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FIRST DEGREE PROGRAMME IN MATHEMATICS

UNDER CBCSS
2012-2015

A STUDY ON QUEUEING THEORY

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

A STUDY ON QUEUEING THEORY


Dissertation Submitted to the University of Kerala

By

Name of the Candidates

Candidate Code

ANITHA ALEXANDER

ANUJA JOPPAN

22012126006

22012126003

MERIN.M

RESHMI.J.S

:22012126030

Subject Code

22012126026

:
Exam code:

Subject:

Mathematics

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
ST.GREGORIOS COLLEGE
KOTTARAKKARA
MARCH -2015
A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

CERTIFICATE

I here bycertify that this dissertation is a bonafide record of work carried out by
Anitha Alexander , AnujaJoppan , Merin.M ,Reshmi.J.S inMathematics
(CBCSS 2012-2015) of this college under our supervision in partial
fulfilmentthe requirements for B.Sc Degreein Mathematics of University of
Kerala.

Mr.JACOB VARGHESE VADAKKADAM


Headof thedepartment
Mathematics
St.Gregorios College
Kottarakara
Mrs.BEENA G P
Professor In-Charge
Department of Mathematics
St.Gregorios College
Kottarakara

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I humbly express my sincere gratitude to Mrs.BEENA G P, Associate professor


Department of Mathematics,St.GregoriosCollege,Kottarakara, University of
Kerala.My gratitude towards her is beyond words for her inspiring
guidance,constant encouragement and relative criticism.I also wish to express
my profound thanks to Mr.JACOB VARGHESE VADAKADAM,Head of
department and all other teachers of Mathematics Department for their constant
help throughout the course of this work.

Place:Kottarakara

ANITHA ALEXANDER

Date

ANUJA JOPPAN
MERIN.M
RESHMI.J.S

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

DECLARATION

The dissertation entitled QUEUEING THEORY here with submitted by us in


partial requirement of degree Bachelor of Science Mathematics, University of Kerala
is an authentic record of the work carried out by

Anitha Alexander,Anujajoppan,

Merin.M, Reshmi.J.Sand that no part thereof has been presented for any other
Degree.

ANITHA ALEXANDER

22012126003

ANUJA JOPPAN

22012126006

MERIN.M

22012126026

RESHMI.J.S

22012126030

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. PRELIMINARIES
3. QUEUE MODELS
4. M|M|1:(/FIFO) MODEL
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

INTRODUCTION
Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Science. The word
corresponding to science means a field of knowledge.
Queues or waiting lines are very common in every life we quite often face the
problem of long queues for a bus, a movie ticket and for various other situations.
Long queues are generally seen infront of railway booking offices, post offices and
bank counters particularly in large cities similarly we also find automobiles waiting
at service station, ships waiting for berths, airplanes waiting for landing and patients
waiting for doctors. Queues are thus, a very common phenomenon of modern
civilized life.
Here we discuss about the important models and examples of queuing theory.
The dissertion divided into three chapters. In chapter one, we collect some basic
definitions in queuing theory which we needed in the project.
The second chapter deals with queue models, definitions classification and
some important examples of queuing theory.
The third chapter deals with a queue model M/M/l :( /FIFO). Here we derive
equations and important examples related to this topic.

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

Chapter-1
PRELIMINARIES
DEFINITION1.1
Random Experiment
An experiment whose outcome cannot be predicted is called random
experiment
Eg: 1.1
Tossing a coin is a random experiment whose outcomes are Head and Tail
which could not be predicted
Eg: 1.2
Throwing of a die is a similar case whose possible outcomes are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6
DEFINITION1.2
Sample space
The set of outcomes of a random experiment is known as sample space(s)
In tossing of a coin s= {Head, Tail}
In tossing of a die s= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Definition:1.3
A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

