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Ex. No.



1. Blast

Signs and symptoms

initial symptoms are white to gray-green lesions or spots with darker borders
produced on all parts of shoot

older lesions elliptical or spindle-shaped and whitish to gray with necrotic


lesions wide in the center and pointed towards end

lesions may enlarge and coalesce to kill the entire leaves
symptoms also observed on leaf collar, culm, culm nodes, and panicle neck

nodal infection causes the culm to break at the infected node

few, no seeds, or whiteheads when neck is infected or rotten
a. Leaf blast: On the leaves, the spots are typically spindle shaped with dark brown
margin and grey centre. Several spots coalesce resulting in bigger lesions and
leading to drying of affected leaves.
b. Nodal blast: Necrotic black lesions are observed at nodes resulting in weakening
of nodal region. The portions above the node dries up and break at the point of
c. Neck blast: The neck region of affected panicle becomes black and necrotic and
the transport of nutrients to grains is blocked leading to chaffiness or ill filling of
grains. The ear head breaks at the neck region.
d. Grain infection: The branches of the panicle and the grains are also infected.
Dark brown spots appear on the glumes.
Fungus : Pyricularia oryzae (Sexual stage: Magnoporthe grisea).
The mycelium is hyaline when young and olivaceous when it matures, septate, interand intracellular. Conidiophores emerge through stomatal opening or pierce through
the epidermal cells. Conidiophores are olivaceous, septate and geniculate. Conidia
are pyriform (pear shaped), hyaline to pale olive, and two septate (three celled) and
are provided with a basal appendage called hilum.

Why and where it occurs:

In the tropics, blast spores are present in the air throughout the year, thus favoring
continuous development of the disease. The infection brought about by the fungus
damages upland rice severely than the irrigated rice. It rarely attacks the leaf sheaths.
Primary infection starts where seed is sown densely in seedling boxes for mechanical
In the temperate countries, it over seasons in infested crop residue or in seed.
Cloudy skies, frequent rain, and drizzles favor the development and severity of rice
blast. High nitrogen levels, high relative humidity, and wet leaves encourage infection
caused by the fungus. The rate of sporulation is highest with increasing relative
humidity of 90% or higher. For leaf wetness, the optimum temperature for
germination of the pathogen is 25-28 C. Growing rice in aerobic soil in wetlands
where drought stress is prevalent also favors infection.
Economic importance
Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases of rice because of its wide
distribution and its destructiveness. In India, more than 266,000 tons of rice were
lost, which was about 0.8% of their total yield. In Japan, the disease can infect about
865,000 hectares of rice fields. In the Philippines, many thousand hectares of rice
fields suffer more than 50% yield losses. A 10% neck rot causes yield loss of 6% and
5% increases in chalky kernels.
When damage is important
Rice blast infects the rice plant at any growth stage. Rice seedlings or plants at the
tillering stage are often completely killed. Likewise, heavy infections on the panicles
usually cause a loss in rice yields
Factors favouring disease development

presence of the blast spores in the air throughout the year

upland rice environment

cloudy skies, frequent rain, and drizzles

high nitrogen levels

high relative humidity and wet leaves

growing rice in aerobic soil in wetlands where drought stress is prevalent

Blast life cycle

2. Brown Spot / Sesame Leaf Spot

seedlings have small, circular or oval, brown lesions, which may girdle the
coleoptile and cause distortion of the primary and secondary leaves
(symptom is called seedling blight)

Infected seedlings become stunted or die

Young or underdeveloped lesions on older leaves are small and circular, dark
brown or purplish brown

A fully developed lesion on older leaves is oval, brown with gray or whitish
center with reddish brown margin

Lesions on older leaves of moderately susceptible cultivars are tiny and dark
When infection is severe, the lesions may coalesce, killing large areas of
affected leaves.

Infected glumes with black or dark brown spots

Velvety appearance of lesions on infected glumes under severe conditions
Infected grains with black discoloration or with brown lesions
Infected young roots with black discoloration
Fungus: Helminthosporium oryzae (Syn: Bipolaris oryzae, Drechslera oryzae).
The mycelium is dark brown, septate and both inter-and intracellular. Conidiophores
emerge through the stomatal opening or pierce through epidermal cells. The conidia
are brown, multiseptate, straight or slightly curved, tapering at both ends and eight to
ten septate.
Why and where it occurs
The fungus can survive in the seed for more than 4 years. Infected seeds, volunteer
rice, infected rice debris, and several weeds are the major sources of inoculums in
the field. Infected seeds give rise to infected seedlings. The fungus can spread from
plant to plant and in the field by airborne spores.
The disease is common in nutrient-deficient soils and unflooded soil but rare on rice
grown on fertile soils.
Abnormal soils, which are deficient in nutrient elements, or soils in a much-reduced
condition in which toxic substances accumulate favor the development of the

Disease development is favored by high relative humidity (86-100%) and optimum

temperature between 16 and 36C. Leaves must be wet for 8-24 hours for infection
to occur. Yield losses due to brown spot epidemic in Bengal in 1942 was attributed to
continuous temperature of 20-30C for two months, unusually cloudy weather, and
higher-than-normal temperature and rainfall at the time of flowering and grain-filling
When damage is important
It is observed during the maximum tillering up to the ripening stages of the crop.
Damage is important when infection occurs in the seed, causing the formation of
either unfilled grains or spotted or discolored seeds giving rise to infected seedlings.
Numerous spots or big spots on a leaf may result in blight, thus killing the whole leaf.
Economic importance
The disease causes blight on seedlings, which are grown from heavily infected
seeds, and can cause 10-58% seedling mortality. It also affects the quality and the
number of grains per panicle and reduces the kernel weight. The reduction in yield
can be as high as 45% in severe infection and 12% in moderate infection. There is
no loss in yield in light infection. The disease was considered to be the major factor
contributing to the Great Bengal Famine in 1942 resulting to yield losses of 50% to
90% and caused the death of 2 million people. Epidemics in India have resulted in
14-41% losses in high yielding varieties.

Factors favouring disease development

presence of infected seeds, volunteer rice, rice debris, and several weeds

poorly drained or nutrient deficient soils

abnormal soils, which are deficient in nutrient elements

temperature ranging from 25-30oC

water stress and high humidity

maximum tillering up to the ripening stages of the crop

Life cycle
3. Sheath Rot
Symptoms: The disease appears at the boot leaf stage. Leaf sheath enclosing the
earhead exhibits greyish brown oblong to irregular patches of 0.5 to 1.5 cm long.
Sometimes the spots may be with brown margin and grey centre. The spots may
enlarge and coalesce and cover most of the leaf sheath. Young panicles remain
within the sheath or may emerge partially. The glumes are discoloured. White
powdery growth of the mycelium is seen inside the leaf sheath and young panicle

Fungus: Sarocladium oryzae (Syn: Acrocylindrium oryzae). The mycelium is

colourless and septate. Conidiophores are branched once or twice, each time with 34 branches in a whorl. Conidia are small, unicellular, hyaline and cylindrical.
4. Sheath Blight

lesions are small, ellipsoidal or ovoid, greenish-gray and water-soaked and

usually develop near the water line in lowland fields

Older lesions are elliptical or ovoid with a grayish white center and light
brown to dark brown margin

Lesions may reach the uppermost leaf under favorable conditions

Lesions may coalesce forming bigger lesions with irregular outline and may
cause the death of the whole leaf

Severely infected plants produced poorly filled or empty grains, especially

those on the lower portion of the panicles
Fungus: Rhizoctonia solani (Sex. St: Thanatephorus cucumeris). The mycelium is
colourless in the early stage but becomes yellowish brown when old. Sclerotia are
more or less globose but flattened below. They are white when young and turn
brown or dark brown when old.
Why and where it occurs
The disease is soilborne. It usually starts at the base of the plant near the water level.
Later, the symptoms are observed on the upper leaf sheath and on the leaf blade.
The disease usually infects the plant at late tillering or early internode elongation
growth stages. Disease may spread from one hill to another through leaf-to-leaf or
leaf-to-sheath contacts.
It is commonly assumed that the critical factors for disease development are relative
humidity and temperature. Relative humidity ranging from 96 to 100% and
temperature ranging from 28-32C have been reported to favor the disease. High
supply of nitrogen fertilizer, and growing of high-yielding, high-tillering, nitrogenresponsive improved varieties favor the development of the disease. High leaf
wetness and high frequency of tissue contacts among plants also favor the disease.
The pathogen can be spread through irrigation water and by movement of soil and
infected crop residues during land preparation.
The disease is easily distinguished by the irregular lesions, which are initially watersoaked to greenish gray and later becomes grayish white with brown margin. These
lesions are usually found on the leaf sheaths near the waterline and on the leaves.
The disease can be confirmed by the presence of sclerotia. Sclerotia and mycelia
may be produced on the lesions. Sclerotia are compact masses of mycelia, which are
irregular, hemispherical, flattened at the bottom, white when young, and turn brown
or dark brown when mature

When damage is important

The disease starts during the maximum growth stage of the rice crop. Under
favorable conditions, the disease increases as the plant grows older. The damage
caused by the disease depends on the infection of the plants at plant growth stages.
Economic importance
Sheath blight is considered to be an important disease next to rice blast.
Rice sheath blight is an increasing concern for rice production especially in
intensified production systems. In Japan, the disease caused a yield loss of as high
as 20% and affected about 120,000-190,000 hectares. A yield loss of 25% was
reported if the flag leaves are infected. In the United States, a yield loss of 50% was
reported when susceptible cultivars were planted. Studies at IRRI showed that
sheath blight causes a yield loss of 6% in tropical Asia.

5. Stem Rot
Symptoms: Infection takes place at the base of the plant and rotting takes place at
the culm region. Affected plants remain stunted and very rarely produce earheads.
Production of green tillers from the base of the affected plants can be seen. The
sclerotia are found in the stelar region at the culm. When the culm is split open
longitudinally, numerous sclerotia are seen in the inner side.
Sclerotium oryzae. The mycelium is light brown and septate.
Mustard-like black sclerotia are produced from the mycelium.
6. Foot Rot
Symptoms: The pathogen attacks both in the nursery and transplanted crop. The
affected seedlings in the nursery are chlorotic, lean and lanky. In the main field, the
affected tillers are taller than the normal plants with longer internodes and come to
flowering earlier than the healthy plants. Adventitious roots are also produced from
the first two or three nodes above the ground level. When an infected culm is split
open, a whitish cottony mycelium can be seen.
Fusarium moniliforme. (Sex. St: Gibberella fujikuroi) the mycelium is
yellow to rosy white and inter-and intracellular, mainly concentrated in the xylem
vessels. The microconidia are hyaline, mostly one celled, sometimes two celled and
are oval or fusiform. Macroconidia are sickle shaped, narrow at both ends with 3-5
7. False Smut

Symptoms: The disease appears on the earhead where individual ovaries are
transformed into large, velvety greenish spore balls. The spore balls may reach one
cm or more in diameter and enclose floral parts. The glumes are not affected.
Ustilaginoidea virens. The immature spores are orange in colour and
turn brownish green at maturity. The young smut spores (chlamydospores) are
almost round and smooth but when mature they become warty and olive green.
8. Udbatta Disease
Symptoms: The earheads are affected. The panicle emerges as a straight, dirty
coloured, hard, cylindrical spike, reduced in size, much resembling an agarbatti.
Infected plants are usually stunted.
Ephelis oryzae. The pathogen forms a stroma over the entire length
and girth of the inflorescence. Black, convex pycnidia are immersed in the stroma.
Pycnidiospores are hyaline.
9. Narrow Brown Leaf Spot
Symptoms: Narrow, short, reddish brown spots appear on leaves. Long axis of
these spots is parallel with the veins of the leaf. Spots appear on leaf sheaths,
pedicels and glumes also.
Fungus: Cercospora janseana (C.oryzae). Conidiophores are multiseptate, not
branched and geniculate. Conidia are hyaline to subhyaline, cylindrical, straight or
curved tapering towards tip and 3-5 septate.
10. Grain Discolouration
Symptoms: Dark brown or black spots appear on the grains. The discolouration
may be red, yellow, orange, pink or black, depending upon the organism involved
and the degree of infection. This disease is responsible for quantitative and
qualitative losses of grains.
Fungi: Many fungi
(Drechslera oryzae, D. rostratum, D. tetramera, Curvularia
lunata, Trichoconis padwickii, Sarocladium oryzae, Alternaria tenuis, Fusarium
moniliforme, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, Cephalosporium
sp., Phoma sp., Nigrospora sp).
11. Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB)
Symptoms: i. Leaf blight: Symptoms are mainly confined to leaves.
infection appears as dull greenish water-soaked or yellow spots on the leaves, which
extend along both the margins with irregular wavy margins. In advanced stages, the
entire leaf is blighted and dry up. Lesions are also seen on the leaf sheath.
ii. Kresek Stage/ wilt:
Kresek is noticed in transplanted seedlings of one to
two weeks old. Infected leaves become greyish green, begin to fold and roll
completely along the mid-rib. They droop, turn yellow or grey ultimately the tillers in
the hill will die.

Bacterium: Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae. Bacterial ooze can be seen from the
cut end of the infected leaf, when immersed in clear water. The bacterium is rodshaped, Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming and it is motile by single polar
Confirmation test for Bacterial leaf blight
In the field, diseased leaves can be collected and cut near the lower end of the
lesions. The cut diseased leaves can be placed in a test tube with water for a few
minutes. The cut portion can be observed against the light to see the bacterial ooze
streaming out from the cut ends into the water. After 1-2 hours, the water becomes
12. Bacterial Leaf Streak
Symptoms: Fine translucent streaks are found on the veins. They enlarge
lengthwise and also advanced laterally over larger veins and turn brown. In severe
cases, the leaves may dry up. Bacterial zone can be seen on the surface of the
lesions / streaks.
Bacterium: Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzicola. Bacteria are rod-shaped, Gramnegative, aerobic, non-spore forming, non-capsule forming and monotrichous.

13. Tungro
Symptoms: The affected plants exhibit extreme stunting and discolouration of
leaves ranging from various shades of yellow to orange yellow or brownish yellow.
The discolouration and rusty blotches spread downwards from the leaf tip. The
young leaves may show a mottled appearance whereas older leaves appear rusty.
The root development is very poor. Infected plants take longer time to flower and
mature. The panicles are small in size and sterile.
Causal agent:
Two Viruses RTBV (Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus) and RTSV
(Rice Tungro Spherical Virus). RTBV has circular double stranded DNA and RTSV
has single stranded RNA.
The virus is transmitted by the green leaf hoppers viz., Nephotettix virescens,
N. malayanus, N. parvus and Recilia dorsalis in a non-persistent manner.
14. Yellow Dwarf
Symptoms: Plants become chlorotic and stunted. Large number of thin and pale
tillers with yellowish green leaves is seen. The affected plants will look like a clump
of grass.
Causal agent: : Phytoplasma. Green leaf hoppers, Nephotettix virescens, N
cinctures and N. nigropictus transmit this disease.

1. Black Rust / Stem Rust

Symptoms: The onset of the disease is first marked by eruption of elongated,

brown pustules on the stem, leaf sheath and leaves. The stalk or stem is often most
severely affected. These pustules burst early exposing the brown powdery mass of
uredospores. Telia develop in the same sorus or independently. They are elongated,
black and mainly seen on the stem. In severe infection, the affected plant looks sickly
and fails to form normal earheads. The grains are smaller, shriveled and lighter in
Puccinia graminis tritici. This is heteroecious rust, requiring two host
species to complete the life cycle. The uredospores are oval in shape, golden brown,
thick walled, echinulated and pedicellate. The uredospores have four equatorial
germ pores. These spores are called repeating spores and cause secondary
infection in the crop. The teleutospores are two celled, dark brown, thick walled at
the apex and somewhat pointed at the tip with a slight constriction at the septum.
The aecial and pycnial stages occur on barberry plants (alternate host). The
promycelium (basidium) is long; thin walled, hyaline and four celled.
basidiospores are unicellular, round and uninucleate. The pycnia are produced on
the upper surface of the barberry leaf. They are flask-shaped and ostiolate. The
aecia are produced on the lower surface of barberry leaf. Pycniospores are
spherical, thin - walled, hyaline, unicellular and uninucleate. They are cup-like and
thick walled. Aeciospores are unicellular yellow, hexagonal, thick walled, echinulated
and has six germ pores.
2. Brown Rust / Orange Rust / Leaf Rust
Symptoms: Appearance of minute, round or oval orange sori, irregularly
distributed mainly on the leaves and leaf sheath. Orange pustules represent
uredosori. Telial stage also occurs intermingled as black sori.
Puccinia recondita. This is also heteroecious rust. Uredospores are
unicellular, brown, minutely echinulate, pedicellate and spherical in shape.
Teleutospores are two celled, smooth, oblong, thick walled, brown and with a
rounded and thickened apex. Alternate host is Thalictrum sp.
3. Yellow Rust / Stripe Rust
Symptoms: The rust pustules are bright yellow on the leaves, leaf sheaths, stem,
spikelets and glumes and also on grains in severe infections. The sori are arranged
in linear rows between the veins of the leaf and hence the stripe rust.
Puccinia striiformis. This is heteroecious rust. Uredospores are
unicellular yellow spherical or oval, echinulated and pedicellate with 6-16 germ pores.
The teleutospores are dark brown, two celled, thick walled and flattened at the top.
4. Loose Smut
Symptoms: Disease is seen in the earhead stage, usually all spikelets are affected
and transformed into a mass of black powdery spores. Each spikelet is covered by a
thin silvery membrane, which breaks while the earhead emerges. The powdery
mass of spores is blown off by wind or removed by rain leaving behind only the
central rachis.

Ustilago nuda tritici.
It produces unicellular pale, olive-brown,
spherical to oval, minute, echinulated smut spores (chlamydospores) in the affected
5. Flag Smut
Symptoms: The fungus attacks leaf, stem and earheads. Greyish black linear sori
occur on the leaf blade and leaf sheath. The sorus contains black powdery mass of
spores. In severe cases dwarfing and reduction in internode length are seen.
Inflorescence development is arrested.
Urocystis agropyri. The spores are aggregated into balls consisting of
a dark fertile centre, surrounded by a ring of lighter coloured sterile cells. Each spore
ball contains 1 to 6 brown, globose, smooth walled spores. They germinate to
produce 3 to 4 basidia. Each basidium in turn produces 3 to 4 basidiospores at the
6. Karnal Bunt
Symptoms: The disease occurs when the grains develop in the earhead, few
grains are partially converted into black powdery mass enclosed by the pericarp.
Embryo is not affected and such grains can germinate.
Neovossia indica. Teliospores are dark brown, spherical to oval with
reticulations on the epispore which appear as curved spine. Spores germinate to
form a short stout promycelium at the apex of which a whorl of 60 to 185 sporidia are
7. Powdery Mildew
Symptoms: A greyish white powdery growth appears on the upper surface of the
leaf, leaf sheath and inflorescence. With advancement of the disease, the leaf blade
becomes twisted, the powdery growth turn into dark grey and finally black, causing
lesions of varying sizes. Later, the affected leaves dry up. Grain formation is poor.
Erysiphe graminis var. tritici. Mycelium is septate, hyaline and
ectophytic. Conidia are produced in chains on short conidiophores. Conidia are
hyaline, elliptical, and single celled and thin walled. The cleistothecia bear short
appendages and produce cylindrical to oblong asci. Each ascus contains eight
oblong, hyaline and thin walled ascospores.
8. Leaf Spot
Symptoms: Seedlings and matured plants are attacked. In the seedling yellowish,
oval to oblong spots appear on leaf blade and leaf sheath. They enlarge, turn dark
brown and cause blighting.
Helminthosporium sativum.
Fungus produces olivaceous
conidiophores which bear conidia. The conidia are cylindrical, 2-11 septate, basal
portion slightly tapered and the distal portion hemispherical.

9. Leaf Blight
Symptoms: The fungus produces reddish brown spots with bright yellow margin.
Several spots may coalesce to cover larger areas of the leaf to cause blighting.
Heavily infected fields display a burnt appearance from a distance.
Alternaria triticina. The mycelium is dull brown, branched and septate.
Conidiophores are produced through stomata bearing conidia singly or in chains of 2
to 4, septate, unbranched and erect. Conidia are smooth, oval, light brown to dark
olive-buff and multicellular with 1to 10 transverse septa and 0 to 5 longitudinal septa.
10. Foot Rot
Symptoms: The disease mainly occurs in seedlings and roots and rootlets become
brown in colour. Seedlings become pale green and have stunted growth. The collar
region becomes discoloured and soft; the leaf sheaths turn blackish brown and split
into shreds.
Fungi: Pythium graminicolum and P. arrhenomanes. Mycelium is hyaline, nonseptate and inter and intracellular. The fungus produces sporangia, zoospores and
11. Tundu / Yellow Ear Rot
Symptoms: The characteristic symptom of the disease is the formation of yellow
slime on the stem and inflorescence. It dries up to form sticky yellow layers and
cause curling and twisting of the spikes. Galls formed by the nematodes replace
most of the grains in the earhead.
Causal organisms: Corynebacterium tritici (Bacterium) and Anguina tritici
(Nematode). The bacterium is rod shaped, pleomorphic and frequently exhibit club
shaped swellings, Gram positive and motile by a polar flagellum.

