continued, the Carnegie Corporation of New York commissioned Jeanne Chall,
who was well established as a careful reading researcher, to review the controversy. Chall spent three years visiting hundreds of
classrooms, analyzing research studies, and examining textbooks; she interviewed textbook authors, reading specialists, and
teachers.
Chall found that studies of beginning readers over the decades clearly supported decoding. Early decoding, she found, not only
produced better word recognition and spelling, but also made it easier for the child eventually to read with understanding. The code
emphasis method, she wrote, was especially effective for children of lower socioeconomic status, who were not likely to live in homes
surrounded with books or with adults who could help them learn to read. For a beginning reader, she found, knowledge of letters and
sounds had more influence on reading achievement than the child's tested mental ability or IQ.

Struggling Readers
Mobilizing Volunteer Tutors to Improve Student Literacy: Implementation,
Impacts, and Costs of the Reading Partners Program
Jacob, R.T., Armstrong, C., and Willard, J.A. Mobilizing Volunteer Tutors to Improve Student Literacy: Implementation, Impacts, and
Costs of the Reading Partners Program (March 2015) New York, NY: MDRC.
This study reports on an evaluation of the Reading Partners program, which uses community volunteers to provide one-on-one
tutoring

to

struggling

readers

in

underresourced

elementary schools. The study showed that after one year of implementation, the program significantly boosted students' reading
comprehension, fluency, and sight-word reading three measures of reading proficiency. These impacts are equivalent to
approximately

one

and

half

to

two

months

of

additional

growth

in

reading

proficiency

among the program group relative to the control group.

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Gender
Gap in Reading, Effects of the Common Core, and Student Engagement
Loveless, T. The 2015 Brown Center Report on American Education How Well Are American Students Learning? With sections on the
gender gap in reading, effects of the Common Core, and student engagement (March 2015) Washington, D.C. The Brown Center on
Education Policy, The Brookings Institution.
Part I of the 2015 Brown Center Report on American Education: Girls score higher than boys on tests of reading ability. They have for
a long time. This section of the Brown Center Report assesses where the gender gap stands today and examines trends over the past
several decades. The analysis also extends beyond the U.S. and shows that boys reading achievement lags that of girls in every
country in the world on international assessments. The international dimension recognizing that U.S. is not alone in this
phenomenon serves as a catalyst to discuss why the gender gap exists and whether it extends into adulthood.

Read for Success: Combating the Summer Learning Slide in America


Reading Is Fundamental (May 2015), Read for Success: Combating the Summer Learning Slide in America. Washington, D.C.
This research study set out to test and confirm the efficacy of a new model to reduce summer learning loss in children from
economically disadvantaged communities. Researchers found that, on average, 57% of students improved their reading proficiency,
instead of 80% of children showing loss.Nearly half of students in third grade a critical grade for literacy skill building increased
reading proficiency. As part of the study, RIF distributed over 760,000 books to 33,000 children from 173 schools across 16 states.
The program included science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) themed books for classrooms and media
centers, as well as books for children to select and keep for themselves. RIF also provided training for teachers on how to use the
classroom books to support their lessons, gave special resources to parents to help them support their children at home, and every
school was given funds to use for further enrichment.

Hemispheric specialization for visual words is shaped by attention to


sublexical units during initial learning

Yoncheva, Y.N., Wise, J., and McCandliss, B. Hemispheric specialization for visual words is shaped by attention to sublexical units
during initial learning, Brain and Language, Volumes 145146, JuneJuly 2015, pages 23-33.
This study investigated how the brain responds to different types of reading instruction. Results indicate that beginning readers who
focus on letter-sound relationships, or phonics, instead of trying to learn whole words, increase activity in the area of their brains
best wired for reading. To develop reading skills, teaching students to sound out "C-A-T" sparks more optimal brain circuitry than
instructing them to memorize the word "cat." And, the study found, these teaching-induced differences show up even on future
encounters with the word. The study provides some of the first evidence that a specific teaching strategy for reading has direct
neural impact. The research could eventually lead to better-designed interventions to help struggling readers.

Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy


White-Schwoch T, Woodruff Carr K, Thompson EC, Anderson S, Nicol T, Bradlow AR, et al. (2015) Auditory Processing in Noise: A
Preschool Biomarker for Literacy. PLoS Biol 13(7): e1002196.
This study suggests that the neural processing of consonants in noise plays a fundamental role in language development. Children
who struggle to listen in noisy environments may struggle to make meaning of the language they hear on a daily basis, which can in
turn set them at risk for literacy challenges. Evaluating the neural coding of speech in noise may provide an objective
neurophysiological marker for these at-risk children, opening a door to early and specific interventions that may stave off a life spent
struggling to read.

Early Reading Proficiency in the United States


Early Reading Proficiency in the United States (2014) The Annie E. Casey Foundation
Children who are proficient readers by the end of third grade are more likely to graduate from high school and to be economically
successful in adulthood. This KIDS COUNT data snapshot finds 80 percent of fourth-graders from low-income families and 66 percent
of all fourth-graders are not reading at grade level. While improvements have been made in the past decade, reading proficiency
levels remain low. Given the critical nature of reading to childrens individual achievement and the nations future economic success,
the Casey Foundation offers recommendations for communities and policymakers to support early reading. Early reading proficiency
rates for the nation and each state are provided.

Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading


Disabilities
Connor, C., Alberto, P.A., Compton, D.L., and O'Connor, R.E. (February 2014) Improving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at
Risk for Reading Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Contributions from the Institute of Education Sciences Research Centers, U.S.
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Special Education Research.
This report describes what has been learned about the improvement of reading outcomes for children with or at risk for reading
disabilities through published research funded by the Institute of Education Science (IES). The report describes contributions to the
knowledge base across four focal areas: assessment, basic cognitive and linguistic processes that support successful reading,
intervention, and professional development.

Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading


Ability in Emergent Readers
Fulbright, R. et al (2014) Glutamate and Choline Levels Predict Individual Differences in Reading Ability in Emergent Readers, The
Journal of Neuroscience, 12 March 2014, 34(11): 4082-4089.
The research team measured levels of glutamate, choline, and other metabolites in 75 children, aged 6 to 10, whose reading abilities
ranged from what is considered impaired to superior. The researchers conducted behavioral testing to characterize the childrens
reading, language, and general cognitive skills, and used MR spectroscopy to assess metabolite levels. They found that children with
higher glutamate and choline levels in their brains tended to have lower composite scores for reading and language. In follow-up
testing two years later, the same correlation still existed for initial glutamate levels. This study is believed to be the first to examine
neurochemistry in a longitudinal study of children during the critical period when they are considered "emergent readers" the age
at which neurocircuits that support skilled reading and speaking are still developing.

Can Readability Formulas Be Used to Successfully Gauge Difficulty of


Reading Materials?

Begeny, J. C. and Greene, D. J. (2014), Can Readability Formulas Be Used to Successfully Gauge Difficulty of Reading
Materials? Psychology in the Schools, 51: 198215.
Teachers, parents and textbook companies use technical "readability" formulas to determine how difficult reading materials are and
to set reading levels by age group. This study from North Carolina State University shows that the readability formulas are usually
inaccurate and offer little insight into which age groups will be able to read and understand a text. In the study, 360 students (grades
2-5) read six written passages out loud. The researchers assessed the students performance, giving each student an "oral reading
fluency" score, which is considered a good metric for measuring reading ability. The researchers then used eight different readability
formulas to see which level each formula gave to the six written passages. Results varied widely, with one passage being rated from
first grade to fifth grade level. The levels assigned by the readability formulas were then compared with researchers assessments of
each students actual ability to read the material. Seven of the eight readability formulas were less than 49 percent accurate, with
the worst formula scoring only 17 percent accuracy. The highest-rated formula was accurate 79 percent of the time.