Events
In a random experiment the subsets of sample space is known as event or
cases. In such students null set is called impossible events and same set is called
sure event. Single ten subsets are called elementary events and others are composte
event.
Eg: 1.3
In a bag with 7 blue and 5 green balls the prohability of selecting a green ball
is 5/12 and that of a blue ball is 7/12
Definition 1.4
Random variable
If the numerical values assumed by a variable are the result of some chance
factors, so that a particular value cannot be exactly predicted in advance the variable
is then called a random variable. It is also called chance variable or stochastic
variable.
Eg: 1.4
If a coin is tossed thrice,let the random variable X: number of Heads. The X
can take the values 0, 1, 2 and 3
Definition: 1.5
Descrete and continuous random variable
Adescrete random variable is one which can assume only isolated values
such as natural numbers
Eg : 1.4 is such a case
A continuous randomvariablein one which can assume any value with in an
interval ie, all values of continuous scale. For example,
(i)
The weights of a group of individuals
(ii) The height of a giving of individuals are all continuous

Definition : 1.6
Probability distribution
A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

A random variable X assume values x1,x2.......xn with probabilities P1,P2..... Pi


n

respectively where P(X=Xi)=Pi 0 for each i and


X
X1

P(X)
P1

X2

P2

Xn

Pn

Pi=1 , then
i=1

Is called probability distribution for X and 1 spells out how a total probability of 1 is
distributed over several values of a random variable.
Eg: 1.7
In tossing of 2 coins at a time, the random variable X=no: of heads then its
probabilities is

X
0

P(X)

2/4

P(X)

Definition : 1.8
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Theoretical Distributions
Frequency distribution can be classified under two heads
(i)
Observed
(ii) Expected (Theoretical)
The first case is based on actual observation and experimentation. If certain
hypothesis is assumed, it is sometimes possible to derive mathematically what the
frequency distribution of certain universe should be such distribution are called
theoretical distribution
There are many type of theoretical distributions but we shall consider only two
which are taken into consider here
(i)
Poissons Distribution
(ii) Exponential Distribution
Definition: 1.9
Poissons Distribution
It is a discrete distribution; random variable X is said to follow the
poissons distribution if its probability density function is,
- x

F(X) =e x=0, 1, 2.........


x!
Zero
otherwise
In general, it is seen that the number of occurrences of rare event (exact with
very small probability) in a specified short period is find to follow poisson
distribution.
Some of such situation is;
(i)
The number of deaths such as snake bits, kick of horse etc during a day
in country
(ii) The number of painting mistakes on each page of a book published by a
good publisher
(iii) Number of wrong number telephone calls received in an office during a
day

Definition; 1.10
Exponential Distribution
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It is a distribution for a constant random variable.


A random variable X is said to follow this distribution if its probability density
function is given by

F(x) =

-x

, x0

0, otherwise

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Chapter-2
Queue Models
Meaning of queue or waiting line
Ordinarly, the line that forms in front of servicefacilities is called a
queue or a waiting line. A queue, thus involves arriving customers who wait to be
serviced at the facility which provide the serviced at they want to have the word
queue refers to waiting line. The idea about a queue may be expressed as,

Customers
Arrived

possible waiting
line or queue

getting
serviced

departure of
customers

But for queuing theory purpose it may be remembered that the queue need not
be a physical line of customers it may be a dispersed list of persons.
Eg: waiting list for a berth on a train or for a trunk telephone call. Such lists are as
real as physical queues.
The following are some of the instances where we generally come across
waiting line problem.

