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time of death he asked to be bathed and dressed in clean clothing, following which he sat up facing west, entered into meditative concentration, and
died. Purple clouds hovered overhead, and people came running to witness
his demise. These are all familiar events in the description of the death of a
Buddhist saint in East Asia.
The portrait sculpture of Eison was transported to the cremation grounds
during his funerary rites and, following the cremation, was returned to his
living quarrers at Saidaiji; there, a nun assigned to the task made daily offerings to it. T. Griffith Foulk and Robert H. Sharf describe similar funerary and

Robert H. Sharf

memorial rites used for Ch'an abbots in China, in which "the portrait served
not only to represent the spirit of the deceased abbot, but also, in some sense,
to embody it." 108 Eison's image, likewise, embodying the spirit of the deceased
master, would serve his spiritual descendants as an object of veneration, and
a source of inspiration, from this time onward.

Traditional biographies of Eison situate him among the monks who strictly
observed the precepts, a characterization that would suggest a rather con-

One of the truisms in the study of East Asian Buddhist Tantra is that the

servative figure who wished to return to traditional forms of monastic life.

depictions of deities associated with Tantric practice-notably the often com-

My investigation into Eison's use of images reveals a side of Eison's person-

plex geometric arrays of divinities known as mandalas (fig. 4.1 and pl. ?)-

ality and religious practice absent in many accounts. I have noted the influence

function as aids for visualization practices. Such practices, which are purport-

of Esoteric Buddhism in Eison's practice, as is evident from his worship of

edly the mainstay of Tantric Buddhist meditation, are understood as exercises

Aizen, and have argued that his devotion to Sakyamuni was based on his view

in which the practitioner attempts to construct an image of the "principal

of Sakyamuni as a still-vital presence in the world, rather than as the long-

deity" (]: honzon ::;$: Jl!lf.) associated with a given rite in the "mind's eye." ~c­
complishment at visualization is regarded as an essential step in the realiza-

departed founder of the precepts.


Most important for the theme of this volume, I have found that figures

tion of the ultimate identity of the practitioner and the principal deity. Since

such as Aizen, Sakyamuni, and Maiijusri were not mere transcendent deities,

the principal deity is invariably declared to be a manifestation or emanation
of Mahavairocana Buddha, and since Mahavairocana is none other than the
dharmadhatu (J: hokkai '$. !ff- ), or absolute truth itself, identification with the

much less abstract ideals, for Eison. Rather, these buddhas and bodhisattvas
were physically present in the world in sacred images that were enlivened
through the incorporation of relics, scriptures, and dharm:zl and through rites
of consecration and periodic invocations and offerings. Finally, the treatment

In another rubric, it is the affirmation of inherent "buddha nature." The goal

of Eison's own image, brimming with relics, scriptures, and personal docu-

of Shingon mikkyo it ~ ("esoterism"), thus understood, is consonant with the

ments, suggests that it was also more than a mere likeness; it was a living force
that was expected, after the monk's demise, to safeguard the order he founded

aims of Mahayana soteriology in general.
The claim that mandalas function as aids for visualization can be found in

and to remain the locus of Eison's enduring presence.

a wide variety of works on Shingon and mikkyo mandalas. In his study of the

principal deity is tantamount to the realization of the absolute within oneself.

Shingon fire sacrifice (goma 8£&~), for example, Richard Payne writes that one

---~--------.~--------------------------------------Visualization and Mandala


characteristic feature of Buddhist Tantra is the use of "images, both paintings
and sculptures, as a part of ritual and as the objective base for visualization." 2
Ishida Hisatoyo, the preeminent Japanese scholar of East Asian Tantric mandalas, is even more explicit: "It is ... extremely difficult to perceive the Buddha in one's head by concentrating one's thoughts. For this reason the image
mandala [gyiizii mandara] , in which objects or statues are placed or painted
on the altar, was created to help the devotee experience the depths of contemplation and perceive the Buddha." 3
Statements to this effect are ubiquitous in the scholarly literature.4 Yet
rarely, if ever, do scholars bother to substantiate the claim with historical or
ethnographic evidence. The notion that mandalas function as aids for visualization seems to be one of those truisms so widely and unquestioningly held
that corroboration of any kind is deemed unnecessary. Indeed, the complex
epistemological problems entailed in the use of the term "visualization" are
rarely, if ever, acknowledged.
As I began my own study of Shingon ritual systems I was, accordingly, surprised to find that Shingon rituals themselves offer little support for this view.
To begin with, neither the manuals used for the performance of major Shingon
rituals (shidai !.-\~, Sk: vidhi), nor the available "oral commentaries" (kuden

Taizokai mandala (Sk: garbhadhiitu marzrfala, matrix-realm
mandala ). r693. One of a pair of hanging scrolls (Ryogai mandara, mandala
of ~~e two worlds!,mk and colors on silk, 410.9 x 37.9.0 em. each. Kanjoin,
Kyoogokokup (Top), Kyoto Prefecture. Photo: Ky66gokokuji.

D j.~ ) associated with various lineages or "streams" (ryii 7ftU of Shingon mikkyo, instruct the practitioner to use mandalas in such a manner.5 This might
not be significant were it not for the fact that explicit instructions are provided for the use of virtually every other piece of ritual paraphernalia arrayed
on and about the altar.
Even more striking is the fact that there is little obvious correlation between
the elaborate graphic detail of the major Shingon mandal;1s, on the one hand,
and the content of the specific rites with which they are associated, on the
other. Finally, the commonly accepted understanding of "visualization" -the
notion that Shingon rites involve fixing a technicolor image of one or more
deities in the mind's eye-is borne out neither by an examination of the ritual
manuals, nor by ethnographic evidence pertaining to the utilization of such
Accordingly, my goal in this chapter is to raise some problems concerning the claim that (I) Shingon meditative practices center on the mental construction or inner visualization of mandala-like images, and (2) Shingon mandalas are used as aids in visualization exercises. I will hereafter refer to both



Visualization and Mandala
claims under the rubric of the "phenomenological model," because they are
enmeshed in an approach to the subject that privileges the "inner experience"
of the practitioner over the performative and sacerdotal dimensions of the rite.
I intend to cast doubt on the veracity of the phenomenological model by focusing on a sequence of Shingon initiations known as the Shidokegy6 1Z9 Ji 1JD 1T,
or "four emancipatory practices." More specifically, my analysis will concentrate on the first two of these rites, namely the J uhachido -t- f\ i]~t( eighteenmethods practice) and the Kongokai 1iZ:: ~lj W (vajra-rea!m practice). My selection of these two complex rituals out of the dozens commonly performed in
Shingon monasteries is not arbitrary: the Juhachido not only is the first major
ritual to be mastered by Shingon initiates but also is paradigmatic for virtually
all others; all subsequent ritual initiations are structured as variants or expansions of the "eighteen methods." The Kongokai is the second major practice
to be undertaken. Because it is associated with the elaborate Kongokai mandala, this practice is particularly well suited to serve as a test case for the relationship between rite and icon. Despite the need to restrict the scope of this
study to this small corner of the Buddhist Tantric universe, I expect the methodological issues raised here will be of some interest to scholars working on
other Buddhist ritual traditions as well.

Aids to Visualization
I certainly do not want to imply that the use of images or physical objects as
foci for meditation is foreign to Buddhism. Indeed, a host of Theravadin concentration exercises, as systematized in the Visuddhimagga for example, use
natural or fabricated objects as the subject of meditative visualizations, and
there is no reason to doubt the antiquity of such practices.
Typical of the Theravadin exercises are the kasir;a meditations, which use
the four "physical elements" as a means of concentrating the mind and attaining absorption (jhima). The meditation on the earth kasir;a, for example,
involves the use of a smooth clay disk "the color of the dawn." Such a disk
can be fabricated on a portable canvas made by "tying rags or leather or matting onto four sticks," or alternatively constructed on a fixed spot "made by
knocking stakes into the ground in the form of a lotus calyx, lacing them over
with creepers." Having made ready the kasir;a, the practitioner cleans the surrounding area, takes a bath, seats himself on a raised chair a short distance
from the disk, and proceeds to develop a mental image of the earth disk. He


does this by alternately gazing at the disk, then trying to visualize it with eyes
closed. In order to keep the mind focused he may repeat a word to himself
that characterizes the earth element, such as "earth, earth." Eventually the disk
will appear with eyes closed exactly as it appears with eyes open, .at which
point he is to withdraw to his own quarters and continue to practi~e th~re.
Should his concentration flag, however, he must return to the place m which
the kasina is installed and begin again? Exercises on the other kasi1:za (water,
fire, air: blue, yellow, red, white, light, and "limited space") are developed in
much the same manner: in each instance the practitioner begins by using a
natural or fabricated object in order to develop a mental image.8
Kasir;a practices are merely one group of concentration techniques that use
physical objects as supports; one might also mention the meditations on foulness (asubhabhavanii) in which the monk meditates on a corpse 111 one of ten
specified stages of decomposition. 9 Once the adept fixes the mental image, he
uses the image to attain meditative absorption in much the same manner as a
kasina is used.
Neither the kasir;a practices nor the meditations on foulness ever became
popular in China. However, from the dawn of Chinese Bud~hism devo~t Buddhists meditated upon Amitabha and his Pure Land, occasionally makmg use
of iconographic depictions of Amitabha to engender faith and to inspirevisions.w Such practices, generally subsumed under the heading "recollection
of the Buddha" (C: nien-fo ~f~g, J: nenbutsu, Sk: buddhanusmrti), may well
have evolved from earlier exercises in which devotees would meditate on the
qualities of the Buddha, a form of which is still practiced in Theravadi.n countries today. 11 In any case, scholars of East Asian Pure Land often depict such
practices in terms reminiscent of the "phenomenological model":
Amongst meditative types of buddha-reflection we may distinguis~ a form
called buddha-contemplation [kuan-fofkanbutsu]. This is the practice of
gazing upon an image or painting of Amitiibha or his land until a mental .
image of this can be retained in the mind's eye when the eyes are closed. Th1s
vision is then developed-or develops-into a presence of the actual Buddha such that we may describe it as a "buddhophany," a manifestation or
appearance of the actual Buddha. 12
It would move this discussion too far afield to chronicle the development and

significance of Buddhist visualization techniques in East Asia. Suffice itt~ say
that references to such practices are found in Buddhist literature associated
with a variety of traditions, sects, and cultural spheres. All of this would ap-

The schema is clearly manifest bearing on the performance of Shingon rites. Relymg on a painted image fi'< il: 13! he contemplates thoroughly. Buddhist corpus. wherein the image of the deity is manifest before the adept in fine detail.835) returned to Japan in 8o6 after spending slightly less than two years in China. SHARF Visualization and Mandala pear to render the phenomenological model-the notion that Tantric mandalas are used as supports for visualization exercises-unproblematic. ." 21 A tenth-century ritual manual for the eighteen This passage goes on to describe the process of contemplation. 23 The narrative functions as an overarching schema. one is still able to gradually attain consummation. although there are scriptural precedents for such injunctions/6 1-hsing's commentary is nonetheless a scholastic compendium whose function vis-a-vis Tantric practice is prescriptive rather than descriptiveY The All Shingon invocation rituals are structured around a narrative concerning a visit by an honored guest (the principal deity) who is entertained and evidence provided by Shingon ritual manuals. When Kiikai '1:iffl (774 . 19 These rituals. he perceives [the deity and the deity becomes) fully manifest and illumined without any obscurity.22 An additional fifty to eighty rites are added with each of the three major rituals that follow the eighteen methods. I-hsing's . however." as a common course of training for all Shingon monks.156 ROBERT H. these component rites form the underlying structure for all subsequent initiations.ff (683-727) commentary to the Ta-jih ching :}. Before turning to specific rites. Taizokai nii ~:W (matrix-realm practice). explicit directives countenancing the use of an image to assist in Tantric "visualizations" are not as common as one might suppose in the East Asian methods articulates a sequence of seventy-one procedures. a word of introduction is necessary for those unfamiliar with the structure of Shingon invocations. and Goma (fire sacrifice). insofar as they explicitly enjoin the practitioner to "rely on a painted image. lending coherence and narrative unity to the various isolated and often fragmentary units that comprise the rites. later.f§. The essential structure of the rites is mastered in the first practice. as well as the ethnographic data and treats a distinguished visitor. Sk: abhi~eka). feted by the host (the practitioner). when the various marks are still manifest. However. At first he attains illumination Bfj ) ' with eyes closed. In order to better understand the nature of Shingon "visualization" we must turn directly to this ritual system as delineated in ritual manuals and liturgies. the adherent has learned literally hundreds of ritual segments. 18 He and his disciples are credited with systematizing this vast body of procedures and instituting a series of four initiations. and from this faith the mind is purified. gradually opening his eyes.14 Should he attain this [illumination] the mind will give rise to both faith and!Ji~f&#U~iF!iE. But nonduality must also be relinquished in order to attain the apprehension of the non-distinction between the middle and the extremes. Such passages from the hands of authoritative Chinese masters.m! of the super-mundane he begins by contemplating the principal deity. rather than rely on the theoretical and ideological formulations of the scholastic literature. thts moment is called the mark of absolute equality '{ff :¥ .20 constitute what is in effect a primer of ritual grammar.: '{ff iJ J ±'(QY 157 Shingon Ritual The Shingon ritual tradition comprises a systematic if staggeringly complex system of invocation rites centered upon particular deities or families of deities. Gradually he attains the [stage of] nonduality wherein the mind is free of all craving and attachment. comprising a lexicon that is ideally at his or her beck and call. According to tradition. One must also be cautious lest one ascribe undue authority to 1-hsing's remarks. although there is not yet consummation. the Shidokegyo or "four emancipatory practices. Indeed. this narrative has its roots in ancient Indian customs governing the manner in which one receives in the sequence of rites comprising the Jiihachido. Therefore this is called the stage wherein there is not yet absorption 5f. wherein the novice acquires proficiency in the underlying syntax and basic lexicon of the Shingon system.: 8 *~ : B When the practitioner first cultivates the skillful means of the contemplation . he carried with him a substantial body of ritual manuals and implements associated with a multitude of invocation and empowerment (kaji IJOt#) rituals. [However] this is not yet absorption. namely the Kongokai (vajra-realm practice). But [prior to this]. When all mental conditions have been relinquished the myriad dharmas are equal and the same. mastered during the course of an ascetic retreat often lasting one hundred days or more." would seem to offer unequivocal support for the phenomenological model. By the completion of the Shidokegyo and the anointment that follows (J: kanio 7il/H~ . the Juhachido or "eighteen methods. Typical is the following passage from fascicle u of the Ta p'i- lu-che-na ch'eng-fo ching shu :*:. suggests that the major Shingon mandalas were not necessarily employed in the manner described by I-hsing. and the body of the practitioner becomes one with the body of the principal deity. there are unambiguous references to the use of painted and sculpted images as props for meditation in a number of Chinese Tantric scriptures and commentaries.