Ready for Fall? Near-Term Effects of Voluntary Summer Learning Programs on


Low-Income Students' Learning Opportunities and Outcomes
Jennifer Sloan McCombs, John F. Pane, Catherine H. Augustine, Heather L. Schwartz, Paco Martorell, Laura Zakaras (2014). Ready
for Fall? Near-Term Effects of Voluntary Summer Learning Programs on Low-Income Students' Learning Opportunities and
Outcomes. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
This six-year study of summer learning programs in five urban areas revealed that while students who attended summer learning
programs performed better in math, they did not experience near-term benefits in reading or see significant improvement in social
and emotional outcomes compared to their peers. However, the study identified key factors linked to reading achievement. Students
whose summer reading teacher had just taught the sending or receiving grade during the school year performed better on the
reading test than did students with teachers unfamiliar with their grade level. Students whose reading teachers scored higher on
RAND's measure of instructional quality outperformed students with lower-scoring teachers. Finally, students in summer sites rated
by teachers as having strong behavior management policies and well-behaved students outperformed students in the control group
in reading.

What Works to Improve Student Literacy Achievement? An Examination of


Instructional Practices in a Balanced Literacy Approach
Bitter, C., O'Day, J., Gubbins, P., & Socias, M. (2009). What works to improve student literacy achievement? an examination of
instructional practices in a balanced literacy approach. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 14(1), 17-44.
A core assumption of the San Diego City Schools (SDCS) reform effort was that improved instructional practices, aligned with a
balanced literacy approach, would be effective in improving student outcomes. This article explores this hypothesis by presenting
findings from an analysis of classroom instruction data collected in 101 classrooms in nine high-poverty elementary schools. The
study found a prevalent focus on reading comprehension instruction and on students' active engagement in making meaning from
text. Teachers' use of higher-level questions and discussion about text were substantially higher than that found by a prior study
using the same instrument in similar classrooms elsewhere. Analyses of instruction and student outcome data indicate that teacher
practices related to the higher-level meaning of text, writing instruction, and strategies for accountable talk were associated with
growth in students' reading comprehension.

Technology in Early Education: Building Platforms for Connections and


Content that Strengthen Families and Promote Success in School
Guernsey, L. (2012). technology in early education: Building platforms for connections and content that strengthen families and
promote success in school. The Progress of Education Reform, 14(4), 7-14.
This report looks at trends in digital media use by young children, how to effectively use parents and librarians as partners in early
learning, and recommendations for building integrated technology platforms for early education.

Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising


Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology
Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M.J., Willingham, D. Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques:
promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, January 2013 vol. 14, 458.

In this monograph, the researchers discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility.
The selected techniques are relatively easy to use and could be adopted by many students. Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting
and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important to examine how
well they work. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the
keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice.

Advancing Our Students' Language and Literacy: The Challenge of Complex


Texts
Adams, M.J. (2011). Advancing Our Students' Language and Literacy: The Challenge of Complex Texts. American Educator, Winter
2010-2011, American Federation of Teachers.
The language of today's twelfth-grade English texts is simpler than that of seventh-grade texts published prior to 1963. No wonder
students' reading comprehension has declined sharply.

Beyond Comprehension: We Have Yet to Adopt a Common Core Curriculum


That Builds Knowledge Grade by Grade, But We Need To
Hirsch, E.D., Jr. (2011). Beyond Comprehension: We Have Yet to Adopt a Common Core Curriculum That Builds Knowledge Grade by
Grade But We Need To. American Educator, Winter 2010-2011, American Federation of Teachers.
Most of today's reading programs rest on faulty ideas about reading comprehension. Comprehension is not a general skill; it relies on
having relevant vocabulary and knowledge.