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Queuing theory is significant impact on the design of inventory and production


control systems.
Queuing situations commonly experienced are
(a) In banks
(b) Job waiting for processing by a computer
(c) employees waiting for promotion
(d) cars waiting for traffic lights to turn green
(e) doctors office, hospitals
(f) barbers shop
(g) telephone booths, or call arriving at a telephone switch
boards
(h) booking books stores, libraries
(i) automobiles repair shop, petrol pump etc
Components of a queuing system
Characteristic/ components of a queuing system

Arrivals

Customer in
Waiting for
Service

Input/arrival process

Units/units
In service

Service mechanism
Or patterns/ facility

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Units/unit
Departing
From system

output

Classification of queue and their problems


The mathematical description of a queue come be formulated by means
of a model expressed as A/B/S: (d/f) where
A : arrival pattern of the units, given by the probability distribution of inter
arrival time of units.
B : the probability distribution of servicing time of individuals being actually
served
S : the no; of servicing channels in the system
d : capacity of the system ie, the maximum no: of units the system can
accommodate at any time
f : the manner/ order in which the arriving units are taken into service
ie, FIFO/ LIFO/ SIRO/ Priority
The various queuing problems are related with
(i) Queue length : Number of persons in the system at anytime
(ii) Waitingline : It is the time up to which can unit has to wait before it is
taken in to service offer arriving at the servicing station. This is studied with
the help of waiting time distribution.
The waiting time depends on ;
(a) The number of units already there in the system
(b) The no: of servicing station in the system
(c) The schedule in which units are selected for service
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Servicing time: It is the time taken for servicing a particular arrival


Average length of line : The no: of customers in the queue per unit of time
Average idle time : The average time for which the system remains idle

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Queuing models are those where a facility performs a service. Most elementary
queuing models assume that the input/arrivals and output/ departures follow a birth
and death process. Any queuing model is characterised by situations where both
arrivals and departures take place simultaneously. Depending upon the nature of
input and service facilities, there can be a number of queuing models. Queuing
models can be broadly classified into three categories.
Queuing Models

Probabilistic

Deterministic

Mixed

Both arrival and


Service rates are
Some unknown
Random variables

Both arrival and


service rates are known
and fixed

Either of the
arrival and service
is unknown random
variable andother
known and fixed

Kendalls Notation for representing Queuing Models


Dg Kendall and later a Lee introduced useful notation for queuing model. The
complete notation can be expressed as (a/b/c), (d/e/f)
Where
a = arrival (or inter arrival) distribution
b = departure (or service time) distribution
c = number of parallel service channels in the system
d = service discipline
e = maximum number of customers allowed in the system
f = size of the calling source (finite or infinite) the standard notation for
representing the arrivals and departures distribution
M= Makovion or poisson arrivals or departure distribution
D = constant time
Ek=Erlang or gamma distribution
G1 =General distribution of inter arrival of time
G = general distribution of service time
FCFS = first comes, first served
LCFS = last come, first served
SIRO = service in Random order
GD = General discipline (any type of discipline)
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Classification of Queues
A queuing model is specified completly by the following six main
characteristic
(1) Input or arrival (inter arrival) distribution
(2) Output or departure (service) distribution
(3) Service channels
(4) Service discipline
(5) Maximum number of customers allowed in the system
(6)Calling source or population
(i) Input process

Input/ Arrival are characterised by

Nature of the arrivals

Capacity of the system

Balking

Size of arrivals

Finite population

Reneging

Customer behaviour

collusion

Jockeying

Arrival time distribution

Infinite population

constant

Random

Input implies the mode of arrival of customers at the service facility. The
number of customers emanated from finite or infinite source typically customers
arrive at the system randomly singly or in batches. The input process is characterised
by the nature of the arrivals, capacity of the system and behaviour of the system.
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(A)
The size of customers arriving for servicing depends on the nature of the
population which can be finite or infinite. From practical view point a
population is considered to be finite, if the probability of an arrival is greatly
changed when one member of the population is already receving service
The period between the arrival of the individual customers may be
constant or scattered in some fashion .most queuing models assume that the
same inter arrival time distribution applies for all customers throughout the
period of study. The most convenient way is to designate some random
variables corresponding to the times between arrivals. In genera lthe arrivals
follow poisson distribution when the total number of arrivals during any
given time interval is independent of the number of arrivals that have already
prior to the beginning of the time interval
(B)
In many system the capacity of the space where the arrivals have to wait
before taken into service is limited. In such cases where the length of waiting
line crocess a certain limit no further units/arrivals are permitted to enter the
system till some waiting space becomes vacant such queue systems are known
as systems with finite capacity and considerably affects the arrival pattern of
the system
Eg : a doctor may give appointment to fixed number of patients each day.
(C)
The human behaviour and the facilities of servicing in any system are
important factors for the development of queuing problem. The behaviour of
the customers behaviour can be classified in follow categories
(i)Balking : A customer may not like to join the queue being it very long and
be maynot like to wait
(ii) Reneging : He may leave the que due to impatience after joining it
(iii)Collusion : several customers may collaborate ang only one of them may
stand in the queue
(iv)Jockeying : If there are number of queues then one may leave one queue to
join another.