fii~) . and an indestrucnble vafra wallis erected ren d enng ' ' h. 25 This outline takes as its model the Juhachido used in the Sanboinryu . . an elaborate meditation on the principal detty m his pure land. rinsing the mouth. unguents. SHARf The ritual day is broken into three periods. punctuated by the invocation of the prmclpal deity through hts mantra( s).. to purify mind and body. ).or herself by washing the hands.) of the Juhachido. rendering the term merger so . and convey them to the sanctuary. Thereupon various and sundry divine spirits (kami tEP) are invoked in two rites: the "declaration of intent" (hyohyaku :Nl::. .sts of a set of three rites that prepare the sanctuary for the arnva d templat1ons the const h of the deity.jW.e entire sanctuary IS surSI e wor · _. The latter consists of specific requests. The demes are then b egms Y · d ·h 1c Th1s offered lotus thrones to sit upon and are entertame w~t mus .. through w IC principal deity will later enter. H owever. ai1 . mantras. .l) and the "supplication to the spirits" (jinbun kigan t$5tNrm!) . and mind of the deity. 3. b offering water to wash the deities' feet.pfHil:i (Horse. flowers.·ra net covers the roof and th. . Using ritual gestures. mantras.=::::. What follows is an overview of the Juhachido ritual following a traditional method of parsing the ritual into nine sections. "Procedure for Binding the [Sacred] Realm" (kekkai ho k:i5 W7:1. ~. each consisting of a mudrii. · · of all Esoteric rituals proper. .). 4· . · 170. 24 Prior to each performance of the rite. is not yet sealed. 7· "Procedure for Offerings" (kuyo hO {Jt i'-Hi).)The practitioner then purifies him. Following what is taken to be Indian custom. and putting on clean robes prior to entering the practice hall. food (in the form of uncooked rice). T e emes are greeted with applause. and one pair a garland of flowers [keman :ijt~ [. . ing. h d -·-k ·">!. the dif- ferences between the rites as performed by one Shingon lineage and another are. leaves and water that will be offered to the visiting gods. in which one reahzes the ldennty of the practitioner and the principal deityP It consists of three proce.. dures. setting out in carefully prescribed fashion fresh flowers. Some exegetes hold that this section of the nte effects a merger of the principal deity and the practitioner through the successive identification of the body. :a h d d K nrounded by a ring of fire. The roof.·. .£~ ~. This section closes with vows of repentance and refuge and further purifications. minor. _ 6 " Procedure for Binding and Protecting [the Sanctuary]" (ketsugo ho . " Procedure for RecitatiOn (nenftt . 2. light.mlnobile.\\. It can also be as the ritual enactment of the fundamental unity or nonduahty of " " · mewhat misleadseen deity and practitioner. guards the precmcts. and prayers .11·r.±3fii -~) Here one undertakes a series of procedures that complete ~·~. The practitioner further prepares six small cups (rokki 7\'i* ) containing arrangements of cut shikimi . This section opens with a sequence of rites that purify and empower the ritual implements themselves. and the recitation of the names of buddhas and bodhisattvas. Bato Kannon . and censers prepared with pressed incense powder.:.h ' · . This I . covering everything from appeals for the salvation of all beings to entreaties for the health of the emperor and seasonal rains.. the practitioner prepares the altar (mitsudan \£±1 ). the practitioner declares his or her mission to the kami and solicits their assistance. . dispatch a carriage to pick up the principal detty and his ret:u~. . one . One ano ints one's body with incense and uses a variety of rites. 26 1. however. . . l will examine this segment in some detail below..Rl~ f)· !1. ennce them into the carriage. .. . candles. Each request is followed by offerings consisting of the recitation of siitras (done in most cases by intoning the title alone). speech. an con practitioner drives a pillar from his or her seat to the center of t~e cart . mantra. d is followed by individual offerings of mcense.) This is the centerp1ece 8. One enters the hall chasing away demons with mudrii and mantra and then imagines it overflowing with tathagatas. a wrathful incarnation of Avalokitc5vara. " Procedure for Adorning the Sanctuary" (shOgon dofO ho }lt/l~QrFl~ 1~). one pair represents unguents [zuko w·~ ]. Various offerings are then made to the guests. speech.' p~ep~ration of the sanctuary by ritually sealing it off from the out··d ld A va.. "f. 5· "Procedure for Inviting the Deities [into the Sanctuary]" (ka~jo ho d d contemplations to Wl~i~).. . and mind of the pracnnoner with the body.. . . " Procedure for Adorning the Practitioner" (shogon gyoja ho iff~ ff*ii}. This segment uses mu ra. "Samantabhadra's Vows'' (Fugen gyogan hO 1-Wl\I fl"!li. and contemplation.t "l.Visualization and Mandala 158 I 59 ROBERT H. The ritual begins with a series of procedures that purify and empower the practitioner. The " procedure for recitation" is broken down mto the followmg segments: . foo ' drink. . a non). h the around the four sides of the sanctuary.rail (contemplatiOn of the This consists pnmanly of t e OfO an m ?JJ ' • • . eulogies.. done only during the first performance of the rite. (O ne pair of cups represents holy water [aka ~A ihO ] for bathing the feet of the gods.)'f ll"fc m{ initiatory line. In the former. sanctuary)..ea e . each marked by a single performance or "sitting" (ichiza gyobO ·..

" f. Kongokai. It involves the manipulation of an ornate rosary reserved exclusively for the performance of this rite." "scattering recitations. namely the Goma or fire ritual. one moves on directly to the Kongokai practice. which typically lasts four weeks. emerge from his mouth.flltC/1[\\f! 'i§').2) is the principal deity. more rarely. The ritual winds down with a repetition of many of the offerings and purifications found in the first seven sections of the rite. Visualization and Mandala r6r tion of the rite can take up to one hour to complete. g.' rj:J{.{t.L E/1 ). along with a specified mudrii for each. "Empowerment of the Principal Deity" (as above). it is worth mentioning that the taimitsu iJZfi Shidokegyo initiations used in the Tendai school are essentially identical. also known as the "three mudrii and mantra of the principal deity" (honzon sanshuin shingon '* lliL:::=. although they are subject to considerable abbreviation. SHARF a. In the Jiihachido manuals of both the Sanboin and Chiiin lineages it involves the repetition of twelve mantras of varying lengths. although the overall sequence has been considerably expanded by the addition of dozens of o ther ritual segments (see below). This contemplation focuses on the second of the "three mysteries. and enter the belly of the principal deity. that is.\it!JiAAIIDHf(Cinramanicakra Avalokitesvara. I will look at it roo in detail below. The mantra is accompanied by an elaborate contemplation wherein the syllables of the mantra are imagined to circulate through the body of the principal deity. At the completion of the Juhachido retreat.) . fig. the main difference being that in Tendai the Taiz<Jkai practice precedes the Kongokai.ltA. "Empowerment of the Principal Deity" (as above). 9· "Final Offerings " (go kuyo j~{J:li1lt) . the liturgical content of many segments common to the Jiihachido is altered to reflect the fact that the principal deity is now Kongokai Mahii. The result is a more complex and longer procedure. enter the head of the practitioner." and so on.. manipulating the rosary in such a fashion that his hands form the mudrii known as " teaching of the law" (seppo no in f. or "dispersed recitations.160 R 0 BERT H. After the Kongokai the practitioner moves on to the Taizokai. c. b. The deities are sent on their way and the goshinbo ~ !4. "Dispersed Recitations" (sannenju ~~. in which Nyoirin Kannon ~[J. Furthermore. voted to Fudo Myoo . This is variously interpreted as "miscellaneous recitations. This sec- Upon completing the four Shidokegyo initiations the practitioner is eligible to receive denbo kanjo lWititiH~ (consecration of dharma transmission ) making him (or. The outline above is sufficient to give a general idea of the structure of the Juhachido. each repeated anywhere from seven to one thousand times.i:l.\r!i).. her) a "master. I will examine it in some detail below. and the "heart within the heart mantra" (shinchushinju { . (protection of the body) purifications found in the opening section are repeated. is performed regularly in Shingon and .vairocana. shinju {." or ajari lliiJf1EI:W (Sk: iiciirya). .' '}1:) . This represents the third of the " three mysteries. The practi tioner then makes 108 slow repetitions of the " heart mantra " of the principal deity. which is inserted whole into the Juhachido e. "[The Deity! Enters Me and I Enter [the Deity]" (nyuga-ga 'nytl Jdltf. The Shidokegyo Goma consists of a five-tiered fire sacrifice (it involves five rounds of offerings) de- d. This enacts the merger or essential identity of the body of the principal deity and that of the practitioner. the tomitsu *E tradition of Japanese Esoterism. this segmen~ consists of multiple recitations of Nyoirin's three mantras: the "great mantra" (daiju )( )"[ ). Due to the importance of this segment. the "middle" (or " heart") mantra (chtiju i:j:J )"[ . the net over the roof. that is. one comes to the final and most arduous rite of the Shidokegyo." that of the identity of the mind of the practitioner and the mind of the principal deity. "Contemplation of the Syllable Wheel" (jirinkan :f:ili!iijl!). one-half to one-third of the total duration of the ritual. An abbreviated form of the Goma. Although this chapter focu ses on Shingon mikkyo. and the barrier of fire. This rosary is first carefully removed from its lacquer box and put throu gh a series of purifications and empowerments. where the process begins all over again. and the vajra wall are removed in the reverse order in which they were erected.p wh DH :£. After four weeks spent on the Kongokai and another four on the Taizokai. circulate through his body. In the Jiihachido of the Sanboinrytl. "Empowerment of the Principal Deity" (honzon kaji ::$: ~1JDt1' ). sequence in the midst of the sannenju. or Taizokai after receiving denbO. by contrast.!t )." that of speech. The underlying structure of the Kongokai is precisely that of the Jiihachid(>. which is arguably the climax of the entire ritual.5t it. emerge from his mouth. "Formal Recitation " (shonenju TL~:~~j) . 4. Near the close of the performance the ritual seal around the sanctuary is broken. also structured as an expansion of the Jiihachido.28 In both the Shingon and Tendai schools it is highly unusual to perform the Jiihachido.

SHARF Visualization and Mandala Tendai monasteries. he or she may seek formal initiation into one of the many supplementary mikkyo practices such as the rishukyo bo l'." "contemplate.fU!Ull!: $ or the komyoshingon ho JtB~~~ $.~. or "contemplation of the sanctuary." or imitsu.." specifically the statement that the rays of light shining from the vajra "destroy the defilements and impurities of body. as Sino-Japanese Buddhist lexicons state that they are used more or less interchangeably-a position quickly borne out by a survey of Shingon ritual texts (see below).. I will avoid using the terms "visualize" and "visualization" in favor of "think. in the discussion below.:t!\t.and shii . There is little to be gained by trying to distinguish the meaning of these terms in English. The syllable changes and becomes a five-pronged vajra emit- 163 ting rays of light that destroy the defilements and impurities of body. of the rite.@ that in between the palms and on top of the tongue and the heart there is a moon disk. made final adjustments to the altar. The instructions read as follows: Place the palms together to form the lotus blossom mudra. a Shingon ritual invocation is comprised of dozens." "contemplate. usually a mantra or dharat. This segment is performed near the beginning of each sitting.til?. speech.l but sometimes a verse. the sanmikkan =:. Sk: bija) sitting on a lotus blossom set upon a lunar disk. the go daigan E. especially in cardinal segments such as the dojokan and the jirinkan. and mind of the practitioner and thus ritually instantiate the "three mysteries" (sanmitsu =:." "imagine. Secondly." which appears in virtually all major Tantric rituals in the Sanb6inryu tradition." "imagine. Finally. a wide variety of terms are used in Shingon materials to refer to the "mental component. Such liturgies are composed in classical Japanese or Chinese and are typically performed with palms joined together in gassho 15 ~ or with hands ceremonially clasping the egoro M~ 1P (a hand-held censer) and rosary. Accordingly. On the disk is an eight-petaled lotus blossom. '\t.~." "discern.162 ROBERT H. consist of three elements performed more or less in unison: (1) a mudra. speech. Contemplation of the Three Mysteries As should now be apparent. one finds that the contemplation of the sanmikkan is not static. (2) an utterance. Such seed syllables figure prominently in many of the contemplations. or prayer. Intone the syllable un three times. including the dojokan. and mind. Should a practitioner wish to continue the ascetic training.t) of Shingon doctrine. "visualization" is a dubious choice for an English equivalent of terms such as kanso and kannen." These "tripartite rites" constitute the core of the Shingon ritual system: they incorporate the body. literary. note that the contemplation is introduced by the term so~' "to think. vow. and mind. the sanmikkan "contemplation" or "visualization" contains many characteristic elements found in more elaborate tripartite rites. teikan ~IlL kannen il. or tropical than they are visual or graphic. sometimes hundreds. I will begin with a relatively straightforward rite. or "contemplation of the three mysteries. after the practitioner has assumed his seat in the sanctuary." and so on.~." found in virtually all Shingon invocation rituals. note that the contemplation includes a "discursive gloss. . In fact. on top of which is the syllable un.. after the practitioner's body. In order to understand the nature of Shingon visualizations we must focus our attention on this specific component of the tripartite rites. When one talks of Shingon "visualizations" one is thus properly referring to the third component of these tripartite rites-the ritual procedure linked to the "mystery of mind" (imitsu :W:\t ). the ritual implements. Contemplation of the Sanctuary Certain segments of the Shidokegyo practices entail rather elaborate contemplations. kanso il. Indeed. The segments that are of primary concern to this study. of small ritual segments. nenso ~~ . kansatsu il. The dojokan occurs in the first half of the ritual sequence. Then imagine . and (3) a "contemplation. Other ritual segments consist of combinations of a mudrii and mantra known as inmyo ED B~ (literally "mudra-mantra"). as will become evident below. First. but rather consists of a series of changing or mutating images: the final image of a vajra emitting light evolves from a "seed-syllable" (shuji ~ r.:km'i (five great bodhisattva vows).29 Although relatively simple. speech. or the eko ~lol (transference of merit). including kan 1!?. however. and anointed his body with unguents. These technical Sino-Japanese terms refer to procedures whose elements are often more discursive. ." I characterize this phrase as "discursive" because it does not suggest any obvious visual or pictorial correlate." and so on. in which I examine considerably more elaborate segments drawn from the Shidokegy6. Some of these are primarily liturgical recitations such as the jinbun kigan (supplication to the spirits).

.. for example. 30 Sanboinryu monks will thus place an image of Nyoirin directly in front of the altar.!D* (Mahavairocana) as the principal deity. The syllable changes into a palatial hall of jewels. Arrayed in rows are jeweled trees with embroidered silk pennants suspended from each.4032).I64 ROB E RT H. the Chuinryu i:f:l flfi:?m popular on Mount Koya. but prior to summoning the principal deiry to the sanctuary. and a lineage patriarch on the left.3 1 The pictorial depiction of Nyoirin used in the Sanboinryu will ideally conform to the description of the deity found in the dojokan of the Sanboinryu Juhachido manual. Courtesy. Contemplate ll!\I:i'2: as follows: In front [of me] is the syllable ah (]: aku). 98.2). The identiry of the principal deity and lineage patriarch will differ depending on the lineage. Twelfth 4 century. The top of his head is adorned with a jeweled crown.:~iji . with Kukai to the right. uses Dainichi Nyorai 1c 13 t. © 2000 Museum of Fine Arts. The three syllables change and become a vajra jewel lotus. 832-909) on the left. "adorn.5 x 44·5 em. The dojokan consists of a meditation on the principal deiry and his retinue emerging from a series of seed syllables.. Panel. His third right arm holds a rosary. Boston. All rights reserved. which reads as follows: Assume the "tathagata fist mudrii" [nyorai kenin !ZD*$E[J] . His upper right arm is in the posture of contemplation. .\I!j}jj\:f. Museum of Fine Arts. His second right arm holds the wish-fulfilling gem. this is a good place to begin to examine the relationship between a ritual procedure and a painted mandala. On top is the syllable a (a) which changes and becomes a full moon disk. His third left arm holds a F 1 G u R E . Boston (Fenollosa-Weld Collection :rr. His upper left arm touches the mountain [beneath him]." shogon H:t frW ) the sanctuary and its altar. Since the contemplative element of this rite includes a graphic description of the principal deity in anthropomorphic form. and his upper torso is encircled by a radiant halo . assuming the attribute of preaching the dharma. ink and color on silk. On top is the syllable hrlh (kiriku). On the altar is the syllable hrlh (kiriku) which changes and becomes a crimson lotus blossom terrace. As part of these preparations three icons (typically paintings) are installed in front of the altar: an image of the principal deity flanked by a portrait of Kukai on the right. The jewel lotus changes into the principal deity. He sits in the posture of the Freedom King (jizai o § tti:). and to the left and right there are two triih (taraku) syllables. From his body flow a thousand rays of light. and Shobo ~}!\' (Rigen Daishi f. Before the practitioner begins the Juhachido retreat he or she must prepare (more technically. 2 Nyoirin Kannon (Sk: Cintamanica kra Avalokitesvara). 4. SHARF and the sanctuary have been individually purified and empowered. with six arms and a body the color of gold. Reproduced w1th permission. and the Sanboinryu stemming from Daigoji ~W!ctr in Kyoto uses Nyoirin Kannon (fig. His second left arm holds a lotus blossom. Inside is an altar with stepped walkways on all four sides.

