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You are on page 1of 38

UNDER CBCSS

2012-2015

Dissertation Submitted to the University of Kerala

By

Candidate Code

ANITHA ALEXANDER

ANUJA JOPPAN

22012126006

22012126003

MERIN.M

RESHMI.J.S

:22012126030

Subject Code

22012126026

:

Exam code:

Subject:

Mathematics

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

ST.GREGORIOS COLLEGE

KOTTARAKKARA

MARCH -2015

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

CERTIFICATE

I here bycertify that this dissertation is a bonafide record of work carried out by

Anitha Alexander , AnujaJoppan , Merin.M ,Reshmi.J.S inMathematics

(CBCSS 2012-2015) of this college under our supervision in partial

fulfilmentthe requirements for B.Sc Degreein Mathematics of University of

Kerala.

Headof thedepartment

Mathematics

St.Gregorios College

Kottarakara

Mrs.BEENA G P

Professor In-Charge

Department of Mathematics

St.Gregorios College

Kottarakara

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Department of Mathematics,St.GregoriosCollege,Kottarakara, University of

Kerala.My gratitude towards her is beyond words for her inspiring

guidance,constant encouragement and relative criticism.I also wish to express

my profound thanks to Mr.JACOB VARGHESE VADAKADAM,Head of

department and all other teachers of Mathematics Department for their constant

help throughout the course of this work.

Place:Kottarakara

ANITHA ALEXANDER

Date

ANUJA JOPPAN

MERIN.M

RESHMI.J.S

DECLARATION

partial requirement of degree Bachelor of Science Mathematics, University of Kerala

is an authentic record of the work carried out by

Anitha Alexander,Anujajoppan,

Merin.M, Reshmi.J.Sand that no part thereof has been presented for any other

Degree.

ANITHA ALEXANDER

22012126003

ANUJA JOPPAN

22012126006

MERIN.M

22012126026

RESHMI.J.S

22012126030

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. PRELIMINARIES

3. QUEUE MODELS

4. M|M|1:(/FIFO) MODEL

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Science. The word

corresponding to science means a field of knowledge.

Queues or waiting lines are very common in every life we quite often face the

problem of long queues for a bus, a movie ticket and for various other situations.

Long queues are generally seen infront of railway booking offices, post offices and

bank counters particularly in large cities similarly we also find automobiles waiting

at service station, ships waiting for berths, airplanes waiting for landing and patients

waiting for doctors. Queues are thus, a very common phenomenon of modern

civilized life.

Here we discuss about the important models and examples of queuing theory.

The dissertion divided into three chapters. In chapter one, we collect some basic

definitions in queuing theory which we needed in the project.

The second chapter deals with queue models, definitions classification and

some important examples of queuing theory.

The third chapter deals with a queue model M/M/l :( /FIFO). Here we derive

equations and important examples related to this topic.

Chapter-1

PRELIMINARIES

DEFINITION1.1

Random Experiment

An experiment whose outcome cannot be predicted is called random

experiment

Eg: 1.1

Tossing a coin is a random experiment whose outcomes are Head and Tail

which could not be predicted

Eg: 1.2

Throwing of a die is a similar case whose possible outcomes are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6

DEFINITION1.2

Sample space

The set of outcomes of a random experiment is known as sample space(s)

In tossing of a coin s= {Head, Tail}

In tossing of a die s= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Definition:1.3

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

Events

In a random experiment the subsets of sample space is known as event or

cases. In such students null set is called impossible events and same set is called

sure event. Single ten subsets are called elementary events and others are composte

event.

Eg: 1.3

In a bag with 7 blue and 5 green balls the prohability of selecting a green ball

is 5/12 and that of a blue ball is 7/12

Definition 1.4

Random variable

If the numerical values assumed by a variable are the result of some chance

factors, so that a particular value cannot be exactly predicted in advance the variable

is then called a random variable. It is also called chance variable or stochastic

variable.