Questions to be answered
1. Which stage of blast infection causes highest yield loss to rice crop?
2. Blast fungus produces _____________ shaped spots on rice leaves
3. An example for internally seed-borne rice pathogen.
4. A collateral host for blast pathogen is _______________
5. Chocking of panicle is observed in __________ disease
6. Name two rice pathogens which produce sclerotia.
7. Write an example for soil-borne rice pathogen
8. Which pathogen is responsible for growth promotion in rice?
9. Name a rice pathogen which produces chlamydospores.
10. Which stage of BLB infection causes highest damage to the crop?

11. The diagnostic test used for identifying BLB / BLS infection in rice is _______
12. RTD is caused by _______________
13. Diagnostic test for RTD is _____________
14. The repeating spores of wheat rust pathogen is ________________
15. Teleutospores of Puccinia are _______ celled
16. Barberry act as an alternate host for _______________
17. The alternate host for Puccinia recondita is _____________
18. Sexual fruiting body wheat powdery mildew pathogen
19. Name one soil-borne pathogen infecting wheat crop
20. The foul smell in bunt disease of wheat is due to _____________
21. The nematode associated with yellow ear rot of wheat is ___________

True or False
1. In sheath blight, the infection usually appears in sheath which encloses panicle.
2. Sarocladium oryzae is a seed-borne pathogen.
3. Pathogen which causes false smut in rice spreads through soil, seed and air.
4. RTD causes sterility in rice crop
5. Ustilago nuda tritici is an internally seed-borne pathogen in wheat
6. Karnal bunt of wheat is a seed-borne disease
7. The conidia of wheat powdery mildew is oidium type

1. Sheath blight and Sheath rot
2. Sheath rot and Foot rot
3. Blast and Brown spot
4. Brown spot and Narrow brown leaf spot
5. Rice tungro disease and Yellow dwarf
6. Bacterial leaf blight and Bacterial leaf streak
7. Karnal bunt and Common bunt
8. Black rust, brown rust and yellow rust
9. Flag smut and loose smut

Ex. No. 2

(Sorghum, Maize, Pearlmillet and Ragi)

1. Short Smut / Grain Smut / Covered Smut/Kernel Smut
Symptoms: The disease becomes apparent only at the time of grain formation in
the earhead. Most of the grains are transformed into smut sori. They are larger than
the normal grains. Individual sori are oval or conical and are covered with a rough
white or cream to light brown skin (peridium), which often persists unbroken up to
Sporisorium sorghi (Syn. Sphacelotheca sorghi). The fungus is
present in the form of sorus which is cylindrical, dirty grey, sac-like structure, having a
tough wall and a long, hard central tissue called columella. The space in between
the sorus wall and columella is filled with large number of chlamydospores. The
Smut spores are round or oval, smooth and thick walled, olive brown singly and in
mass appear dark brown. They are often united into loose balls which break up into
individual spores when placed in water.
2. Loose Smut
Symptoms: The affected plants are shorter, produce thinner stalks, more tillers
and malformed spikelets in the earhead. Earheads come out earlier. Normally all

florets of infected heads are smutted. Sori occur on rachis and branches of
inflorescence also. The sorus replaces the stamens and pistil. The affected
earheads are looser than the normal ones.
Sporisorium cruentum (syn. Sphacelotheca cruenta). The fungus is
present in the form of spores enclosed by the thin sorus membrane, having columella
at the centre of the sorus. Smut spores are spherical to elliptical, dark brown with
echinulated spore wall. They germinate to form a four celled promycelium with
laterally borne sporidia.
3. Head Smut
Symptoms: The disease becomes apparent only at the time of flowering. The
head is either completely or partially replaced by a large whitish gall. The galls are at
first covered by a whitish grey membrane of fungal tissue which ruptures before the
earhead emergence and expose a mass of brown or black smut spores among which
long, thin, dark coloured filaments (vascular bundles) are seen.
Sporisorium holci-sorghi (syn. Sporisorium reilianum; Sphacelotheca
reiliana). The fungus is systemic in the host plant and produces chlamydospores or
smut spores, which are angular to spherical, reddish brown to black with finely
echinulate spore wall.
4. Long Smut
Symptoms: Few grains in the earhead are transformed into smut sori, which are
scattered in the earhead. In severe case, most of the grains are transformed into
sori. The sorus is covered by a membrane, cylindrical, slightly curved and is much
longer than the other smuts. The membrane breaks and releases the black spore
Tolyposporium ehrenbergii. The fungus produces smut sori filled with
black masses of spores. The spores are firmly united and form spore balls. They
are globose or angular and brownish green in colour. Inside the sorus, there is a
bundle of brown filaments.
5. Rust
Symptoms: The rust appears as small flecks on the lower surface of the lower
leaves. Later it spreads to other leaves. They are purple, tan or red coloured
depending on the cultivar. They rupture and release powdery mass of uredospores.
Uredosori are elliptical and lie between and parallel with the leaf veins. Teleutosori
are dark coloured and longer than the uredosori. The pustules may occur on leaf
sheaths and inflorescence stalks also.
Puccinia purpurea. Uredospores are unicellular, pedicellate, elliptical
or oval, echinulate and dark brown in colour. The teleutospores are chocolate brown,
elliptical, two celled and constricted at the septum with rounded apex. It is
heteroecious and long cycle rust. The alternate host is Oxalis corniculata.

6. Downy Mildew
Symptoms: The infected plants tiller excessively and dwarfed because of
shortened internodes. The leaves become pale and chlorotic with broad streaks
extending from the base to the tip. As the disease advances the leaf becomes
shredded lengthwise (leaf shredding). Downy fungal growth can be seen on the
lower surface of the leaf and even on the upper surface in severe cases.
Peronosclerospora sorghi.
It is an obligate parasite.
develops systemically in the host plant. Hyphae are intercellular and non-septate
and send branched haustoria into the host cells. Sporangiophores arise through the
stomata and branch irregularly to produce sterigmata bearing sporangia. Sporangia
are single celled, globose, hyaline, thin walled and lack papilla. Oospores are
produced at the later stages in shredded leaves. They are thick walled, dark brown
and round.
7. Leaf Spot
Symptoms: Spots are rectangular to irregular, dark red to purplish in colour. They
occur on the leaf blade and sheath. The colour varies with the varieties. The spots
are red, purple, brown or straw coloured and are slightly sunken in the middle with
lighter colour. Several spots merge together and form bigger lesions. Severe
spotting causes drying of leaves.
Cercospora sorghi. Mycelium is septate, hyaline or light brown
coloured and intercellular. Conidiophores are brown and emerge in clusters through
stomata, simple or rarely branched, geniculate and 0 to 5 septate. Conidia are
hyaline, thin walled, long, obclavate and three to many septate.
8. Anthracnose / Red Leaf Spot / Red Rot
Symptoms: Fungus causes small, oval and reddish spots with straw coloured
centre and red, purple or tan margins. Black dots of acervuli are seen on the centre
of the spots. Several spots coalesce together and kill large patches of the leaf blade.
Midrib infection is seen as elongate, elliptical, red or purple lesions on which black
acervuli are seen. Red rot phase occur in stalks and/or in the inflorescences and is
characterized externally by the development of circular cankers, particularly in the
inflorescence. Infected stems when split open show discolouration, which may be
continuous over a large area or more generally discontinuous, giving the stem a
marbled appearance.
Colletotrichum graminicola.
Acervuli with setae arise through
epidermis. The fungus produces large number of short hyaline conidiophores which
release hyaline, single celled and sickle shaped conidia. Setae are long, rigid,
pointed and black.
9. Leaf Blight
Symptoms: Long elliptical necrotic lesions, with straw coloured centre and dark
margin appear on the leaves. The lesions increase in size even to the entire length

of the lamina with 1 to 2 cm width. In severe cases, several lesions cause blighting
of the leaf.
Exserohilum turcicum (syn. Helminthosporium turcicum; perfect stage:
Trichometasphaeria turcica).
Mycelium is septate, coloured and internal.
Conidiophores arise through stomata in groups. They are simple olivaceous,
septate, straight or bent. Conidia are brown to dark brown, long, spindle shaped,
straight or slightly curved and many septate.
10. Sugary Disease / Ergot
Symptoms: Secretion of creamy sticky liquid (honey dew) from infected florets is
seen. Under favourable conditions 1-2 cm long, straight or curved, cream to light
brown hard sclerotia develops in the infected spikelets. Colonization by Cerebella
sp. gives the head a blackened appearance.
Claviceps sorghi (Sphacelia sorghi). Mycelium is septate. Large
number of single celled, hyaline, elliptical to oblong, thin walled conidia are seen in
the honey-dew. The sclerotia are cylindrical, straight or curved, hard and black.
11. Phanerogamic Parasite Witch Weed
Symptoms: The root exudates of sorghum stimulate the seeds of the parasite to
germinate. The parasite then slowly attach to the root of the host by haustoria and
grow below the soil surface and produce under-ground stems and roots, The parasite
becomes visible in about a month after sowing. Severe infestation causes yellowing
and wilting of the host leaves. The infected plants are stunted and lanky in growth
and may die prior to seed setting.
Striga asiatica and S. densiflora. Witch weed is a partial root parasite
and occurs mainly in the rainfed sorghum. It is a small plant with bright green, long,
narrow leaves, grows up to a height of 15-30 cm. It always occurs in clusters of 1020 / host plant. S. asiatica produces red to pink flowers while S. densiflora produces
white flowers. The fruit is a capsule and each fruit contains about 1000 seeds. A
single plant can produce one to five lakhs seeds.

1. Common Smut
Symptoms: The fungus attacks stalks, leaves, ears and tassels. Conspicuous
closed white galls replace individual grains. At times, the galls breakdown and
release black masses of spores, which will infect maize plants in the following
season. The disease is most severe in young actively growing plants and may stunt
or kill them.

Ustilago maydis. The spores are spherical to ellipsoidal, black and

2. Head Smut

Symptoms: The most conspicuous symptoms are a. abnormal development of

tassels which become malformed and overgrown. b. black masses of spores which
develop inside individual male florets and c. masses of black spores which also grow
instead of the normal earhead, leaving the vascular bundles exposed and shredded.
Sporisorium reilianum (Syn. Sphacelotheca reiliana). The fungus is
systemic in the host plant and produces chlamydospores or smut spores, which are
angular to spherical, reddish brown to black with finely echinulate, spore wall.
3. Rust
Symptoms: It is common when the plants approach tasseling. Minute round to
elongated pustules occur on both leaf surfaces and sometimes on the husk and other
floral parts. The pustules are brown when young and are surrounded by chlorotic
haloes. Later, the sori turn black in colour. In severe cases plants look unhealthy.
As the disease advances the pustules are found scattered all over the leaf blade and
the leaves wilt ultimately.
Puccinia sorghi. Uredospores are echinulate and yellowish brown.
The teleutospores are two celled, slightly constricted at the septum, rounded at the
apex and dark brown in colour. The aecial stage is produced on three species of
Oxalis. viz., Oxalis corniculata, O. europaea and O. stricta.

4. Downy Mildew and Crazy top

Symptoms: The fungus produces a characteristic downy growth on the leaves
followed by yellow discolouration, browning and necrosis of the leaf blade and
stunting of the affected plants. As the disease advances, chlorotic yellowish stripes
appear on the leaves and the stripes are delineated by veins. These stripes later
turn brown or straw coloured and become necrotic. Proliferation of axillary buds on
the stalk of tassel as well as cobs is very common producing the crazy top symptom.
Peronosclerospora sorghi (Syn. Sclerospora sacchari). The fungus
produces numerous hyaline, thin-walled, elliptic or oblong sporangia on
dichotomously branched sporangiophores. The sporangia are spherical and lack
apical papilla. In advanced stages, oospores are formed which are spherical, thick
walled and deep brown.

5. Brown Spot
Symptoms: Fungus produces water-soaked lesions. They are light green at first
which turn to reddish brown and finally to brown. Several spots may coalesce to
form brown blotches. These spots and blotches are found at the basal portion of the
leaf blade. The spots on the midrib are circular and dark brown. It also occurs on
the leaf sheath and stem. When the stem is infected the tissues are weakened. The
stem rots and breaks at the infected point causing lodging.

Physoderma zeae-maydis. The fungus produce coenocytic hyphae
and large number of thick walled spore-like bodies called resting sporangia or resting
spores. They are smooth, brown and flattened at one side. Resting sporangia
germinate and produce uniflagellate zoospores.
6. Leaf Blight
Symptoms: The disease is recognized by the production of slightly oval, watersoaked small spots on the leaves. They grow into elongated spindle shaped necrotic
lesions. They appear first on the lower leaves and continue increasing in size and
number until a complete burning of foliage is seen.
Helminthosporium turcicum (Syn. Exserohilum turcicum, Drechslera
turcica. Mycelium is branched, septate and inter and intra cellular. Conidiophores
arise in group, long, unbranched, septate, geniculate, yellowish brown and smooth.
Conidia are distinctly curved, fusiform, and pale to dark golden brown with 5-11
7. Charcoal Stalk Rot
Symptoms: The pathogen invades seedling roots. When plants approach maturity
internal parts of stem show black discolouration and shredding of vascular bundles.
These symptoms are common mainly in lower stalk internodes. On the rind and
vascular bundles of infected plant numerous small, black sclerotia are seen. The
affected plants develop wilting symptoms and they gradually dry up.
Fungus: Macrophomina phaseolina sclerotia; the fungus produces large number of
round and black sclerotia. Pycnidia appear on the stalks. The pycnidiospores are
colourless, oval and single celled.

1. Downy Mildew / Green Ear

Symptoms: Infection is systemic and symptoms appear on leaves and

inflorescences. Symptoms first appear in seedlings at 3-4 leaf stage where leaves
become chlorotic or yellowish with profuse white growth of the fungus on the lower
surface. Seedling dies within 30 days and do not tiller. The first leaf that has
symptoms is normally partially infected and subsequent leaves emerge with
progressively more infection until leaves emerge with complete discolouration.
Inflorescences are completely or partially malformed with florets and their
parts converted into leafy structure (Green ear).
Infected leaves and
inflorescences produce sporangia. As necrosis starts in the plant parts oospore
production is seen.

Fungus: Sclerospora graminicola.

It is an obligate parasite. It develops
systemically, producing intercellular,
sending haustoria into the host
tissue. The sporangiophores arise
sporangia on the sterigmata. They
have a short, stout, non-septate
basal portion from which a few stout irregular branches arise, crowded with
sterigmata. Sporangia are hyaline, broadly elliptical, papillate, thin walled and by
germination each sporangium releases 3-12 zoospores. The oospores are present in
the interveinal areas of leaves. They are spherical, thick and smooth walled and
yellowish brown.
2. Rust
Symptoms: The minute round reddish brown uredopustules occur in groups on
both the surfaces of the older leaves and on the leaf sheath and stem. As the
33disease advances teleutosori are produced which are dark-brown merging with
one another causing linear patches or lesions.
Puccinia substriata var. penicillariae (Syn. Puccinia penniseti). The
fungus is macrocyclic rust, producing the uredial and telial stages on pearlmillet and
the aecial and pycnial stages on brinjal. The uredospores are yellowish brown, oval,
elliptic or pyriform having echinulate spore wall and are with four equatorial germ
pores. They are borne singly on pedicels mixed with paraphyses. The teleutospores
are divided by paraphyses. They are dark brown, two celled, club shaped and has
single germ pore for each cell. The teliospores germinate to produce four-celled
promycelium and four basidiospores, one from each cell. The cup-like aecia occur
on the lower leaf surface of the alternate host (brinjal) bearing aeciospores in chains.
The pycnia are formed on the upper surface of the brinjal leaf, bearing pycniospores
and receptive hyphae. The pycniospores are oblong or elliptic and hyaline.

3. Smut
Symptoms: The disease becomes apparent at the time of grain setting in the
earhead. The pathogen infects florets and transforms them into large plumby seeds
(sori) containing black powder of smut spores. Young sori are larger and greener
than non-infected developing seed. As the sori mature, they become dark brown and
are easily broken to release millions of black smut spore balls.
Tolyposporium penicillariae. The sorus wall is tough and surrounds
spores. The spores are usually in balls. The number of teleutospores aggregated in
balls varies from 200 to 1400. Individual teleutospores do not separate readily and
are mostly angular or round and light brown. They germinate in water to produce
four celled promycelium bearing the sporidia.
4. Sugary Disease / Ergot
Symptoms: The pathogen infects the florets at the protogyny stage and develops
in the ovaries and produce initially copious creamy pink or red sweet sticky liquid
called honeydew. Honeydew contains millions of conidia. Subsequently long, dark
coloured hard structures called sclerotia develop from infected florets, first dark at the
tip and then becoming completely black.
Claviceps fusiformis (Syn. C. microcephala). Mycelium is septate
which produce closely arranged conidiophores. The fungus produces micro-and
macroconidia. The macroconidia are hyaline, fusiform and single celled. The
microconidia are hyaline, globular and single celled. The macro conidia germinate,
by producing one to three germ tubes, while the microconidia germinate by producing
only one germ tube. Sclerotia are large and appear creamy during early stage and
become black and hard at maturity


5. Leaf Blast
Symptoms: Lesions on leaf blade are roughly diamond shaped to circular up to 1
cm long. The margins are dark brown and the centre is light coloured. Each lesion
has a chlorotic yellow halo. At the centre of the spots, light grey bloom of
conidiophores and conidia are seen.
Fungus: Pyricularia setariae. Mycelium is hyaline to olivaceous and septate.
Conidiophores are long and septate. Conidia are obpyriform to ellipsoid and
attached at the broader base by a hilum, hyaline to pale olive green and three celled.

1. Blast
Symptoms: Young seedlings may be blasted or blighted in the nursery bed. The
fungus produces characteristic spindle shaped spots with yellow margins and greyish
green centres on the leaves of grown up plants. Later the centres become grey or
whitish grey. Fungus causes blackening of the nodal regions. The neck infection
causes breaking of the heads. Such earheads bear only chaffy grains.
Pyricularia grisea. The mycelium is septate and hyaline and turns
brown with age. The conidiophores emerge through stomata. They are simple,

septate, dark coloured at the base and lighter above. Conidia are obpyriform,
hyaline, thin walled, three celled with a prominent hilum. The fungus attacks fox tail
millet, pearl millet, Eleusine indica, wheat, barley, maize, oats and Dactyloctenium
aegyptium, while rice and Digitaria marginata are not infected.
2. Seedling Blight / Leaf Blight
Symptoms: The pathogen attacks leaf blade, leaf sheath, culms, roots etc. On
young leaves of seedlings disease appears as minute, light brown, oval spot leading
to premature withering. In grown up plants, oblong, dark brown spots appear on the
leaves. The spots on the leaf sheaths and culms are irregular and are generally
found at the junction of leaf blade and sheath. Infection of the neck causes
discolouration and sooty growth in the inflorescence.
Helminthosporium nodulosum (Syn. Drechslera nodulosum; Sexual
stage. Cochliobolus nodulosus). Hyphae are light brown, thick walled and septate.
Conidiophores are dark brown, branched, geniculate and septate. Conidia are
straight, ovoid, and pale to dark golden brown and up to 18 septate. Perithecia are
black and spherical. Asci are short, straight, and cylindrical and 1-8 spored. The
ascospores are spirally coiled. They are hyaline, filiform and 11 septate. The fungus
can attack Eleusine indica, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, fox tail-millet, Japanese
barnyard millet, maize, pearlmillet, pros millet, sorghum and sugarcane.
3. Green Ear / Downy Mildew / Crazy Top
Symptoms: The infected plants are dwarf with shortened internodes. The leaves
are closely arranged and give bushy and bunchy appearance. The leaves are pale.
The earhead bears abnormal spikelets exhibiting various degrees of proliferation
instead of normal spikelet. The whole earhead gives a bush-like appearance.
Sclerophthora macrospora. The hyphae are inter-cellular, branched
and non-septate. The oospores are globose and thick walled.
4. Smut
Symptoms: Only few grains in an earhead are infected. The affected grains are
converted into enlarged globose sacs, greenish at first, but later become dirty black.
Melanopsichium eleusinis.
spiny or pitted spore wall.

The spores are globose with a rough,

5. Mosaic

Symptoms: It produces most prominent symptoms from 4 to 6 weeks after

planting. The symptoms are chlorosis followed by mosaic mottling and severe
stunting. The entire plant becomes pale, dwarfed and sterile. The affected plants
rarely come to flowering and if earhead is formed the panicle will be mostly chaffy.
The loss in grain yield may be as high as 100 per cent.
Causal agent:
vector, Aphis maydis.

Transmission of the virus is through sap and insect

6. Mottle Streak and Streak

Symptoms: Diseased plants are stunted and pale green. Chlorotic streaks appear
on the leaves and it is continuous in streak disease and discontinuous in mottle
streak disease. When the plant is infected, tillering and grain formation are reduced.
Causal agents:
and C. cinai.