Moreover. 4.2). employing the skillful means of great compassion to end the suffering of all sentient beings. (This mudra. and the next rite-the gozanze ~~=ill: (Trailokyavijaya)-corresponds to the next assembly in the mandala. I will return to this briefly below." The painting on the altar makes no more reference to this gloss than it does to the sequence of images leading up to the anthropomorphic appearance of the deity. bejeweled. beginning with the gozanze sanmaya e ~~=ill: =~!jj) \t (Trailokyavijaya-samaya assembly. thegoso jojinkan li fEll& 5l il.ihachido. abdomen. they remain silent on the relationship between image and rite. and ketchu *5 ~ (fastening armor and helmet) correspond to the kuyo . fig. but once again a close examination suggests otherwise. Here. This is a crucial point: the execution of the kanso consists not in "visualization" or even in "meditation" so much as in recitation. a golden. "His magnificent body of six arms is able to roam the six realms.33 At first glance this might seem to constitute evidence for the phenomenological model.34 According to Gengo's analysis. 4.) 32 This is one point in the Ji. fig. The locus classicus for this tradition is a tenth-century commentary by Gengo :lC* (914-995). 4. shibutsu keiman 031?#Jit." however.7). And even if the practitioner did want to linger over or meditate upon the content of the liturgy he would find himself severely constrained by the need to finish the rite within the time allotted. The remaining correlations run as follows: the dairaku fukushin ::*:~1'~ 5l moves one to the rishu e i!~\t (rishu assembly.8). right knee. beginning with gokki sanmaya f. too. Ethnographic evidence points to yet another problem with the phenomenological model: the model presupposes that practitioners approach the text of the dojokan kanso as a "guided contemplation.. fig.166 ROBERT H. the shibutsu kaji 031?#1JD:fi!f (empowerment of the four Buddhas) moves one to the shiin-ne 03Enl't (assembly of the four seals. 4.3)." When one looks at the manner in which contemporary Shingon monks actually perform this rite. one finds that the kanso is treated liturgically-it is intoned quietly or vocalIzed mwardly. fig.4). however. fig. six-armed deity whose form precisely matches the iconography of the mandala (fig. the movement through the mandala takes place in a counterclockwise spiral toward the center (fig. because there is in fact a tradition according to which the Kongokai ritual moves the practitioner through the nine assemblies of the Kongokai mandala that is used for the rite (pl. 4.4) in the lower right corner of the mandala. The eight great Kannons and the innumerable members of the Lotus-realm assembly surround him on all sides. namely the statement. But it would be a mistake to make too much of this correspondence. mantra.ti ~ = ~!jj) (samaya of ultimate bliss)-a "tripartite rite" that occurs well into the ritual sequence (see below). the contemplation culminates in a discursive gloss. the gozanze e ~~ _::: ill:lt (Trailokyavijaya assembly. Visualization and Mandala 167 Moving Through the Vajradhiitu Mandala Although Shingon materials prescribe the use of an image of the principal deity during the Ji. 8). is considerably more complex. SHARF wheel. (There is an alternative but less common tradition wherein the practitioner begins with the central assembly and moves around the mandala in a clockwise movement ending in the bottom right corner-a movement known as the "descending rotation" [geden rilii] in contrast to the "ascending rotation" [iaden . albeit after a complex series of morphing images. Even if the practitioner did attempt to use the painting to help him in his contemplation. When finished with this contemplation take the mudra and empower the following seven spots [that is. the gobutsu kanjo li {?#itrn (anointment of the five Buddhas). 4. the Kongokai kuemikki :11z:~IJWfL\tit ~c. His magnificent body of six arms is able to roam the six realms. katchu Ffl ~ (armor and helmet). 4. forehead. (offering garlands to the four Buddhas). [Recite) the mantra ombokken (seven times [along with each empowerment)). I will return to this issue below. pl. fig.) 35 Each assembly of the mandala is associated with one rite or a short sequence of rites. according to Gengo. none of the many premodern and modern ritual manuals and commentaries at my disposal direct the practitioner to cast his gaze on the icon of Nyoirin Kannon during this (or any other) sequence. the performance of the gokki sanmaya corresponds to the gozanze sanmaya e (Trailokyavijaya-samaya assembly. employing the skillful means of great compassion to end the suffering of all sentient beings. (contemplation of the attainment of the [buddha] body through the five marks) corresponds to the ichiin-ne fl (assembly of the single seal. Thus. heart. throat. and empowerment transforms this world into a pure realm. and crown. it would ultimately be of limited value in his efforts to visualize this complex montage of rapidly mutating 1mages and discursive contemplations.tilii].5) in the center.En . and ending with the jojin-ne I& 5l \t (consummate body assembly. 4.ihachido where there is an undeniable correspondence between image and kanso or "contemplation.6)." where one seems to end up with the practitioner imagining. touch each place on the body with the mudra]: left knee. 7). The situation with the Kongokai or "vajra-realm practice.

9). 4. S H A R F Shiin-ne Four Seal Assembly - lchiin-ne tfl 1:. .----+---------+---. Misai c Subtle Assembly . 4. the genchishin fest knowledge) begins the misai e half of the di5j6kan the sanmaya e B~dlT5 tf$T ')W !'} (body of mani- (subtle assembly..END Kuy(i e jojin-ne ~'.? Single Seal Assembly - Rishu e Rishu Assembly f----.·----+---.i(Ti'lji) ' KyotoPreecture. the Kona{ikai Photo: Kyc>Dgokokuji.. Sanmaya e Gozanze sanmaya e the first (contemplation of the sanctuary) corresponds to (samaya assembly. Trailokvavijaya-samaya a_ssembly (gozanze samnayaf e). fig. neither the directions found in the ritual manuals nor the content of the contemplations or the recitations of the Kongokai ritual give the least hint to the practitioner that the rites he or she is performing bear any relationship to the assemblies of the mandala.. 4-II). fig. 3 "Ascending rotation" through the Kongokai mandala. and the latter half of the same rite corresponds to the central j6jin-ne (consummate body assembly._..36 However. fig.nm~ Samaya Assembly TrailokyavijayaSamaya Assembly START FIGuRE e 4. 4·5).. Kyoogo --. ko kuj. z:::~ fj~ $1- Offering Assembly Consummate Body Trailokyavijaya Assembly f--__ • ---+---.t _____. from FIGURE 4·4 mandala. Detail of plate 7· . The correlations enumerated above can be ascertained only from written or oral commentaries to which the student may or may not have access. tf$T (offering assembly. ' ' KanJom. there would be simply no way to determine . fig.t .I68 R 0 BERT H .

Kanj6in. Kyo<)gokokuji (T6ji).5 Consummate body assembly ( j6jin-ne). Detail of plate 7· . u RE 4. Detail of plate 7· F 1 c. 6 Trailokyavijaya assembly (gozanze e). from the Kongokai mandala. from the Kong6kai mandala. Kyoto Prefecture. Photo: Ky66gokokuji. Photo: Ky66gokokuji.FIGuRE 4 . . Kanj<)in. Ky66gokokuji (T6ji). Kyoto Prefecture.

Photo: Ky66gokokuji.F r G u R E 4. Kyoto Prefecture. from the Kongokai mandala. Detail of plate 7· FIGURE 4. 7 Rishu assembly (rishu e). Kanj6in. Ky()6gokokuji (T6ji). Detail of plate 7· . from the Kong6kai mandala.8 Assembly of the four seals (shiin-ne). Kyoto Prefecture. Kanj6in. Photo: Ky66gokokuji. Ky66gokokuji (T6ji).

I o Subtle assembly (misai e). Derail of plate 7· F 1 G u R E 4 . Photo: Ky66gokokuji. 9 Offering assembly (kuyo e). Kyoogokokuji (Toji ). Kyoto Prefecture. Ky6ogokokuji (Toji). KanjcJin.FIG u RE 4. Photo: Kyoogoko kuji . fro m the Kongokai mandala. Detail of plate 7· . Kanj oin. from the Kong<>kai mandala. Kyoto Prefecture.

the same figures that appear in the central jojin-ne group (fig. and delusion in the three worlds.. Detad of plare 7· I Doctrinally. Kyoto Prefecture. the four "Mantra Queens" replace the tridents of wrath ((unnu-sanko . In other words. 4. and Amoghasiddhi). in general terms. Snodgrass summarizes the technical literature as follows: The Trailokyavijaya Assembly represents the actions of the [Buddha's] Body that vanquish the beings who are difficult to subdue and the Trailokyavijaya . pennant. represented in the gazanze e by the use of the funnuken in ft~~ ED (wrathful fist mudrii) in which the deities' hands are clenched into fists crossed at the wrists. For example. here manifests in the wrathful form of Trailokyavijaya Vidyaraja.4) and the rite known as gok. placed on a lotus within a lunar disk. 4. Amitabha. There sanmaya or "samaya of ultimate bliss. Photo: Kyoogokoku 'i. ~) in the corners. bodhisattvas. Ak~obhya. this assembly ends up looking rather similar to the samaya asse mbly situated directly to its left (fig. and other deities in their wrathful forms-forms assumed by the deities in order to conquer greed. that is. However. and the sixteen great bodhisattvas-that is. Ratnasambhava." The gazanze sanmaya assembly. a number of differences. KanJom. These two assemblies are the only ones in the Kongokai mandala that depict buddhas. FIG u_ R E 4 · ~ r_ Sa maya ~:sembly (sanmaya e). capable of vanquishing evil and bringing particularly recalcitrant beings to enlightenment. the relation between the gozanze sanmaya assembly of the mandala (fig. In addition. The principal figures comprising both the Trailokyavijaya and the Trailokyavijaya-samaya assemblies are the five Buddhas (Mahavairocana. the gozanze sanmaya e represents. consists of the samaya form of the Trailokyavijaya assembly that is placed immediately above it. as the deities of the gazanze sanmaya e assembly are represented in samaya form. where the Trailokyavijaya assembly consists of seventy-three deities represented in anthropomorphic form. the samaya version of the same assembly represents these deities by symbols such as a lotus. the "mind aspect" of the wrathful emanation of Mahavairocana. 4-n) .tt~ -=:. hatred.37 The buddhas and bodhisattvas of the gazanze sanmaya e are understood as manifest in their wrathful forms. however. from the Kongokai mandala. who normally appears in Ak~obhya's group. situated in the bottom right corner of the mandala.Visualization and Mandala 177 these correlations through a comparison of the iconographic content of the mandala with the liturgical content of the ritual. and the four gods of the elements are replaced by lotuses .5). Vajrasattva. or various weapons. vajra. To illustrate the incongruity between rite and mandala I will examine the first of the above correspondences in detail. the four piiramitii bodhisattvas. Kyoogokokup (I C>JI).

however. this is really not a "visualization" at all-the "arrow of great compassion" is again more of a literary trope than a graphic image." Another instructive example is the simplest of the nine assemblies. as the arrow of great compassion. 4 . according to Geng6's commentary. and he developed a creative if ad hoc series of correspondences to make his point. +7(). 8). The sanjushichison ingon sequence is immediately followed by the invocation of the "sixteen worthies of the [present! auspicious kalpa" (gengo juroku son WM+7\!f). The two middle fingers pierce the heart. and the latter is the mandala of the Tathagata's Mind Mystery expressed in the same way.178 Visualization and Mandala ROB ER T H. but only to those associated with six of the nine assemblies. and various contemplations of an expanding and contracting stupa. the rite corresponding to the ichiin-ne assembly is the goso jojinkan (contemplation of the attainment of the [buddha] body through the five marks). and the mudra is held in front of the face. a sequence consisting of the invocation of the thirty-seven figures featured in the central jojin-ne (fig. found at the top center of the mandala." Having formed the mudra. and neither the ritual manuals nor the commentaries offer any clue as to how the practitioner is to visualize the "mind that wearies and seeks escape [from sa'!lsiira]. Indeed. There is one section of the ritual that does bear a clear and comprehensive relationship to the iconography of the mandala." The mantra is repeated three times. I shoot the arrow of great compassion into the mind that wearies and seeks escape [from sarrzsiira]. and with some experience the entire rite can be performed in no more than ten or fifteen seconds. Indeed. iconography. 41 There is 179 no obvious allusion to Mahavairocana in anthropomorphic form at all in this particular ritual sequence.45 and the twenty deities of the "outer vajra realm" (gai kongobu niju ten 7Hi~l5iJijili) _-:::. among other things. 40 One might expect this assembly to correspond to the dojokan examined above. 42 It would take too much space to examine in detail all nine assemblies of the Kongokai mandala and the ritual segments to which they supposedly correspond. Suffice it to say that in each and every case the practitioner would be hard pressed to match the liturgical content of the rite to the iconography of the mandala. surrounded by water pots and lotuses. Indeed. As is usual with the tripartite rites. SHARF Samaya Assembly represents the original vows that embody the actions of the Buddha's Mind. and the tips of the little fingers and thumbs touching and extended out straight. the ichiin-ne (pl.46 which complete the invocation of + the central assembly. one then repeats the mantra sanmayakoku sorata satoban and contemplates as follows: "Not wearying of sarrzsara I abide peacefully in the mind of awakening. Gengo's strategy involved viewing the preeminent assembly-the jojin-ne-as encompassing the remaining eight. The middle fingers are crossed and folded into the fist. This is the sanjushichison ingon == -t !fED§ (mudrii-mantra for the thirty-seven deities). The sanjushichison ingon is thus the one segment of the Kongokai rite where . The existence of two alternative paths through the mandala underscores the post hoc nature of the correlations between rite and image. as Todaro has argued.44 Here each of the thirty-seven main deities is individually invoked in rapid succession by means of the single repetition of a short mantra and mudrii. Gengo's attempts to relate the Kongokai rite with the nine-assembly mandala was likely a response to the recognition of a more general problem: the manuals then in circulation did allude to the deities of the Kongokai. in which the practitioner moves through the mandala in reverse (clockwise) direction beginning with the jojin-ne assembly in the center.5).43 Gengo's opaque if not outright arbitrary scholastic correlations are ultimately of little consequence to this analysis. because there is no hint in either the ritual manuals or the ethnographic evidence that they play any effective role in the performance of the rite itself. and the contemplation of the "arrow of compassion piercing the mind that wearies of sarrzsiira" bears no obvious connection to the iconography of the Kongokai mandala. wearing a crown of five buddhas. 38 The gokki sanmaya rite. a dialogue between the practitioner and all the tathagatas of the world. The former is the mandala of the Tathagata's Body Mystery expressed as the wrathful forms of the Doctrine Command Cakra Body. later commentators admit confusion over the textual antecedents. the manual begins with a description of the mudra: "The two hands are clasped with fingers on the outside. 39 Note that there is simply no due in the rite itself as to its relationship with the gozanze sanmaya e of the mandala. hands clasped in the "knowledge fist mudrii" (chi ken in ~~ED). I have already mentioned an alternative geden tradition. a complex meditation involving. This assembly consists of a single anthropomorphic image of Mahavairocana sitting on a lotus. This is not to deny a connection between the Kongokai rite and its mandala. and ritual procedures associated with this particular assembly. and ending at the gozanze sanmaya e in the bottom right-hand corner. But such is not the case.the rite said to correspond to the gozanze sanmaya e and its seventy-three major divinities-is short.