Eg: 1.4

If a coin is tossed thrice,let the random variable X: number of Heads. The X

can take the values 0, 1, 2 and 3

Definition: 1.5

Descrete and continuous random variable

Adescrete random variable is one which can assume only isolated values

such as natural numbers

Eg : 1.4 is such a case

A continuous randomvariablein one which can assume any value with in an

interval ie, all values of continuous scale. For example,

(i)

The weights of a group of individuals

(ii) The height of a giving of individuals are all continuous

Definition : 1.6

Probability distribution

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

n

X

X1

P(X)

P1

X2

P2

Xn

Pn

Pi=1 , then

i=1

Is called probability distribution for X and 1 spells out how a total probability of 1 is

distributed over several values of a random variable.

Eg: 1.7

In tossing of 2 coins at a time, the random variable X=no: of heads then its

probabilities is

X

0

P(X)

2/4

P(X)

Definition : 1.8

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

10

Theoretical Distributions

Frequency distribution can be classified under two heads

(i)

Observed

(ii) Expected (Theoretical)

The first case is based on actual observation and experimentation. If certain

hypothesis is assumed, it is sometimes possible to derive mathematically what the

frequency distribution of certain universe should be such distribution are called

theoretical distribution

There are many type of theoretical distributions but we shall consider only two

which are taken into consider here

(i)

Poissons Distribution

(ii) Exponential Distribution

Definition: 1.9

Poissons Distribution

It is a discrete distribution; random variable X is said to follow the

poissons distribution if its probability density function is,

- x

x!

Zero

otherwise

In general, it is seen that the number of occurrences of rare event (exact with

very small probability) in a specified short period is find to follow poisson

distribution.

Some of such situation is;

(i)

The number of deaths such as snake bits, kick of horse etc during a day

in country

(ii) The number of painting mistakes on each page of a book published by a

good publisher

(iii) Number of wrong number telephone calls received in an office during a

day

Definition; 1.10

Exponential Distribution

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

11

A random variable X is said to follow this distribution if its probability density

function is given by

F(x) =

-x

, x0

0, otherwise

12

Chapter-2

Queue Models

Meaning of queue or waiting line

Ordinarly, the line that forms in front of servicefacilities is called a

queue or a waiting line. A queue, thus involves arriving customers who wait to be

serviced at the facility which provide the serviced at they want to have the word

queue refers to waiting line. The idea about a queue may be expressed as,

Customers

Arrived

possible waiting

line or queue

getting

serviced

departure of

customers

But for queuing theory purpose it may be remembered that the queue need not

be a physical line of customers it may be a dispersed list of persons.

Eg: waiting list for a berth on a train or for a trunk telephone call. Such lists are as

real as physical queues.

The following are some of the instances where we generally come across

waiting line problem.

13

control systems.

Queuing situations commonly experienced are

(a) In banks

(b) Job waiting for processing by a computer

(c) employees waiting for promotion

(d) cars waiting for traffic lights to turn green

(e) doctors office, hospitals

(f) barbers shop

(g) telephone booths, or call arriving at a telephone switch

boards

(h) booking books stores, libraries

(i) automobiles repair shop, petrol pump etc

Components of a queuing system

Characteristic/ components of a queuing system

Arrivals

Customer in

Waiting for

Service

Input/arrival process

Units/units

In service

Service mechanism

Or patterns/ facility

14

Units/unit

Departing

From system

output

The mathematical description of a queue come be formulated by means

of a model expressed as A/B/S: (d/f) where

A : arrival pattern of the units, given by the probability distribution of inter

arrival time of units.

B : the probability distribution of servicing time of individuals being actually

served

S : the no; of servicing channels in the system

d : capacity of the system ie, the maximum no: of units the system can

accommodate at any time

f : the manner/ order in which the arriving units are taken into service

ie, FIFO/ LIFO/ SIRO/ Priority

The various queuing problems are related with

(i) Queue length : Number of persons in the system at anytime

(ii) Waitingline : It is the time up to which can unit has to wait before it is

taken in to service offer arriving at the servicing station. This is studied with

the help of waiting time distribution.