Early Executive Function Predicts Reasoning Development


Richland, L. E., & Burchinal, M. R. (2013). Early Executive Function Predicts Reasoning Development. Psychological Science, 24, 8792.
New research findings from the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill demonstrate that children
begin to show signs of higher-level thinking skills as early as 4.5 years of age. Using large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of
Early Child Care and Youth Development study, the authors examined tests children took at age 4.5, when they were in first grade,
third grade, and at age 15. Findings showed a strong relationship between high scores among children who, as preschoolers, had
strong vocabularies and were good at monitoring and controlling their responses (executive function) to later ability on tests of
understanding analogies. Research suggests that executive function may be trainable through pathways such as preschool
curriculum, exercise, and impulse control training.

Approaches to Parental Involvement for Improving


Performance of Elementary School Age Children

the

Academic

Nye, C., Turner, H. M. & Schwartz, J. B. (2006) Approaches to Parental Involvement for Improving the Academic Performance of
Elementary School Age Children. University of Central Florida Center for Autism and Related Disabilities.
The purpose of this review was to summarize the most dependable evidence on the effect of parental involvement for improving the
academic performance of elementary school age children in grades K-6. This review found that parent involvement had a positive
and significant effect on children's overall academic performance. The effect was educationally meaningful and large enough to have
practical implications for parents, family involvement practitioners, and policymakers. When parents participated in academic
enrichment activities with their children outside of school for an average of less than 12 weeks, children demonstrated an equivalent
of 4 to 5 months improvement in reading or math performance.

Making Summer Count: How Summer Programs Can Boost Children's


Learning
McCombs, J., Augustine, C., Schwartz, H., Bodilly, S., McInnis, B., Lichter, D., Cross, A. (2011). Making Summer Count: How Summer
Programs Can Boost Children's Learning. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Education.
A review of the literature on summer learning loss and summer learning programs, coupled with data from ongoing programs offered
by districts and private providers across the U.S., demonstrates the potential of summer programs to improve achievement as well
as the challenges in creating and maintaining such programs. School districts and summer programming providers can benefit from
the existing research and lessons learned by other programs in terms of developing strategies to maximize program effectiveness
and quality, student participation, and strategic partnerships and funding. Recommendations for providers and policymakers address

ways to mitigate barriers by capitalizing on a range of funding sources, engaging in long-term planning to ensure adequate
attendance and hiring, and demonstrating positive student outcomes.

Is Retaining Students in the Early Grades Self-Defeating?


West, M.R. Is Retaining Students in the Early Grades Self-Defeating? (2012) Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families.
Whether a child is a proficient reader by the third grade is an important indicator of their future academic success. Indeed,
substantial evidence indicates that unless students establish basic reading skills by that time, the rest of their education will be an
uphill struggle. This evidence has spurred efforts to ensure that all students receive high-quality reading instruction in and even
before the early grades. It has also raised the uncomfortable question of how to respond when those efforts fail to occur or prove
unsuccessful: Should students who have not acquired a basic level of reading proficiency by grade three be promoted along with
their peers? Or should they be retained and provided with intensive interventions before moving on to the next grade? This paper
looks at the background on grade retention, a case study of test-based promotion in Florida, and policy implications.

Third Grade Literacy Policies: Identification, Intervention, Retention


Rose, S. and Schimke, K. Third Grade Literacy Policies: Identification, Intervention, Retention (2012) Education Commission of the
States.
This paper examines policies to promote 3rd-grade reading proficiency, including early identification of and intervention for struggling
readers, as well as retention as an action of last resort. The authors outline case studies in both Florida and New York City, and
identify decisions policymakers must consider as they implement policies around 3rd-grade literacy.

Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program


Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., White, B. A., Ou, S., & Robertson, D. L. (2011). Cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center early
education program. Child Development, 82, 379-404.
Children who attended an intensive preschool and family support program attained higher educational levels, were more likely to be
employed, and less likely to have problems with the legal system than were peers who did not attend the program, according to a
study funded by the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The ChildParent Center (CPC) early education program is a large-scale, federally funded intervention providing services for disadvantaged 3to 9-year-olds in Chicago. The researchers identified five key principles of the CPC that they say led to its effectiveness, including
providing services that are of sufficient length or duration, are high in intensity and enrichment, feature small class sizes and
teacher-student ratios, are comprehensive in scope, and are implemented by well-trained and well-compensated staff.