all the sense fields. Accordingly." or goso jojinkan found in the Kongokai practice. is tenuous at best. and without blemish. but this fact alone does not render the icon of much help to a practitioner bent upon "visualizing" the dozens of elaborate kanso scattered throughout these rites. and the iconography of their respective mandalas. [The practitioner then addresses the Buddhas:] "I only wish that all the Tathagatas would appear here in my place of practice. but you are not yet able to realize the knowledge of the vajra-like samadhi and full omniscience ~~. its distinguishing marks. 49 This sequence involves some standard contemplations of an expanding and contracting lotus Next: Cultivation of the Mind of Bodhi ~~-fftit•L' (meditation mudrii): The storehouse consciousness is essentially unstained. like the castle of the Gandharvas. or kanso. like a whirling wheel of fire." All the Buddhas respond in unison: "You must contemplate II your own mind. that which you have realized is the purity of the single path.180 Visualization and Mandala ROBERT H. [Thereupon] all the Buddhas who abide in ultimate and true knowledge of quiescence. extinction. aggregates.6 . the mantra un is repeated sixteen times for the worthies. one's own mind is like a full moon. CONTEM PLATION OF THE ATTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHA BODY THRO UGH THE FIVE MARKS Nowhere is the discursive nature of Shingon kanso more apparent than in the "contemplation of the attainment of the [buddha] body through the five marks. The contemplation. In accordance with the teachings when discerning your own mind do not view §\!. Say the mantra: on bochishittahadayami. the discursive character of many Shingon contemplations renders them poor subjects for "visualization" as the term is commonly understood. on shitta harachibeito kyaromi. As seen above." Say the mantra: on a sowaka. arises from one's own mind. The same turns out to be true of the latter two rituals of the Shidokegy6: the Taiz6kai and the Goma. and thus you must not rest content with this. However. The mind is like a moon disk in a fine mist. il]ll'*'IJ!i': Form the Amitabha samadhi mudra and say the mantra on sanmaji handomei kiriku. like an echo in an empty valley. Visualization or Contemplation? In the end. and who pervade and fill the realm of space startle [you] awake by snapping their fingers and saying: " Good son. You must still perfect the way of Samantabhadra and attain supreme awakening. this is one of the few ingon or inmyo segments that does not include any kanso or "contemplative" component whatsoever. I have translated below the kanso from three such segments: the goso jojinkan found exclusively in the Kong6kai practice. Rather. defilements. and sameness." [The practitioner] recites the mantra of universal homage once again and says to the Buddhas: "I am unable to see my own mind. then twenty times for the deities.48 In each case the mandala or icon represents or "embodies" the principal deity to whom the rites are directed. realms. I have translated the Sanboinryu version in full: First: The Wisdom of Marvelous Contemplation IJ'J. as well as more unusual passages in which the practitioner converses directly with the tathagatas of the dharmadhatu.~tf. somewhat surprisingly. Seeing the pure moon disk one is able to realize the bodhi mind . The afflictions. This becomes increasingly obvious in looking at the more complex and soteriologically cardinal sections of these invocation practices." It should now be clear that the relationship between the complex contemplations found in the Juhachid6 and Kongokai practices." Next: Penetration of the Bodhi Mind iifii~Ft!fi~{} (meditation mudra): Hearing this the practitioner is startled out of his meditation and pays homage to all the Buddhas reciting the mantra of universal homage as before [on saraba tatagyata hannamannano kyaromi]. and so on are like a magical illusion or a flickering flame. Because this is one of the more fascinating sections of the Kong6kai from both a narrative and doctrinal perspective. and the nyuga-ga 'nyu and jirinkan found in virtually all Shingon invocation rituals. Because it is endowed with merit and knowledge.47 Moreover. What are the distinguishing marks of this mind?" All the Buddhas respond : "The distinguishing marks of the mind are difficult to fathom. Contemplate [as follows] ~~liM: The nature of all things gl it. pure. for both rites reads in its entirety as follows: "Think of encircling the four sides of the altar. to the accompaniment of a single up-and-down motion of the mudra with each repetition. the invocations in the two segments devoted to the sixteen worthies and twenty deities are perfunctory to say the least. . SHARF one finds a more or less precise correspondence to one of the assemblies of the mandala. none of the individual figures are specifically identified. r81 blossom situated on a lunar disk in the heart. the most compelling evidence against the phenomenological model is provided by the content of the kanso themselves.

Next: Realizing the Vajra Body ~{Jz:~lj !it (meditation mudra): Know that one's own body is the realm of the vajra lotus blossom. Say the mantra: on sokara hazara." Say the mantra: on chishuta hazara handoma. according to the narrative they make their presence Visualization and Mandala 183 known only through their spoken discourse. but these complex issues need not be of concern here.. SHARF Next: Consummation of the Vajra Mind JJ.. these three rites correspond to the three mysteries of body. and mind of the principal deity. Next: Perfection of the Buddha Body m!it lim TJM] (meditation mudra): All the Buddhas further say: "Contemplate your body as the principal deity and receive this mantra.." It is particularly striking that the Tathagatas featured in this contemplation do not appear in physical form. just as myriad images appear in a [single] mirror. receive this heart mantra and imagine 1m a vajra lotus blossom. returning to its previous size. the shonenju (formal recitation). Next: Expanding the Vajra }ii![{!z:l&jlj (meditation mudra): Think ~ of an eight-petaled lotus blossom on the heart moon disc. tEl f. and mind respectively. 52 Commentators note that the body of the principal deity does not actually "enter" the practitioner. the gist of their teaching is that one "sees" the Tathagata only when one is able to "see" the nature of one's own mind-a venerable Buddhist tenet found in a host of Mahayana scriptures. MERGING WITH THE PRINCIPAL DEITY The climax of virtually all Shingon invocation practices is found in the "procedure for recitation" (nenju ho) section comprising three main rites: the nyugaga'nyu ([the deity] enters me and I enter [the deity]). Contemplate [as follows) !1~: Facing the principal deity I have now become the body of Tathagata Mahavairocana.B:~:mi~ A th." Say: on yata saraha tatagyata satatakan. Indeed. their images interpenetrating each other !zO ~ BR.m~ (meditation mudra): Having become the body of the principal deity I receive the empowerment of all the Tathagatas. these rites enact the identity of the The textual antecedents and doctrinal significance of the "contemplation of the attainment of the [buddha] body through the five marks" has been examined by a variety of Japanese Buddhist scholars. Considering the significance of the nyuga-ga'nyu-it is here that the practitioner affirms his or her identity with the Buddha or absolute truth itself-the kanso of the rite is relatively simple. This is seen by some commentators as the significance of the mirrors: one must look upon the principal deity as if one is looking at one's own reflection in a clear mirror. Since the rite is short and differs slightly from one practice to the next. Contemplate [as follows] !1~: The principal deity sits on a mandala. all the worthies of the vajra realm envelop me. Next: Contracting the Vajra ~{!z:l&jlj (meditation mudra): Think of this lotus blossom at the heart gradually contracting and becoming smaller. that is to say. speech. It is like many luminous mirrors facing each other. 51 For the purposes of the present argument I would note only the elaborate narrative structure and discursive content of the rite that renders much of it inappropriate for "visualizing in the mind's eye. I have translated the nyuga-ga'nyu from both the Jiihachido and Kongokai practices taken from the same set of Sanboinryii ritual manuals. Say the mantra: on sahara hazara. The principal deity enters my body and my body enters the body of the principal deity. and the jirinkan (contemplation of the syllable wheel). as there is ultimately no original duality between the two. speech. All the Buddhas pervading the dharma realm enter the lotus blossom of one's own body. Gradually it opens and expands to fill the three-thousand realms all the way to the dharma realm bringing material abundance and joy to all living beings. speech. that is. imagine an eightpetaled lotus blossom on the moon disk at the heart. As mentioned above.182 ROBERT H.)Z{Jzjljlj{. Say the mantra: on saraha tatagyata hisanhoji jiricha hazara chishuta. and mind of the practitioner with the body. The principal deity enters my .53 The contemplation from the Kongokai nyuga-ga'nyu adds an interpretative gloss reflecting further on the relation between practitioner and deity: Assume the meditation mudra. I sit on a mandala. Say the mantra: on hazara handoma tamakukan.t.(meditation mudra): Again all the Buddhas say: "Now that hodhi is stable. Next: The Empowerment of All the Buddhas ~mt. I begin with the Jiihachido version: Assume the Amida meditation mudra .

(This is called the clockwise contemplation Ill~ ®.the dharmadhiitu itself. nowhere is the liturgical nature of Shingon kanso more apparent than in the repetitive phrasing and parallelism of the syllable-wheel contemplation. On top of the disk there are the syllables on ha ra da han domei un. the charity of the syllable da cannot be obtained. the mantra of a particular deity is consubstan- With the jirinkan. Form the Amida samiidhi mudrii and contemplate ID! as follows: .:harity of the syllable da cannot be obtained. on top of which IS a full moon d1sk. Because the defilements of the syllable ra cannot be obtained. Because [this rite] manifests the meaning of both the root and the traces :+ liE." In short. climax of the rite-the ritual identification of the mind of the practitioner and according to certain Mahayana scriptures. Because the speech of the syllable ha cannot be obtained. And yet. In the jirinkan procedure this core mantra is made the subject of a Madhyamikalike critique that renders it empty of "own being. I enter the body of the principal deity raking refuge m h1m. the speech (gonzetsu 1'~-~11.184 ROBERT H. although the specific "seed syllables" featured in the kanso will differ depending on the identity of the principal deity." one arrives at the tial with the deity itself (that is. just as to intone the title of a siitra is tantamount to reciting the entire sutra. to deconstruct the deity in this manner is precisely to become one with the mind of the deity. it constitutes a contemplation of empowerment and refuge. Moreover. Because the supreme principle of the syllable han cannot be obtained. which is to realize the emptiness of the deity itself. Thus to grasp rhe mantra is to grasp the of the syllable han cannot be obtained. The Juhachido thus culminates in a ritualized deconstruction of the principal deity. not two. [the disk] rotating once clockwise and once counterclockwise. Because the supreme p~mCiple of the syllable han cannot be obtained. or "contemplation of the syllable wheel. once the mantra is disassembled the meaning of each syllable. SHARF body empowering me. or "empty" nature of the deity's mantra.. the supreme prinCiple of the syllable han cannot be obtained. Since the syllables are meaningful only in dependence upon one another. The deity's mind is the pure contemplation of emptiness.) 56 According to Shingon doctrine. Because the c~~seless flow of the syllable on cannot be obtained. Indeed. We are of one body. Because the self-attachment of the syllable domei cannot be obtained. 55 Contemplate W?. The "heart within the heart mantra" is the essence of all the mantras associated with a particular deity. the supreme principle (shogz ll#. Contemplate the sequence clockwise and counterclockwise. The notion that Shingon contemplations are essentially discursive is con- . proves "impossible to obtain. the mind of the deity. contingent.54 CONTEMPLATION OF THE SYLLABLE WHEEL Visualization and Mandala 185 rained. the structure of the rite is more or less the same from one practice to the next. the self-attachment (gashu :fx$")\) of the syllable domei cannot be obtained. the speech of the syllable ha cannot be ob- Having examined in detail some key sections from Shingon invocation rituals it should be clear that they offer little support for the widespread assumption that such rites involve the mental construction of mandala-like images. Here. according to the narrative logic of the rite. Because the charity of the syllable da cannot be obtained. Because the self-attachment of the syllable domei cannot be obtained. In my heart there is an eight-petaled white lotus blossom. (This is called the counterclockwise contemplation :i!/!W?. The performance of the syllable wheel discernment is thus the ritual instantiation of the identity of the practitioner's mind and the mind of the principal deity. the title of a sutra bears to the sutra). the realization of the mind of the principal deity consists in contemplating the constructed. Because the defilements of the syllable ra cannot be obtained." This is accomplished by disassembling the mantra into its component parts or syllables and then contemplating the individual "attributes" of each syllable. too. And this is precisely the mind of Mahiivairocana . it bears the same relationship to the deity that. Becau:~e the . the charity (seyo fit!j Si~) of the syllable da cannot be obtained. I have translated the jirinkan from the Sanboinryu Juhachido. Because the speech of the syllable ha cannot be obtained. The ceaseless flow (rushu iiTUt) of the syllable on cannot be obtained. the self-attachment of the syllable domei cannot be obtained. the defilements of the syllable ra cannot be obtained. they are typically treated as liturgies to be verbalized softly or silently. What one finds instead is that the contemplative elements are often discursive meditations with little or no "visual" component. along with each syllable's meaning. the ceaseless flow of the syllable on cannot be obtained. like the mantra itself. in which Nyoirin Kannon serves as principal deity. ) of the syllable ha cannot be obtained.) *) Because the conditions and karma of the syllable un cannot be obtained. the conditions and karma (ingo E!9 of the syllable un cannot be obtained. the defilements (jinku ~!5 ) of the syllable ra cannot be obtained.

Ui!J!«-~'9 ~~L: L l ' ' f'T ~ IJ. an annotated catalog of the texts.57 A similar set of definitions can be found in the Bukkyogo daijiten f9!l~~!t:::k I$W. icons. Mandala as Divine Presence In questioning the supposition that Shingon mandalas are used as aids to visualization. ~ . Group training also obliges the monks to move through each section of the rite more or less in unison. "thinking precisely and clearly" *HI f.. 1::.I[l. ~ '0) <}) < J: 1. If one were to speak generally.:... also known as ho mandara it~~ *-1.l[l. Each trainee has his own ritual altar.x ii ~ilii1liO)'fffEl ~ ll. kan._ (_ ' <1.)~ . many Shingon trainees are not sufficiently proficient at siddham to be able to decipher the seed-syllable mandalas in the first place. kansatsu. Thus we resort to the expedient of diagrams and paintings il to reveal them to the unenlightened. B~ c:. Indeed. (The popularity of such shuji mandara fll r ~ ~*-1. no matter how expeditiously the rites are performed. They mean to bring to mind and reflect upon.i' (." "discernment. any contemplation of the phenomena and principle of all dharmas is called a kanso ~~ ~ ' ~ ~~' ~~ ~ ' mJl' ~. or to contemplate the true significance of forming the mudra and intoning the mantra.Elfiil ~'d: I) • {. . l >?!J! i.:.• C: .t O) !fJ O) ~ W O)f'f ~ 'd: r) . in writing].=: .'~ 11th I~\ ~ . tt£~*.~ ~ T ~ C:.$W . -g c:=. l ~ 1:. nowadays many Shingon novices undergo training in groups at headquarter monasteries (honzan :. All of these factors would mitigate against the development of visualization skills." and so on. many temples use shuji.t. the practices are so involved and time-consuming that a conscientious monk practicing in isolation who tarried over sections would soon find himself seriously deprived of time for meals and rest.t ~ C:. In addition.$: UJ) such as those at Koyasan or Daigoji.IJ:M!it 0) $J'! 0 o ~il'f ~ ~ ~~~~ 1:: fil}t'.I86 R O BERT H.i' (.. and ritual implements that Kukai brought back from China." To begin with. :. t .: ·~ ~ i:::fEl ff! iJPA t" ~ ~~ II t ' :s.:." "contemplation.5 L fl~t:. The following oft-cited passage from Kukai's Goshorai mokuroku iiffl~31<: §ilk. But even before the group training of priests became commonplace. where the relevant terms are glossed with phrases such as "fully concentrating one's thoughts" ~ f. . that is to say: to contemplate the meaning of the mutual interpenetration of the practitioner and the principal deity or saint. readily attests to the cardinal role accorded such images: The Esoteric teachings are so profound and mysterious that they are difficult to record with quill and ink [that is. SHARF Visualization and Mandala firmed by a casual glance through some of the standard East Asian Buddhist encyclopedias and Shingon lexicons. I do not mean to detract from their significance in the Shingon tradition. "bringing to mind" { : (. according to the lexicons virtually all of the terms that might qualify as Japanese eqUivalents of the English "visualization" are perhaps better understood as "thinking. may be due in part to the fact that they are easier and cheaper to produce than full-blown polychrome daimandara :::k~~*-f.fJJ. if the development of such skills were in fact the goal of the training.59 Thus. for example.c:=. and so on. so. but only a single set of mandalas is installed at the front of the sanctuary-a situation that renders the mandalas of limited value as visualization aids. "careful deliberation" and "careful consideration" eJ. although it is traditional for a practitioner to undergo Shidokegyo training in cloistered isolation. WZIJ:. monks would have been under considerable pressure to hasten through the rites. The entry for kanso in the Mikkyo daijiten W~:::k. 1::." versions of the Kongokai and Taizokai mandalas in which each deity is represented by a single siddham (Sanskrit) character. because all must wait for the slowest to finish before leaving the hall.. Among the three mysteries [kanso corresponds to] the operation of the mystery of mind. m . priests still find themselves forced to survive on little or no sleep during the final week of the Shidokegyo devoted to the Goma-an onerous practice that can take as many as four or five hours per sitting. shii. or to contemplate the real characteristics of a syllable wheel. Besides. There are additional factors in the Shingon treatment of mandalas that mitigate against their use as "aids to visualization. . WZtJ:En a~ ~ *68iii L -c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~il '9 ~ ~ ~ ii: -\.) Such seed-syllable mandalas would be of little help in visualizing the complex r87 iconographic detail of the deities. Peer pressure thus tends to ensure the expeditious performance of the rites and to discourage lingering over the contemplations. and so on. reads: Kanso: Kannen.~ 1"{. 1::.j2 L. Such monasteries offer instruction to as many as several dozen monks or nuns at a time who perform the practices together in a single large hall. or "seed-syllable.l' .58 And the detailed treatment of kanso in Mo- chizuki's Bukkyo daijiten is explicit concerning the continuity between Shingon kanso practices and earlier Buddhist meditation exercises in which the practitioner concentrates his mind on various "correct thoughts" in order to avert or expunge mental defilements such as lust and desire. teikan.. and so on all have roughly the same meamng. f. c:.