The waiting time depends on ;

(a) The number of units already there in the system

(b) The no: of servicing station in the system

(c) The schedule in which units are selected for service

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Average length of line : The no: of customers in the queue per unit of time

Average idle time : The average time for which the system remains idle

15

Queuing models are those where a facility performs a service. Most elementary

queuing models assume that the input/arrivals and output/ departures follow a birth

and death process. Any queuing model is characterised by situations where both

arrivals and departures take place simultaneously. Depending upon the nature of

input and service facilities, there can be a number of queuing models. Queuing

models can be broadly classified into three categories.

Queuing Models

Probabilistic

Deterministic

Mixed

Service rates are

Some unknown

Random variables

service rates are known

and fixed

Either of the

arrival and service

is unknown random

variable andother

known and fixed

Dg Kendall and later a Lee introduced useful notation for queuing model. The

complete notation can be expressed as (a/b/c), (d/e/f)

Where

a = arrival (or inter arrival) distribution

b = departure (or service time) distribution

c = number of parallel service channels in the system

d = service discipline

e = maximum number of customers allowed in the system

f = size of the calling source (finite or infinite) the standard notation for

representing the arrivals and departures distribution

M= Makovion or poisson arrivals or departure distribution

D = constant time

Ek=Erlang or gamma distribution

G1 =General distribution of inter arrival of time

G = general distribution of service time

FCFS = first comes, first served

LCFS = last come, first served

SIRO = service in Random order

GD = General discipline (any type of discipline)

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

16

Classification of Queues

A queuing model is specified completly by the following six main

characteristic

(1) Input or arrival (inter arrival) distribution

(2) Output or departure (service) distribution

(3) Service channels

(4) Service discipline

(5) Maximum number of customers allowed in the system

(6)Calling source or population

(i) Input process

Balking

Size of arrivals

Finite population

Reneging

Customer behaviour

collusion

Jockeying

Infinite population

constant

Random

Input implies the mode of arrival of customers at the service facility. The

number of customers emanated from finite or infinite source typically customers

arrive at the system randomly singly or in batches. The input process is characterised

by the nature of the arrivals, capacity of the system and behaviour of the system.

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

17

(A)

The size of customers arriving for servicing depends on the nature of the

population which can be finite or infinite. From practical view point a

population is considered to be finite, if the probability of an arrival is greatly

changed when one member of the population is already receving service

The period between the arrival of the individual customers may be

constant or scattered in some fashion .most queuing models assume that the

same inter arrival time distribution applies for all customers throughout the

period of study. The most convenient way is to designate some random

variables corresponding to the times between arrivals. In genera lthe arrivals

follow poisson distribution when the total number of arrivals during any

given time interval is independent of the number of arrivals that have already

prior to the beginning of the time interval

(B)

In many system the capacity of the space where the arrivals have to wait

before taken into service is limited. In such cases where the length of waiting

line crocess a certain limit no further units/arrivals are permitted to enter the

system till some waiting space becomes vacant such queue systems are known

as systems with finite capacity and considerably affects the arrival pattern of

the system

Eg : a doctor may give appointment to fixed number of patients each day.

(C)

The human behaviour and the facilities of servicing in any system are

important factors for the development of queuing problem. The behaviour of

the customers behaviour can be classified in follow categories

(i)Balking : A customer may not like to join the queue being it very long and

be maynot like to wait

(ii) Reneging : He may leave the que due to impatience after joining it

(iii)Collusion : several customers may collaborate ang only one of them may

stand in the queue

(iv)Jockeying : If there are number of queues then one may leave one queue to

join another.

This means the arrangement of servers facility to serve the arriving customers.

Service time in waiting line problem is also a statistical variable and can be studied

either as the number of services completed is a given period of time are alternately

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

18

the completion time of service. Service mechanism of any system mainly determined

by :

Service machanism

Single channel

Multi channel

FIFO/ FCFS FIFO/LCFS SIRO

Single phase

Priority

queue

Multi phase

(A) Service facility design : The facilities at the service station can be divided in two

main categories

(i) Single channel (ii) Multi channel

(i) single channel queue : there may be only one counter for servicing and as such

only one unit can be served at a time . the next unit can be taken into service. When

the servicing operations on the previous unit are completed. The single channel queue

can be divided in two types.