Viruses. The viruses are transmitted by Cicadulina bipunctella

Questions to be answered
1. What is sorus?
2. In Sorghum, which pathogen produces spores in ball?
3. Pycnial and aecial stages of Puccinia purpurea are produced in ______________
4. Leaf shredding disease in sorghum is caused by ______________
5. The sexual spore of downy mildew fungus is ______________
6. Asexual fruiting body of anthracnose fungus is ________________
7. Fungal genera which produce conidia on geniculate type conidiophore are _____
8. Anamorph of Claviceps sorghi is _____________
9. Two stages of ergot disease is _____________ and ___________
10. Name two host plants which are infected by Peronosclerospora sorghi
True or False
1. Teleutospores are normally produced at the end of cropping season.
2. Sclerospora graminicola is systemic pathogen
3. Brinjal is an alternative host for pearlmillet rust

1. Ergot and smut of pearlmillet
2. Downy mildew of sorghum and pearlmillet
3. Smut diseases of sorghum
4. Common smut and head smut of maize
5. Pycndia and pycnia

Ex. No. 3

(Pigeonpea, Blackgram, Greengram and Chickpea)

1. Wilt
Symptoms: The most characteristic symptom is a purple band extending upwards
from the base of the main stem. Browning of the stem tissue in the region of the
purple band and browning or blackening of xylem vessels when the main stem or
branches is split open are other typical symptoms. The leaves of affected plants turn
yellow prematurely, the foliage droops and within three or four days the plants wilt.
When the young plants (1-2 months old) die from wilt they may not show the purple
band symptoms, but have obvious internal browning and blackening.
Fusarium udum. The mycelium is hyaline, septate and both inter-and
intracellular. The fungus produces both macro-and microconidia. The microconidia
are small, elliptical, and thin walled and single or two celled. The macroconidia are
linear, curved, pointed at both ends and thin walled having 3-4 septa. The
chlamydospores are oval or spherical, single or in chains, terminal or intercalary.
2. Dry Root Rot
Symptoms: Infected plants suddenly and prematurely dry up. When such plants
are uprooted their roots are rotten and shredded. Under hot, humid conditions root
rotting extends to the base of the stem. Early symptoms on stems and branches are
spindle shaped lesions with light grey centres and brown margin with scattered
pycnidial bodies.

Macrophomina phaseolina.
The fungus produces dark brown
filamentous hyphae and constrictions are seen in hyphal branches at the junction
with the main hypha. Sclerotia are jet black, smooth, hard, minute and globose. The
pycnidia are dark brown. Conidiophores are hyaline, short, obpyriform to cylindrical
and develop from the inner walls of the pycnidium, pycnidiospores are hyaline, single
celled and ellipsoid to ovoid.
3. Powdery Mildew
Symptoms: Fungus attacks the leaf, covering it with powdery whitish growth on
lower surface causing premature defoliation. The corresponding upper surface
become chlorotic and then turns yellow. Flowers and pods are also affected on
which white powdery fungal growth can be seen. The fungus causes stunting of
young plants.
Leveillula taurica. Mycelium is hyaline, septate, endophytic and
The fungus produces haustoria in epidermis and in spongy
parenchymatous cells. Conidiophores arise from the internal mycelium singly or in
fascicles through stomatal apertures. They are long, rarely branched and septate,
which produces single celled, clavate or club shaped conidium.
4. Stem Blight / Phytophthora Blight
Symptoms: Initially purple to dark brown necrotic lesions girdle the basal portion of
the stem and later may occur on aerial parts of the seedlings. Initially lesions are
small and smooth, later enlarging and slightly depressed. Infected tissue becomes
soft and whole plant wilts. In leaf, localized yellowing starts from tip and margin and
gradually extends towards the mid-rib. The centre of the spots later turns brown and
hard. The spots increase in size and cover a major portion of the lamina, leading to
Phytophthora drechsleri f.sp. cajani.
Mycelium is hyaline and
coenocytic. Sporangia are hyaline, ovate or pyriform and non-papillate. Each
sporangium produces 8-20 zoospores. Oospores are globose, light brown, smooth
and thick walled.
5. Leaf Spot
Symptoms: The spots on leaves are small, light brown later it becomes dark
brown and the infected portions drop off leaving shot hold symptoms. When several
spots join together, irregular necrotic blotches develop and premature defoliation

Cercospora indica. Mycelium is inter-and intracellular. Conidiophores
are light brown when young and dark brown when mature. 3Conidia are whip like,
hyaline and 7-9 septate.

6. Sterility Mosaic
Symptoms: The diseased plants show malformed leaves which are thin, crinkled
small with mosaic symptoms. The leaves are crowded and the axillary buds are
stimulated resulting in a bushy growth. The entire plant is stunted with shortened
internodes. The diseased plants are invariably sterile causing severe losses in grain
yield. The diseased plants remain green till harvest.
Causal agent: Virus. The disease is transmitted by the eriophyid mite, Aceria cajani.


1. Anthracnose
Symptoms: All aerial parts of the plants are affected. Water-soaked lesions
appear on the pods, later becoming brown and enlarging to form circular spots of
varying size. The spots are usually depressed with dark centres and bright red,
yellow or orange margins. Small angular brown lesions appear on the leaves, mostly
adjacent to veins, which later become spots with greyish white centre and dark brown
margin. The lesions may be seen on petiole and stem also. The affected parts may
wither off.
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The mycelium is septate, hyaline and
branched. Conidiophores are hyaline, short and unbranched. A few dark coloured
septate setae are seen in the acervulus. Conidia are cylindrical, hyaline, thin walled
and single celled.
2. Dry Root Rot
Symptoms: Symptoms first appear as yellowing of leaves. Within a day or two
such leaves droop and finally they may drop-off. The plants may wilt within a week.
Dark lesions may be seen on the bark at the ground level. The basal stem and the
main roots may show dry rot symptoms. The tissues are weakened and break off
Macrophomina phaseolina (syn. Rhizoctonia bataticola). The fungus
produces both inter-and intracellular mycelium. Mycelium is dark brown, branched
and septate. It produces numerous sclerotial bodies on the host tissues. They are
smooth, round and black. Conidial or pycnidial stage is produced on the host.

Pycnidia are dark brown and ostiolate.

elliptical and single celled.

Pycnidiospores are thin walled, hyaline,

3. Powdery Mildew
Symptoms: A white powdery growth occurs on the leaves spreading to cover the
stem and other plants parts. The symptoms are severe at flowering stage. In severe
cases the entire plant dries up.
Erysiphe polygoni. The fungus is an ectoparasite spreading on the
surface of the host and sending haustoria into the epidermal cells to draw out
nutrients. The conidiophores are simple, single celled, hyaline and bear chains of
conidia. Conidia are hyaline, elliptical or barrel shaped, single celled and thin walled.
Cleistothecia are short, black, round with myceloid appendages and bear 2 to 8 asci.
Asci are ovate and sessile. Each ascus contains 3 to 8 hyaline, single celled and
elliptical ascospores.
4. Rust
Symptoms: The fungus produces characteristic rust pustules both on the upper
and lower leaf surfaces. The pustules are mostly found on the leaf blade, petiole and
stem. The pustules appear as tiny lightcoloured flecks or spots. In a few days they
become dark reddish-brown, circular pustules about the size of a pinhead. Several
sori coalesce to cover a larger area of the blade. In severe infections the leaf may
wither resulting in considerable damage to the crop.
Uromyces phseoli-typica (Syn. U. appendiculatus). The fungus is an
obligate parasite and autoecious in nature. Uredial stage repeats several times.
Uredospores are unicellular, globoid or ellipsoid, yellowish brown with echinulations.
The teliospores are globose or elliptical, unicellular, chestnut brown with warty and
with hyaline papilla at the top. Aecia are cup shaped; orange coloured and
aeciospores are unicellular and elliptical.
5. Leaf Spot
Symptoms: Small, circular spots develop on the leaves with grey centre and
brown margin. Several spots coalesce to form brown irregular lesions. In severe
cases, defoliation occurs. As the disease advances, lesions are developed on stems
and pods.
Fungi: Cercospora capeskins and C. cruenta.
Mycelia are both inter-and
intracellular in the host tissue. C. canescens produces dark and long, straight or
slightly curved multiseptate conidiophores. The conidia of
C. canescens are
whip like, hyaline, straight or curved, thin walled and 5-6 septate, borne singly at the
tip of the conidiophores.

6. Yellow Mosaic
Symptoms: Initially small yellow patches appear on leaves.
The yellow
discolouration slowly increases and newly formed leaves may completely turn yellow.
In severe case the diseased leaves become white and thin. The infected plants
normally mature later and bear a very few flowers and pods. Early infection causes
death of plants before seed set.
Causal agent: Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV). It is transmitted by the
whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. It survives in the self-sown plants, weed hosts and other
cultivated hosts.
7. Leaf Crinkle
Symptoms: The symptoms appear initially on young leaves. The enlargement of
third trifoliate leaf is seen 4 to 5 weeks after sowing. After a week of first symptoms
crinkling of leaves becomes conspicuous later crinkling and curling of tip of leaflets
are seen. The petioles and internodes are shortened. Infected plants give a bushy
and stunted appearance. Flowering is delayed. Inflorescence if formed is malformed
with small sized flower buds and flower buds fail to open.
Causal agent:
Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). The virus is seed-borne
and primary infection occurs through infected seeds. Secondary spread is by the
insect vector, Bemisia tabaci. A.gossypii and A. craccivora also transmit the disease.
The virus is also sap transmissible.

1. Blight
Symptoms: The disease symptoms appear first on leaves as water soaked lesions
which later develop into round spots with brown margin and yellowish to grey centre.
Similar spots may also appear on stem and pods. In advanced stages several spots
on the leaves and pods may coalesce to blight the plant. When the lesions are
produced on stem, the portion above the point of attack rapidly dies.
Ascochyta rabiei. The fungus produces innumerable spherical to pear
shaped pycnidia with prominent ostiole on the infected tissues. Pycnidiospores are
oval, one or two celled, thin walled and hyaline. The perithecia are globose, dark

brown or black and ostiolate. Asci are cylindrical, curved and pedicellate.
ascospores are hyaline, thin walled, elliptical and two celled.


2. Rust
Symptoms: The disease appears first as small, oval, brown raised lesions on both
the surfaces of leaves and more on lower surface. Uredosori appear in large
numbers as the disease advances and the entire leaf area may be covered with rust
pustules. Severely infected plants dry up prematurely.
Uromyces ciceris-arietini. The fungus produces uredial and telial
stages on Bengal gram. Uredospores are spherical, brownish yellow with echinulate
spore wall with 4-8 germ pores. Teliospores are round to oval, brown, single celled
with unthickened apex and rough, brown and warty wall.
3. Wilt
Symptoms: The disease occurs at two stages of crop growth, seedling stage and
flowering stage. The chief symptoms in seedling are yellowing and drying of leaves
from base upwards, drooping of petioles and rachis, browning of 3vascular bundles
and finally wilting of plants. In adult plants, drooping of leaves is observed initially in
upper part of plants and soon observed in entire plant. Dark brown or black
discolouration is noticed below and above collar region. Vascular browning is
conspicuously seen as black streaks on the stem and root portion below the bark.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. Mycelium is hyaline and septate.
Microconidia are hyaline, oval to cylindrical and single celled. Macroconidia are thin
walled, 3 to 5 septate, fusoid and pointed at both the ends. Chlamydospores are
rough or smooth walled, terminal or intercalary formed singly or in chains.
4. Root Rot
Symptoms: A dark brown lesion develops on the stem near ground level. The
infected seedling slowly turn yellow and petioles and leaflets show drooping, leads to
complete drying of the plant. The stem near the collar region and below shows
rotting symptom. The black dead tissues contain sclerotia.
Macrophomina phaseolina. Mycelium is dark brown, filamentous and
septate. The sclerotia are brown or black and irregular or round.
5. Stunt
Symptoms: Affected plants are stunted and bushy with short internodes. The
leaflets are smaller with yellow, orange or brown discolouration. Stem also shows
brown discolouration. The plants dry prematurely. Phloem browning in the collar
region is the most characteristic symptom of the stunt leaving xylem normal.

Causal agent: Bean (pea) leaf roll virus. It is transmitted by Aphis craccivora and
A. pisum.

Questions to be answered
1. The sclerotial stage of Macrophomina phaseolina is _________________
2. Name the sexual and asexual spores of Phytophthora
3. Asexual fruiting body of anthracnose pathogen is ___________
4. What is autoecious rust? Give an example
5. An example for seed-borne virus in pulses is _____________
6. Sexual stage of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is __________________
7. The asexual fruiting body of Macrophomina phaseolina is ________________
1. Wilt and dry root rot of pigeonpea
2. Powdery mildew of pigeonpea and blackgram
3. Sterility mosaic of pigeonpea and yellow mosaic of blackgram
4. Yellow mosaic and leaf crinkle of blackgram

Ex. No. 4

(Groundnut, Gingelly, Castor and Sunflower)

1. Aspergillus Crown Rot
Symptoms: Seeds may be attacked and killed leading to a pre-emergence rotting.
Ungerminated seeds from the soil show masses of black conidia which give them a
sooty appearance. Post-emergence infection results in death and rapid decay of
seedlings. The first symptom in emerged seedlings is rapid desiccation of the entire
plant. The sporulating fungus at the soil surface covers affected tissues. As the
infection progresses, the entire collar region becomes dark brown and shredded.
Seedling infection commonly occurs in the cotyledonary-hypocotyl region just after
emergence. The infected areas become water-soaked and light brown and are soon
covered with black fungal spores. Lesions develop on the stem just below the soil
surface and then spread upward along the branches that will results in wilting of
branches. The fungus sporulates on the surface of mature pods resulting in patches
of black sooty spores.
Aspergillus niger. The mycelium is hyaline to subhyaline, conidia are
dark brown to black, globose to radiate and are in chains. The conidiophores are
septate, smooth, and thick-walled and are hyaline to olive brown. The vesicles are
globose, thick-walled and hyaline to brown. The sterigmata are typically in two-series
i.e., primary and secondary.

2. Stem and Pod Rots

Symptoms: a. Stem rot: The symptoms of stem rot are yellowing and wilting of
lateral branches. If the main stem is attacked the whole plant shows yellowing and
wilting. Leaves on affected branches become chlorotic and then turn brown as they
rapidly dry out. Sheaths of white mycelium of S. rolfsii are seen around the affected
plants at or near the soil surface imparting white-washed appearance to the base of
the affected plants. Lesions on infected stems are at first light brown and later they
become dark brown. Advanced symptoms develop when lesions coalesce to girdle
the lower stem. The infected areas of the stem become shredded and the sheathing
mycelium quickly produces abundant spherical sclerotia on the surface of the
affected plants. Wilt and death of a single branch or of the entire plant may follow.
Dead plants lend to remain upright in the row.

b. Pod rot:
Pegs colonized by S. rolfsii, show light to dark brown lesions. They
later become shredded and pods become detached and are left in the soil at harvest.
Pods are also attacked. Affected young pods show light tan coloured lesions. Pods
are completely covered with a white mycelia mat. The seeds from diseased pods
show characteristic bluish-grey discolouration of the testa, known as blue damage.
This is caused by the production of oxalic acid by the pathogen.
Sclerotium rolfsii (Corticium rolfsii; Pellicularia rolfsii; Aethalia rolfsii).
Mycelium is septate and hyaline with conspicuous branching at acute angles. The
hyphae have clamps in the some of forks and hooks or H-like connections. Sclerotia
are light brown to dark brown and subspherical. The important characters of the
basidial stage are: Hymenium is at first coarsely areolate, becoming more dense
continuous or fleshy layer and white to grey in colour. Basidia are obovoid each
bearing 2 to 4 parallel or divergent sterigmata that bear basidiospore. Basidiospores
are hyaline, smooth, elliptical to obovate, round to point at the base and apiculate.
3. Dry Root Rot
Symptoms: The pathogen infects ground nut and produces reddish brown watersoaked lesions on the stem just above soil level. Later the lesion darkens and
disease spread. The affected stem is girdled and the plant wilts. In the dead tissue
of the plant many brown sclerotia are noticed. The roots are also affected and they
rot and disintegrate. Root bark peed off when the affected plants are pulled out. Dry
rot affected plants turn black and found rotten. In the pods the shells as well as
kernels are affected. Due to infection in the kernel the fungus grows between the
cotyledons. The fungal hyphae spread to form a white mat of mycelium over the
kernels and later they turn grey and eventually black. Finally they are covered with
many minute sclerotia. Black nut symptom is often noticed in between the
cotyledons and cannot be seen outside. When the affected kernel is split open
blacknut symptom can be seen.
Macrophomina phaseolina. The mycelium is coloured, septate and
branched. The sclerotia are blue to black and spherical to irregular.
4. Early and Late Leaf Spots
Symptoms: a. Early leaf spot:
Lesions are sub-circular in shape. They are
dark brown in colour on the upper leaf surface where most sporulation occurs and a
lighter shade of brown on the lower surface. The early leaf spot usually has a light to
dark brown center and a yellow halo. Fruiting structures are on upper leaf surface.

When disease is severe, leaflets become chlorotic and then necrotic lesions coalesce
and leaflets are shed.
b. Late leaf spot: Lesions are circular to sub-circular in shape. All lesions are dark
brown to black. On the lower leaf surface, where most sporulation occurs, the
lesions are black in colour. Fruiting structures are in concentric rings on the lower
leaf surface. Lesions on other parts are similar to that of early leaf spot.
Fungi: Early leaf spot - Cercospora arachidicola (Perfect stage: Mycosphaerella
arachidicola); Late leaf spot - Phaeoisariopsis personata (Syn. Cercosporidium
personatum, Cercospora personata; Perfect stage, Mycosphaerella berkeleyii).
a. Cercospora arachidicola:
Conidiophores are pale olivaceous or yellowish
brown and darker at the base and unbranched. Conidia are subhyaline, slightly
olivaceous, obclavate, often curved and 3 to 12 septate. Perithecia are erumpent,
globose, black, ostiolate and slightly papillate. Asci are cylindrical or club shaped,
short stipitate, bitunicate and 8-spored. Ascospores are bicelled, the upper cell some
what larger, slightly curved and hyaline.
b. Cercospora personata: The conidiophores are long, 1-2 septate, geniculate;
arise in clusters and olive brown. The conidia are hyaline to olive brown, straight or
slightly curved and 1-9 septate. Perithecia are globose or ovate, papillate and
ostiolate. Asci are cylindrical and contain 8 ascospores. The ascospores are hyaline
and two celled.
5. Rust
Symptoms: Orange-coloured circular pustules appear on the lower surface of leaf.
Pustules are formed on the upper surface of the leaf and petiole also. Pustules may
also formed on shells of developing pods. Leaves infected with rust become necrotic
and dry up and remain attached to the plant.
Puccinia arachidis. Only uredial and telial stages are known.
Uredospores are ellipsoid or obovoid, wall is brown in colour, finely echinulated, with
two germ pores which nearly equatorial. Teliospores are oblong or obovate or
ellipsoidal or ovate, with rounded to acute and thickened apex, constricted in the
middle, gradually attenuate at the base or more or less rounded attenuate at both
ends, smooth-walled, light yellow or golden yellow or chestnut brown and two-celled.
6. Phoma Blight
Symptoms: Light tan coloured to dark brown bigger spots appear on the leaves.
The margin of the spots are dark brown and with central light brown coloured region.

Halo formation surrounding the leaf spot is also observed. The pycnidia are seen on
the necrosed area. Stem legions are irregular, dark brown or greyish with dark brown
and well defined margins.
Phoma microspora. Mycelium is septate, hyaline or olive brown.
Chlamydospores are terminal or intercalary, single or in chain, globose or irregular,
one celled, immersed, ostiolate and globose. Conidia are hyaline, smooth walled,
globose and one celled.
7. Web Blotch
Symptoms: Scattered tan coloured specks or streaks forming a webbed pattern
are seen on the upper leaf surface. The discoloured areas expand and form large,
circular purplish brown to dark brown blotches, which have inconspicuous margins.
These blotches often coalesce and cover entire leaflets. Advanced lesions are
almost black with a roughened surface. They become dry and crack irregularly.
Didymella arachidicola. Pycnidia are pale to dark brown, globose to
flask-shaped, ostiolate and immersed in leaf tissues. Pycnidiospores are hyaline,
smooth-walled, and subglobose with rounded ends.

8. Bud Necrosis Disease (BND)

a. Primary symptoms:
Symptoms first appear on young leaflets as faint
chlorotic spots or mottling that may develop into chlorotic and necrotic rings and
streaks. Occasionally, the leaflets with initial symptoms usually become flaccid and
droop. Necrosis of the terminal bud soon follows. In the plants, which are less than
one month old, total necrosis of the plant is noticed. Necrosis on older plants usually
spread only to the petiole or to the portion of the stem immediately below the necrotic
terminal bud.
b. Secondary symptoms: The stunting and proliferation of axillary shoots are
common. Leaflets formed on these axillary shoots show reduction in size and
general chlorosis. Very rarely, the lamina is reduced to the midrib, giving the leaflets
a shoe string appearance. These secondary symptoms are most common on
early-infected plants and they give them a stunted and bushy appearance. Only a
few branches on late-infected plants are small and shriveled and their testae show
red, brown or purple mottling. Late-infected plants may produce seeds of normal
size but the testate on such seeds are often mottled. The early infected plants are
stunted and bushy and may resemble (chlorotic) rosette.

Causal agent:
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). It is transmitted by thrips
like Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella schultzei, F. occidentalis, F. fusca, Scirtothrips
dorsalis, Thrips palmi and T. setosus.