(2) service facility / mechanism


This means the arrangement of servers facility to serve the arriving customers.
Service time in waiting line problem is also a statistical variable and can be studied
either as the number of services completed is a given period of time are alternately
A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

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the completion time of service. Service mechanism of any system mainly determined
by :

Service machanism

Service facility design

Single channel

Queue/ service discipline

Multi channel
FIFO/ FCFS FIFO/LCFS SIRO

Single phase Multi phase


Single phase

Priority
queue

Multi phase

(A) Service facility design : The facilities at the service station can be divided in two
main categories
(i) Single channel (ii) Multi channel
(i) single channel queue : there may be only one counter for servicing and as such
only one unit can be served at a time . the next unit can be taken into service. When
the servicing operations on the previous unit are completed. The single channel queue
can be divided in two types.
(a) Single phase

(b) Multi phase

In a single phase queue the whole service operations are completed in one
stage
(a) Single channel single phase queue
Input

Arrivals for
Service

Queue

Arrivals
Waiting for
Service

Service

One item
Being
served

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Output

Departure

(b) Single channel multi phasequeue :- Here the unit taken for service has to pass
through many stage before the unit goes out of all servicing channel. All the
phases of service arranged in a ordered sequence
Single channel K phases arranged in series
Queue

Service I

Service IIService K Departure

(ii) Multi channel :- Due to rush of customers. Management may decide to provide a
number of service counters so that queue length may not become unreasonably large
and organisation may not loose customers due to long queue. But too many counters
may result in long idle time of counters due to shortage of customers.
(a) Multi channel Queue discipline with single phase:-

Input

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Output

Departure

(b) A mixed arrangement of servicing facilities arranged in parallel and series


can be termed as multi channelmulti phase queue discipline. Here the servicing of
any unit taken into service is completed into a number of stages arranged in series.
eg: severall ticket counters in cinema may send all customers to one ticket collector
and 74vice- versa

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Queue

Service
Queue

Input

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Service
output

Queue

Service

B] queue/ service Discipline : Queue Discipline identifies the order in which arrivals
in the system are taken into service. The Queue discipline does not always take into
account the order of arrivals. Various methods are available to solve queuing
problems under different queuing but most of these introduce complications in the
analysis. The most common discipline in First in First out( FIFO) or first come first
served. Here the customers are serviced strictly in the order of their journey the
system.
eg: Queues at booking stations
The Last Come First Served[LCFS] or Last In First Out[LIFO] system is one
where the item arriving last are first go into service.
eg: In big stores the items arriving last are issued first.
Similarly in elevators passenger entering last may stand near the gate and thus
may leave first.
Service In Random Order[SIRO] rule implies that arrivals are taken in service
randomly irrespective of the order of their arrivals in the system. Here the server
chooses one of the customers to offer service at random.