(a) Single phase

In a single phase queue the whole service operations are completed in one

stage

(a) Single channel single phase queue

Input

Arrivals for

Service

Queue

Arrivals

Waiting for

Service

Service

One item

Being

served

19

Output

Departure

(b) Single channel multi phasequeue :- Here the unit taken for service has to pass

through many stage before the unit goes out of all servicing channel. All the

phases of service arranged in a ordered sequence

Single channel K phases arranged in series

Queue

Service I

(ii) Multi channel :- Due to rush of customers. Management may decide to provide a

number of service counters so that queue length may not become unreasonably large

and organisation may not loose customers due to long queue. But too many counters

may result in long idle time of counters due to shortage of customers.

(a) Multi channel Queue discipline with single phase:-

Input

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Output

Departure

can be termed as multi channelmulti phase queue discipline. Here the servicing of

any unit taken into service is completed into a number of stages arranged in series.

eg: severall ticket counters in cinema may send all customers to one ticket collector

and 74vice- versa

20

Queue

Service

Queue

Input

Queue

Service

Queue

Service

Service

output

Queue

Service

B] queue/ service Discipline : Queue Discipline identifies the order in which arrivals

in the system are taken into service. The Queue discipline does not always take into

account the order of arrivals. Various methods are available to solve queuing

problems under different queuing but most of these introduce complications in the

analysis. The most common discipline in First in First out( FIFO) or first come first

served. Here the customers are serviced strictly in the order of their journey the

system.

eg: Queues at booking stations

The Last Come First Served[LCFS] or Last In First Out[LIFO] system is one

where the item arriving last are first go into service.

eg: In big stores the items arriving last are issued first.

Similarly in elevators passenger entering last may stand near the gate and thus

may leave first.

Service In Random Order[SIRO] rule implies that arrivals are taken in service

randomly irrespective of the order of their arrivals in the system. Here the server

chooses one of the customers to offer service at random.

21

order. These discipline are useful in allocation the shares of applicants by a company.

Sometimes SIRO is the only alternative to assign service as it may not possible to

identify the order of arrivals.

Priority Disciplines are those where any arrivals if choosen for service ahead of some

other customers already is queue in the case of pre-emptive priority the preference

to any arriving unit is so high that the unit already in service. A non pre- emptive rule

of priority is on where an arrival with low priority is given preference for service

than a high priority item.

Queuing models are used to explain the descriptive behaviour of queuing

system. These quantifies the effect of decision variables on the expected waiting time

and waiting length as well as generate waiting cost and service cost information. The

various system can be evaluated through these aspects and the system which offers

the minimum total cost is selected.

The following are the steps in the evaluation of various queuing system

A: List of alternate queuing system.

B: Evaluate the systems in terms of various time, length and costs.

C: Select the best queuing system.

Here a change in any component/characteristic of a system generates a new

system.

22

eg: Variation in service facility with regard to number of service channels, service

rate and the number of service facilities will lead to a new queuing system.

Queuing models measure the effect of uncertainity on the behaviour of the Queuing

system

The solution of a queing problem consist in selective the best compramise for

the function which can be controled.

23

Chapter-3

M|M|1:(|FIFO) Model

M|M|1:(|FIFO) ie, a system with poisson input, exponential waiting time and

poisson output. With single channel. Queue capacity of system being infinite with

first out mode.

Here first M in the notation stands for poisson input

2nd M in the notation stands for poisson output.

1 in the notation stands for number of channel.

in the notation stands for infinite capacity.

FIFO in the notation stands for First in First out.

Situations

There are so many queue which follows this model some of such situations

are;

(i) Arrivals at a telephone both with a given time between two arrivals.

(ii)Arrivals of train in the platform with FIFO

(iii) Arrivals in booking situation such as railway, bus station etc

(iv) Arrivals of patients in the clinic.

Let there be n units in the system including the one in service at any time.