Educator's Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers


Slavin, R.E., Lake, C., Davis, S., & Madden, N. (2010) Educator's Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers. Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education.
This report published on the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) website provides an extensive review of the research on the outcomes
of 27 early childhood programs. Six of the programs produced strong evidence of effectiveness in language, literacy, and/or
phonological awareness. All of the effective programs had explicit academic content, a balance of teacher-led and child-initiated
activity, and significant training and follow-up support.

Extensive Reading Interventions in Grades K-3: From Research to Practice


Scammacca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Extensive reading interventions in grades K-3: From
research to practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This report summarizes 12 peer-reviewed, high-quality research studies between 1995 and 2005 and synthesizes their findings on
the effects of extensive reading interventions (comprising at least 100 instructional sessions) for struggling K-3 readers. It then
explains the related implications for practice for students with reading problems or learning disabilities in an RTI setting.

On the Mind of a Child: A Conversation with Sally Shaywitz


D'Arcangelo, M. (2003). On the mind of a child: A conversation with Sally Shaywitz.Educational Leadership, 60(7), 6-10.
Summary:
A

pediatrician,

neuroscientist,

and

member

of

the

National

Reading

Panel,

Dr. Sally

Shaywitz

talks

with Educational

Leadership readers about the ways the brains of young children develop and what can be done to prevent early learning difficulties.

Timing and Intensity of Tutoring: A Closer Look at the Conditions for


Effective Early Literacy Tutoring
Vadasy, P., Sanders, E., Jenkins, J. & Peyton, J. (2002). Timing and intensity of tutoring: A closer look at the conditions for effective
early literacy tutoring. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17, 227-241.
This article reports data from a longitudinal study of one-to-one tutoring for students at risk for reading disabilities. Participants were
at-risk students who received phonics-based tutoring in first grade, students who were tutored in comprehension skills in second
grade, and students tutored in both grades 1 and 2. At second-grade posttest, there were significant differences in word
identification and word attack between students who were tutored in first grade only compared to students who were also tutored in
second grade, favoring students who were tutored in first grade only. Overall, there were no advantages to a second year of tutoring.
For students tutored in second grade only, there were no differences at second-grade posttest compared to controls. Schools may
have selected students who did not respond to first-grade tutoring for continued tutoring in second grade. Findings are discussed in
light of decisions schools make when using tutors to supplement reading instruction for students with reading difficulties.

Components of Effective Remediation for Developmental Reading


Disabilities: Combining Phonological and Strategy-Based Introduction to
Improve Outcomes
Lovett, Maureen W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, Susan L., Frijters, Jan C., et al. (2000). Components of Effective Remediation for
Developmental Reading Disabilities: Combining Phonological and Strategy-Based Introduction to Improve Outcomes. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 92, 263-283.
The efficacy of a combination of phonological and strategy-based remedial approaches for reading disability (RD) was compared with
that of each approach separately. Eighty-five children with severe RD were randomly assigned to 70 intervention hours in 1 of 5
sequences. Performance was assessed before, 3 times during, and after intervention. Four orthogonal contrasts based on a linear
trend analysis model were evaluated. There were generalized treatment effects on standardized measures of word identification,
passage comprehension, and nonword reading. A combination of PHAB/DI and WIST proved superior to either program alone on
nonword reading, letter-sound and keyword knowledge, and 3 word identification measures. Generalization of nonword decoding to
real word identification was achieved with a combination of effective remedial components.