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Eg: In a government office processing of papers often takes place in an indiscrimate


order. These discipline are useful in allocation the shares of applicants by a company.
Sometimes SIRO is the only alternative to assign service as it may not possible to
identify the order of arrivals.
Priority Disciplines are those where any arrivals if choosen for service ahead of some
other customers already is queue in the case of pre-emptive priority the preference
to any arriving unit is so high that the unit already in service. A non pre- emptive rule
of priority is on where an arrival with low priority is given preference for service
than a high priority item.
Queuing models are used to explain the descriptive behaviour of queuing
system. These quantifies the effect of decision variables on the expected waiting time
and waiting length as well as generate waiting cost and service cost information. The
various system can be evaluated through these aspects and the system which offers
the minimum total cost is selected.
The following are the steps in the evaluation of various queuing system
A: List of alternate queuing system.
B: Evaluate the systems in terms of various time, length and costs.
C: Select the best queuing system.
Here a change in any component/characteristic of a system generates a new
system.

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eg: Variation in service facility with regard to number of service channels, service
rate and the number of service facilities will lead to a new queuing system.
Queuing models measure the effect of uncertainity on the behaviour of the Queuing
system
The solution of a queing problem consist in selective the best compramise for
the function which can be controled.

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Chapter-3
M|M|1:(|FIFO) Model

M|M|1:(|FIFO) ie, a system with poisson input, exponential waiting time and
poisson output. With single channel. Queue capacity of system being infinite with
first out mode.
Here first M in the notation stands for poisson input
2nd M in the notation stands for poisson output.
1 in the notation stands for number of channel.
in the notation stands for infinite capacity.
FIFO in the notation stands for First in First out.

Situations
There are so many queue which follows this model some of such situations
are;
(i) Arrivals at a telephone both with a given time between two arrivals.
(ii)Arrivals of train in the platform with FIFO
(iii) Arrivals in booking situation such as railway, bus station etc
(iv) Arrivals of patients in the clinic.

Let there be n units in the system including the one in service at any time.
Ie, the queue length is n at time t with probability Pn(t). since the output
distributin is poisson, the chance that a unit arrives in the system during the interval
(t,t+t) is
n t=0(t)2

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Similarly, the chance that any unit leaves the system during this interval will be n
t+0(t)2, because the output distribution is also poisson. The chance that more than
one unit arrive or leaves the system during the interval (t, t+t) will be of order
0(t)2. Events with probabilities involving (t)2 cannot happen.
Let the system be in a state En at time (t+t) with probability pn(t+t). Then
there can be following three possibilities the interval (t,t+t).
(i) System is in the state En-1 at time t and one unit arrives in the interval t and no
units leaves during this period.
Probability for this event=
(probability that there are n-1 units at time t) x probability (onr unit
arrives during the time t)
= Pn-1(t)+ n-1t x (1-n-1t)

(1)

(ii) System is in the state En at time t and no unit arrives and no unit leaves the
system during the interval t
Probability of this event=
Probability (there are n units at time t) x
Probabiliy (no unit arrives in time t) x
Probability (no unit leaves in time t)
= Pn(t) (1-nt) x (1-nt)

(2)

(iii) the system is in the state En+1 at time t and no unit arrives in time t, but
one unit leaves the system after the competition of service.

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Probability for this event = Probability (there are n+1 units at time t) x(Probabiliy
that no unit arrives in time t) x(Probability that
one unit leaves in time t)
= Pn+1(t) (1-n+1t) (n+1t)

(3)

Naturally all these 3 cases are mutually exclusive. Hence the probability that
the system is in state En at time t+t will be equal to the sum of the probabilities in
these 3 cases and Hence
Pn(t+t)=Pn-1(t)n-1t(1-nt)+Pn(t)(1-nt)(1-nt)+ Pn-1(t)( 1-nt) n+1t
= Pn-1(t)n-1t+ Pn(t)- Pn(t)[ n+n] t+ Pn+1(t) n+t[neglecting terms of
2