Ie, the queue length is n at time t with probability Pn(t). since the output

distributin is poisson, the chance that a unit arrives in the system during the interval

(t,t+t) is

n t=0(t)2

24

Similarly, the chance that any unit leaves the system during this interval will be n

t+0(t)2, because the output distribution is also poisson. The chance that more than

one unit arrive or leaves the system during the interval (t, t+t) will be of order

0(t)2. Events with probabilities involving (t)2 cannot happen.

Let the system be in a state En at time (t+t) with probability pn(t+t). Then

there can be following three possibilities the interval (t,t+t).

(i) System is in the state En-1 at time t and one unit arrives in the interval t and no

units leaves during this period.

Probability for this event=

(probability that there are n-1 units at time t) x probability (onr unit

arrives during the time t)

= Pn-1(t)+ n-1t x (1-n-1t)

(1)

(ii) System is in the state En at time t and no unit arrives and no unit leaves the

system during the interval t

Probability of this event=

Probability (there are n units at time t) x

Probabiliy (no unit arrives in time t) x

Probability (no unit leaves in time t)

= Pn(t) (1-nt) x (1-nt)

(2)

(iii) the system is in the state En+1 at time t and no unit arrives in time t, but

one unit leaves the system after the competition of service.

25

Probability for this event = Probability (there are n+1 units at time t) x(Probabiliy

that no unit arrives in time t) x(Probability that

one unit leaves in time t)

= Pn+1(t) (1-n+1t) (n+1t)

(3)

Naturally all these 3 cases are mutually exclusive. Hence the probability that

the system is in state En at time t+t will be equal to the sum of the probabilities in

these 3 cases and Hence

Pn(t+t)=Pn-1(t)n-1t(1-nt)+Pn(t)(1-nt)(1-nt)+ Pn-1(t)( 1-nt) n+1t

= Pn-1(t)n-1t+ Pn(t)- Pn(t)[ n+n] t+ Pn+1(t) n+t[neglecting terms of

2

order (t) ]

Pn(t+t)- Pn(t)= Pn-1(t) n-1t-(n+n) Pn(t)t+ Pn-1(t) n+1t

ie,

P n ( t+ t ) P n (t)

t

ie, lim

P n ( t+ t ) P n (t)

=Pn(t)=Pn-1(t)n-1 -(n+n) Pn(t)+ Pn+1(t) n+1 ----(4)

t

For n=0,the Ist case (i) will not hold good

26

Now,

P0(t+t)= [(Probability that no units arrives int) x

(Probabiliy that there was no unit at time t)] +

[(Probability that there was one unit at time t ) x

Probability that one unit leaves but no unit arrives

in the timet)]

= P0(t) (1-0t) + P1(t) (1-1t) -1 t

= P0(t) -0 P0(t) t+ P1(t)1 t+ terms of 0(t)2

P10(t) = -0 P0(t)+ P1(t) 1...........................................(5)

Now, when the system reaches the steady state then we have,

t

lim

t

P1n(t)= 0

(6)

Also let n = , -n =

Hense under steady state of the system ,(4) and (5) reduce to

Pn-1-(+) Pn+ Pn+1 =0 .............................................(7)

P10 = - P0+ P1 =0

And : P1=(/) P0 = P0, where = (/) ..............................(8)

Now, from (7), Pn+1 = (+)Pn- Pn+1

Ie, Pn+1 = (/+1 ) Pn - / Pn-1= (+1) Pn-Pn+1

Putting n=-1,2,3 successively in the above relation

27

P3= (+1) P2-2P0 = 3 P0 [from (8)]

Now assuming the result to be true for Pn, we shall show that

Pn+1= n+1 P0

Suppose Pr - r P0

Now, we have

Pn+1= (+1) Pn-Pn-1= (+1) nPo-n-1 P0

=(+1) nPo-nPo

= nPo(+1-1)

=n+1 P0

But

Pn

n=0

=1 ;

n=0

nPo = 1

or, Po[1++2+............]=1

1

when <1 ie, (>)

Po =(1-) ...................................................(10 a)

Or putting this value of Po in equ (9) , we get

Pn = (1-) Pn ..............................................(10 b)

Which is the probability that at any time there are n units in the queue

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

28

29

distribution.