demeanor. for example. a Shingon mandala is not so much a representation of the divine as it is the locus of the divine-the ground upon which the principal deity is made manifest.~ fi\({iJll . Such ritual consecrations. which unequivocally attributes transformative or salvific powers to the sacred images he carried back from China. along with descriptions of their physical attributes and symbolic accouterments. however. Looking at a mandala. and the essentials of the Esoteric teachings are actuall y set forth therein. note his striking statement that "with a single glance one becomes a buddha" -. 7). were intended to transform an inanimate image into a living presence. for they are none other than the foundation f!Hffi of the ocean-like assembly [of enlightened ones]. Scholars believe that painted mandalas originally evolved from mandalas set upon the earth." 6 ! These well-known passages do not explicitly countenance the use of images for "visualizing" deities." 63 Such a translation mutes the force of Kukai's original statement.66 This is true of Shingon as much as of any other Buddhist school: Kukai returned with five one might simply call "illustrations. Indeed. 60 Similar sentiments are reiterated later in the same text: "The master [Hui-kuo] said that the scriptures and commentaries of the Mantrayana Esoteric teachings are so recondite that without the expedient of diagrams and paintings they could not be transmitted. bodhisattvas. They do. for example. to communicate in dreams. food. As I argued in the Introduction to this volume. with a single glance [at them] one becomes a buddha. albeit often rather large. throughout history. and ritual implements associated with each of hundreds of depicted deities but also the hierarchical and spatial relationships that exist between them (fig. The power or "charisma" believed to cohere to mandalas is mentioned explicitly in a variety of Tantric sources. including the commentary to the Mahiivairocana-sittra by . Furthermore. one is able to grasp at a glance not only the color. flowers. regarded icons of buddhas and saints as animate entities possessed of considerable apotropaic and redemptive powers. expanse of silk or paper. and so on.r88 Visualization and Mandala ROB E RT H. Chinese Buddhist biographies and temple records are replete with tales of miraculous occurrences associated with such images. typically involved an elaborate "eye-opening ceremony" in which the pupils of the icon 64 were "dotted" to the accompaniment of invocation rites and offerings. and other deities.geometrically arranged altars that functioned as the earthly abodes of divine beings. light. portraits of Shingon patriarchs are hung on either side of the central mandala during the Shidokegyo practices. 4." 62 in an exasperating accumulation of detail. bodhisattvas.67 His comments cited above on the power of mikkyo images thus refer not only to the Kongokai and Taizokai mandalas but also to these patriarchal portraits. Buddhists have. and ethnographic sources. Each portrait then functions as the "principal deity" of separate selfcontained r ites-the Daishi horaku :kBflii~~ (or Daishi mimae 7dli!i~M) and the Sonshi horaku ~ p. what r89 dhist sacred images. and icons thus empowered were worshipped with regular offerings of incense. Hakeda Yoshito. There is nothing particularly revolutionary in Kukai's attitude toward Bud- such patriarchal portraits and grouped them together with mandalas in his Goshorai mokuroku (fig. Tantric scriptures typically contain extended lists of buddhas. S HARF The various postures and mudrii [depicted in the mandalas] emerge from [the Buddha's! great compassion. and sittras. 68 Like all Buddhist icons. to sweat. Funerary practices and memorial rites for Chinese and well. But clearly Kukai believes that Shingon images are more than mere "illustrations ". modifies the passage in his translation by the insertion of a potential verb: "The sight of [the images] may well enable one to attain Buddhahood. Should these be discarded there will be difficulty in transmitting and receiving the dharma. to prophecy. The secrets of the siitras and commentaries are recorded in a general way in diagrams and images lffil! i~ . Here Kukai points to a more "magical" dimension of Tantric art that modern commentators are seemingly unable or unwilling to confront directly. the completion of a painted or sculpted Buddhist icon. and other deities but also to portraits of emi- As scholars of Shingon know all too nent Buddhist masters." a term used for visual representations of regions of the Buddhist cosmos derived from written sittras and commentaries-that is.iji i~ ~ -performed daily during the Shidokegyo retreat. it is easy to find oneself overwhelmed Japanese Buddhist patriarchs reveal that their spirits were believed to cohere to their portraits long after death.1 and pl. 4. posture.12.). images were known to fly through the air. One obvious but nonetheless noteworthy function of mandalas is that of visual commentary: they are capable of representing a vast number of polychrome deities on a single. archaeological. The first is that of hensozu ~ f§ i! . rendering such portraits sacred icons to be worshipped in the same manner as a buddha image or relic.65 The treatment of sacred images as animate beings applied not only to images of budd has. This attitude is well attested in textual. suggest alternative ways of understanding Shingon mandalas. or "transformation images. still widely performed today.

the presence of the manF 1 G u R E 4. are accordingly decorated with silk brocade hangings. fresh flowers. ~ because "the actual meritorious power of the Tathiigatas is now gathered together [there) in a single place" ~ t). Shingon ritual manuals say virtually nothing with respect to the use of man- dalas during the course of the initiatory practices. Shingon practice halls. ornate altar pieces and implements of fine lacquer and gold. In Buddhism the expression shOgon.72 If anything.~~:t:f .7° Here detailed directions are given for the construction and preparation of the altar. splendor. one of five portraits of patriarchs of Shingon Buddhism painted by Li Chen in the early ninth century and imported from China to Japan by Kiikai in 8o6. In fact. then.a is sa'!fsiira correctly perceived. or "adornment. This. . 212." functions as a technical term. and so on.Visualization and Mandala 191 Subhakarasil!lha and I-hsing. all of which are intended to reflect the glory of a pure buddha realm. The "adornment of the sanctuary" is thus a formal procedure wherein the place of practice is ritually transformed into the world of enlightenment-the instantiation of the Mahayana tenet that nirviit. the only section of the manuals that specifically mentions the mandalas is the set of preliminary instructions for "adorning the sanctuary" (dojo shogon )j ijjjllfJlit\(). exotic flowers.1 x 150 . rare jewels. According to Shingon doctrine. and incense." which include a resplendent array of exquisite pennants and banners. all of which must be completed prior to beginning the rites proper. or empowerment. This transformation of the sanctuary into a pure land is effected in large part through the agency of the image that constitutes the sacred presence of the principal deity. the arrangement of various ritual implements. Ky66gokokuji (T6ji). a realization ritually reaffirmed or instantiated every time one takes a seat before the honzon. ink and colors on silk.69 To come into the presence of a mandala is to enter the presence of the Tathiigata-one literally "sees the Buddha" and partakes of his lwji. 6 em. which explains that a mandala is called an "assembly"~ . such empowerment is no more and no less than the realization of one's essential identity with the Tathiigata.~. like their architectural counterparts in other Buddhist traditions. and the installation of the icons. often used as an equivalent to the Sanskrit terms ala'!fkiira or vyuha.~O* ~ Jp:)Jf. Hanging scroll. is the doctrinal basis behind Kiikai's bold claim that one becomes a buddha through a single glance at an Esoteric icon. Kyoto Prefecture. 71 In sutra literature these terms are associated with the magnificence. 12 (Opposite) Amoghavajra (C: Pu-k'ung). Photo: Ky66gokokuji. and supernal adornments of a "pure land. precious metals.

despite extensive ethnographic and textual evidence that suggests otherwise. It is not something that can be transmitted by usual modes of communication such as speech or writing .not rely on others. Buddhism was the subject of a sustained critique by Japanese intellectuals. many of whom were versed in Western philosophy. Through religious experience one gains direct intuition of the fact that the macroco~m~ the universe of Mother Nature-and oneself are essentially one." 76 In response. modern commentators are unable to avail themselves of these defensive strategies.( f*Ml is called the "inner witness" [jinaishO 13 pg ru£ ]." The tendency to disregard or dismiss the Buddhist veneration of images is yet another manifestation of what has become known as the Protestantizarion of Buddhism: the widespread penchant to present "real Buddhism" as a rational and humanistic creed that rejects sacerdotalism. In short. or to nurture a sense of reverence toward the Buddha's teachings. and buddhologists alike. and as is understood from the fact that the common Japanese word "private" [or "secret. contemporary writers tend to emphasize their didactic function. They argued that Buddhist ritualism must not be seen as an end in itself. One finds instead the reconfiguration of image worship in psychologistic terms.. SHARF Visualization and Mandala dala-an eminently visible supernatural being positioned directly in front of the practitioner-does not so much serve as an aid for visualizing the deity as it abrogates the need for visualization at all." and "unscientific" creed propagated by a self-serving. he says. In order to acquire it we can. as if Buddhist images were intended merely to symbolize the virtues of buddhahood.. Following the lead of their Zen and Pure Land coun_terparts Shingon exegetes-including such eminent authorities as Toganoo Shoun. Buddhist leaders. Alternatively. or "skillful means." "illogical. . Japanese opponents of Buddhism adopted many of the arguments used by European Enlightenment critics of Christianity.192 ROBERT H. the mtuition of the essential oneness of the macrocosm and microcosm. It lies within the domain of personal experience that IS Impossible to communicate to others. but rather as a means of engendering a profoundly liberating. art historians." "expenential. belief in the power of icons is often dismissed as a popular accretion antithetical to the tenets of "true Buddhism. Yamasaki Taiko. Yet all too often this aspect of Buddhist images is overlooked by contemporary apologists. Rather than treat icons in the context of the miraculous powers attributed to them. where the invocation and veneration of deities constitutes the heart of clerical practice. of ~he Japanese-was even held responsible for Japan's technological and scientific "backwardness. Buddhism was not so much "bad science" as it was "enlightened mysticism" or "transformative psychology. Shingon Apologetics and the Hermeneutic of Experience The "supernatural" or "magical" properties of Buddhist icons should be evident to all those familiar with the treatment of such images in Japan. nor as a primitive method of manipulating natural forc. Buddhism 193 is denounced as a "primitive. but must experience it personally by mystical intuition which remams the only means of comprehending it. and empty ritual." I have discussed the roots of the Japanese Buddhist "hermeneutic of experience" elsewhere and thus will limit myself to the briefest overview here. Shingon was particularly vulnerable to Western-influenced cnuques of religion due to the emphasis it placed on sacred icons and the sacerdotal powers of the priesthood. morally degenerate priesthood." in defense of their faith. respectable and immune to external critique at one and the same time. invoked the traditional rhetoric of upiiya." Ap~log1s~: for the Zen and Pure Land schools would thus emphasize the centrality of personal experience" (keiken *~~'or taiken fit~) in their respective traditions. 78 .7 3 Thus Theravadin apologists will insist on the Buddha's "humanity" and the purely pedagogical role of images. a strategy that had the felicitous result of rendering Buddhism intellectually . in a short talk on the meaning of th~ word mzkkyo." and "psychological" dimensions of Shingon practice. nonsectanan spiritual experience. While we may grasp it with our ordinary sense faculties. many of whom were schooled in Western thought. "Esoteric Buddhism is not theory but religious expenence. Buddhism-construed as a foreign import at odds with the genuine spiritual and eth~cal values. Matsunaga ~s unequivocal in this regard." naisho pg *?% ] is derived from It.f:. however. such that the elaborate rituals revolving around the invocation of deities and the worship of icons are construed as meditative exercises intended to inculcate a mystical or transformative "religious experience. In the case of Shingon." n And m his recent general introduction to Buddhist Esoterism Matsunaga writes: In Buddhism the realm of religious experience ff. 75 In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. and Matsunaga Yiikei-accentuate the "meditative. magic. propagating the fiction that Zen eschews the use of images altogether.74 Some advocates of Zen have gone even further.

Rather. Matsunaga goes on to say. D. T. drawing on sources such as Rudolph Otto and William James of ritual acts that comprises a Shingon invocation ritual was not traditionally understood as leading to some private mystical experience. simply fail to provide support for it. These exegetes body" and "the nonduality of practitioner and deity." material in the rites is often more discursive than visual. sacred speech (mantra). taking Carl Jung and his theory of archetypes as his point of departure. Citing the same passage from Kukai 's Goshorai mokuroku that I discussed above." the prescribed sequence adopted in part the Western rubric of "religious experience" in formulating their response. if Esoteric images are executed mechanically according to the manuals. appealing to the hermeneutic of experience to explain certain stylistic and iconographic features of the mandalas such as the frontal presentation of deities. Matsunaga argues that Shingon art must thus be understood in the context of religious experience. it generates the creative impulse. . The questionable claim that Shingon mandalas function as aids for medi~ ration is then simply one facet of an all-encompassing approach to mikkyo. refers to mandalas as "psychocosmogrammata" and as a "way to the reintegration of consciousness. my "eric" Japanese Buddhist "hermeneutic of experience" lie rather in the writings of analysis is largely commensurate with orthodox "ernie" doctrinal formula- twentieth-century Buddhist exegetes who found themselves forced to respond tions. . the kanso. and above all sacred art. This is the inner meaning of the mandala.79 The same claim is made by Yamasaki Taiko. where he realized enlightenment through meditation under a bodhi tree. an external instrument to provoke and procure such visions in quiet concentration and meditation." 84 For Tucci the mandala is an external representation of the psychospiritual forces that lie in the depths of human consciousness. in promoting the mandala as a sophisticated means of occasioning psychological and spiritual transformation. their essential life is lost. a support for meditation. whether tery of mind. For another.. Suzuki. approach that privileges inner experience over public performance. As a result Esoteric paintings possess a vital power that is not present in those of other types of Buddhism. there is surprisingly little correlation between the iconographic content of the major Shingon mandalas-the Kongokai and Taizokai-and the liturgical content of the invocation rituals with which they are associated. and they turn into facile formalizations . For one thing. of the process of human enlightenment. however. Conclusion I have examined in considerable detail some of the problems with the notion that Shingon mandalas are used as aids to visualization. The roots of the In emphasizing the performative dimension of Shingon rites. who says." 85 Here. and each feature of the mandala corresponds to some specific psychological aspect of the self and the process of spiritual evolution. but esoteric or exoteric. and their intellectual heirs." These contemplations are treated not so much as guided meditations.194 R 0 BE R T H • S H A R F Visualization and Mandala According to Matsunaga. meaningful one for Esoteric master and painter. that this is one area in which Esoteric Buddhism parts ways with exoteric Buddhism. thus.82 195 as mediated through the writings of Nishida Kitar6. the "privacy" of the world of inner experience explains the ubiquitous Buddhist rhetoric concerning the "inexpressibility" of absolute truth. through Ishida writes: As long as contemplative experience is a living. the mandala is a symbolic and concrete representation. too. As is evident from central tenets such as "becoming buddha in this very to powerful rationalist or empiricist critiques of their faith. they were . The prob- rather as liturgical recitations that constitute the ritual enactment of the "mys- lem with this exegetical strategy is that traditional Buddhist sources. "The source of the Mikkyo mandala is Shakyamuni's experience at Buddhagaya. an or "contemplative. for although the latter insists that the realm of absolute truth is utterly beyond expression. Tucci was also instrumental in popularizing the notion that mandalas serve as aids to visualization: "The mandala born. Indeed. and redemptive powers that traditional Buddhist sources categorically attribute to Tantric rites and images. and by meditation and ritual employing these forms. Mikkyo seeks to convey this experience of the source of the self by means of painted and sculpted forms. nary a mention is made of the soteriological. apotropaic. Esoteric Buddhism holds that the absolute can indeed be expressed in sacred signs (hyoji H\'l$/W ). Giuseppe Tucci. 83 Japanese Shingon exegetes were not the only ones to tout the experiential or psychological dimensions of Tantric art. in its turn. The preeminent and still influential early Western scholar of Tantric art." 80 Ishida Hisatoyo concurs. of an interior impulse became.Esoteric images both express and elicit the experience of the absolute . Ultimately. Tucci successfully masks the patently "idolatrous" nature of Buddhist icon worship.