order (t) ]
Pn(t+t)- Pn(t)= Pn-1(t) n-1t-(n+n) Pn(t)t+ Pn-1(t) n+1t
ie,

P n ( t+ t ) P n (t)
t

ie, lim

= Pn-1(t)n-1 -(n+n) Pn(t)+ Pn+1(t) n+1

P n ( t+ t ) P n (t)
=Pn(t)=Pn-1(t)n-1 -(n+n) Pn(t)+ Pn+1(t) n+1 ----(4)
t

The equation hold only for n>0


For n=0,the Ist case (i) will not hold good

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Now,
P0(t+t)= [(Probability that no units arrives int) x
(Probabiliy that there was no unit at time t)] +
[(Probability that there was one unit at time t ) x
Probability that one unit leaves but no unit arrives
in the timet)]
= P0(t) (1-0t) + P1(t) (1-1t) -1 t
= P0(t) -0 P0(t) t+ P1(t)1 t+ terms of 0(t)2
P10(t) = -0 P0(t)+ P1(t) 1...........................................(5)
Now, when the system reaches the steady state then we have,
t

lim

Pn(t)= Pn, andlim


t

P1n(t)= 0

(6)

Also let n = , -n =
Hense under steady state of the system ,(4) and (5) reduce to
Pn-1-(+) Pn+ Pn+1 =0 .............................................(7)
P10 = - P0+ P1 =0
And : P1=(/) P0 = P0, where = (/) ..............................(8)
Now, from (7), Pn+1 = (+)Pn- Pn+1
Ie, Pn+1 = (/+1 ) Pn - / Pn-1= (+1) Pn-Pn+1
Putting n=-1,2,3 successively in the above relation

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We get P2= (+1) P1-P0 = (+1) P0-P0 = 2 P0


P3= (+1) P2-2P0 = 3 P0 [from (8)]
Now assuming the result to be true for Pn, we shall show that
Pn+1= n+1 P0
Suppose Pr - r P0

for all r n .........................(9)

Now, we have
Pn+1= (+1) Pn-Pn-1= (+1) nPo-n-1 P0
=(+1) nPo-nPo
= nPo(+1-1)
=n+1 P0

Hence the result (9) is true universally

But

Pn
n=0

=1 ;

n=0

nPo = 1

or, Po[1++2+............]=1
1

or, Po [ 1 ]=1 (the sum is possible only)


when <1 ie, (>)
Po =(1-) ...................................................(10 a)
Or putting this value of Po in equ (9) , we get
Pn = (1-) Pn ..............................................(10 b)
Which is the probability that at any time there are n units in the queue
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Now n is a random variable probabilities are given by (10), which is a geometrical


distribution.
In eqn (8) the symbol =/ is known as Traffic Intensity or Utilisation factor of
the M|M|1 system
Traffic intensity

Meanarrivalrate
Meanservicer

The unit of is trlang. Any queuing system can settle down in a steady state only
when <1 ie,
<
can also be written as

1 /
1 /

Meanservicetime
Meaninterarrivaltime

If >1, then the queue length will go in increasing and will tend towards infinity
with time.
To show that average number of units in a M|M|1 system is equal to (1-)
E(n)= Average queue length in the system

n n
=
P
n=0

P0 n
n=0

= P0[+22+..........+nn+.......] [from (9)]


= (1-) (1+2+32=..........)
= (1-) (1-)-2 using binomial Theorem
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..........................................(11)

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Now in a queue of leength n, with one servicing channel waiting length.


ie, the number of unit waiting for service (one unit already being in service ) will be
n-1 = L (say)

Evidently L will also be randomvariable having the same probability distribution


or that of n.
Example 1:
There is congestion on the platform of a railway station. The trains arrive at the rate
of 30 trains per day. The waiting time for any train to hump is exponentially
distributed with an average of 36 minites. Calculate the queue size ?
Solution:
Here

1/=

6024
30

= 48 minites

1/= 36 minites
ie, =(/) = 0.75
The mean queue size,
E(n) =

0.75

= 300.25
=

3trains

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To show that average length of the waiting line is 2/1-


n
(1)