In eqn (8) the symbol =/ is known as Traffic Intensity or Utilisation factor of

the M|M|1 system

Traffic intensity

Meanarrivalrate

Meanservicer

The unit of is trlang. Any queuing system can settle down in a steady state only

when <1 ie,

<

can also be written as

1 /

1 /

Meanservicetime

Meaninterarrivaltime

If >1, then the queue length will go in increasing and will tend towards infinity

with time.

To show that average number of units in a M|M|1 system is equal to (1-)

E(n)= Average queue length in the system

n n

=

P

n=0

P0 n

n=0

= (1-) (1+2+32=..........)

= (1-) (1-)-2 using binomial Theorem

A STUDY ON QUEEING THEORY

30

..........................................(11)

31

ie, the number of unit waiting for service (one unit already being in service ) will be

n-1 = L (say)

or that of n.

Example 1:

There is congestion on the platform of a railway station. The trains arrive at the rate

of 30 trains per day. The waiting time for any train to hump is exponentially

distributed with an average of 36 minites. Calculate the queue size ?

Solution:

Here

1/=

6024

30

= 48 minites

1/= 36 minites

ie, =(/) = 0.75

The mean queue size,

E(n) =

0.75

= 300.25

=

3trains

32

n

(1)

E(L) =

n=0

Pn -

n=0

n=1

E(n)-

P

n=1

P

1 n=1

n+ P0[since E(n) =

= 1 1+(1) (as

2

1

P

n=0

=1)

........................................(12)

Example . 2 :

Let an average 96 patients per 24 hour day require the service of an emergancy clinic.

Also an average, a patient requires 10 minites of active attention. Assume that the

facility can handle only one emergancy at a time. Suppose that it costs the clinic Rs.

100 per patient treated to obtain an average servicing time of 10 minutes and that

each minute od decrease in this average time would cost Rs. 10 per patient treated.

How much have to be budgeted by the clinic to decrease the average size of the

queue from one third patient to half a patient?

33

Solution:

Here we have =

96

24

= 4 patients/ hour

Average number of units in the waiting line = E(L)

2

= 1

4/9

= 1( 2 )

3

4

= 3

1

2

To show that average length of the waiting line with the condition that it is always

greater than zero is (1/1-)

E(L/L>0) =

E( L)

= P(n>1)

E (L)

P(0)

n>1 ]

= 1

P

n=2

34

2

= 1

( 2 P 0+ + )

1

3P 0

1

2

P0

1

P0

E[L|L>0] = 1

.........................................(13)

By definition

Vn= E(n2) [E(n)]2

But E(n2)=

n

n=0

Pn

n

n=0

= P0[12P+22P2+32P2+................... terms]

= P0[12+222+322+........]

Let

= 1+22P+32P3+.............................

35

. dp

= +22+32+........

= [1+2+32.....]

= (1-)-2

Differentiating w.r.t, we get

1

(1)2

2

(1)3

(1)+2 P

= (1)3

(1+ )

(1)3

(1+ P)

(1+ )

(1)2

V(n) =

2

+

2

(1)

V (n) =

(1+ )

(1)2

2

- (1)2

2

(1) ...........................(14)

36

= /

Traffic intensity.

P0 =(1- )

Pn = n P0

E(n) = 1

E(L) = 1

line.

1

E(L/L>0) = 1

V(n) = (1)2

P(w)dw= (1-)e-w(1-) :

P(w>0) =

P(w/w>0) = (1-) e-w(1-)dw

P(v)dv = (1-) e-w(1-) dw :

system.

E(w) = (1)

37

1

E(v) = (1)

1

E(w/w>o) = = (1)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

International Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi

M. Thambannair, 2002 Functional Analysis, A first course, prentice Hall of

india Private Ltd., NewDelhi.

J.N Sharma and A.R Vasishtha, 1982- Functional Analysis, first Edition

Krishna PrakashanMandir, Meerut (India).

I.J Maddox, 1970- Elements of Functional Analysis, Second Edition,

Cambridge University Press.

Mohan.C.Joshi and Ramendra. K. Bose, 1985- Some Topics In Nonlinear

Functional Analysis, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi .

38

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