1. Charcoal rot / Root or stem rot
Symptoms: The pathogen attacks the stem at the collar region. The symptoms
include yellowing of lower of leaves and drooping and defoliation of leaves. The
infected portion rots and turns to a characteristic black colour. Abundant dot-like
black structures (pycnidia or sclerotia) are produced on the inflected area. Diseased
plants can be pulled out very easily from the soil. If the disease attacks mostly the
plants nearing maturity, filling of pods and maturity of seeds are highly impaired.
Macrophomina phaseolina (Sclerotial stage: Rhizoctonia bataticola).
The fungus produces dark brown septate mycelium. Mycelium shows constrictions
at the hyphal junctions. The sclerotia are black. Pycnidia are dark brown with a
prominent ostiole. The pycnidiospores are hyaline, elliptical and single celled.
2. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Leaves become yellowish, droop and desiccate. Sometimes leaves in
wilting plants show inward rolling of the edges and eventually dry up. The terminal
portion dries up and become shrink and bent over. In less severe infection few
branches may develop symptoms of wilt resulting in partial wilting. In matured plants
appearance of reddish brown discolouration of the plant from the root to the apex is
the characteristic symptom of the disease. Later these streaks become black in
colour. Under humid conditions pinkish growth can be seen on the discoloured area.
Discolouration of the vascular system is conspicuous in the roots. In the later stages,
roots show rotting symptom.

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. sesami.

3. White spot
Symptoms: Small, circular 5 mm dia spots are scattered in the surface of the leaf.
The spots are with whitish centre surrounded by blotch. Under humid conditions the
disease spreads quickly and leads to premature defoliation. The spots on petioles
are elongated and on the capsule they are more or less circular and brown to black.
Cercospora sesami. Conidia are hyaline, slightly curved, indistinctly
4. Powdery Mildew
Symptom: The disease appears as small white powdery growth on the upper
surface of leaves. These spots coalesce to form large patches finally covering the
entire leaf surface with powdery fungal growth. In severe cases, infection is seen on
the flowers and young capsules. Seriously diseased plants shed their leaves
prematurely. Under favourable conditions the white mycelial growth changes to dark
grey or black colour due to the formation of cleistothecia.
Erysiphe cichoracearum (Oidium acanthospermi).
The fungus
produces hyaline, septate and ectophytic mycelium. Conidiophores are short and
non-septate. Conidia are hyaline, single celled and ellipsoid or barrel-shaped. The
cleistothecia are dark and globose with hyaline or pale brown myceloid appendages.
Asci are ovate. Each ascus contains 2 to 3 ascospores. Ascospores are thin walled,
elliptical and pale brown.
5. Alternaria leaf blight
Symptoms: Reddish brown lesion is circular, water-soaked and found on the
foliage of seedlings. They enlarge in size and become circular in shape and often
have concentric zonation on the upper leaf surface. Lesions may coalesce to form
large necrotic areas and defoliation results. Dark brown lesions appear on the
petioles and stem. Lesions may spread to entire length of the stem. Dark brown
lesions on the capsules result in premature splitting with shriveled and poorly
matured seeds.
Alternaria sesami. The mycelium is dull brown, septate and produces
large number of conidiophores. Conidiophores are simple, cylindrical and light
brown. Conidia are ellipsoid, muriform (6-11 transverse septa), light brown with
simple or branched beak and borne singly or in chains of two.
6. Phyllody
Symptoms: Affected plants are stunted and the entire plant shows phyllody
symptoms. The inflorescence is replaced by a growth consisting of short, twisted
leaves closely arranged on the stem with very short internodes.
The most characteristic symptom of the disease is transformation of flower
parts into green leaf-like structures. The calyx becomes polysepalous. The sepals

become leaf-like and smaller in size. Phylloid flowers become actinomorphic in

symmetry and the corolla becomes polypetalous and deep green. The anthers
become green and contain abnormal pollen grains.
Causal agent:

Phytoplasma. It is transmitted by jassid, Orosius albicinctus.

1. Seedling blight
Symptoms: The disease appears as circular, dull green patch on both the surfaces
of cotyledon leaves. It later spreads and causes rotting. The infection moves to
stem and causes withering and death of seedling. In mature plants, the infection
initially appears on the young leaves and spreads to petiole and stem causing black
Phytophthora parasitica.
Mycelium is hyaline and non-septate.
Sporangiophores are borne singly or in groups, unbranched and bear single celled,
hyaline, round or oval shaped papillate sporangia at the tip singly. Each sporangium
contains 5-45 zoospores, which are reniform and biflagellate. Oospores are round
and hyaline. The chlamydospores are spherical, thick walled, smooth, yellow and
terminal or intercalary.
2. Rust
Symptoms: Minute, orange-yellow coloured, raised pustules appear with powdery
masses on the lower surface of the leaves and the corresponding areas of the upper
surface of the leaves are yellow. Often the pustules are grouped in concentric rings
and coalesce together and cause drying of leaves.
Melampsora ricini. Uredospores are of two kinds, one is thick walled
and the other is thin walled. They are elliptical to round, orange yellow and finely
3. Leaf blight
Symptoms: Irregular brown spots with concentric rings appear initially on the
leaves and covered with fungal growth. Later the spots coalesce to form big patches
and pre-mature defoliation occurs. The stem, inflorescence and capsules also show
dark brown lesions with concentric rings. On the capsules, initially brown sunken
spots appear which enlarge rapidly and cover the whole pod. The capsules crack
and seeds are also getting infected.
Alternaria ricini. The pathogen produces erect or slightly curved, light
grey to brown conidiophores, which are occasionally in groups. Conidia are

produced in chains. They are obclavate, light olive with 5-16 cells having transverse
and longitudinal septa and are with a beak at the tip.

4. Brown leaf spot

Symptoms: The disease appears as minute brown specks surrounded by a pale
green halo. The spots enlarge to form greyish white centre portion with deep brown
margin. The spots may be 2-4 mm in dia and when several spots coalesce, large
brown patches appear but restricted by veins. Infected tissues often drop off leaving
shot-hole symptoms. Usually the older leaves may be blighted and withered.
Cercospora ricinella.
Mycelium is inter-and intracellular.
conidiophores are with deep brown base and light brown tip, unbranched cylindrical,
straight or curved and septate. The conidia are elongated, colourless, truncate at the
base and narrow at the tip with 2 to 7 septa.

1. Alternaria blight
Symptoms: Dark brown to black, circular to oval spots surrounded by chlorotic
zone are seen on the leaves. Concentric rings are visible. Linear necrotic lesions
are formed on the petioles. Under high humidity, spots enlarge in size, coalesce and
cause blighting of leaves and defoliation. Rotting of flower heads is also seen.
Alternaria helianthi. Conidiophores are simple, cylindrical, straight or
curved and septate. Conidia are pale green-yellow, cylindrical to ellipsoid, straight
with rounded ends without beak, having 2-12 transverse septa and 0-1 longitudinal
2. Rust
Symptoms: Numerous small pustules (uredosori) appear on the lower surface of
the bottom leaves. These uredosori are scattered, irregular, cinnamon to brown and
up to one mm in dia. Infection later spreads to the upper leaves and including leaves
below the capitulum. In severe infections numerous pustules appear in each leaf
leading to yellowing and drying of the leaves. Telia, which are black, also seen
among uredia in the lower surface of leaves.
Puccinia helianthi. It is an autoecious rust. Uredospores are
ellipsoid to obovoid or cylindrical with finely echinulated wall. Teleutospores are
cylindrical. Pycnia are found in groups. Aecia are in groups around the pycnia
cupulate. Aeciospores are ellipsoid, hyaline with verrucose walls.

3. Head rot
Symptoms: The disease occurs in the plants at heading stage and during grain
formation. The affected heads show water-soaked lesion on the lower surface which
later turns to brown. The infection spreads from head to stalk. In advanced cases
the head becomes soft and pulpy with putrification of tissues. The insects and larvae
which feed on the developing seeds pave the way for the entry of the fungi. The
seeds in the diseased heads are converted into black mass and ill filled. Viability of
seeds is highly reduced.
Rhizopus nigricans. Mycelium is coenocytic and has aerial branches
called stolons. Sporangiophores develop opposite to the rhizoids in cluster. Each
sporangiophore bears a single terminal sporangium. Sporangia are large, blackish
with well developed columella. The sporangiospores are oval and pigmented and
typically marked by striations. Zygospores are provided with black, thick, several
layered wall.
4. Charcoal rot and root rot
Symptoms: Affected seedling show a brown or ashy black discolouration at the
collar region, which finally girdles the stem to about 3 to 6 cm and their leaves
become dull in appearance. Gradually the lesion turns black, the plant dies within a
week and its peeled tissues become studded with numerous black sclerotial bodies.
If the infection occurs in the later stage of the crop, the plant shows initial paling and
drying of leaves and root rot. The most common symptom in the field is sudden
wilting of plants usually after flowering. Black sclerotial bodies can be seen in the
root portion where pycnidia bodies can be seen.
Macrophomina phaseolina (Sclerotial stage. Rhizoctonia bataticola).
The fungus produces a large number of black, round to irregular sclerotia. Pycnidia
are dark brown to black with an ostiole and contain numerous single celled, thin
walled, hyaline and elliptical pycnidiospores.
Questions to be answered
1. Pathogen responsible for bluish grey discolouration of groundnut kernel is ______
2. Shredding of bark is common in ________________ disease
3. Pycnidial stage of Rhizoctonia bataticola is _________________
4. TSWV infects ______________ and ___________ crops
5. Two types of conidia produced by Fusarium wilt pathogen are ______ and ______
6. Spots with concentric rings are the characteristic symptoms of _________
True or False
1. Bud necrosis is transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

2. Insect damge to sunflower heads predisposes head rot infection

1. Crown rot and Stem and pod rot of groundnut
2. Root rot and Stem and pod rot of groundnut
3. Early leaf spot and Late leaf spot of groundnut
4. Rust of groundnut and Sunflower
5. Cercospora leaf spot and Alternaria leaf spot of castor
Ex. No. 5


1. Seedling Blight
Symptoms: The symptoms include pre-germination decay of seed (pre-emergence
damping off), decay of seedling (post-emergence damping-off), and partial or
complete girdling of the emerged seedlings at or near the soil surface and seedling
root rot.
Fungi: Pythium sp., Fusarium moniliforme, F.oxysporum, F. roseum, Rhizoctonia
solani (Thanatephorus cucumeris) and Macrophomina phaseolina.
2. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: The earliest symptom appears on the seedlings in the cotyledons,
which become yellow and then brown. The base of petiole shows brown central ring
followed by wilting and drying of the seedling. In adult plants, the first symptom is
yellowing of margins of leaves and area around the veins i.e. discolouration starts
from the margin and spread towards the midrib. The leaves lose their turgidity,
gradually turn brown and droop. Symptoms start from the older leaves at the base,
followed by the younger one towards the top, finally involving the branches and the
whole plant or wilting may be complete leaving the stem alone standing in the field.
Sometimes partial wilting on a branch occurs. Blackening or browning of vascular
tissues is the other important symptom. Black streaks or stripes may be seen
extending upwards to the branches and downwards to lateral roots. In a transverse
section of a diseased branch, discoloured ring is seen in the woody tissues of stem.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum. Mycelium is septate. Microconidia
are unicellular or bicellular, ellipsoidal and borne on lateral phialides or on phialides
produced from short lateral conidiophores. Macroconidia are fusiform (falcate),
curved inwards at both end, pedicellate and 4-5 septate. Chlamydospores are
terminal and intercalary, single or in chains, hyaline and smooth to rough walled.

Verticillium wilt

Symptoms: Affected plants show a characteristic chlorosis of leaves and stunting.

The veins turn brown and interveinal areas become chlorotic. Cupping of the lamina
follows this stage and the tissues between the veins dry in patches between the
veins producing tiger stripe effect. The affected leaves fall off, leaving bare
branches, which are the characteristic feature of this disease. Infected stem and
roots, when split open, will reveal dark brown discolouration of the woody stem and
root. Browning may taper off into longitudinal streaks in the upper parts and
branches. Affected plants bare few, smaller bolls, which have immature lint.
Fungus: Verticillium dahliae. Mycelium floccose and white to greyish. Dark brown
resting mycelia are formed only in association with microsclerotia. Resting mycelium
dark-brown to black. Conidiophores are abundant, erect, hyaline, verticillately
branched, 3 to 4 phialides arising at each node. Phialides sometimes secondarily
branched. Conidia arise singly at apices of phialides, elliptical to irregularly
subcylindrical, hyaline and single celled.
4. Root rot
Symptoms: The fungus causes two types of symptom. They are
a. Seedling death: Appearance of black lesions on the hypocotyl, girdling of stem
and death of the seedlings result in gappiness in the field.
b. Root rot: The most prominent symptom is sudden and complete wilting of
plants. All the leaves from top to bottom droop down and are killed with in a day or
two. The affected plants can be easily pulled out. Pulled out plants reveal the rotting
of entire root system. A large number of dark brown or black sclerotia are seen within
the bark and disintegrated cortical tissues of the roots.
Macrophomina phaseolina (Sclerotial stage: Rhizoctonia bataticola).
Hyphae are colourless, branched and the branches arise almost at right angle.
Sclerotia are minute, black and smooth. They may be globose, oblong or elliptical.
Pycnidia are ostiolate and the wall is thin. Pycnidiospores are one celled, hyaline,
oval or cylindrical.
5. Grey mildew
Symptoms: Initially the lesions are irregular, pale, translucent and angular in
appearance on under surface of leaves. The lesions are restricted to leaf areolae
(small areas, 3 to 4 mm wide, bounded by veinlets). On the upper surface, the
lesions appear as light green or yellow green specks. With the formation of profuse
conidiophores and conidia, frosty white to grey mildew patches (spots) appear on the
under surface. Eventually the entire leaf surface is covered by white to grey powdery
growth. On the upper surface also, white to grey powdery growth appears. Later,
the affected leaves dry up from the margins, cup inwards, turn yellowish brown and
fall off prematurely. Lesions occur on the bracts subtending the bolls. Early and
severe defoliation leads to premature boll opening and immature poor quality lint.

Fungus: Septocylindrium gossypii (Syn. S. areola, Ramularia areola; Perfect stage:

Mycosphaerella areola). Mycelium is endophytic and septate. Conidiophores are
short, hyaline and branched at the base. Conidia are borne singly or in chains and
are hyaline, irregularly oblong with pointed ends, unicellular or 1-3 septate.
Perithecia contain many asci. The ascospores are hyaline, two celled and angular.

6. Alternaria blight
Symptoms: On the leaves dull brown, round or circular spots are seen. Older spots
may coalesce and produce large and irregular dead areas with concentric rings.
Severely infected plants show defoliation. Cankers developing on the stem leads to
cracking and breaking of the stem. The bolls develop lesions resembling to those on
the leaves.
Fungus: Alternaria macrospora (Syn: A. longipedicellata). Mycelium is dark and
septate. Conidiophores are single or in groups, erect, simple straight or flexuous,
almost cylindrical or tapering slightly towards the apex, septate, pale-to mid-brown,
smooth, with one to several conidial scars. Conidia are solitary or sometimes in
twos, straight or curved, obclavate or with the body of the conidium ellipsoidal
tapering abruptly to a very narrow beak which is equal in length to or up to twice as
long as the body, reddish-brown, minutely verruculose, with 4 to 8 transverse and
several longitudinal or oblique septa, often slightly constricted at septa.
7. Myrothecium blight
Symptoms: Light brown to tan coloured with violet to reddish brown margins are
seen on the leaves. With the advancement of the disease, the spots increase in the
size and coalesce together involving more leaf area. One or two concentric rings of
sporodochia can be seen on the spots. Sporodochia are of pin head size and dark
green or greenish black in colour. Leaves exhibit irregular holes or shot holes. The
leaves affected in the margin exhibit holes resembling that of ash weevil damage.
The lesions on bracts are broader with a narrow reddish violet margin. In severe
cases spotting on the stem causes breaking. Under severe conditions, the lint gets
stained yellow to light brown.
Myrothecium roridum. Mycelium is white or rosy buff or yellow.
Conidiophores are hyaline, cylindrical, branched below and then into 2 to 3 branches
bearing phialides, closely compacted to form a subhymenial layer. Phialides in
whorls of 2 to 5 at the apex of conidiophore branches, mostly cylindrical rarely slightly
clavate, hyaline closely compacted into parallel rows forming a dense hymenial layer.
Spores (conidia) are rod-shaped with rounded ends, smooth walled, hyaline to
olivaceous, black, in mass and guttulate.
8. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: The spots are round or irregular, yellowish brown with purple, dark
brown or black border and white centres. Later the spots coalesce with each other.
In older spots the centre may crack and break away and leave a ragged margin.
Severely affected leaves become paler, wither and defoliate. Masses of conidia
appear as dusty shading on the upper and lower surfaces to dead tissue in the old
Cercospora gossypina (Perfect stage: Mycosphaerella gossypina).
Mycelium is septate and intercellular. Conidiophores emerge through stomata in
fasicles, flexuous, dark brown, septate, irregularly bent near the tip. Conidia are
hyaline, long, slender, curved, and narrow towards the tip and rounded at the base
and 5 to 7 septate. Perithecia are ovate, black partly immersed in the leaf tissues;
ostiole protrudes out of either surface. Ascospores are light, elliptical or broadly,
fusoid, one-septate, hyaline to greenish, two celled often unequal and narrowed at
the septum.
9. Tropical rust
Symptoms: Epiphyllous uredia are formed in small, purplish brown spots and they
coalesce to form larger patches. Uredia are oval and corky at first and later at
maturity become circular. The infection may spread to the entire leaf. In later stages,
rust pustules can be seen on the bolls also. Severe infestation leads to defoliation.
Fungus: Phakopsora gossypii (Syn: P. desmium). Uredia are subepidermal and
erumpent. Uredospores are echinulated and borne singly, light yellow, oval or
broadly with short spines. Telia are subepidermal but not erumpent and appear as
powdery, light cinnamon-brown dots. Teliospores are sessile but not echinulated,
irregularly arranged, one celled with one germ pore and the wall is pigmented, pale
golden brown, cylindrical and 4 to 7 septate.
10. Anthracnose
Symptoms: The fungus infects the seedlings and produces small reddish or light
coloured circular spots on the cotyledons and primary leaves. The lesions on the
collar region are elongated and reddish brown in colour. Sometimes the lesions may
extend down to the roots. Such affected seedling wilts and dies. In matured
seedlings the fungus attacks the stem leading to stem splitting and shredding of bark.
The wood becomes brown, resulting in wilting of the seedlings.
Small water-soaked, circular, reddish brown, slightly depressed spots are
seen on the bolls. As the lesions grow in size, their centres become black. The
disease attacks bracts, rapidly enlarge and extend to the bolls. The lint is stained
yellow or brown becomes a solid brittle mass of fibre. The infected bolls cease to
grow, burst and dry up prematurely. Badly affected seeds are light brown, poorly
developed and usually do not germinate.

Fungi: Colletotrichum capsici and Glomerella gossypii.

C. capsici: In the acervuli setae are long, septate and pointed, dark brown, thickwalled and pale at the ends. Conidiophores are hyaline, single celled and cylindrical.
Conidia are unicellular, slender, and falcate and smooth walled.
Glomerella gossypii: The anamorph is Colletotrichum gossypii. Hyphae are
immersed in the tissues, intercellular. Setae are long and dark brown below and
colourless at the apex and straight or flexuous. Conidiophores are hyaline, nonseptate or 1 to 2 septate, cylindrical, straight and about twice the length of conidia.
They are straight or slightly curved, nearly oblong with rounded ends, base narrowed
and not falcate. They are spherical or pear-shaped sometimes with a prominent
beak, extending through the epidermis. They are dark. Asci are numerous.
Ascospores are hyaline, unicellular, elliptical or slightly curved.
11. Boll rot
Symptoms: The disease appears as small brown or black dots which later enlarge
to cover the entire bolls. Infection spreads to the inner tissues and rotting of seeds
and lint occurs. The bolls never burst open and fall of prematurely. In some cases,
the rotting may be external, cause rotting of the pericarp leaving the internal tissues
free. On the affected bolls, a large number of fruiting bodies of fungi concerned are
Fungi: Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum capsici, Aspergillus flavus, A.niger,
Rhizopus nigricans, Nematospora nagpuri and Botryodiplodia sp.

12. Bacterial blight


The bacterium produces the following five types of symptoms.

a. Seedling blight: The first evidence of the disease is seen on cotyledons. It

appears on the cotyledons as small water soaked, circular or irregular spots and
spreads gradually resulting in the distortion of the cotyledons. The bacterium moves
to the stem of the seedling through the petiole and invades the terminal region,
resulting in death of the seedlings.
b. Angular leaf spot: Small, dark green, water-soaked areas develop on the lower
surface of the leaves, enlarge gradually and when the leaves become older they turn
to reddish brown colour and infection spreads to veins and veinlets. The spots are
restricted by veinlets and become angular.
c. Vein blight or vein necrosis or black vein:
The infection of veins causes
blackening of the veins and veinlets, giving a typical blight appearance. On the lower
surface of the leaf, bacterial ooze is formed as crusts. The affected leaves crinkle
and twist inward and show withering. The infection spreads from veins to petiole and
cause blights, which lead to defoliation.

d. Black arm:
On the stem and fruiting branches, dark brown to black lesions
are formed, which may girdle the stem and branches to cause premature dropping off
of leaves, cracking of stem and gummosis resulting in breaking of the stem and hang
typically as dry black twig to give a characteristic black arm symptom.
e. Boll rot:
Basal infection of flower buds and young bolls cause them to fall off
prematurely. The infected area appears as small, dark green water-soaked area.
They are slightly raised and round in outline in contrast to the angular lesions on
leaves. The boll lesions gradually enlarge, turn black and become sunken as the
tissue dies. At this stage, saprophytic organisms may attack the bolls, thus causing
boll rot and gummosis. The infected bolls fail to open and if they open, the lint quality
becomes poor. The seeds in the bolls are reduced in size and their viability is lost.
Bacterium: Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum. It is rod-shaped, Gramnegative and motile by a single polar flagellum. It is not acid fast. It is non-spore
former and capsulated. It is a facultative aerobe.