Beating the Odds in Teaching All Children to Read


Taylor, B., Pearson, P., Clark, K., & Walpole, S. (1999). Beating the odds in teaching all children to read. CIERA Report 2-006.
University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
What schoolwide practices characterize schools in which at-risk learners are beating the odds? What instructional practices are used
by the most accomplished primary-grade teachers and by teachers in the most effective schools? The authors used quantitative and
descriptive methods to investigate school and classroom factors related to primary-grade reading achievement. Fourteen schools
across the U.S. with moderate to high numbers of students on subsidized lunch were identified as most, moderately, or least
effective based on several measures of reading achievement in the primary grades. A combination of school and teacher factors,
many of which were intertwined, was found to be important in the most effective schools. Statistically significant school factors
included strong links to parents, systematic assessment of pupil progress, strong building communication, and a collaborative model
for the delivery of reading instruction, including early reading interventions. In all of the most effective schools, reading was clearly a
priority at both the building and classroom level.

Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children


Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy
Press.
In this report, we are most concerned with the large numbers of children in America whose educational careers are imperiled
because they do not read well enough to ensure understanding and to meet the demands of an increasingly competitive economy.
Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy. In a
technological society, the demands for higher literacy are ever increasing, creating more grievous consequences for those who fall
short. The U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services asked the National Academy of
Sciences to establish a committee to examine the prevention of reading difficulties. Our committee was charged with conducting a
study of the effectiveness of interventions for young children who are at risk of having problems learning to read. The goals of the
project were three: (1) to comprehend a rich but diverse research base; and (2) to translate the research findings into advice and
guidance for parents, educators, publishers, and others.

Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process


Lyon, G. (1998, March). Why reading is not a natural process. Educational Leadership, 55(6), 14-18.
Nearly four decades of scientific research on how children learn to read supports an emphasis on phonemic awareness and phonics in
a literature-rich environment. These findings challenge the belief that children learn to read naturally.

What Makes Literacy Tutoring Effective?


Juel, C. (1996). What makes literacy tutoring effective? Reading Research Quarterly, 31, 268-289.
In 1991, researchers Connie Juel reported that university student-athletes who were poor readers seemed to be effective tutors of
first-grade children who were poor readers. This 1996 study explores factors that may account for successful tutoring outcomes
when poor readers tutor other poor readers. Two activities were found to be particularly important in successful tutor-student
relationship: (a) the use of texts that gradually and repetitively introduced both high-frequency vocabulary and words with common
spelling patterns and (b) activities in which children were engaged in direct letter-sound instruction. Two forms of verbal interaction
were found to be particularly important: (a) scaffolding of reading and writing and (b) modeling of how to read and spell unknown
words.

Learning to Read and Write: A Longitudinal Study of 54 Children From First


Through Fourth Grades
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 80, 243-255.
In this study, of particular concern were these questions: Do the same children remain poor readers year after year? Do the same
children remain poor writers year after year? What skills do the poor readers lack? What skills do the poor writers lack? What factors
seem to keep poor readers from improving? What factors seem to keep poor writers from improving? The probability that a child
would remain a poor reader at the end of 4th grade if the child was a poor reader at the end of 1st grade was 0.88. Early writing skill
did not predict later writing skill as well as early reading ability predicted later reading ability. Children who become poor readers
entered 1st grade with little phonemic awareness. By the end of 4th grade, the poor readers had still not achieved the level of
decoding skill that the good readers had achieved at the beginning of 2nd grade. Good readers read considerably more than the poor
readers both in and out of school, which appeared to contribute to the good readers' growth in some reading and writing skills. Poor
readers tended to become poor writers.

Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in


the Acquisition of Literacy
Stanovich, Keith E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of
literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 360-407.
The Matthew Effects are not only about the progressive decline of slow starters, but also about the widening gap between slow
starters and fast starters. In reading, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. This report presents a framework for
conceptualizing development of individual differences in reading ability that emphasizes the effects of reading on cognitive
development and on "bootstrapping" relationships involving reading. It uses the framework to explain some persisting problems in
the literature on reading disability and to conceptualize remediation efforts in reading.