as if he were in the presence of the principal deity. the extent of the East Asian contribution to the tradition now known as Shingon. and rituals. as if he had merged with Mahavairocana.and that between "pure" versus "mixed" esotensm (Junm1tsu ~W and zomitsu *ltW)-are not attested in India and may well have been Japanese innovations. the theory goes. they were finally brought together into a single unified system of doctrine and practice. thereby attaining his kaji. and the images used in the rites.86 Speculation on this issue would be premature. perhaps the most conspicuous being the disparity between the iconography of the mandalas and the content of their respective rites. Kiikai appears to have been responsible for the notion of a lineal genealogy of mikkyo masters originating with Mahavatrocana. like any accomplished stage actor. The kanso found in Shidokegy6 invocations contain numerous references to lunar disks. there is no denying the many patently visual or pictorial elements in the ritual contemplations. of course. if not probable. the fundamental categories used to delineate and define the Shingon school. as well as some of the iconographic detail. images. however. This chapter raises many issues that I am unable to pursue here. 88 These issues lie well beyond the modest scope of this study. were independently transmitted in unadulterated form from India to China. . The orthodox Shingon position has always been that the Kong6kai and Taiz6kai lineages. It should now be clear.196 Visualization and Mandala 197 ROBERT H. however. and their followers in shaping East Asian mikkyo. as the historical development of Shingon rites and images is still poorly understood. which was then transmitted directly to Japan. mutating seed-syllables. however. evolved in China rather than IndiaP In short. sustained training in these arduous practices would effectively alter one's affective response to the liturgies. including their scriptures. But at the same time. In entering the sanctuary and undertaking the rites a priest learns to behave as if he were dwelling in a sacred realm. Hui-kuo. that speculation as to the conception and function of Buddhist mandalas-and indeed all Buddhist religious icons-is of limited value unless predicated on the critical analysis of their ritual and institutional deployments. and. In China. SHARF viewed as the enactment of buddhahood. lotus blossoms. this imaginative "as if" aspect of Shingon performance demands that the practitioner. and mind of the Tathagata. It is certainly possible. which holds that Shingon meditations involve the psychological projection or "inner visualization" of an alternative universe.the practitioner literally mimics the body. speech. Scholars are now beginning to appreciate.that is. a wide variety of anthropomorphic deities. Kukai. It is almost as if the conjunction of rite and image were the result of a not-altogether successful attempt to synthesize two independent traditions-one liturgical and the other iconographic. Indeed. stupas. that this store of visual imagery would contribute to the construction of an elaborate imaginative world in which the sanctuary is construed as a pure buddha field populated by a host of benevolent deities. (Shingoo kaji might then profitably be analyzed under the rubric of "sympathetic magic. Scholars are also beginning to scrutinize the pedtgree of the Taizokai and Kong6kai mandalas. No doubt.ic teachings" (kengyo ~~). remain fully cognizant of his immediate physical environs. but much work remains to be done on the specific role played by each of these figures and the sources on which they drew. it now appears likely that the configuration of the two mandalas. and his disciples were the first to systematize the major invocation rites int~ the Shidokegy6 sequence. the opposition between "esoteric teachings" (mikkyo) and "exoter. the implements.") Be that as it may. As such my analysis stands in contrast to the phenomenological model. scholars are starting to grasp the significant part played by Amoghavajra.

111111. monks in Vinaya lineages was well established. Festschrift fur Herbert Franke.. Kyoto: H6z6kan. 96. the tradition of painting portrai~ of deceased ~~ment. It IS not certain that the fly whisk. . seigai bukkya no sokoku r[1 Chtisei kokka no shukyo kozo: taisei hukkyo to tai- : ft.inchener Ostasiatische Studien. He compiled the Saidaiii den'en mokuroku ril:i J\. !J!!!IE.i~L see Shusei.:. 1. 92.§'~fif!l C:.ofukup monks contmued to attend many events connected with Eison and Sa!da1p (Chusei no risshii jiin to minshu. 19-27. 210-20. "Sairinji s6ji to ama: chi. . "Tainai. r9RR). -) ll"(. 19 9 ' 99· d' 101 F ·. ~akao Takashi rp I€ 13t "Eison ni okeru sh<ljinbutsu no shinko" jrp. the locus classicus (see esp.~~ r. Two portrait P_amtmgs of Ia(~-hsuan . The colophons for these texts are found in Taikan. bd. no." in Studia SinoMongolica.. so-53.131. Sharf. For the text of the Saidaiii k6sh6 bosatsu gonyiimetsu no ki rZEi k. For a thorough study of Soji. ed.lj (Tokyo: Yoshikawa h>bunkan. 73." 6.c~.t. 25 (Wiesbaden. · d . 287-300. The Suvar~wprabhiisa-sutra is one of a set of three scriptures traditionally used to protect the state. _no. 3 . _ 6. 4 s. for example. 90.Matsuo notes that E1son and Nmsho brought many hinin under the control of_ Sa1dmp.:if. see Hosokawa Ryoichi *ln) II iJ)( ".isei risshu to nyonin kyusai" t 1[2 : rjJ t A. services at Eison's quarters (Saidaji den'en mokuroku: uragaki. 393 94 However. Shusei. a. Indogaku bukkyiJgaku kenkyu 5. 108. Germany: Steiner. For the texts of documents concerning Eison and the col h f · . Clnsho datshr kenkyzi (Kyoto Japan: Dohosh 8 ) 8 . Osun11 Kazuo (Tokyo: Yoshikawa kobunka ) ~ d '"hJ:L.:swn o~. 1997). 6 vols. reprint. or a rsc~. counts of 45 4 the numb~r of documents mcluded in the image vary because some items comprise several texts. 9_4· Shiisei. "On the Ritua I Use o f C'h' an Portraiture in Medieval China. 1 89.see. ~.: . 294) is insufficient to determine how close the similarities might have been. r9R3).. the provenance of the text is discussed by Narita Teikan EB ~ "Saidaiji koshcl bosatsu gonyumetsuki ni tsuite" r!Ei 7-. and to the other monks and support staff of Ki'ifukuji who went out of their way to accommodate me during several extended stays at the temple.( 191\o): 66-9r. Kurata Bunsaku fJ! ){ "Tainai nonyuhin" f1. 103. see Shusei 337-402. Saidaijiten. "Eta-Hinin.. 44). See note 30 to the Introduction of this volume.23R Notes to Pages 1 42. Nihon 110 biJtttsu R6 (1973): 17. . 44-45. see Kurata. r. the function of portraits in Ch'an funerary rituals as described in this article apply to Eison's image. see Taikan. 91.. unfortunately the text includes several undecipherable characters making it difficult to read (ibid. Many scholars have argued that hinin were co'ntrolled by Kofukup.. Sukui to oshie :f:iz l ' t ~. 56-57). the section entitled Pen-tsun san-mei /jl: T 848: r8. For a complete list of the items in the image. Hosokawa Ryoichi has criticized Matsuo on this point." Cahiers d'Extreme-Asie 7 (1993-1994): 192.1 Koyasan hterzan meihiJten !lilt fiX Ui :g (Tokyo: Sanke1 shmbun. Kyoe was one of Eison's closest disciples and is mentioned in a number of sources. c c • • •• : 239 102.± L:: ') l '"(. He also argues that the Kamakura bakufu (military government) may have actively supported Eison's proselytization and orgamzatwn of the hinin..ijt f!f fJi {-t L:}:. Sasaki Kaoru f i /. "Saidaiji eisonzo. were later replacements of original objects belonging to Eison. 1989 ). <11' IJ:l !iill l:l an Important source for research into Saidaiji landholdings. in ChisM daishi kenkyu henshu unka1. 98. The term honzon (C: pen-tsun) is thought to be derived from Tantric scriptures· modern lexical works cite the Chinese translation of the Mahiivairocanasutra.44a-b).. 1979 ). together with certain other objects currently handed down With the image such as a copper-handled censer placed to one s1de.47 Notes to Pages 148-5I Shigaku zasshi R9. 426. l > C:' BukkyiJ geijutsu 2R (1956): 37· However. ro6. Funds for the daily offerings who had contributed to other were contributed by the nun Myoh6b6 ~1. ' 97· Kobayashi Takeshi. Mikkyo daijiten in r. 245-54. The colophon on the dhiiral}l mentions protection of the state (Tatkan. and Roger Goepper." 29. i}. The image also contained a formulaic dedicatory statement concernmg such ISsues as the Three Jewels. Osumi Kazuo [ffi D (Tokyo: Heibonsha. . jl}J :tllf ed. Nagahara. but the data in Shokai's record (Shusei.1993 . 121-64. The term apparently lost its explicitly Tantric overtones rather early and came to be used by all sects in Japan. 1970. fama1. '. pls. 5. This text lists all of the landholdings either given to or bought by Saidaiji during a sixty-five-year penod ranging from 12 33 to 1298. . 6_ ). ed.J36. noting that K. . . lE ~OOA. 104. MZ 5: 4697b-9Ra. many such paintings were commissioned or earned back from China. Asada Masahiro i~EBIE shmp1tsuhon no hakken: shogoin shoz6 'sanbu manda' ni tsuite" 1 . "Some Thoughts on the Icon in Esoteric Buddhism of East Asia. T. 12. Shiisei." _ . 24-29. and Yuan-chao had been brought back from Chma by ShunJo m r2u · Subsequently. 33 37 95· KanJm gakushoki. I would like to extend my thanks to Abbot Tagawa Shunei for the opportunity to study mikkyiJ ritual at KMukuji in Nara. Mi. see Mikky<> Jiten Hensankai kr~f. 2 (1957): 23134. Taikan. r'ib. Kobayashi Takeshi 'J "Saidaiji eisonzo ni tsuite" [/Ej (. 2o68b-c. 12-q. Chapter 4 Research for this paper was supported in part by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 107.1 A. nos.the materials contained in the Seiryoji image of Sakyamum. in Kamakura jidai bunka denpa no kenky£i .:ffiij t (4. or not· see Tatkan.. 43· ' 93· Sec ibid.ijl! (1931. 440). n. 195-96. 2 . Griffith Foulk and Robert H. ros. en a1s u A. roo. 41-43.: I~. op ons o scnptures cop1e by those who Wished to be associated with the icon.

. Brodrick (New York: Samuel Weiser. Evolution of the Garbhadhatu Mandala.iM. The notion that the counterpart stgn of the kasn." journal of the International Assoctattan of Buddhtst Studtes r6.. Oyama Kojun k. see esp. "Some Thoughts on the Icon. R. 15. in the Pratyutpanna-buddha-sammukhauasthtta. 3· Ishida Hisatoyo. Thus. The Weauing of Mantra: Kitkai and the Constructton of Esotertc Buddhist Textuality (New York: Columbia Umvemty Press. 1962). . reprint. Ta-jih ching is short for Ta p'i-lu-che-na ch'eng-fo shen-pten chta-ch th _cht~g J::. and Yoshioka Ryoon_YJ IMJ . 1987. The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga)..D. r:206. 5· In recent years a number of scholarly publications have appeared that make accessible the kuden associated with various Shingon lineages. Ujitani. 1991). 1953). E. 30. Buckndl. Allan A. which refers to a stage in which practitioner and deity are one. Tanaka Kaio l:ll r:p !!!. 363 (New Delhi. ~ [1993 ]: 3s7 ). A. h. Sk: samahtta. known ~s t. Berkeley. and Denise Patry Leidy and Robert A. is later replaced by the "counterpart stgn (pattbhaganimitta)." Numen 40. see also 783b19-c6.f$ ~ /JO tH~~ (Sk: Mahavazrocana-abhtsa~bodht-utkurvttadhts­ tiina-vaipulya-sittra). Sata-Pitaka Series. The term I am translating as "absorption" is. Path of Purification. translated by Subhakarasif)1ha and 1-hsmg I~ 725 (T 84~): 14 ." journal of Indian Philosophy 6 (1978): _35-57. the publications of the oral commentaries mentioned above are intended primarily for initiated Shingon priests and thus they presume familiarity with the rites. (: L T (Tokyo: D6hosha.. no. . H.i-sittra (Ch'u-sheng wu-pten-men t o-1~-m chmg W1: ~ JIF~~EfllliE*§!). · "Buddhiinusmrti .a resembles a lum.. India: Aditya Prakashan. vol.{9f. For a standard Theraviidin account of this practice. The Tantric Ritual of japan: Feeding the Gads. Among the many discussions of the development of East Asian nien-fo-style practices from antecedents m the Agama htera_ture. . "Agon ni okeru shomyogyo ni tsuite" ~ilJiH: . Japanese Arts Library.})(to _ ~ L "J G)~' Ntppo~ 4 bukkyo gakkai nenpo 30 (1954): 51-70. rU i~ Chiiinryit no kenkyt"i 1t1 (Osaka. Takai Kankai J:fll. see also the discussiOn m Goepper. r997). Buddhaghosa. This is not to say that firsthand experience of the rituals is of no value.695 br9 -26.a. _ 16. Mikkyo jiso no kaisetsu ~ (Tokyo: Rokuyaon.240 Notes to Pages 153-55 Notes to Pages 155-57 2. see Pau1 H arnson. _ . Mikkyo jiso taikei (Kyoto. 1970). 13). Japan: Toho shuppan. I: r85-203.t nous circle such as a mirror or moon disk suggests a connectiOn With later Tantnc practices and iconography. Remterpretmg the jhanas. Andrews. Richard Karl Payne. 1987. 15 . 26-29. 21. 12. 2 (1961): 130-31. Numen 42. 1992). Moreover. F. 13o. "Lay and Monastic Forms of Pure Land Devotionahsm: Typology and History. " . (Sri Lanka. reprint. r5. Path of Purification. Toganoo Shoun Himitsu jiso no kenkyii !ilfJ'E. see Buddhaghosa. the Panchou san-mei ching ~Jiflr :=:B. . . Mammitzsch. For an analysis of the ideological agenda behmd Kuka1 s activities. . Japan: Mikkyo bunka kenkyujo. no. vol. 9· Buddhaghosa. T 179 6: 39 . vol. originally published as Himitsu hukkyo koyasan clnlinryit no kenkyu ILit:jJ Koyasan. . unqualified claims by scholars such as Michael Saso to the effect that the mikkyo oral traditions (Saso calls it the "oral hermeneutic") are available only to initiates working directly with masters (ajari ~)are overstated (Saso. . 1956. The Syncretism of Ch'an and Pure Land Buddhism. no. Koyasan. Asian Thought and Culture Series. . .]0 nen shuppankai. vol. Reference to the use of an image as a support for visuahzano~ m a sutra (as opposed to a commentary) can be found in Chih-ye~'s translatiO~ ~f _the Anantamukhasadhakadharm. "Some Tantric Techniques. . and is likened to a round mirror. India: International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan." lacking any faults that . T}O.f:*§! (T 418) translated in 179 A. The replica image first created in the mind's eye. India: Aditya Prakashan.. Sata-Pitaka Series. 2 of Toganoo shoun zenshtl tnrt (1935. 1991).705c23-6ar. trans. 37. 362 (New Delhi. 1999). Indogaku bukkyogaku kenkyu 9. Saunders. iw 241 8. Japan: Takai zenkeshu chosaku kankokai.: Shambhala Publications.L fJH£~#5\:..~ii~en . 17. r976)." 245-46. such experience often proves indispensable in deciphering the cryptic language of mikkyo ritual 9 (New York: Peter Lang. One of the earliest Buddhist scriptures translated mto Chmese. r: 128-29. Sata-Pitaka Series. Michael Saso's studies of Tendai mikkyo practices are predicated on the notion that Tantric art functions as the basis for meditative practice. vol. 2 vols. The Theory and Practice of the Mandala. no.?e "acqu~red sign" (uggaha-nimitta). Shingon mikkyo jiso gaisetsu-shidobushin'anryit o chitshin toshite .ert H. This second image is "pure. Ago~ky ni okeru nenbutsu no kigen" jlilJ t3"*-~ 1:::. 13 . 7· Ibid. see also the discussion in Rodenck S. 1962). Bhikkhu Nyiinamoli. ~nd so on (ibid. Mandala: The Architecture of Enlightenment (New York: Asia Society Galleries and Tibet House. and Homa Rites and Mandala Meditation in Tendai Buddhism.The Shingon Fire Ritual. teng-yin $iff r] I. . Japan: Oyama kojun hoin sh<)shin ki}c . Esoteric Buddhist Painting. first published in Japanese in 1969). in which the moon disk comes to play a central role. no. The same is largely true of the works of Buddhagh?sa. for a similar discussiOn of the use of a fabricated image to help "see" the deity.llfr~ilfL ~ rj:q::_. I)oth Anniuersary of the Founding of Koyasan (Koyasan. Sharf. 4· See also Ulrich H. r965).. r69. 365 (New Delhi. ~ J:l ~ .may be prese~t m the kasir.lj~ JiX {9f. and Ueda Reijo . ro. 6. 3 (1995): 239· . Japan: Koyasan University. 1991). T 1018: 19. :j"j (to .O)j~J!tr.[7g flit if[). samadhi-sutra. Calif. . II. Dale E. a mother~of-pearl drsh. Hawaii: Tendai Educational Foundation. Shth Heng-c mg.~oon drsk. "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Expenence.. 1982).3o. a . 1990).. 18. Homa Rites. by Lokak~ema (Chih-lou-chia-ch'an £:liill!Jili) describes practices intended to mvoke a VISIOn of Amitiibha. trans. I (1993): 18-19. Guiseppe Tucci. . see Ryiiichi Abe. trans. see his Tantric Art and Meditation: The Tendai Tradition (Honolulu. Thurman. 1986). Dale Saunders (Tokyo: Kodansha International. see Ro?." in Mikkyogaku mikkyoshi ronbunshii ~ )[ Studies of Esoteric Buddhism and Tantrism in Commemoration of the r.