1. Damping off
In pre-emergence damping off, germinating seeds or young
seedlings are killed before they reach the soil surface. Radicle and plumule are
attacked and show complete rotting in the soil. In post emergence- damping off, the
seedlings are attacked near the ground level soon after their emergence from the
soil. Infected stem tissues become soft and water-soaked and the affected seedlings
topple down. The roots show reddish brown discolouration.
Fungi: Pythium aphanidermatum, P.ultimum, P.arrhenomanes and


2. Wilt
Symptoms: The earliest symptom of the disease is stunting, yellowing of crown
leaves. The canes may wither in groups. The midribs of all leaves in a crown turn
yellow while the leaf lamina remains green. The leaves dry up. The canes become
light in weight and hollow, when tissues in the lowest internodes show a brick red
colour with reddish individual vascular strands. There are no white transverse bands
as in red rot. Brown patches on the rind are formed and underlying tissues die. The
pathogen ramifies in the reddened pith making it to become hollow. In severe cases

spindle shaped cavities tapering towards the nodes develop in each internode. Fluffy
growth of the fungus with conidia covers the cavity.
Cephalosporium sacchari. Mycelium is white and sparsely septate.
The conidiophores are septate tapering towards the apex, simple or vertically
branched. The conidia are hyaline, ovoid or oblong, ellipsoid without septation.
3. Pine apple disease / Sett rot
The fungus enters through cut ends of the setts and spreads
rapidly through parenchymatous tissues. The affected tissues first become reddened
but remain firm for sometime. Affected setts when split longitudinally (in early stage
of the disease) will emit an odour resembling that of fresh pine apple fruit. Then the
core in the internode becomes hollow and black in colour. The black colour is due to
presence of large number of macroconidia which are dark coloured. The setts may
decay before the buds germinate or the shoots may die back after reaching a height
of 15 to 30 cm. The leaves of the affected stalks may wilt and badly affected shoots
become stunted, leaves become chlorotic and frequently the diseased plants die.
Ceratostomella paradoxa (Syn: Ceratocystis paradoxa, Ophiostoma
paradoxa, Thielaviopsis paradoxa). The mycelium is hyaline or light brown. In the
imperfect stage, two kinds of spores viz,. microspores (microconidia) are rectangular
to slightly oval, thin walled and hyaline at first and become brown later. These
spores are produced endogenously and are pushed out of the conidiophores in long
chains. Conidiophores are slender, septate, arise laterally from hyphae and are
hyaline to pale. And the macrospores (macroconidia) are larger, produced in chains
or in single. Conidiophores are thick walled and brown. Perithecia are immersed,
light brown, globose and ornamented with numerous septate coralloid appendages.
Ascospores are ellipsoid with unequally curved sides, 1-celled and smooth.

4. Red rot
Symptoms: The third or fourth leaf withers away at the tip and along the margins.
Later the whole crown may wither away in eight to twelve days. Typical symptoms of
red rot are observed in the internodes of the stalk by splitting it longitudinally. These
include the reddening of internal tissues with white spots which are usually elongated
at right angles to the long axis of the stalk. The presence of these cross-wise white
patches is considered as a diagnostic character of the disease. Minute red spots
also appear in the centre of the mid-rib and develop both direction forming small or
long lesions. The lesion is initially blood red with dark margins and later on with
straw coloured centres. Often the infected leaves may break at the lesions and hang
down with large number of minute black dots.

Colletotrichum falcatum (Syn: Physalospora tucumanensis).
Perithecia are immersed, single or aggregated often in short lines between vascular
bundles, globose, dark brown to black and ostiolate. Asci are clavate, unitunicate
and 8-spored. Ascospores are one-celled, hyaline, straight or slightly curved and
ellipsoid or ovoid. Paraphyses are numerous, septate, simple and filiform. Acervuli
are round to elongate. Setae are simple, smooth, non-septate or septate, brown,
slightly swollen at the base and tapered towards the apex. Conidiophores are
hyaline to brown, septate, branched at the base, smooth, formed from the upper cells
of the acervulus. Conidia are falcate, hyaline and one-celled.
5. Smut / Whip smut
Symptoms: Affected plants are stunted and it is characterized by the production of
a long whip-like structure from the terminal bud of the stalk. Initially it is white but
later becomes black and dusty. The whip-like structure is few centimeters to several
centimeters in length and sometimes coiled or curved back on itself. On the outside
there is a white, thin membrane (host epidermis). As the disease progresses, the
membrane rupture exposing millions of minute, black smut spores (teliospores or
chlamydospores). The leaves are usually small and are formed closer and
sometimes scale-like buds are present on the lower nodes. These plants tiller
excessively and all plants in a stool thus formed, including the tillers are infected with
smut. The smutted clumps also produce mummified arrows in which lower portion
consisted of a normal inflorescence with typical flowers and the upper portion of the
rachis is converted into a typical smut whip. Smut sori are occasionally seen on
leaves and stem.
Ustilago scitaminea. The mycelium is intercellular and collects as a
dense mass between the vascular bundles of host cell and produces many tiny black
spores, covered by a white, thin silvery membrane. Smut spores are spherical, light
brown and germinate to produce 3-4 celled hyaline promycelium and produce 3-4
sporidia. Sporidia are single celled, hyaline and oval with pointed ends. Sporidia
may multiply by budding.
6. Rust
Symptoms: The sori are minute, elongated, yellowish which are visible on both the
leaf surfaces. These sori increase in size, mainly in length and turn brown to orange
brown in colour, meanwhile gaining a light but definite but narrow pale yellow green
halo. Uredia are confined mainly to the lower leaf surface.
The uredia are
subepidermal and rupture the epidermis under pressure to release the dense masses
of orange coloured uredospores. Uredia occur on leaf sheath also and the entire

foliage looks brownish from a distance. Later in the season, dark brown to black telia
appear on the lower surface of the leaves.
Fungi: Puccinia melanocephala (Syn. P. erianthi) and P. kuehnii (Uromyces kuehnii).
In P. melanocephala, the uredospores are orange to orange brown, oval to
pear shaped, thick-walled, and spiny and are with four equatorial or scattered large
distinct germ pores. They are pale to dark, club shaped to cylindrical and are on the
margins of the sori. Teleutospores are two-celled, smooth walled, club shaped with a
constriction at the septum. They are pale to brick red and are borne on short stalks.
In P. kuehnii, uredospores are with 3 to 5 equatorially placed germ pores.
Teleutosori are small, elongated and blackish. Teleutospores are pale yellow, oblong
to club shaped, rounded or somewhat flattened above, narrow below, two celled,
slightly constricted at the septum. The spores are borne on very short stalks.
7. Eye-spot
Symptoms: The lesion appears as small watery area, dark green than the normal
leaf. Within 3 to 4 days, lesion becomes more or less straw coloured. Later the
central portion of the spot becomes reddish brown. The spot increases in size,
elongate in the direction of the main axis of the leaf. The typical spot is oval in shape
and slightly less in width, with a reddish brown centre and a light coloured border or
halo. As it becomes older, the centre breaks down and becomes greyish and the
hollow becomes less prominent.
Drechslera sacchari (Syn. Helminthosporium sacchari). Conidiophores
arise singly or in small fascicles, straight or flexuous, dark-brown or olivaceous
brown, paler towards the apex. Conidia are slightly curved or occasionally straight,
cylindrical or narrowly ellipsoid, mid-pale to midgolden- brown, smooth and 5 to 9
pseudoseptate. The fungus produces a toxin called helminthosporin.
8. Ring spot
On the leaf blades the spots are dark green to brownish but
later become reddish brown, each usually surrounded by a narrow yellowish zone.
Finally, the centre of the spot becomes straw coloured. The old spot typically has
the straw coloured centre surrounded by a narrow reddish zone. Sometimes an
outer yellowish zone persists, especially near the ends of the spots. At first the spots
are irregular in shape, more or less diamond shaped or oval. Small, blackish specks
appear on the old spots. Similar spots occur on the leaf sheaths also.
Leptosphaeria sacchari. Mycelium is intercellular, septate and thin.
Perithecia are at first subepidermal or erumpent, spherical or subglobose, black, with

a papillate ostiole. Asci are cylindrical, slightly narrowed at the base. Eight spores
per ascus, approximately 2 rowed, oblong, 3-septate, constricted at the septa,
hyaline or sub-hyaline. Paraphyses are filamentous, about the same length the asci
and are hyaline.
9. Ratoon stunting disease (RSD)
Symptoms: Growth is retarded and often the affected plants; especially in the
ratoon crops are severely stunted. The disease is present in plant crops also.
Internodal length is much reduced. Tillering of the canes is less. Girth of the canes
is not usually affected. Yield is considerably reduced. In young growing shoots the
growing point both nodes and internodes are pinkish in colour, while in the mature
stalks of most varieties the lower portion of the node is usually orange to light red or
yellow. In matured canes the nodes show discolouration of vascular bundles. The
fibrovascular bundles in this discoloured band are apparently clogged. Germination
of sett is low, delayed and the growth of the plant is very slow.
Causal agent: Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli.
10. Mosaic
Symptoms: The characteristic symptom of mosaic is the presence of chlorotic or
light coloured areas on the leaves. Ordinarily these are elongated into more or less
irregular stripes or streaks surrounded by areas with the normal green colour. The
mosaic pattern resulting from the different shades of green varies with the cane
variety, the conditions of growth the temperature and the strain of the virus involved.
The chlorotic areas are more distinct on the actively growing basal portion of the leaf.
Chlorotic areas frequently are also present on the leaf sheaths. On the stalks dark
coloured stripes, reddish, purplish or brownish or on the dark coloured canes light
coloured stripes, occur with some varieties. In some cases rind tissues collapse and
the stalks appear dry. Affected plants are stunted and chlorotic. The diagnostic
symptoms of mosaic are slow growth, general yellowing of the foliage and the
presence of irregular, indefinite, pale to yellowish areas on the leaves.
Causal agent:
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). The virus is rod-shaped. In
India six strains have been identified viz., A,B,C,D,E and F. Strain B is the most
common which produces mild mottle of the leaves. It is transmitted by the aphids
viz., Rhopalosiphum maidis, Melanaphis sacchari and M. indosacchari.
11. Grassy shoot disease (GSD)

Symptoms: The disease is characterized by the production of numerous lanky

tillers with small and narrow leaves, with or without albinism (white leaf). Shoots
growing from diseased setts remain dwarfed or stunted. Diseased plants exhibit
leaves which are light green or white. Premature and excessive tillering gives a
crowded grass like appearance to the clump. The root system gets considerably
reduced. Affected clumps are stunted and exhibit premature proliferation of axillary
buds. Canes are thin with shorter internodes. Hardly one or two thin, weak and
small millable canes are produced in a clump having primary infection and these do
not produce inflorescence or arrow. The buds on such canes are usually papery and
abnormally elongated. In some cases there is also formation of aerial roots at the
lower nodes.
Causal agent:
Phytoplasma. It is ovoid, spherical and irregularly shaped. It
is found in the sieve tubes of phloem in the affected canes. It moves from cell to cell
through pores in the sieve plate. It is sett-borne and transmitted by hopper, Proutista
moesta and aphids viz., Rhopalosiphum maydis, Aphis sacchari and A.

Questions to be answered
1. Toxin produced by Helminthosporium sacchari is _____________
2. The motile spores produced by damping off pathogen is ___________
3. Black powdery mass released from whip smut of sugarcane are _____________
of the pathogen
4. In Sugarcane, black whip-like structure is formed from __________ of the plant
True or False
1. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum is a seed-borne pathogen
2. Red rot of sugarcane primarily spread through diseased setts
1. Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt of cotton
2. Alternaria blilght and Myrothecium blight of cotton
3. Sett rot and red rot of sugarcane
4. Red rot and wilt of sugarcane

5. Grassy shoot disease and Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane

Ex. No. 6



1. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: Whitish bloom of powdery mildew is seen on upper surface of leaf.
Leaves lose green colour and dry up. Whitish patches formed on the stalks of
inflorescence which later turn black. Affected fruits do not develop in size and may
drop before attaining pea size. White coating is due to the thick covering of
mycelium, conidia and conidiophores.

Fungus: Oidium mangiferae (Acrosporium mangiferae). Mycelium is ectophytic,

conidiophores non-septate short and hyaline; conidia hyaline, single celled, barrelshaped and are produced in chains.

2. Sooty mould
Symptoms: The disease is associated with scale insects and aphids. The honey
secreted by the insects on the leaves and twigs of host plants attracts the fungus
which multiplies rapidly, spreading on the plant surface. Because of the production of
masses of black spores, which stick to the leaf surface due to the sticky honey dew,
the foliage appears black and ugly and hence the name sooty mould.
Photosynthetic activity and yield are reduced.
Fungi : Capnodium ramosum, C.mangiferae and Meliola mangiferae.

3. Anthracnose
Symptoms : Leaves, stems, blossoms and fruits are attacked. On leaves the spots
are round to irregular and dark brown. Affected portion dries and falls off exhibiting
shot hole. Sometimes leaf margins darken, dry up, may fall out, giving the leaf a
ragged appearance. Young leaves wither and dry up. Young branches wither, dry
and show die-back. Black round spots are of more than 5 mm seen on matured
fruits. Affected areas usually crack and sink slightly. Latent infection is carried out
from the field and develops further in storage, which causes rotting of fruits in store
houses. Skin becomes thin and pulp is rotten.
Fungus: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Mycelium is septate and coloured. Conidia
single celled, hyaline, falcate and are produced in acervuli.

4. Grey blight
Symptoms: Spots on leaves are small, round or elongated and seen at the distal
end or any part of leaf. The spots are light brown with a dark brown margin. Leaf tip
dries up and the infection spreads down towards petioles. Elliptical lesions on stem
girdle the stem. Water soaked, round lesions on fruits enlarge rapidly and cause
rotting particularly in storage. Acervuli are seen as minute black dots on affected
Fungus: Pestalotiopsis mangiferae (Syn. Pestalotia mangiferae). Mycelium is
coloured and septate. Conidia are five celled. Middle three cells are coloured and
the end cells are hyaline. Appendages are slender, 3-5 in number and are seen at
the apex of the conidia.

5. Bacterial leaf spot (Black spot) and canker

Symptoms: It attacks leaves, petioles, fruits and tender stems. Small water soaked
lesions appear in groups towards the tip of the leaf. They increase in size, turn
brown to black and are surrounded by a distinct halo. Cankerous lesions appear on
petioles and branches. On young fruits, lesions are water soaked and they turn

black. Infected fruits exhibit cracks on the skin.


Badly affected fruits drop

Bacterium: Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae-indicae. The bacterium is

Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile by means of a polar flagellum and is without
endospores. Colonies on PDA are white to creamy white, circular, smooth and

6. Phanerogamic parasite- Giant mistletoe

Symptoms: The parasites stem creeps along the stem of mango and it attacks by
peg-like growths at several places. It forms a bushy growth. At the point of
attachment haustoria penetrate and absorb food material and cause cessation of
growth of affected branches. Affected branches lose the foliage and dry up. Trees
gradually deteriorate and die. The parasite also attacks Citrus spp., jack, neem, etc.
Parasite: Giant mistletoes- Dendrophthoe longiflorus, D.ampullaceus, D. capillatus
and D.elasticus. Leaves of the parasites are narrow, thick, leathery and green.
Fruits are fleshy with sticky mucilaginous contents.

1. Panama disease / Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Yellowing of lower most leaves. Yellowing extends upwards and finally
heart leaf alone remain green. Leaves break near the base and hang around the
pseudostem. Longitudinal splitting at the base of the pseudostem is seen. Central
portion of the affected rhizome is dark brown and purplish streaks radiating from the
centre are seen in the cross section.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Mycelium is septate, hyaline and
branched. Fungus produces microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores.
Microconidia are single celled or rarely one-septate, hyaline and elliptical or oval.
Macroconidia are sickle-shaped, hyaline, 3-septate and they are tapering at both the
ends. Chlamydospores are thick walled, spherical to oval and hyaline to slightly
yellow in colour.

2. Anthracnose / Fruit rot

Symptoms: Fruits are affected when immature. They turn black and are covered
with pink mass of fungal spores. This causes discoloration and rotting of the pulp.
Entire fruit, stalk and buds are affected. Branch becomes black. Fruits are shriveled.
Fungus: Gloeosporium musarum (Colletotrichum musae). Mycelium is septate and
coloured. Acervuli are round or elongated and erumpent. Conidiophores are

cylindrical, tapered towards the apex, hyaline and septate. Conidia are single celled,
hyaline, small and elongated.

3. Sigatoka leaf spot

Symptoms: Elongated dark brown spots appear on leaves. The spots increase in
size and show grey centre and brown margin. Each spot is surrounded by a yellow
halo. More spots on leaves cause drying. Fructification of the fungus is seen as
black dots in the grey centre.
Fungus: Cercospora musae (Syn. Mycosphaerella musicola). Mycelium is septate
and coloured. Conidia are hyaline, cylindrical, long and 3-5 septate.
4. Black tip (Black spot)
Symptoms: Three types of symptoms viz., black spot on the leaf surface, fruit tip
discolouration or black tip and fruit spot are caused by the same pathogen. Black
spots appear on the main veins of the lamina in proximity to the leaf margin. The
spots increase in size, become irregular and are with a bright yellow band. Tips of
fruits are black. In some fruits, round spots with reddish brown or black centre and a
darker green water-soaked halo may be seen.
Fungus: Deightoniella torulosa. Syn. Helminthosporium torulosum) Mycelium is
septate, branched and brown. Conidia are brown, thick walled, 5-7 celled, broader at
the base and taper towards top.

5. Freckle disease / Black spot

Symptoms: Numerous, minute, black, raised spots are seen on the leaves. Spots
are more on the upper surface. Leaves become yellow. Spots on fruits are
superficial (skin deep) and are produced either singly or in groups.
Fungus: Phyllostictina musarum (Syn. Macrophoma musae). The fungus produces
pycnidia and pycnidiospores. Pycnidiospores are needle-shaped, hyaline and

6. Bacterial wilt / Moko disease

Symptoms: Plants show rapid wilting and collapse of the leaves and premature
ripening of the fruit. Characteristic discolouration of the vascular strands from pale
yellow to dark brown or bluish dark appears. Discolouration is in the central portion.
Leaves turn dingy yellow or whitish yellow. Petiole breaks at junction with
pseudostem. Individual fingers of the bunch turn yellow, distorted and fruit pulp turns
dark-brown. When the pseudostem is cut greyish brown bacterial ooze is seen.
Whole plant dies. Suckers become black.
Bacterium: Burkholderia solanacearum (Pseudomonas
bacterium is Gram negative and rod-shaped.

7. Bacterial Leaf spot



Symptoms: Brownish liner streaks appear along the veins. They turn dark brown
and finally black with a chlorotic halo. Leaves roll downwards, dry up in the affected
portions presenting a scorched appearance.
Bacterium: Xanthomonas campestris pv. musicola. The bacterium is a Gram
negative rod with a polar flagellum, non-capsulated and non-spore forming.

8. Bunchy top
Symptoms: Plants are extremely stunted. Leaves are erect and crowded at the top
forming a rosette appearance. Leaves are shortened, narrow, rigid and brittle with
broken green bands on the petioles. Leaves are
Causal agent: Banana Bunchy top virus (BBTV) or Musa virus-1.
Vector : Pentalonia nigronervosa (aphid)

9. Banana mosaic / Infectious chlorosis

Symptoms: Chlorotic or yellow green islands are seen on the leaves. Upwards
curling of leaves, light green or yellowish green mottling and distortion of young
leaves and dwarfed growth are the characteristics symptoms. Eruption of veins on
the leaves, partial unfurling of lamina, breaking of leaf tip, necrosis of leaf sheath and
occasional heart leaf rot also occur. Diseased plants do not reach maturity.
Causal agent: A strain of Cucumber mosaic virus. Vectors are Aphis gossypii and

10. Banana Bract mosaic

Symptoms: The disease is characterized by appearance of black streak on petiole,
yellow or pinkish colouration on pseudostem and mosaic-like purple spindle shaped
streaks on the bract. Suckers exhibit reddish brown streaks at emergence.
Clustering of leaves at crown with a travelers palm appearance elongated
peduncle and half filled hands are its characteristic symptoms.
Causal agent: Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV). It is transmitted through planting
materials and by aphids.

11. Banana Streak

Symptoms: The disease is characterized by the presence of discontinuous yellow
streaks along the blade or midrib which turn into discoloured patches. Necrosis
appears on the lower side of the sheath, which leads to drying of leaves.

Causal agent: Banana Streak Virus (BSV). Virus particles are bacilliform. The
disease is neither transmitted mechanically nor by aphid vector.

1. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Leaves of affected branches show yellowing, curling and drying but
they do not shed for sometime. Affected branches bearing infected leaves begin to
die and the twig barks show severe splitting. Barks turn light brown. It is severe at
the time of fruit bearing stage. Fruits produced in affected plants are very small.
Trees do not produce any new flush or flowers. Trees die within a year.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. psidii. Mycelium is hyaline, branched and
Microconidia are unicellular, oval and hyaline.
Macroconidia are
multiseptate, hyaline and sickle-shaped. Chlamydospores are intercalary /terminal.