E(L) =

Pn (here n cannot be equal to zero because in that case waiting line

n=0

length will be negative, which cannot happen)

Pn -

n=0

n=1

E(n)-

P
n=1

P
1 n=1

n+ P0[since E(n) =

= 1 1+(1) (as

2
1

P
n=0

=1)

........................................(12)

Example . 2 :
Let an average 96 patients per 24 hour day require the service of an emergancy clinic.
Also an average, a patient requires 10 minites of active attention. Assume that the
facility can handle only one emergancy at a time. Suppose that it costs the clinic Rs.
100 per patient treated to obtain an average servicing time of 10 minutes and that
each minute od decrease in this average time would cost Rs. 10 per patient treated.
How much have to be budgeted by the clinic to decrease the average size of the
queue from one third patient to half a patient?

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

33

Solution:
Here we have =

96
24

= 4 patients/ hour

= (1/10)*60 = 6 patients / hour


Average number of units in the waiting line = E(L)
2
= 1
4/9
= 1( 2 )
3
4

= 3

Now we want that E(L)=

1
2

To show that average length of the waiting line with the condition that it is always
greater than zero is (1/1-)
E(L/L>0) =
E( L)
= P(n>1)

E (L)
P(0)

[ waiting line L>0

n>1 ]

= 1

P
n=2

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34

2
= 1

( 2 P 0+ + )
1

3P 0

1
2
P0

1
P0

E[L|L>0] = 1

.........................................(13)

To show that varience of the queue length is [ / 1-2 ]


By definition
Vn= E(n2) [E(n)]2

But E(n2)=

n
n=0

Pn

n
n=0

P0n [ since Pn = P0n]

= P0[12P+22P2+32P2+................... terms]
= P0[12+222+322+........]
Let

= 1+22P+32P3+.............................

Integrating with respect to within the limits o to , we get

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

35

. dp

= +22+32+........

= [1+2+32.....]
= (1-)-2
Differentiating w.r.t, we get
1
(1)2

2
(1)3

(1)+2 P
= (1)3

(1+ )
(1)3
(1+ P)

E(n2) = (1-) ( 1)3

(1+ )
(1)2

Putting the values of E(n)2 and (E(n))2 we get


V(n) =
2

+
2
(1)

V (n) =

(1+ )
(1)2

2
- (1)2

2
(1) ...........................(14)

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

36

Some important results of M|M|1 :|FIFO Steady State System

Average number of arrivals / unit of time

Average number of units served ?unit of time.

= /

Traffic intensity.

P0 =(1- )

Probability that system is empty.

Pn = n P0

Probability that there are n unit in the system.

E(n) = 1

Average no of units in the system.

E(L) = 1

Average number of units in the waiting

line.
1

E(L/L>0) = 1

Average waiting length

V(n) = (1)2

Average length of waiting line with the

condition that it is always greater than zero


P(w)dw= (1-)e-w(1-) :

Probability distribution of waiting time.

P(w>0) =
P(w/w>0) = (1-) e-w(1-)dw
P(v)dv = (1-) e-w(1-) dw :
system.

E(w) = (1)

V is the total time an arrival spends in the

Average waiting time of an arrival in queue

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

37

1
E(v) = (1)

Average time an arrival spends in the system

1
E(w/w>o) = = (1)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Balmohan V Limaye , 1996 Functional Analysis, Second Edition, New age


International Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi
M. Thambannair, 2002 Functional Analysis, A first course, prentice Hall of
india Private Ltd., NewDelhi.
J.N Sharma and A.R Vasishtha, 1982- Functional Analysis, first Edition
Krishna PrakashanMandir, Meerut (India).
I.J Maddox, 1970- Elements of Functional Analysis, Second Edition,
Cambridge University Press.
Mohan.C.Joshi and Ramendra. K. Bose, 1985- Some Topics In Nonlinear
Functional Analysis, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi .

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38