M. 29. "Nyoirin. In addition. Miyata Taisen. and Payne. Rigen Daishi is celebrated as the founder of the Onoryu . 88 . "Commencement of the night" {1i . for example. according to tradition. 1984). 27. Tantric Art.'x_ ~ ¥' {. ed. is more or less representative of that used at mikkyo training monasteries: +- m' m + m' 2:00 P.: all of which are attributed to Kukai. the third performance of the Juhachido. 6 vols.67b-72b). 109. It continues today to be a prerequisite for denbo fit} i~ consecration. 1962). 2 (1986): 109-10.!. Michel Strickmann. Japan: Mikky6 bunka kenkyi:1jo.)\ J41.:. vol. 1i (Kyoto.]flififU)L (T1085: 20.M.. allowing 20 minutes or so to reset the altar. Himitsu jiso.t.fHJL (T 930: 19. traditionally attributed to KC1kai is in doubt. II: 00 A.M. diss. In Shingon history a variety of figures have been favored at one time or another. Shido shidai: koshin ho lm Tf!f.J . during which offerings of siitra recitations and mantras are made to the principal deity of each building and shrine. Bath A.j. A Study of the Ritual Mudriis in the Shingon Tradition: A Phenomenologt- cal Study of the Eighteen Ways of Esoteric Recitation (jiihachido nenju kubi shidai: chiiin) in the Koyasan Tradition-Including Translation of Kiikai's "] iihachido Nenju Kubi Shidai" (published privately.) See also Ozawa Shoki '] ' 7:~ [l. 30. "Canons of Giant Art: Ritual of Land and Water" (paper presented at the conference "Art and the Emperor: A Public Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Arts of China. Tantric Ritual. Mikkyo jiso. Kukai explicitly cites T 930 as the basis for his ]tihachido in the postscript to that work. 26 .: and the Jiihachido kubi shidai f \ ill J~ . It begins at about s: oo A..). 61. Shingon: Japanese Esoteric Buddhism. eds. Japan: Sohonzan chishakuin. six associated with the Ono line .58. :t:Jf*. 239-66. Shonyoirin-kanjizai-bosatsu nenju shidai :'¥! ~D!l. 22. In his Sangakuroku he mentions T 930 and T ro86. . Fl /.'f<. Himitsu jiso. The analysis of the Juhachido into nine major units is only one of several traditional ways of approaching the structure of the rite. see. and Takai.ZQ ~ !MlillM '&f (Cintamaryicakra Avalokitesvara). The manual. Initiation into the Juhachido is restricted to those who have been ordained as priests (tokudo fli}. in one lineage or another. and Todaro. There are. rn. Mikkyo jiso. Even then. however." Ohio State University. a variation ofT roSs. prior to the Juhachido proper the practitioner must undergo a preliminary purification practice known as raihai kegyo ffr~tftm fj· (prostration practice). 90-91. There are. 25 . I: 30 A. See the discussions in Toganoo. Yamasaki Taiko. This water is used for the preparation of altar offerings. and Fud6-myo6. twelve major Shingon initiatory lineages. The overall length of the retreat differs depending upon one's lineage and the tradition of one's local temple. . a situation that developed in part because each ajari is empowered to alter the manuals according to his or her own understanding of the rites. For a full discussion of the complex relationship between the various lineages. see Nihon Bukkyo Jinmei Jiten Hensan linkai El i>:19U~ A. Ritual for feeding the hungry ghosts 1i{!j ~Jt)l. Himitsu jiso.!i f!l: ~ ~0. El f:E:g ~. Chtlinryii. and Takai. Miyano Yuchi '/i~IDf ~iW and Mizuhara Gyoei 7]( 81{ :% ~ . no. Lunch ft 1t rt~. Shingon scholars believe that these manuals were based on both the oral transmission from Hui-kuo TM* (746-Sos). 16 . Richard and Cynthia Peterson (Boston: Shambhala. following the format favored at Saidaiji (Nara). Dale Allen Todaro.!4 k*hlti =~ ffil. tfgr .:).:31?: fi 1r 1JH~ f. Takai. 28.242 Notes to Pages r58-64 Notes to Pages I 57-58 19.{t ilrn . Rounds of the temple buildings 1?~ ~ -This is a short daily "pilgrimage" of the monastic grounds. for example. Columbia University. See Takai. r62. "An Annotated Translation of the Tattvasa'?tgraha (Part r ) with an Explanation of the Role of the Tattvasmrrgraha Lineage in the Teachings of Kukai" (Ph. The authenticity of many of the ritual texts. see Toganoo. ru-16. Sakyamuni. Himitsu bukkyoshi f£•iif. and Oyama. This completes the ritual day. Japan: Matsumoto nisshindo honten. 26. The daily schedule for the Juhachido used at KOfukuji today.D. i{i . or shidai . 72-74.. Koyasan.27. 14 Aprilr989 ). dozens of sublincages. Tanaka. See Takai.![1 (Mahavairocana) as pnnCIpal deity. from which sprang the Sanb6inryi:1. 22. (Koyasan." 2.:).{t ~r'li . the differences between the rites as actually performed are relatively minor. 1985). that the Shidokegy6 had become the standard course of ritual training for all Shingon monks by the end of the Heian . 243 "Late night" ~~ iJZ . Mikkyo jiso no kaisetsu. the second performance of the JCthachid6. 1933)." journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 9. "Annotated Translation. see Saso. The only major feature distinguishing the Juhachid6 of one line from the jllhachid(J of another concerns the identity of the principal deity: the Chuinryu rl:~ l~feiilE (the tradition currently dominant on Mount Koya).203c-6c). 25. (This text is based on a set of manuals dated Tensho X IE 4 [1576] . and the Kuan tzu-tsai p'u-sa ju-i-ilm niensung i-kuei liDH::J ti:TI=~i. however.tlffii!! .17. Mikkyo jiso. Rite for drawing holy water [from the well] iJ. It is unclear just who was responsible for the system that emerged by the end of the Heian period (794-II85).~!'f'rfri tradition. including Amitabha. uses Dainichi Nyorai f.31. Homa Rites. and idem. r of Toganoo shoun zenshii (1933.H~ ilJU {'fj." 103-4· 23. Mikkyo jiso. 24. 21. and idem.. 1988). "Midday" El rp . !MiiWl. trans. For an English-language treatment of contemporary Tendai Shidokegyo rites. which usually takes one to four weeks to complete. see Toganoo. reprint. ~r iift and six associated with the Hirosawa line f~~iftt . This is the first performance of the Juhachido.. r'fi ). Nihon bukkyo jinmei jiten E1 4:f?U5( A. Mikkyo jiso.M.89.'f91:~ if_. 34· 31.ziH\H~ ~": . Gengo's manual is in turn based on the }tlhachi geiin f\ 4Zi Ell. see Toganoo Sh6un. 95 . r982). while the Sanboinryu stemming from Daigoji reaN! 41' (Kyoto) favors Nyoirin Kannon /. :t'J ii$ * . as well as on Amoghavajra's Wu-liang-shou ju-lai kuan-hsing kung-yang i-kuei J!!. n 6 -17. Cleaning ill t~j til [. Shidokegyo shidai [LqfJit!JD fi' :xm . Breakfast ft 1'f i!. This performance follows the "Late Night" performance. 20. 29 .96. It is clear. "A Study of the Earliest Garbha Vidhi of the Shingon Sect. the ]iihachido nenju shidai -t· J\ ill . as honzon for the jl1hachido.: ~ 'was edited by Geng6 it: 4f: (914-995) and remains highly influential today.

yet the iconography of the ichiin-ne of the nineassembly mandala contains a single figure. 34· T 2471: 78. 2:634-36. 265. Mikkyo jiso.$:. Accounts of the thirty-seven deities of the jojin-ne can be found in Ishida. India: Aditya Prakashan. Notes to Pages 178-79 245 39. Mikkyo jiso. 289-90. (Sanboinryii). See Takai. 4 of Toganoo shoun zenshu (1927. vol. 2:725.:J. 275-79. 384. much of the available evidence suggests that a six-assembly Kongokai mandala preceded the nine-assembly model. and Snodgrass. "Kongokai. Sata-Pitaka Series. see Takai. 38. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. 1986). Ueda. Shingon mikkyo.t(l)ffi]/l!H. T. Tajima Ryiijun. 278-8o. and Todaro. Shidokegyo shidai.:Iiliflf.72arff. Ishida. "Kongokaiho no mondai" ~~IJW 7. Ozawa. and ichiinne. ~ ~*10 t\'!1: (Tokyo: Tokyo bijutsu. 196-97. Shido shidai.~. In fact. India: Sharada Rani. Mikkyo jiso. Ryogai mandara.. 128-29. Kiikai and Shobo are the subjects of separate commemorative services held immediately following the "midday sitting" (nicchu El $) during each day of the Shidokegyo retreat-the Daishi horaku :*:liliflr:t~ (or Daishi mimae :J. Tajima. Ueda. gozanze sanmaya e. Shido shidai. "Kongokai. Ryogai mandara no chie ii!ii 3'f. Mikkyo jiso. Mikkyo jiso. Japan: Hozokan. see Todaro.. 36. The standard rite can be found in Ozawa. u8-19. as well as the comments interspersed in Oyama.Tattva-Saiigraha.s. detailed exegesis of the final two assemblies. vol. and the rishu e) to be incorporated into the Kongokai cycle. 1957). 246ff. This allowed the last three assemblies (the gozanze e. 344 (New Delhi. sanmaya e.:§ijjf. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. Ryogai mandara. 4 4 . India: Sharada Rani. see Snodgrass. 46. The jojin-ne is also referred to as the kongokai daimandara ~ ~lj 3'f. "Introduction. Koyasan. according to Todaro. 33· On the historical and textual issues surrounding the Kongokai mandala itself. 141. Japan: Mikkyo bunka kenkyiijo. 1979). For the rite itself. Mikkyo jiso. Hatta Yukio /\EB:¥. Shingon mikkyo. Ozawa. see found in any Kongokai ritual manual until the time of Goho the Sanjukkan kyoo gyomon shidai IX~. 2:555-58. Miyano and Mizuhara. cf. Although Shingon scholars have claimed that Gengo's work represents an oral tradition running through Kiikai. On the relationship between the Kongokai rite and the mandala. and the Sonshi horaku ~liliflrt~ (or Rigen Daishi mimae l'!f!ijjf. "Annotated Translation." 13-14. 6 (Tokyo: Maison Franco-Japonaise.37rb-87b). 227-42." 103. and Saso. The Chiiinryii version is identical to that of the Sanboinryii given above. Ryogai mandara. misai e). Japan: Hozokan. "Kongokai-ho. On the relationship between this specific rite and the mandala. 4 o.Tathiigata. vol. Early Kongokai ritual manuals contain references to the mudriis and mantras of the jojin-ne. 43.244 Notes to Pages r66-78 ~~!. 1982)." 107. Snellgrove. Although the jojin-ne represents the thousand Buddhas. 4L T 2471: 78·72b22-26. 269 (New Delhi. and Snodgrass. Takai. 1992)." 92-107. Les deux grands mandalas et Ia doctrine de l'Esoterisme Shingon. and Adrian Snodgrass. Ryogai mandara. 2 vols. see Nakagawa Zenkyo rp Jll ed. 354 (New Delhi. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. One problem is that the scriptural references for this assembly mention thirteen and seventeen deities. r69ff. Gobushinkan no kenkyu 1i '1m {-'II 0) lilf3'1: (Kyoto.l!Jrlfj)." w8. Snellgrove. and Mikkyo daijiten. 279-89. 1959 ). 261-65. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. "Kongokai. 103-285." a category that includes virtually every Kongokai manual in use today. "Annotated Translation.(Kyoto. Mandara no kenkyu ~~*! 0lilf3'1:. except for the omission of the "discernment". 37· A description of the iconography can be found in Ishida. but there is little evidence that would rule out a Japanese origin.. Ishida Hisatoyo EEBMl Mandara no kenkyu ~~il0lilf3'1:. Gengo's analysis of the relationship between the nine assemblies of the Kongokai mandala and the ritual sequence of the Kongokai rite was treated as authoritative by virtually all later Shingon commentators." in Lokesh Chandra and David L. Hatta Yukio. r98r). 276-79. "Jiihachido. 2:7or-2. and David L. Indeed. Mikkyobunka124 (1978): 104-78 (reverse numbering). Ryogai mandara.. 2:576-633. are not (1306-1362. The Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas in Shingon Buddhism. Comparative Iconography of the VajradhatuMandala and the Tattva-Sangraha." 84-99." 17. Toganoo Shoun. 121-28. idem. Japan: Shinnoin. r89-353. Sata-Pitaka Series. the sixteen are graphically represented in the sanmaya e. 265-67. T 2226: 6r. see Ishida. thus ensconcing them within the Tattvasarpgraha lineage. 1988). Shido shidai. See the full discussion in Todaro. Japanese scholars generally credit Hui-kuo with the development of the nine-assembly mandala. kamma e (that is. see Ozawa. and Snodgrass. n. 5-14. Homa Rites. r85-235 (Tendai). Chuinryu. Shido shidai. Shidokegyo shidai: chuin pg !tim ff (Koyasan. kuyo e." 62-roo. see esp. 2:698-702. 1975). r66 -90. I98I). 274-79. the gozanze e and gozanze sanmaya e. "Nyoirin. Shashibala. For a description of this assembly. 94-96. "Kongokai. . and Snodgrass. vol. Shidokegyo shidai. The Chiiinryii dojokan for the Jiihachido is basically identical except for the identity of the principal deity. Sarva." 51-53. "Annotated Translation. shiin-ne. 35· See Takai. 45. Todaro argues that the evolution of what he calls "abbreviated manuals. (Tokyo: Tokyo bijutsu. Ibid. 2 vols. to my knowledge there is no compelling evidence for this. Mikkyo bunka {[:: 88 (1969): r2o-ro2 (reverse numbering). Horiuchi Tomohito :fiffi pq "Kongokai kue mandara no meisho ni tsuite" ~ ~lj !f)! 7 / )1" 7 0) ~fill(:_-::> C. Snellgrove discusses a Tibetan version of the mandala in his Buddhist Himalaya: Travels and Studies in Quest of the Origins and Nature of Tibetan Religion (New York: Philosophical Library." 46. Ueda. :*: ~ ~ the kamma e and the konpon e tN:. Shido shidai. and the kuyo e. and Ishida. Mikkyo jiso. 42. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. "Kongokai. Ozawa. r36-37. David L. Miyano and Mizuhara. the misai e. 32. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Les deux grands mandalas. 2:716-27." 98. These sixteen properly represent the thousand Buddhas of the bhadrakalpa.. see Takai. Sata-Pitaka Series. 68c-69b.l!J On the positioning of the portraits. Shingon mikkyo. see Takai. (for the Chiiinryii). Bulletin de Ia Maison FrancoJap~naise. and Takai. reprint. 1986). was made possible by Gengo's explanation of the central jojin-ne as containing all nme assemblies. idem.