2. Anthracnose / Fruit rot

Symptoms: Dark brown to black, sunken, circular spots appear on the unripe
fully grown fruits and bear numerous, minute, black stromata in the centre of the
lesion. Several spots coalesce to form bigger lesions. Diseased portions are
comparatively harder and develop cracks. Ripe fruits become soft. Unopened
flowers and buds are attacked and are shed. Acervuli are seen on fruit stalks.
Necrotic ashy grey lesions occur on leaf tips and margins. Main branches show dieback symptoms.
Fungus: Gloeosporium psidii (Glomerella psidii). Mycelium is septate and dark
coloured. Acervuli are dark brown to black. Conidia are single celled, hyaline and

3. Grey blight and fruit canker /Scab

Symptoms: On the leaves spots are grey with brown margin. Acervuli are seen on
the centre. Infection on fruits is generally on green fruits. Numerous circular, raised
dark coloured corky cankerous growth occurs on the unripe fruits. Infected fruits
give a chicken pox appearance. They do not ripe properly, become hard and are not
palatable. Scab disfigures the fruit and reduces market value.

Fungus: Psetalotiopsis psidii. Acervuli are brown to black. Conidia, which are
oblong and 5-celled. Three median cells are dark brown and gradually bulged and
the end cells are hyaline. Three apical hyaline setulae are present. Apical cell is
conical or cylindrical. Basal cells are obtuse and erect with a small pedicel.

4. Sooty mould
Symptoms: Black sooty growth is found on the surface of leaves, branches and
fruits. Sooty growth (mycelium, conidiophores and conidia) is associated with the
infestation of scales and mealy bugs.
Fungus: Meliola sp. and Capnodium sp.

5. Pestalotiopsis leaf spot

Symptoms: Reddish brown, circular spots appear on the leaves. Later the spots
develop greyish centre with dark brown to reddish margin. In the centre of the spot
numerous minute, black fruiting bodies (acervuli) are seen.
Fungus: Psetalotiopsis versicolor. Conidia are fusiform and 5-celled with three
apical setulae.

6. Red rust (Alga)

Symptoms: Dark green, brown or red, rough patches on the upper leaf surface. The
spots become faded after release of sporangia. Fruit lesions are small and dark
green to black in colour.
Alga: Cephaleuros virescens

7. Giant mistletoe
Symptoms: The parasite attacks young branches of trees in neglected gardens.
Branches above the point of attack appear sickly or dry.
Causal agent: Dendrophthoe falcata and D.longiflora.
parasite with dull green leaves with profuse flowering.


1. Leaf spot

This is a phanerogamic

Symptoms: Small, round and pinkish to dark brown spots with centre are seen on
leaves. They are either distributed or grouped on the leaf. The spots coalesce and
cause premature leaf fall and reduction fruit yield.
Fungus: Phavophleospora indica

2. Leaf spot
Symptoms: Spots with grey centre and reddish margin are seen on the leaves.
More spots cause drying of leaves. Fruiting bodies as minute black dots can be seen
on the pods.
Fungus: Pestalotiopsis versicolor

3. Sooty mould
Symptoms: Black sooty growth develops on the upper surface of the leaves which
reduces the photosynthetic ability of the trees.
Fungus: Capnodium sp. The mycelium is septate, dark coloured and superficial.

4. Flat limb
Symptoms: Branches are typically flat, twisted with thin, yellow, hollow leaves in
bunches. Fruits formed are small hard and dry.
Fungus: Botryodiplodia theobromae.

Questions to be answered
1. How the powdery mildew of mango spreads?
2. Which insect is associated with sooty mould on mango?
3. What is latent infection? Give an example.
4. The fruiting body produced by grey blight of mango is __________
5. Which disease causes the highest damage to mango crop? How?
6. The primary spread of Panama disease is by ____________
7. Longitudinal splitting of pseudostem is common in __________ disease
8. A post-harvest pathogen in banana is ______________

9. How Sigatoka leaf spot of banana spreads?

10. Pentalonia nigronervosa transmits __________ disease
11. Write two important characteristic symptoms of Fusarium wilt of banana
12. The teleomorph of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is _____________
13. Name the spores produced by Cephaleuros
14. The fruiting body of Flat limb pathogen is ________________
15. Acervuli is a fruiting body produced by ________ and __________
True or False
1. Capnodium is a parasitic fungus
2. The conidia of Pestolotiopsis mangiferae is three celled
3. Giant mistletoe is a complete stem parasite
1. Moko wilt and Fusarium wilt of banana
2. Banana mosaic and Bract mosaic
Ex. No. 7


1. Gummosis
Symptoms: Profuse oozing of the gum on the affected bark forming an encrustation
on the bark is the main symptom. Droplets of gum trickles down the stem. The bark
is destroyed all round the trunk, girdling the tree and eventually the tree dies. The
bark, wood and cambium show discolouration. The bark cracks and shreds
longitudinally. Leaves turn yellow and pale. Affected tree dies in few months. Prior
to death the tree produces more flowers but dies before the fruits mature. Light
brown water soaked irregular spots appear on the leaves and rind of fruits. Shedding
of leaves from lower branches, fruit drop and rotting of fruits. Fallen fruits are
covered by whitish cottony fungal growth.
Fungi: Phytophthora palmivora, P.citrophthora and P.parasitica. Mycelium is
coenocytic and hyaline. Sporangium is round or pear-shaped and contains
zoospores which are biflagellate.
2. Anthracnose and die-back / Wither tip

Symptoms: Affected branches begin to wither from the tip downward. Drying back
gradually progresses downwards (die-back) with the leaves turning yellow. Later the
leaves wither and drop off. Black dots of acervuli appear on dead twigs.
Fungus: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Sexual stage: Glomerella cingulata).
Mycelium is septate, branched and dark coloured. Acervuli contain single celled,
hyaline and ellipsoid conidia.
3. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: Mandarin is severely attacked. Whitish powdery growth appears on
leaves and young twigs. Leaves become yellow and distorted and shed. Tender
leaves are highly susceptible. Young fruits are covered by mildew growth. Die-back
of twigs after young leaves are shed.
Fungus: Oidium tingitaninum. Mycelium is hyaline, septate and external. Conidia
are produced in chain. They are single celled, hyaline and barrel-shaped.
4. Sooty mould
Symptoms: The disease develops as sooty black fungal growth on the leaves, twigs
and fruits. The fungus lives on the honey dew secreted by scale insects. The
photosynthetic activity of the leaves is reduced. The trees look sickly and fruit yield is
Fungus: Capnodium citri.


Scab / Verucosis

Symptoms : Attacks leaves, twigs and fruits of mandarin. Leaves show irregular
corky raised reddish or yellowish lesions mostly on the lower surface leading to
severe distortion wrinkling and stunting. The lesions are flat or depressed at the
centre. On twigs dark corky outgrowths are seen. Lesions on fruit are corky which
often break into caked masses. Lesions are cream coloured in young fruits and dark
olive grey in old fruits. Fruits attacked when young are mis-shapened show
prominent warty projections. They drop prematurely.
Fungus: Elsinoe fawcetti (Conidial stage: Sphaceloma citri). Conidia formed in pink
acervuli are hyaline, oblong and one celled.
Pseudothecia are produced.
Ascospores are hyaline and 1 to 3 septate.

6. Red rust ( Algal disease)

Symptoms: Reddish brown circular to irregular spots develop on the leaves. When
the twigs are attacked the bark is thickened and develops cracks leading to the
chlorosis of foliage, defoliation and death of the affected twigs. Reddish spots are
seen on fruits.

Alga: Cephaleuros virescens. It is an algal parasite.

It produces thallus,
sporangiophore and sporangia. Sporangia are single celled, oval and releases

7. Canker
Symptoms: Acid lime, lemon and grape fruits are attacked. The disease attacks all
the plant parts viz., leaves, twigs, thorns, older branches and fruits. The spots on the
leaves are raised above the surface as circular, brown corky outgrowth with yellow
halo. On the twigs, irregular and raised cankers are formed, causing death of twigs
above the point of attack. On the fruit surface round to irregular, raised cankerous
spots are seen. The spots are few to many, coalesce together and reduce market
value of fruits. Halo is absent on fruits.
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri (Syn. Xanthomonas campestris
pv.citri.). The bacterium is a Gram negative rod, forms chains and capsules, motile
by polar flagellum and non-spore former. Bacterial colonies on nutrient agar are
circular, straw yellow coloured, slightly raised and glistening.

8. Tristeza / Quick decline

Symptoms: Lime is highly susceptible. Leaves of acid lime exhibit large number of
vein flecks (elongated translucent areas).
Die-back symptom is commonly
associated. Characteristic pits or depressions on wood (stem pitting) can be clearly
seen on the stem after removal of bark. Roots decay, twigs die-back, fruits are small,
trees are stunted and die. Yield is much reduced.
Causal agent: Citrus tristeza virus.
Vector: Aphids viz., Toxoptera citricidus (aphid) is the most efficient vector. Aphis
gossypii and Myzus persicae also spread the disease. Dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) also
transmits it.
9. Citrus greening
Symptoms: Leaves may be completely yellow or yellow with green veins and small
green dots. Chlorosis is bound on one side by midrib and on the other side by the
lateral vein in the form of green-islands. Leaf blade may be dwarfed and thickened.
Young leaves are upright become leathery and develop prominent veins. Twigs show
short internodes, multiple bud formation. Offspring blooming and die-back. Many
twigs are upright and produce smaller leaves. Fruits show orange colour on the sides
exposed to sunlight whereas the other side remains dull green. Fruits are small,
lopsided and contain curved columella, aborted seeds and drop prematurely. Fruits
are low in soluble solids but high in acid. The fruits are worthless as fresh fruits or for
processing, seeds are poorly developed, dark coloured and aborted.
Causal agent: Rickettsia- like bacterium (Fastidious vascular bacterium). It is an
obligate Gram negative bacterium.
Vector: Diaphorina citri (Citrus psylla).

10. Dodder
Symptoms: The parasitic dodder is first noticed in the citrus garden as small
masses of branched, thread-like, cream yellow or orange coloured, leafless stems,
which are devoid of green pigments and which twine around the stem or leaves of
the host. It penetrates the host through haustoria, by which it draws nutrients from
the host. It produces tiny, white, pink or yellowish flowers in clusters. It perpetuates
through seeds which fall on the ground and remain viable until favourable season
Causal agent: Cuscuta spp.

1. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: White powdery coating on the upper surface of leaf either in patches or
in full. Leaves turn pale and chlorotic. Malformation and discolouration of affected
leaves also seen. Stem turns dark brown. Floral infection leads to shedding of
flowers and young berries. Berries are covered by white growth, show cracking,
shriveling and mis-shapening.
Fungus: Uncinula necator. Mycelium is external, septate and hyaline. Conidiophores
are short and arise from external mycelium. Conidia are single celled, hyaline, barrelshaped and in chain (Oidium type). Sexual fruiting bodies called cleistothecia (with
several asci) are myceloid and circinoid (coiled at the tip)

2. Downy mildew
Symptoms: Leaves show irregular yellowish spots on the upper surface.
Corresponding lower leaf surface shows white cushiony downy growth. Affected
leaves become yellow then brown and dry and fall prematurely. Tender shoots are
dwarfed. Brown sunken lesions appear on the stem. Berries become leathery,
shrivel, dry and mummified. Developed berries turn reddish brown and result in softrot.
Fungus: Plasmopara viticola. Mycelium is coenocytic and intercellular. Haustoria
present. Sporangiophores emerge through stomata. They branch monopodially and
dichotomously at right angles and tips of branches are blunt. Sporangia are borne on
the branches. They are thin walled, lemon-shaped, single celled and hyaline.
Sporangia produce zoospores. Oospores are thick walled.
3. Birds eye spot / Anthracnose
Symptoms: Young shoots are more susceptible than leaves. Each spot is
surrounded by yellow halo. The centre of the spot later become grey, sunken and fall

off giving a shot hole symptom. Leaves with many spots are distorted. Black
elliptical sunken lesions on young shoots cause girdling and death. Infection on stalk
of bunches and berries result in shedding of bunches and berries respectively. On
berries spots are sunken with ashy grey centre and dark brown margin resembling
birds eye. Severe infection leads to mummification and shedding of berries.
Fungus: Gloeosporium ampelophagum (Elsinoe ampelina). The fungus produces
acervuli. Conidiophores are 1 to 2 septate, cylindrical, unbranched and pale brown.
Conidia are single celled, oval, hyaline and smooth. Ascocarps are produced. Asci
are globular. Ascospores are hyaline and three-septate.
4. Black rot
Symptoms: Circular red spots with black margin appear on the leaves. Fruiting
bodies are seen as minute black dots in concentric rings on the spots. Light brown
circular spots on the berries. Spots increase in size and entire berry is discoloured
and decay. They are transformed into hard, black and shriveled mummies.
Fungus: Guignardia bidwellii. Matured mycelium is brown and septate. Pycnidia
are globose and conidia are ellipsoid and hyaline. Perithecia are globose and asci
are clavate with 8-ascospores which are hyaline. 2-celled and sub-ovoid.
5. Rust
Symptoms: Numerous, orange coloured sori are seen on the lower surface of the
leaves. The corresponding upper surface shows necrosis. Defoliation occurs in
severe cases.
Fungus: Phakopsora vitis. The uredospores are sessile, oval or pear-shaped, light
yellow, echinulated and single celled. Teliospores are sessile, single celled and are
found in several layers.

6. Brown leaf spot

Symptoms: Dark brown, angular spots appear on leaves and on young shoots.
Young shoots dry up.
Fungus: Cercospora
hyaline and septate.


(Syn. Mycosphaerella personata). Conidia are

7. Leaf blight
Symptoms: On the leaves typical brown spots with concentric rings are seen mostly
on the margins. Attacked leaves dry completely and defoliate.
Fungus: Alternaria vitis. Conidia are with transverse and longitudinal septa.


1. Leaf spot and fruit spot

Symptoms: The disease is characterized by small, dull violet spots on the leaves.
The spots are surrounded by a yellow halo. The infected leaves turn yellow and drop
off. On the fruits dark brown, depressed spots are observed. In severe cases the
infected fruits crack and become unmarketable. Diseased portions appear with
minute, black dots (acervuli).
Fungus: Colletortichum gloeosporioides.

2. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: Light brown spots appear on leaves and fruits. Black and elliptic spots
appear on the twigs. Such infected twigs are flattened, depressed with raised edge
and dry up. In severe cases the whole plant dies.
Fungus: Cercospora punicae. Conidiophores are olive brown, short and septate.
Conidia are pale olive, cylindrical and septate.

3. Phomopsis leaf spot

Symptoms: Buff-brown spots appear on the margins of leaves or spots are
scattered on the leaves. Black pycnidia are found on the spot on the upper surface
of the leaf.
Fungus: Phomopsis aucubicola. Mycelium is hyaline, branched and septate.
Pycnidia are black, globose and ostiolate. Conidiophores are short, unbranched,
hyaline and simple. Fungus produces two kinds of spores viz., alpha and beta
spores. Alpha spores are one celled hyaline and oval. Beta spores are one celled
filiform and curved or straight.

4. Bacterial blight
Symptoms: Spots on leaves are dark brown and are surrounded by prominent
water-soaked margins. Spots coalesce to form large patches. Severely infected
leaves are often distorted and malformed and fall off prematurely. On the stem

brown to black spots appear around the nodes, girdle the stem and causes the
branches to break. The spots on the fruits are raised, oily and brown to black.
Finally it results in cracking of fruits.
Bacterium: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae. It a Gram negative, rod-shaped,
motile with single polar flagellum, non-acid fast and aerobic.


1. Damping off
Symptoms: Young seedlings are killed before they come out of soil. Germinated
seedlings topple over at any time after emergence.
Fungus: Pythium aphanidermatum. Mycelium is coenocytic and hyaline. Sporangia
are lobulate. Zoospores are kidney-shaped and biflagellate(with whip lash and

2. Foot rot / Stem rot

Symptoms: Water soaked lesions appear on the bark near the ground level and
enlarge. Affected tissues turn dark brown or black. Stem is girdled at the base.
Terminal leaves become yellow, droop and wilt. Fruits shrivel and drop. Roots
disintegrate and decay.
Fungi: Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani ( Mycelium brown and
septate. Sclerotia are round and black).

3. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: It attacks seedlings and matured trees. White powdery growth appears
on the leaves. White patches appear on fruits. Young infected leaves dry up
prematurely and drop down.
Fungi: Oidium caricae. Mycelium is hyaline and septate. Haustoria develop in
epidermal cells. Conidia are hyaline, single celled, barrel-shaped and are produced
in chain.

4. Anthracnose

Symptoms: The spots on fruits are brown, circular slightly sunken and 1-3 cm in
dia. The lesions coalesce. Sparse mycelial growth appears on the margins of spots
on fruits. Under humid conditions salmon pink spores are seen as encrustation.
Severely diseased fruits turned brown and rot. Infection on very young fruits results in
mummification and deformation. It attacks leaves, petioles and stems also. Acervuli
are seen in concentric rings on the petioles.
Fungus: Colletotrichum papayae (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

5. Leaf spot
Symptoms: The spots are circular or irregular with white centre and yellow brown
margin. Minute, black pycnidia are seen on the spots. The central portion becomes
thin, papery, brittle and falls out leaving a shot hole appearance.
Fungus: Phyllosticta sulata. Mycelium is septate and dark coloured. Pycnidia
conidia which are single celled, hyaline and oval.

6. Dry root rot

Symptoms: Leaves exhibit yellowing, drooping and later drying. Basal portion of the
stem and roots exhibit decay. Bark of the trees at the basal region splits into shreds
and a large number of sclerotial bodies are seen on affected root tissues.
Fungus: Macrophomina phaseolina. Mycelium is septate, brown and much
branched. The sclerotia are black, spherical or irregular in shape.

7. Mosaic
Symptoms: Typical mosaic symptoms showing chlorosis with dark green blisters
are seen on leaves. Puckering and malformation of young leaves happen. Leaf
lobes are thin and are increased in number and show shoestring symptoms. Old
leaves get defoliated. New leaves formed after infection show yellow mosaic
symptom. Fruits show circular, water soaked lesions with white spots in the centre.
Casual agent: Papaya mosaic virus / Carica virus.1. The virus is a flexuous rod.
Vector: Myzus persicae, Aphis malvae, A.medicaginis, A.gossypii and Macrosiphum
sonchi.( Aphids).

8. Leaf curl

Symptoms: Leaves show severe curling, crinkling and distortion accompanied by

vein clearing and reduction of leaf size. Inverted cups are formed due to inward and
downward curling of leaves. Leaves become leathery and brittle. Veins thicken and
turn dark green. Petioles are twisted into zig-zag manner. Affected plants do not
flower or bear few fruits in advanced stages. Defoliation and stunting are common.
Causal agent: Tobacco leaf curl virus.
Vector: Bemisia tabaci ( White fly).

1. Scab
Symptoms: Scattered, rough, circular, brown or olive green spots appear on leaves.
They become grey, necrotic and may be slightly raised. Leaves are dwarfed, curled
and fall off. On the fruits, spots are black. Affected fruits are deformed and reduced
in size. Fruits become corky over the entire surface and drop prematurely.
Fungus: Venturia inaequalis. The mycelium in living tissues is located between
cuticle and epidermal cell and septate. It produces short conidiophore that give rise
to 1 to 2 celled conidia. They are oval and smoke brown. Pseudothecia are formed.
Each pseudothecium contains 50-100 asci and each ascus has 8 ascospores.
Ascospores are two celled, ovoid, greenish grey or yellow with the upper cell shorter
than the lower cell. The unequal size of the two cells gives the species name.
2. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: All parts of the tree are affected. Small white greyish patches of fungal
growth appear of leaves on both the surfaces. Affected leaves become crinkled and
curled. The entire surface of the leaf is covered with the growth of the fungus.
Affected leaves become hard and brittle. Similar growth is seen on the twigs also.
Fruit buds are blighted and dropped. Affected fruits remain small or deformed,
harden and develop crack.
Fungus: Podosphaera leucotricha. The mycelium is ectophytic. The haustoria are
produced inside the epidermal cells. Each conidiophore bears a chain of conidia.
The conidia are hyaline, single celled and barrel-shaped. The fungus is of Oidium
type. Sexual fruiting body is globose cleistothecium containing only one ascus. The
ascus contains 8 ascospores. Appendages are thick walled, straight, rigid and
dichotomously branched.
3. Pink disease

Symptoms: The trunk and the branches exhibit pink discolouration on the bark.
The bark exhibits drying and longitudinal splitting. Leaves turn yellow. Affected
branches die.
Fungus: Corticium salmonicolor.
4. White root rot
Symptoms: Five to 20 year old trees are the most susceptible. The infected trees
give a sickly appearance with bronze coloured leaves during August- September.
Infected leaves fall off prematurely. Lateral roots turn into brown and the fibrous
roots are completely destroyed. White fluffy mycelium in seen on the laetrile spots in
advanced stages.
Fungus: Dematophore necatrix (Rosellinia necatrix).

5. Silver leaf disease (Silver leaf canker)

Symptoms: The leaves of affected plants show silver metallic lustre during early
stages of infection. The fungus is not present in foliage, but its occurrence in the
wood causes histopathological changes in the leaves leading for silvery appearance.
Cankers on branches appear as blistered areas. Outer layer of bark peels off and
gives papery bark condition and the tissues underneath become discoloured. The
heart root turns dark brown.
Fungus: Chondrostereum purpureum (Stereum purpureum)
6. Mosaic
Symptoms: Leaves exhibit irregular creamy white or yellow spots which may
coalesce. Presence of yellow band along larger veins on both the sides is common.
Affected leaves show withering.
Causal agent: Apple mosaic virus.

1. Leaf curl
Symptoms: The disease first appears in the early spring when the leaves begin to
unfold. The leaf blade thickens and puckers along the midrib and curls. Then the
leaf tissues gradually change to yellow and finally to a reddish purple tint. The
reddish velvety surface of the lamina is soon covered with a whitish grey bloom of the
fungus on the upper surface. Veins do not develop properly. Both the leaves and
petioles may curl. Affected leaves die and drop prematurely. Twigs become pale
green to yellow, swollen, stunted and exude gummy material. Fruit set is poor.
Affected flowers and fruits drop prematurely.

Fungus: Taphrina deformans. Mycelium is intercellular and it does not produce

ascocarp. Asci are naked and are individually. Each ascus bears eight uninucleate
ascospores, which are globose.
2. Rust
Symptoms: Pale yellow spots appear on both on both the leaf surfaces. Later the
spots become bright yellow. On the under surface brown rusty pustules are seen.
They may be scattered and numerous and cover the entire surface of the leaf. When
the leaves are severely infected defoliation occurs.
Fungus: Puccinia pruni- spinosae (Syn. Tranzschelia pruni-spinosase). The uredia
are cinnamon brown, obclavate and echinulate except at the tip. Teliospores are
chestnut brown, the basal cell is sparsely verucose or smooth and is lighter than the
apical call.
3. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: The fungus attacks leaves, young shoots and fruits. The young leaves
are coated on the upper surface with a thick layer of mycelium. They become narrow
and curled. Terminal portion of the growing shoot may get covered with a white
powdery layer. White, round spots develop on fruits and turn them to pink to dark
brown. Epicarp of the fruit becomes leathery and hard.
Fungus: Sphaerotheca pannosa var. persicae. The fungus is similar to Erysiphe but
Sphaerotheca has only one ascus in each cleistothecium. Cleistothecia are dark
brown, globose with myceloid appendages.
4. Scab / Freckles/ Black spot
Symptoms: The disease affects fruits, twigs and leaves. Circular and darkolivaceous lesions appear on fruits. In severe infection, the individual spots merge
and form a uniform, dark-olivaceous, velvety blotch. A thick or corky layer of cells is
produced below surface of the scabbed region. The fruit becomes abnormal in
shape and cracks. On the twigs, light brown oval lesions are formed which enlarge
and turn dark brown. Later, olivaceous velvety dots appear on the surface of these
lesions. The under surface of the leaves show angular, pale green areas which
gradually turn dark green.. Dark brown, long and narrow lesions are noticed on the
Fungus: Venturia carpophila

5. Peach yellows
Symptoms: Trees show numerous upright branches growing from the main stem.
The branches are numerous and the tree looks bushy. The leaves are small but the

basal one or two leaves are abnormally long and straight with inrolled margins. Most
of the leaves show light green to yellow mottling and have irregular margin and
clearing of veins. The tree is stunted and internodes are short. The diseased trees
look bushy with tufts of small yellow leaves. Later, symptoms of wilting and die-back
appear resulting in the death of the infected tree.
Causal agent: Phytoplasma.

Questions to be answered
1. Teliospores of Phakopsora is _______ celled
2. Name one soil-borne disease of citrus
3. Flowering parasite affecting citrus is ___________
4. Cross protection technique is followed for the control of __________ disease
5. Citrus psylla is a vector of ______________
6. Fruiting body produced by apple scab pathogen is ______________
7. The sexual spore of Venturia inaequalis is ______________
8. Naked asci is seen in _____________
9. Taphrina deformans caused leaf curl in _______ and __________
True or False
1. The ascospores of Venturia inaequalis is two celled with unequal size
2. Peach leaf curl is caused by a virus
3. Mycelium of Podosphaeria leucotricha is epiphytic
4. Peach yellows is a viral disease
1. Powdery mildew and Downy mildew of grapevine
2. Birds eye spot and black rot of grapevine
3. Brown leaf spot and leaf blight of grapevine
4. Quick decline and gummosis of citrus
5. Scab and Canker in citrus
6. Citrus greening and bacterial canker in citrus
7. Foot rot and dry root rot of papaya
8. Mosaic and leaf curl of papaya
9. Peach leaf curl and peach yellows

Ex. No. 8



1. Damping off
Symptoms: The disease may attack the seedlings before the emergence of
seedlings from the soil or after the emergence of seedlings. The affected seedlings
become pale and suddenly collapse. The basal cortical region begins to rot resulting
in toppling of the seedlings. Dark brown lesions also appear on stem and the
affected tissues soon become rotten.
Fungi: Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium myriotylum, Rhizoctonia solani and
Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica.

2. Early blight
Symptoms: In the affected leaves circular to angular, dark brown to black spots with
concentric rings appear. The spots coalesce and cause drying and defoliation of
leaves. Dark spots are found at the base of the stem near the ground level and the
stem is gradually girdled. Spots are also found in the stem at the juncture of the side
branches which are easily broken by wind. On the fruit, dark brown sunken spots are
found. Immature fruits are shed.
Fungus: Alternaria solani. Mycelium is septate, branched, light brown which
become darker with age. Conidiophores are dark coloured. Conidia are muriform,
beaked, dark coloured and borne singly. In each conidium 5 to 10 transverse and a
few longitudinal septa are present.

3. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Affected plants exhibit yellowing and drooping of lower leaves followed
by such symptoms in young leaves. Plants wilt and die in due course. Internal stem
portion exhibits vascular browning.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Mycelium is septate. The fungus
produces microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores.
Microconidia are
hyaline, oval, single celled or one septate. Macroconidia are sickle-shaped, 3-5
celled and hyaline. Chlamydospores are thick walled, round resting spores, produced
terminally or intercalarily on older mycelium.

4. Septoria leaf spot / Defoliation disease

Symptoms: Circular spots with whitish grey centre and dark brown margins are
seen on the leaves, stem and calyx. Centre of the spots shows minute black
fructifications. Severe infection causes defoliation during rainy season.
Fungus: Septoria lycopersici. Pycnidia are globose and honey yellow to brown.
Pycnidiospores are hyaline, filiform, 2-6 septate, with acute apex and truncate to
obtuse base.

5. Late blight
Symptoms: Infection occurs on all the above ground plant parts. Water soaked
lesions with faded green patches appear on the leaves. Infections spread fast to
entire leaf and petiole. Dead areas appear in leaf tip and margins. Whitish mildew
like growth appear on leaves under humid conditions. The leaves are blighted and
become dry. Dark olivaceous greasy spots occur on the fruits. Fruit cracking and

appearance of white fungal growth on it may be seen resulting in soft rot. In severe
cases of attack the whole plant dies.
Fungus: Phytophthora infestans. The fungus produces coenocytic, hyaline and
branched mycelium. Haustoria are club-shaped. Zoosporangia are thin walled,
hyaline, oval or pear-shaped with a distinct papilla at the apex. Zoospores are
biflagellate. Oospores are spherical.

6. Buck eye rot / Fruit rot

Symptoms: Brown, circular spots with concentric rings are seen on immature fruit at
the blossom end. The fruits remain firm unless secondary organisms attack them.
But affected fruits shrink and get mummified. The old fruits rot and drop.
Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica. Mycelium is hyaline and
coenocytic. Sporangia are ovoid, papillate and deciduous. Oospores are aplerotic
and thick walled. Chlamydospores are abundant at later stage, thick walled and
yellowish brown.

7. Bacterial wilt
Symptoms: Stunting, yellowing and wilting of foliage leading to collapse of the
entire plant. Lower leaves droop before wilting. Cross section of the stem near the
base will show vascular browning. When the affected stem is cut bacterial ooze can
be seen. Adventitious roots from the stem are noticed. The affected plants collapse
and die.
Bacterium: Ralstonia solanacearum. It is Gram negative and rod-shaped bacterium
occurs in pairs with 1-4 polar flagella.

8. Bacterial canker
Symptoms: On the leaves, the symptom is seen as small translucent water-soaked
spots in the beginning but soon enlarge into black greasy or dark-brown spots
surrounded by yellow halo. Several spots cause chlorosis in the leaves and
defoliation. Black cankerous spots appear on stem and petiole. Water-soaked
lesions are observed on unripe green fruits. They become corky resembling small
scabs with irregular margins.

Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Syn. Xanthomonas campestris pv.
vesicatoria). It is a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium with single polar flagellum.
Colonies are circular with bright yellowing colour.

9. Tomato big bud

Symptoms: Top leaves become yellow and with smaller leaflets. Internodes are
shortened, thickened and become slightly yellow. Branching is enhanced to give a
rosette appearance. Lower sepals join together and enlarge to form a swollen calyx.
Axillary shoots give a purple pigmentation. Flower buds stand erect and green.
Pollens are sterile. Fruits are hard and poorly coloured.
Causal agent: Phytoplasma.
Vector: Orosius argentatus (Leaf hoppers).

10. Mosaic
Symptoms: Typical mosaic pattern with dark green and light green areas on leaves.
Leaflets are usually distorted, puckered and are small. At times leaflets exhibit, Fern
leaf symptoms. Necrotic sunken lesions occur on fruits. Infection on matured fruits
shows internal necrosis.
Causal agent: Tomato mosaic virus. The virus is transmitted by contacts (sap
transmissible), hands of workers, plant debris, implements and on the surface of
seeds and sap. No vector transmission.

11. Leaf curl

Symptoms: Typical downward curling and crinkling of leaves are seen. The size of
the leaf is much reduced. Newly emerging leaves exhibit slight yellow colouration
followed by curling symptoms. Older leaves become leathery and brittle. Small leaflike growth called enation is observed on the midrib on the lower side of leaf.
Mottling and vein-clearing symptoms are also seen. Diseased plants are stunted due
to reduction in internodal length and become partially or completely sterile.
Causal agent: Tobacco leaf curl virus.
Vector: Bemisia tabaci (Whitefly).

12. Tomato spotted wilt / Bronzy wilt

Symptoms: Leaves become reduced in size and exhibit thickened, bronzy veins.
Necrotic irregular spots are seen on the leaf surface. Leaf exhibits characteristic
bronzing and necrosis. The place where the branch arises from the main stem
becomes weak and necrotic leading to bending of branches from the main stem. On
fruits, pale yellow or yellowish concentric, circular rings of mosaic mottling are
Causal agent: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).
Vector: Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella schultzei, F. fusca and F. occidentalis (Thrips).


1. Damping off
Symptoms: Seedling infection is seen as brown discolouration at the lower portion
of the stem where the tissues later become soft. Such diseased seedlings collapse
at soil level.
Fungus: Pythium aphanidermatum. Mycelium is coenocytic and hyaline. Zoospores
are lobed. Zoospores are reniform in shape and biflagellate. Oospores are
spherical, aplerotic, single, smooth and thick walled.

2. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: It attacks seedlings as well as matured plants. Leaves become flaccid
and hang down. Leaves turn chlorotic. If the bark of the stem is peeled, brown
streaks can be seen. Roots exhibit rotting. Whitish fungal growth is seen on base of
stem and roots.
Fungus: Fusarium solani.
Mycelium is septate and hyaline.
It produces
microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores. Microconidia are hyaline, wedge
shaped, 2-celled and are formed in chain. Macroconidia are falcate and septate.
Chlamydospores are globose, intercalary or terminal.

3. Leaf spot
Symptoms: Irregular, brown and necrotic spots with concentric rings are seen on
leaves. Leaf dries due to bigger necrotic patches and then fall down. Fruit spots are
dark brown and sunken, which turns yellow and cause fruit drop.
Fungus: Alternaria solani. Mycelium is septate, brown, inter- and intra-cellular.
Conidiophores emerge through stomata. Conidia are produced singly, muriform, has
5-10 transverse septa and a few longitudinal septa.

4. Rust
Symptoms: The pycnial and aecial stages of pearlmillet rust are formed on leaves
of this alternate host, brinjal. The upper surface of leaf become depressed and the
corresponding lower surface become convex. Pycnia are formed as orange yellow
pustules on the upper leaf surface. Aecial cups are formed in groups on the lower
surface of leaves.
Fungus: Puccinia substriata var. penicillariae. Pycniospores are oblong, hyaline and
single celled. Aecia are inverted cup-like structures formed near the epidermis.
Each cup has an outer wall called peridium made up of single layer of cells.
Aeciospores are hyaline and spherical in initial stage but become polygonal. They
are produced in chain.

5. Phomopsis blight and fruit rot

Symptoms: The pathogen infects the crop from seedling to harvest. In the seed
bed, it causes damping off. The leaves coming in contact with soil is affected.
Circular or irregular, grey to brown spots with light coloured centre appear on leaves
and the affected leaves turn yellow and die. The stem base is affected, girdled and
the plant topples down. The fruit is attacked while in the plant. Pale sunken spots
appear on fruits and later it covers the entire fruit. The internal portion of fruits rots
and the whole fruit is mummified.
Fungus: Phomopsis vexans. Mycelium is septate. Pycnidia developed on the spots
produce two types of conidia. viz., Alfa conidia and beta conidia. Alfa conidia are
hyaline, one-celled and fusoid. Beta conidia (stylospores) are filiform, hyaline and
one-celled. Perithecia are in clusters containing clavate, sessile, 8-spored asci.
Ascospores are bluntly fusoid and 2-celled.
6. Little leaf
Symptoms: The infected plants exhibit general chlorosis and reduction in plant
height. Leaf size is abnormally reduced. Axillary buds are induced to grow with
small narrow and thin leaves. Internode length is reduced leading to clustering and
overcrowding of leaves. Flowers are phylloid and fruits are rare.
Causal agent: Phytoplasma

Vector: Hishimonas phycitis (Jassid).


1. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: White or greyish white patches appear on the upper surface of leaf.
Later it covers the entire leaf surface. The fungal growth changes brown and the
affected leaves dry and fall.
Fungus: Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mycelium is ectophytic and haustoria are buttonshaped. Conidia are hyaline, barrel-shaped, single celled and are produced in chain.
Cleistothecia are globose and dark. Each ascus has two ascospores, which are
hyaline, unicellular and oval.

2. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: Affected leaves show irregular, brown spots with grey centre and dark
coloured margins. Severely affected leaves fall off.
Fungus: Cercospora abelmoschi. Conidiophores are pale olivaceous brown and
multiseptate. Conidia are cylindrical, olivaceous brown, straight to curve and 1 to 8

3. Alternaria leaf spot

Symptoms: Brown, sub-circular spots appear mostly on the lower leaves. The
spots increase in size and show concentric rings. Severely affected leaves fall off.
Fungus: Alternaria hibiscinum.

4. Yellow vein mosaic / Vein clearing

Symptoms: The green colour of main and lateral veins is bleached and the veins
and veinlets exhibit yellow net work. Veins are thickened. The interveinal portions
first exhibit small portions of green colour. As the disease develops, these green
portions turn chlorotic and finally the leaves become yellow, papery and wither. The
affected plant is severely stunted. The leaf size is reduced. Fruits are smaller,
malformed, thick, fibrous and yellow.

Causal agent: Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV).

Vector: Bemisia tabaci (Whitefly).

Questions to be answered
1. Mention two important conditions which favour the development of damping off
disease in tomato.
2. How the damping off disease spreads?
3. The fruiting body of Phomopsis blight in brinjal is _______________
4. Mention a phytoplasma disease in tomato
True or False
1. Sclerotium rolfsii survives in the off-season as sclerotia
2. Erysiphe cichoracearum produces oidiopsis type of conidia
3. Conidium of Alternaria is hyaline
4. BYVMV affects both quality and quantity of bhendi fruits
5. Brinjal act as an alternative host crop for pearlmillet rust pathogen
1. Fusarium wilt of tomato and Tomato spotted wilt
2. Bacterial wilt and bacterial canker of tomato
3. Mosaic and leaf curl of tomato

Ex. No. 9




1. Fusarium wilt

Symptoms: Seedlings and grown up plants are attacked. Young seedlings may
damp off and die. In older plants margins show tip burning. Wilting progresses
slowly. In wet weather, dead stems show white or pinkish mass of fungal growth.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
Microconidia oval, single celled.
Macroconidia are sickle-shaped and septate. Chlamydospores are thick walled.

2. Anthracnose
Symptoms: All the above ground plant parts are attacked. Drying and death of
young seedlings occur. In older plants spots on leaves are yellowish brown. Angular
to roughly circular with a yellow halo. In severe cases, diseased and necrotic portion
falls off leading to shot hole. Number of spots coalesces and leaves dry up
subsequently. Stem infection results in the formation of shallow water soaked, brown
coloured, sunken lesions, which later girdle the stem and cause death of shoots.
Young fruits shrivel with dark colour. On matured fruits circular, black, sunken lesions
of varying size appear. When moisture is present the centre of the spot shows
gelatinous mass of pink coloured conidia. It the older lesions black acervuli arranged
in concentric rings are seen. Affected fruits ripen and become yellow and the flesh
become tuff and insipid. Secondary microorganisms enter through the wounds in the
lesions and cause rotting of fruits.
Fungus: Colletotrichum lagenarium.
oblong, single celled and hyaline.

Black acervuli contain conidia, which are

3. Downy mildew
Symptoms: Irregular white patches of downy growth are seen the surface of leaves.
The corresponding upper surface shows yellow patches. These spots become
angular and bounded by leaf veins. Entire leaf dries quickly. Young leaves are less
susceptible than the older leaves. Fruits are dwarf, few and with poor taste.
Fungus: Pseudoperonospora cubensis. It is an obligate parasite. The mycelium is
coenocytic, intercellular and is with ovate haustoria. Sporangiophores arise in groups
through stomata, dichotomously branched and bear sporangia. The sporangia are
greyish, ovoid, thin walled provided with papilla at the distal ends. Oospores are not

4. Powdery mildew

Symptoms: White or dirty grey powdery growth is seen superficially on the upper
surface of leaves in patches. Later they cover the entire leaf surface. The leaves
turn brown and dry. Premature defoliation and death of vines occur. Fruits are
undersized, deformed and the quality is also reduced.
Fungus: Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mycelium is hyaline, septate and superficial.
Conidia are single celled, hyaline, barrel-shaped produced in long chains.
Cleistothecia are globose and dark with myceloid appendages.

5. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: Commonly seen in snakegourd. Spots are small, circular to irregular
with greyish centre and black margin. They coalesce to form large blotches. Leaves
dry and die. Young succulent stems and petioles are also attacked.
Fungus: Cercospora lagenariae. Mycelium is septate and coloured. Conidiophores
are light brown and geniculate. Conidia are hyaline, cylindrical and septate.

6. Alternaria blight
Symptoms: Water-soaked circular leaf spots appear on the leaves. They increase
in size and show concentric rings on the upper leaf surface.
Fungus: Alternaria cucumerina. Mycelium is septate and coloured. Conidia are
obclavate, dark and muriform in shape. It is with 1-9 transverse septa and 1-7
longitudinal septa.

7. Angular leaf spot

Symptoms: Disease occurs on leaves, young green stems and fruits. Watersoaked, irregular or angular lesions appear on the leaves. In wet weather, bacterial
ooze is seen on the water soaked areas which later dries to form white crusts. The
spots enlarge and turn brown. The necrotic tissues dry and fall off leaving irregular
holes. Circular spots appear superficially on fruits.
Bacterium: Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. Bacterium is rod-shaped, Gram
negative and motile by 1 to 5 polar flagella. Yellowish green pigment is produced in
the culture.

8. Cucumber mosaic

Symptoms: Leaves show clear mosaic symptoms. Affected leaves are puckered
and deformed. Internodes are shortened. Leaves attain only half the size of normal
leaves. Flowers are dwarfed and few in number. Fruits are small with yellowish
green mottling.
Causal agent: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).
Vector: Aphids craccivora, A. evonymi, A. gossypii and Myzus persicae (Aphids). It is
also transmitted by sap and grafting.

Cabbage and Cauliflower

1. Club root
Symptoms: Infected plants at first have pale green to yellowish leaves. Later,
infected plants show wilting in the middle of the hot, sunny days, which recover
during night. Young plants are killed while older plants remain alive but stunted and
fail to produce marketable heads. Most characteristic symptoms are seen on the
roots. Affected roots are small and show spindle-shaped or club-shaped swellings
due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Hypertrophy causes malfunctioning of xylem,
which results in flagging of the leaves. The lateral roots and rootlets are also
converted into spindle-like-swelling. Older and larger clubbed roots disintegrate
before the end of the season because of invasion by bacteria and other fungi.
Fungus: Plasmodiophora brassicae. The fungus produces plasmodia, resting
spores (hyaline ad spherical) and anteriorly biflagellate primary and secondary

2. Black leaf spot / Alternaria leaf spot

Symptoms: Light brown to black spots appear on the leaf surface. Spots are
spherical to irregular in shape and may be upto 5.0 to 7.5 cm in dia and show
concentric rings. They join together to form bigger lesions. Affected leaves become
yellow and fall off. Lesions on stems and petioles are linear. The fungus attacks
cabbage heads mostly after harvest and with Rhizopus it causes brown rot.
Fungus: Alternaria brassicae. Conidiophores are thick and brown. Conidiophores
are thick and geniculate. Conidia are both transversely (11-15 septa) and vertically

septate (0-3 septate), coloured and beaked. Conidia are mostly solitary or chains up
to 4.