Himitsu jisi5. which stands for dana or "charity. the Goma is not associated with a pictorial or graphic mandala at all. 49· This rite is also known as the goho jojin J. The jirinkan is not included in the Jiihachido of the Chiiinryii. dais from Sanskrit da. eds. translated by Amoghavajra (Tr665: 32·574br7ff. Mikkyo jiso. He is wearing a jeweled crown of five buddhas. the major assemblies of the Taizokai mandala are individually invoked m the shoe shoshi5 bun ·~l'l segment of the rite (Toganoo. (Nakagawa. sr. This is the shinchitshin shingon {. 1988). in the Tantric system. 129-30. Shidokegyo shidai. M1yata Tmsen and Dale Todaro. the mvocanon of the assemblies is performed en masse with a quick mudrajmantra combmauon and no visualization component whatsoever (much like the sanjitshichtson mgon sequence of the Kongokai). His body emits an exquisite light that illumines the dharmadhii. al!l. which stands for rajas or "defilement". Divyadundubhi-meghanirgho~a. "Kongokai.tu. one monk at KOfukuji saw the absence of a kansi5 in this segment of the nte as an advantage because it allowed a particularly tedious section of the Kongokai ritual to be performed relatively quickly. And although the deities of the central 247 eight-petallotus of the mandala are invoked individually. see Miyata and Todaro. the blazing altar is itself the living body of Fudo. Shingon mikkyo. vu. Amitii. For Englishlanguage treatments of the Chiiinryii version. Fudo's presence in the hall is not constructed in the "mind's eye"in an interior eidetic visualization.) In addition. Handbook on the Four Stages of Prayoga. Shidokegyo shidai. Shidokegyo shidai. Chitin Branch of Shingon Tradition fKoyasan. 52. the same is not true of the Taizokai. Takai. and yu.) In other words. 285-91.ja. "Kongokai. it is the elaborate Goma altar itself.284c2223). It is thus not surprismg to find references within the rite to the thirteen assemblies of the Taizokai mandala and to the individual deities associated with some of the assemblies. val!l. So). Finally. Shido shidai. (The fire pit in the center of the altar. Tantric Ritual. The Taizokai rite includes explicit allusions to the construction of the altar/mandala described in the Mahavairocana-sittra. "Jiihachido. cf. Ryogai mandara. Ozawa. If there is a mandala present. Handbook on the Four Stages. so. but it is not used as an actual prop or support for visualization in the course of the rite itself. "Kongflkai. Thus the Japanese mantric syllable ha is from the Sanskrit va. Shido shidai. cf. Takai. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas. Each syllable of the Sanskrit mantra has. Chuinryit. goso nikkan 1i 1fl A 1illl. "Nyoirin. 55. Shido shidai. Manjusrl. Shidokegyo shidai. Samantabhadra. ar~d the eight deities of the "Central Platform Eight-Petal Assembly" (chittai hachzyo m rf1 arrayed around the central Vairocana are the subject of the segment known as the "secret eight mudriis. 2: 637-44· 47· Interestingly. Mikkyo jisi5. ha~. 237-38. Although the syllables that appear on the ." rr6-r7." 23-28. Tajima. and Ueda. although an image of Fudo is usually enshrined as the principal deity of the Goma Hall. Japan: Department of Koyasan Shingon Foreign Mission. Satfl.f!J ll'ID iilfil (T 869: r8. 56." (This rite does not appear in the manuals associated with the Sanboinryii.vairocana." 78-79. Shidokegyo shidai. Comparative Iconography. Shashibala. Oyama. 291-92. the syllable ra is from the Sanskrit ra. dressed in fine silk robes and wearing a necklace of many precious jewels." 32-34. and so on. Ozawa. For example.t. are perfunctory: With the sole exception of the central "eight-petal" assembly.and (5) perfection of the buddha body {?~ . the relationship between the Taizokai rite and its mandala is subject to the same critical analysis given above for the Kongokai. Miyano and Mizuhara. where the five elements of this discernment are enumerated as (r) penetration of the original mind iiH (2) cultivation of the bodhi mind ~~ (3) attainment of the vajra mind (4) realization of the vajra body ~. Mikkyo jiso." 90-91. ~y all_the~eitres of the three-tiered mandala. Ta1zokm . Liturgical allusions to the assemblies and deities of the mandala within the rite. cf. and Nakagawa.). Miyano and Mizuhara. one or more fundamental meanings. cf. "Nyoirin. "Jiihachidfl. and Payne. Miyano and Mizuhara.246 Notes to Page 180 Notes to Pages r8o-85 On the twenty deities." 59.bha. Maitreya. left and right. "Garbhako~adhatu. I94· 54· Miyano and Mizuhara. Rather. and the discussions in MZ 2:1236a-c. and so on. Mikkyo jiso.. Ishida. go ten jojin 1i ~i hx !1f. I will return to this point in the conclusion to this chapter. the analysis in Takai. Be that as it may. although it is included in each of the other three rituals of the Shidokegyo. Ozawa.> r:p ("heart within the heart mantra") of Nyoirin Kannon. In the eight directions above the leaves of the lotus there are eight syllables: rm!l. 48." 24-25. which receives the offerings." and so on. which stands for vac or "speech". They are surrounded front and behind. 174-78.) In short. 191-96. "Kongokai. 253-58. Like the Kongokai. Shidokegyo shidai. Whereas the manuals associated with the Kongokai ritual make no explicit reference to the nine assemblies of the corresponding mandala. 286-309." 27-28. the culminating section of the "contemplation of the sanctuary" (di5jokan) describes the central section of the mandala in detail: This stupa changes and becomes the Tathagata Mahii. is Fudo's gaping mouth. derived from the Sanskrit om varada padme hum. These transform into Ratnaketu. cf. Sa111kusurnitarii. 30-33. here too it is in the midst of a series of morphing images. 203-5. Canonical sources on the goso jiijinkan include the Chin-kang-ting ching yii-ch 'ieh shih-pa-hui chih-kuei {JZ: /\ translated by Amoghavajra. see Takai. Avalokite5vara. Les deux grands mandalas." 54-61. Shido shidai. and Snodgrass. the presence of the sacred Taizokai mandala may well contribute to the imaginative or affective efficacy of rite (see below). a. See also the Chin-kang-ting yii-ch'ieh chung fa a-nou-to-lo-san-miao-san-p'u-t'ihsin lun 'if: l!ijlj Nlfffi< {IJO $ . for example. 53· See. while explicit. there is greater consonance between rite and mandala in the case of the Taizokai than in the Kongokai. Ozawa. He sits erect.

Sharf. "Some Thoughts on the Icon. "'Junmitsu to zomitsu' ni tsmte" ~ . Davis (Boulder. K01ch1 Shmohara. with an Account of His Life and a Study of Hrs Thought (New York: Columbia University Press. japanese Mandalas: Representations of Sacred Geography (Honolulu: Umvers1ty of Hawall Press. respectively. 1972).: Westview Press. William Dwight Whitney Linguistic Series (New Haven. 64. On miracle stories associated with Chinese Buddhist images." 198a. 3. see also s. noa). 148. 40-45. Weavmg of Mantra. "In Esoteric Buddhism [hensozu] are known as mandalas" (Bukkyogo daijiten. 1998). kansatsu. see. Vajrabodhi (Chin-kang-chih 671-741). 69. "kannen. Hensozu.v. 198r). I-hsing 705-774). For an alternative reading of the Pali tradition. see also s." in Buddhism in Ceylon and Studies on Religious Syncretism in Buddhist Countries ed. 1978). 74· The writings of David Kalupahana. See note 31. Indogaku bukkyogaku kenkyu 15.. Yael Bentor.p Bukkyogo daijiten {:!ll~~." 250-52· 73· Gananath Obeyesekere coined the term "Protestant Buddhism" to refer to the late-nineteenth-century Ceylonese revival of Theravada Buddhism (Gananath Obeyesekere. like kansatsu. ed. Mikkyo jiso. for example. 65.'" and "Dynastic Politics and Miraculous Images: The Example of Zhuli of the Changlesi Temple in Yangzhou. Hakeda. Miyasaka Yusho Onozuka Kicho tHffJ:*~ eta!. 767a. N. ed. and Hui-kuo (746(683-727). "Inventing a Living Icon and a Theory of Divine Images in Medieval China" (paper presented at the symposium "Living Icons in Five Traditions: Theories and Practices. 145-46 (emphasis added). see also s. as found in practices such as the contemplation of the syllable A. In mikkyo it refers to the operation of the mystery of mind through 'bearing in mind' following mikkyo doctrines. MZ 3: 2607a-9b. 1953). The term has since been used by a variety of scholars to characterize Western scholarly conceptions of the Buddhist tradition. r (1991): 1-23. and Wu Hung. 152-54. As such.On image consecration rituals." in Images. Stanley Tambiah. 124.v." Modern Ceylon Studies r.248 Notes to Pages r86-89 Notes to Pages r89-92 moon disk differ depending on the identity of the principal deity. All are listed under the general heading "Buddhist images etcetera" {:!llf~~ (T 2r6r: 55. Mikkyo Jtten W~~\!if!!. T 2I6I: ss. "Changing Roles for Miraculous Images in Medieval Chinese Buddhism: A Study of the Miracle Image Section in Daoxuan's 'Collected Records. cf.§j. Heinz Bechert (Gottingen. and Ueda. "kannen. two of the Kongokai mandala. The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of ChanjZen Buddhism (Princeton." in From Benares to Beijing: Essays on Buddhism and Chinese 21 3 249 Religions in Honour of Professor jan Yiin-hua. "kansatsu"). and idem. 15. repnnt 3 vols. Col.:~:if!!. Amoghavajra (Pu-k'ung 805). as well as the differences be(pure esoterism) and zomitsu 'flEW (mixed esoterism). 2:520. 3r January 1998)." Cahiers d'Extreme-Asie 7 (1993-1994): 149-219.~ -9 <S · .v. see. T 216r: ss. "On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China. 1975]. 1 [1970]: 43-63). 197c-d (s. The list of images consists of three versions of the Taizokai mandala. 2 vols. ed. 67. r 4 5. Tokyo: Tokyo shoseki. 71. 63. there are few differences m the structure of the contemplation itself. 68. Richard Gombnch.I064bii-21). and Franklin Edgerton. Gregory Schopen. 1986). 28r-~o . the contemplation of the attainment of the (buddha) body through the five marks and the contemplation of the syllable wheel" (Sawa Ryuken {1:fD~iliJf. no. On tween junmitsu these d1stmcnons see esp. Griffith Foulk and Robert H. r96a (s. r (1992): 1-31. no. J. see the comments in Goepper. 57· Mikkyo daijiten.v. Brill.4 6. "Religious Symbolism and Political Change in Ceylon. "The Idolization of Enlightenment: On the Mummification of Ch'an Masters in Medieval China. Conn. for example. Hakeda. no. 1999). as well as the anthropologically oriented studies by Melford Spiro. idem. 66. Kukai. Consecration of Images and Stupas Indo. or simply henso is most commonly used for depictions of P:rr~ lands and hell realms." History of Religions _32." 4r8a. "Kosala-Bimba-Vannana. 58. "kanso"). Kukai: Major Works. This is also known as the "adornment of the altar place" (danjo shogon ±l±i'ii~:Ul~). 1991). and Robert H. qr-88 and 189-206. Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.J. and Kukai Kobodaishi kukai zenshu "lJE." University of Chicago. Sharf.[Kyoto.. Ont. and Gananath Obeyesekere.ro65bio-rr. . does not merely mean to see but to discern and illuminate with wisdom ~ ~ t "J l"5t ~lj !f~ . 2: 553. see Takai. and Authority in Asian Religious Traditions. see Peter Masefield. On this issue.: Princeton University Press.(1975 . Nakamura Hajime r. (Tokyo: Chikuma shobo. Kukai. Miracles. Misaki Ryoshu :. 203-28. E3 T1796: 39.. . 407c. The Consecration of a Buddhist Image. 6r.). no. m r. 70. cf.: Mosaic Press. Ta-jih-ching shu k. Nakamura Hajime notes. scholars are prone to exaggerate the gap between kengyolJj~ (exoteric teachmgs) and mrkkyo (esoteric teachings). Another standard Shingon dictionary defines kanso as follows: "In Buddhism kan." journal of Asian Studres 26 (1966): 23-36. London: George Allen and Unwin. 2 (r96 7 ): 535-40. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Hakeda. 1983). "Archaeology and Protestant Presuppositions in the Study of Indian Buddhism. Bernard Faure. Such continuity should not be surpnsmg: all too often scholars of East Asian Tantric Buddhism are the unwitting heirs ~f Shmgon polemics that exalt the uniqueness and superiority of Japanese mtkkyo . see esp. "The Maitreya Image in Shicheng and Guanding's BIOgraphy of Zhiyi. (::_ -) ~ >l".. 94-96. ursd). Shingon mikkyo. Walpola Rahula. the translation in Yoshito S.626a9-rr. See also Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis. and Abe. 197c-d. Divine Revelation in Pali Buddhism (Colombo: The Sri Lanka Institute of Traditional Studies. See esp.:: ~)ili]. and one portrait each of Subhakarasif!lha (Shan-wu-wei 637-735).. 6o. 59: MZ 1:8o9b. the contemplation of the moon disk. T. and Nyanaponika Thera might be cited as examples. 199 6).Tibetan Tantric Buddhism (Leiden: E." History of Religions 31. 1991). Richard H. Translated. Gregory Schopen and Koichi Shinohara (Oakville. 7 2.v.: 8 vols.ro64b26-29. 62. ed. Japan: Hozokan.: Yale University Press.

1995). see Sharf. ed. Shashtbala. India: International Academy of Indian Culture. Esoteric Buddhist Painting. Mark C. and idem.. Toganoo. 88. Lopez Jr.J. Japan: Research Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture. Centre National de Ia Recherche Scientifigue (Paris: Centre National de Ia Recherche Scientifigue. "Buddhist Modernism". In addition to Orzech and ten Grotenhuis. see esp. 25. The Japanese literature bearing on the origins and evolution of the mandalas is extensive. Weaving of Mantra. 83. "Mal}qala et yantra dans le sivai'sme agamigue. but all concede problems in tracing certain features of the mandalas to these (or any other) Indian scriptures. Donald S. The Esoteric Iconography oflapanese Mandalas. Brunner argues that the rites she investigated may well have developed independently of the images with which they came to be associated. Taylor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and Snodgrass. I97I). 78. 85. N. Shingon." in Mikkyo: Kobo Daishi Kukai and Shingon Buddhism. 76. no. passim. Yamasaki. "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism. 37· 86. but rather are neologisms coined in the early Meiji as translation equivalents for the English "experience" and the German erleben (or Erlebnis) respectively. 1989). 1986). ed. ~] ~4>="(Tokyo: Chii6k6ron. Ibid. 53-57· Many Shingon scholars continue to insist that the 1:1izclkai mandala is derived primarily from the Mahavairocana-siitra. Andre Padoux (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifigue. and ten Grotenhuis. Tucci. Mikkyo: indo kara nihon e no denshO "(Ef'l. ed. 107-60. 1990). 79· Ibid. 77· Matsunaga Yukei "Esoteric Buddhism: A Definition." in L'Image Divine: Culte et Meditation dans l'Hindouisme. while the Kong6kai is based on the Sarvatathagatatattvasaf!lgraha. James Edward Ketelaar. 26-27. 1990). vol." History ol Religions 29. Matsunaga Yukei. 27. 87. Evolution ol the Garbhadhatu Mandala. works in English include Lo- Note to Page I97 251 kesh Chandra. Ishida. Of Heretics and Martyrs in Meiji Japan: Buddhism and Its Persecution (Princeton. 123.: Princeton University Press. 27. I (1989): 109-13.250 Notes to Pages 192-97 75· See Sharf. : 1 / r: iJ' C. Note that the key Japanese terms for "experience" -keiken and taiken-are not found in premodern Japanese or Buddhist literature. see esp. and idem. Theory and Practice. 84. and Ishida. Special Issue of the Bulletin of the Research Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture (K6yasan. Mammitzsch. Mandara no kenkyu. Ibid. Mandara no kenkyu. vii. 81. Matrix and Diamond World Mandalas." in Mantras et Diagrammes Rituels dans l'Hindouisme. ." in Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism Under Colonialism. "Seeing Chen-yen Buddhism: Traditional Scholarship and the Vajrayana in China. Koyasan University. On the Meiji critique and persecution of Buddhism.. 1998). 2:558-64 . Sata-Pitaka Series. So. The most sophisticated revisionist analysis to date of early Shmgon lS found in Abe. 3349. "L'image divine dans le culte agamigue de Siva: Rapport entre !'image mentale et le support concret du culte. Charles D. 1990). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press." r24-25.. ed. ComparatiVe Iconography. Japanese Mandalas. 27. 92 (New Delhi. 9-29. idem.. Orzech.. "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism. II-35. 94-n6. see Helene Brunner. An analogous disparity between image and rite is found in some of the forms of Hindu Saivism studied by Helene Brunner." in Critical Terms in Religious Studies. 82. "Experience.