3. White rust
Symptoms: Prominent white or creamy yellow pustules of 1 to 2 mm dia are mainly
observed on the lower surface of the leaves. The upper surface correspondingly
exhibits yellow patches. Blisters appear on the stem and inflorescence. When young
stems and inflorescence are infected or when the infection has occurred from soilborne oospores in the seedling stage, the fungus becomes systemic and causes
hypertrophy and hyperplasia of floral tissues, which leads to swellings and
distortions. Affected inflorescence increase 12 to 15 times in size. Axis is
inflorescence and flower stalks are enormously thickened. Floral organs become
partly or wholly swollen, fleshy, green or violet in colour. Petals will look like sepals
and stamens become leaf-like. Ovules and pollen grain are atrophied. Ovary is
sterile. Early infection causes stunting of plants.
Fungus: Albugo candida. (Cystopus candida). It is an obligate parasite. Mycelium is
intercellular. Sporangiophores are club-shaped and hyaline. Sporangia are single
celled, spherical, hyaline and are arranged in chain.

4. Downy mildew
Symptoms: The fungus infects leaves, stems and inflorescence. Greyish white
downy fungal growth appears on the under surface of the leaves while the
corresponding upper surface show yellowish spots. Infected leaves dry up and fall
off. Floral parts are deformed. Cauliflower curds look brownish at the top. The stems
show dark brown and depressed lesions, which later develop downy growth of the
fungus. Infection at the seedling stage may cause complete death of seedlings.
Fungus: Peronospora parasitica. It is an obligate parasite. Mycelium is inter- and
intra-cellular, haustoria are finger-shaped.
Sporangiophores are erect,
dichotomously branched at acute angles and final branches (sterigmata) are with
curved pointed tips. Dichotomous branching occurs 6 to 8 times at the tip of the final
branches. Each sterigma bears a sporangium at its tip. Sporangia are not papillate
and germinate by germ tubes and not by zoospores. Oospores are globose and

5. Black rot
Symptoms: Disease causes development of v shaped chlorotic to yellow lesions
from the leaf margin. Veins and veinlets turn black and the leaf tissues become

necrotic and brittle. Lesions progress towards the midrib from where systemic
infection spreads into stem and root. Vascular tissues in affected plants become
conspicuously black followed by internal breakdown of fleshy tissues. Black sunken
spots are seen on succulent seed stalks and siliqua. Heads of cauliflower are
invaded and discoloured. Young plants may be killed in the seed bed.
Bacterium: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. It is a Gram negative and
rod-shaped bacterium.


1. Early blight
Symptoms: Disease is present both in hills and plains. Brown spots are found on
the surface of older leaf and subsequently spread to top younger leaves. They are
oval, circular or irregular with concentric rings. They are less than 1 cm in dia, dry
and become brittle. Several spots coalesce and cover the entire leaf. Symptoms
are observed on petioles and stem as brown lesions. The leaves show dark brown,
circular or irregular sunken spots. Internal tissues turn brown and corky.
Fungus: Alternaria solani. Mycelium is brown and septate. Conidiophores emerge
through stomata and are dark brown, erect and septate. Conidia are yellowish brown
with vertical and cross septations (5 to10) and provided with a prominent beak.. They
are formed singly at the tip of conidiophore.

2. Late blight
Symptoms: On the leaves water-soaked lesions develop which later enlarge rapidly
and cover the entire surface. These spots turn purple brown and finally black in 2 to
3 days. White fungal growth is seen at border of the lesions on lower surface of
leaves. The disease spreads to petioles, rachis and stem. On the stem, black
lesions are observed on nodes. Stem breaks at this point and the plant topples over.
Soon entire leaf is infected and dies. On tubers purplish or brownish blotches
develop on the exposed side over the soil. The tissues of the tuber become reddish
brown upto 5 to 15 mm into the flesh of the tuber. Later the affected areas become
firm and dry and somewhat sunken. The rot continues even after harvest.
Secondary fungi and bacteria causing soft rots may subsequently invade infected
tubers. Such rotting tubers emit putrid smell.
Phytophthora infestans. Mycelium is hyaline and coenocytic. The
sporangiophores emerge through stomatal opening with branches. The branches will

have nodular swellings. Sporangia are pear-shaped or lemon-shaped, hyaline and

single celled with papilla. Each sporangium releases 3 to 8 zoospores.

3. Black scurf and stem canker

Symptoms: Brown, sunken, circular or elongated lesions on the lower portion of
sprouts. Tubers exhibit brown discolouration. Black irregular sclerotia are found in
the skin are observed on the tubers.
Fungus: Rhizoctonia solani. Mycelium is hyaline to coloured, septate and branches
at right angle to main axis. Sclerotia on plant tissues are black. The basidiospores
are hyaline, elliptical to obclavate and thin-walled.

4. Brown Rot/ Bacterial wilt / Ring disease

Symptoms: It is noticed at tuber formation stage. Plants exhibit wilting and leaves
hang in a flaccid condition. The wilted plants initially recover in the morning or
evening but wilt in the afternoon. Later they die. The inner portion of the stem turns
brown or black. Skin of the affected tubers is discoloured. Adhering soil particles
easily recognizes infected tubers. When the affected tuber is cut open, a brown,
circular ring-like discolouration (of vascular tissues) is seen near the periphery.
Oozing of bacteria may be seen along the rings. Tubers exhibit rotting at harvest and
during storage.
Bacterium: Burkholderia solanacearum. The bacterium is Gram negative, rodshaped and motile by 1 - 4 polar flagella.


1. Brown leaf spot

Symptoms: Spots are seen on both the sides of the leaves. On the upper surface,
the spots appear uniformly brown with a distinct dark brown border. The spots are
irregular or angular and restricted by leaf margin or veinlets and measure 3 to 12 mm
in dia. On the lower surface the lesions have less distinct margins and in the centre
brown spots assume a greyish lust because of conidiophores and conidia. Small
veins within the lesions appear black. Indefinite halo is seen around the lesions. As
the disease progress the leaves turn yellow, dry and drop off.
Fungus: Cercospora henningsii (Mycosphaerella manihotis). Conidiophores are
olivaceous brown, geniculate and sparingly septate. Conidia are produced singly at

the apex of each conidiophore. They are slightly curved with both ends bluntly
rounded, 2 to 8 septate and pale olivaceous. Perithecia are brown to black. Asci are
elongate, clavate, eight spored and sessile. Ascospores are ovoid, uniseptate and
constricted at the septum.

2. Sclerotium root rot

Symptoms: The disease is observed on cuttings and on matured roots and tubers.
White mycelium radiates into the soil from infected roots or stem base. Rotting of
roots and killing of young plants are seen.
Fungus: Sclerotium rolfsii. The fungus produces sclerotia, which are round, dark
brown and are found mixed with mycelium.

3. Glomerella stem rot

Symptoms: It is common in stored cassava cuttings and old stem debris in cassava
fields. Rotting initiates from cut ends and spreads throughout the cuttings. Surface
blisters which later ruptures the epidermis expose black perithecia.
Fungus: Glomerella cingulata.

4. Cassava mosaic
Symptoms: Infected leaves exhibit chlorotic areas and distortion in leaflets. Leaves
are reduced in size, misshapen and twisted with bright yellow areas separated by
normal green tissue. Tubers show longitudinal splitting.
Causal agent: Indian Cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).
Vector: Bemisia tabaci (White fly).

1. Damping off and Root rot
Damping off: It causes pre-emergence and post- emergence damping off.

Root rot: This phase is characterized by yellowing, wilting and drying of the plants
involving all the aerial parts. Infected roots show externally a deep brown
Fungus: Pythium aphanidermatum.
In addition to P. aphanidermatum, P.
debaryanum and P. ultimum are also responsible for causing damping off and root
rot. The oospores serve as overwintering / oversummering organs and are the
primary source of inocula in the soil.
2. Sclerotium root rot
Symptoms: The disease attacks the plant and causes yellowing and wilting. The
fungus causes rotting of roots and tubers. Root rot affected plants can be easily
pulled out.
Fungus: Sclerotium rolfsii. Mycelium is hyaline, branched and septate. Sclerotia are
round to oblong and measure 0.7 to 3.0 mm in diameter.
3. Rhizoctonia root rot
Symptoms: It causes crown rot and dry root rot of sugarbeet. In crown rot, basal
portion of the petiole blackens and subsequently the entire crown of the plant rots. In
dry root rot, roots in upper 1-2 cm layer show sunken lesions. Beneath these lesions
pockets of spongy tissues develop.
R. bataticola: It causes charcoal rot mostly in crops over four months age. Numerous
small, black, round sclerotia are seen on the diseased roots. On the petiole pycnidia
are seen.
Fungi: Rhizoctonia solani The sclerotia are irregular, brown to black and are 5 mm
in dia. The fungus also produces both terminal and intercalary barrel shaped
R. bataticola The sclerotia measure up to 1 mm in dia. In the pycnidial stage, the
fungus produces globose pycnidia and hyaline, oval to elliptical pycnidiospores.
4. Phoma disease
Symptoms: The fungus produces the following symptoms
Seedling blight: Diseased seedlings exhibit black lesions on primary roots, just
below the collar region.The lesions extends towards the base and show severe
necrosis of root rip.

Leaf spot: Necrotic spots of circular to oval with light to dark brown concentric rings
with diffused margin appear on the leaves. Black dot-like pycnidia are often
observed on the spot.
Stem rot: Infected plants remain stunted and ripen prematurely. Severe infection of
basal stem leads to withering of plants. Infection spreads from lower end to the
upper end of flowering stalks.
Storage rot: Tubers from diseased plants carry incipient infection of the fungus and
cause rotting during storage.
Fungus: Phoma betae The fungus produces pycnidia and pynidiospores. Pathogen
is both seed and soil-borne. Primary infection is through seed-borne inoculum and
the secondary spread is through rain splashes and irrigation water.

5. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: Minute translucent spots surrounded by yellowish green halo appear on
lower leaves. In later stages, these spots coalesce to form large patches
Fungus: Cercospora betlicola. The fungus persists in the fields on decayed plant
refuses and the secondary infection takes place by the air-borne conidia.
6. Alternaria leaf spot
Symptoms: The pathogen attacks both young and older leaves. Older leaves are
more susceptible than the younger leaves.The spots are minute, water-soaked,
yellowish brown and appear on both the surfaces. The spots increases in size, turn
dark brown with concentric rings. The spots produced by A. alternate are black and
irregular and measure up to 1 cm in dia and the spots produced by A. brassicae are
dark dark brown and circular and are up to 1 5 cm in dia. The central necrotic
portion dry and fall off resulting in shot holes. Infected seeds become black.
Fungus: Alternaria alternate and Alternaria brassicae. The pathogen survives on the
infected crop debris and seeds buried in soil as conidia. Conidia from plant debris
cause primary infection. Secondary spread is through wind-borne conidia.
7. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: The disease appears as round whitish patches on the upper surface of
the leaves. Later they increase in size and may cover the whole leaf surface. The
diseased leaves wilt and dry.

Fungus: Erysiphe betae. Mycelium is on the upper surface of host leaves. Conidia
produced on condiospores are barrel shaped, hyalilne, unicellular and thin walled.
The fungus survives in the form of cleistothecia in infected plant debris. Air-borne
conidia cause secondary infection in the field.
8. Bacterial blight
Symptoms: Symptoms usually appear on the leaves of young seedlings. Small
depression appears on either side of the cotyledons which become water-soaked,
soft and black. Several lesions occur in single cotyledon and cause distortion.
Serious infections cause blighting of leaves and stalks. Under moist conditions the
dead parts become slimy and necrosis spreads quickly in to the veins and the leaf
petiole. The upper stem and inflorescence are streaked dark brown and necrotic
blotches appear on the leaves.
Bacterium: Pseudomonas syringae. Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium with
polar flagella. Bacterium is seed-borne.
9. Bacterial scab
Symptoms: Small, brownish and slightly raised spots appear on fleshy tap root.
Later they enlarge, coalesce and become very corky.The rounded, wart-like growths
are sparsely scattered over the tap root and often they are concentrated in bands.
Two types of scab viz., shallow and deep scabs are found in sugerbeet.
Bacterium: Streptomyces scabies. The hyphae are slender, branched without cross
walls and at maturity these aerial hyphae forms chain of three to many spores.
Sporogenous hyphae are spiral in form. Spores are produced by the formation of
septa at intervals along the hypha which contract to form narrow isthmuses between
the cells.The spores germinate by means of one or two germ tubes.
The bacterium survives in infected plant debris and in the soil. The bacterial
are spread through soil water, wind-blown soil and cultural operations. Young roots
are more susceptible to infection than older roots.
10. Heart rot
Heart rot or brown heart or internal black spot is caused by deficiency of

Questions to be answered

1. What is plasmodium?
2. What is hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
3. Mention thesexual spore produced by white rust pathogen
4. The teleomorph of Cercospora henningsii is ___________
True or False
1. Leaf spot with concentric rings is common in Cercospora
2. Cleistothecium is an asexual fruiting body produced by powdery mildew fungus
3. Production of shot-hole symptom is a characteristic feature of Collettrichum
4. Sporangia are the asexual spores of Erysiphe
5. Longitudinal splitting of tubers is observed in cassava infected with ICMV
6. Bacterial ooze is seen in potato tubers infected with brown rot pathogen
1. Downy mildew and powdery mildew of cucurbits
2. Downy mildew and white rust of crucifers
3. Early blight and late blight of potato

Ex. No. 10



1. Purple blotch / Scald disease
Symptoms: This occurs mainly at the top of the leaves. The infection starts with
whitish minute dots on the leaves with irregular chlorotic areas on tip portion of the
leaves. Later circular to oblong concentric black velvety rings of fruiting bodies
appear in the chlorotic area. The lesions develop towards the base of the leaf.
Sometimes a yellow halo develops around each lesions. The leaves break at the

point of infection and hang down. The infection is also seen on the outer scales of
the bulb. The disease causes premature drying of the foliage which results in poor
development of bulbs. Bulbs become dry and papery.
Alternaria porri.
Mycelium is branched, coloured and septate.
Conidiophores arise singly or in groups, straight or flexuous, sometimes geniculate,
septate and mid brown. Conidia are solitary, straight or curved and obclavate. The
body of the conidium may be ellipsoid, tapering to the beak. The beak is about the
same length as the body, mid-golden brown and smooth. They are with 8 to 12
transverse septa and zero to several longitudinal septa. The beak is flexuous, pale
and is tapering.
2. Basal rot / Bulb rot
Symptoms: The disease is seen from 30 days old crop. It occurs in patches. The
leaves turn yellow and then dry up slowly. The affected plant shows drying of the leaf
tip downwards. The entire plant shows complete drying of the foliage. The bulb
shows soft rotting and they get rotted. There will be a whitish mouldy growth on the
bulb scales. The bulbs decay in storage.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae. The fungus produces many
chlamydospores which are thick walled resting spores and microconidia (one celled
thick walled).
3. Smut
Symptoms: The fungus attacks seedlings. Dark lesions occur on the cotyledons as
they emerge. These lesions develop into thickened areas of several millimeters in
size. The lesions burst open and release masses of black spores. Infected plants are
killed within 3 to 4 weeks of emergence. Surviving plants are stunted with short,
brittle, distorted leaves bearing lesions throughout their length. In the matured plants
numerous black blisters are found both on the leaves and bulb scales. Bulbs are
usually small.
Fungus: Urocystis cepulae. The sori of Urocystis contain dark coloured and
powdery spore masses. The spores are found in permanent balls. Each ball
consists of an enveloping cortex of tinted, sterile bladder-like cells with one or two
central dark coloured thick-walled chlamydospores (smut spores). The sterile cells
are smaller than the spores. The spores germinate by means of a short promycelium
while still in the ball. The promycelium does not produce the apical whorl of sporidia,
instead hyphae break apart into independent units and these cells function as spores
producing thalli.

4. Downy mildew
Symptoms: In systemic infection (when the plants are grown from a diseased bulb)
the plants remain stunted distorted and pale green. In humid atmosphere the downy
growth of the fungus develops over the entire leave surface. In dry weather and only
white spots are seen. In local infections caused by wind-borne conidia, oval to
cylindrical pale spots are formed on the leaves containing alternating green and
chlorotic zones. In humid weather, the fungus develops as white to purplish downy
growth on these spots. Usually the older leaves are attacked first and the infection
spread to the sheath. Inner leaves are then affected but new and young central
leaves remain healthy. If the leaf is attacked in the middle part, it drops from the
point of infection and the tip dries. The plants are stunted with succulent neck. Such
plants produce only undersized bulbs. Succulent necks are subject to attack by fungi
and bacteria in storage. The fungus can invade floral parts and can infect a small
proportion of the seed.
Fungus: Peronospora destructor. Mycelium is coenocytic and intercellular with
filamentous haustoria. The conidiophores are non-septate and swollen at the base.
Branching is dichotomous. Sterigmata are subacute or acute. Conidia are pyriform
and attached to the sterigmata by their pointed end. These conidia germinate by one
or two germ tubes. Oogonia are formed in the intercellular spaces.

5. Smudge
Symptoms: It is a disease of scales of the bulb and appears at any time in the plant
and during transport or storage. Subcuticular black smudge (black stroma of the
fungus) is seen on bulb, neck or green leaves which are clinging to the bulb after
digging. The black colour may be uniform or it is with circular lesions with concentric
rings of dark stroma and mycelium. When seen with hand lens bristles can be seen
inner scales show small, sunken and yellow lesions. Under humid weather pinkish
mass of spores are seen.
Fungus: Colletotrichum circinans. Mycelium is septate and branched. The fungus
produces acervuli which contain thick walled, dark, 0-3 septate setae. Conidia are
hyaline, fusiform and one celled. They germinate by one or two germ tubes.


1. Neck rot and bulb rot

Symptoms: It is commonly found on bulbs at the time of harvest. Affected scale
tissue become soft. Dense layer of grey mould appear at the neck. The infection
spreads down the scales which have been originally infected. Dark sclerotia appear
on the older decayed tissue. In the case of bulb rot caused by Fusarium failure of
germination and drying of leaves from the tip can be noticed. Rotting of bulb and
production of side shoots produces clump of shoots.
Fungi: Botrytis allii and Fusarium oxysporum.

2. Macrophomina rot / Internal bulb rot

Symptoms: It is a storage rot. No external symptom can be observed unless the
outer scales are removed. Black pinhead-like sclerotia develop over the fleshy
scales which are light in weight, brown mostly shriveled but do not lost their
Fungus: Macrophomina phaseolina.

3. Pink root
Symptoms: The roots turn pink or reddish and sometimes darken to a red or purple
colour. Black spores form on the diseased roots which eventually shrivel and die.
Diseased plants can be easily pulled. The above ground symptoms are stunting and
yellowing, tip burn and die-back of the leaves.
Fungus: Pyrenochaeta terrestris (Syn: Phoma terrestris).

4. Aspergillus rot / Black mould blemish

Symptoms: It is also storage rot. It manifests itself with the copious growth of a
dust-like fungal mass which remains concealed mostly between the scales. The
whole tissues are transformed into a black powdery mass. The individual bulbs
shrivel and are light in weight. Infected bulbs lose their pungency and smell.
Fungus: Aspergillus niger, A.alliaceous and A.sclerotium


1. Stem gall / Tumour

Symptoms: The disease appears in the form of tumour-like swellings of leaf veins,
leaf stalks, peduncles, stem and fruits. The swellings on the veins give a swollen
hanging appearance to the leaves. The swellings are usually elongated and 9-12
mm x 3-5 mm dia. The size of the swellings vary according to the dimension of the
part infected. The fungus is restricted to tumours and become rough. In very severe
cases the plants are killed.
Fungus: Protomyces macrosporus. The fungus hyphae are intercellular, septate
and broad. Scattered cells in the hyphae swell and form ellipsoidal or globose bodies
which later develop into chlamydospores. As they mature they become surrounded
by a thick, hyaline, three layered wall and attain a dia of 50 60 microns. Exospore
is thick and brown. Meso and endospores are thin. Chlamydospores germinate in
water and form sporangia and spores. The released spores from sporangia are
connected in pairs and later they fuse.
The fungus survives in seed and soil as chlamydospores. Chlamydospores
show 10 % germination after six years.

2. Wilt
Symptoms: The plants are attacked at all stages of growth. The severity of disease
increases with age. Wilting is sudden instead of being gradual. The disease can be
easily recognized in the field by drooping of the terminal portions, followed by
withering and drying of leaves, eventually resulting in death. Discolouration of
vascular system of the root is observed. Partial wilting is also found. Sterility is often
noticed in such plants. Seeds if formed are immature and light. Severe infection in
the early stage results in total failure of the crop.
Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. corianderii. The fungus produces macro, micro
conidia and chlamydospores. The pathogen remains viable in the seed for five
months and can survive for longer period in the soil. Soil-borne inoculum is the
primary source of infection.

3. Minor diseases
Powdery mildew Erysiphe polygoni
Grain mould Alternaria sp., Curvularia sp.,
Fusarium sp. and Helminthosporium sp.

1. Rhizome rot
Symptoms: Affected plants become pale, leaf tips turn yellow and infection gradually
spreads down to the leaf blade and leaf sheath along the margin. Often the middle
portion of the lamina remains green while margins turn yellow. Leaves droop, plants
wither and dry. Infected plants can be pulled out from the soil easily. Root systems
are heavily damaged. Rhizomes get discoloured, brown, mis-shaped, soft and form
a putrefying mass. It is a complex disease and is more predominant.
Fungus: Pythium aphanidermatum. The mycelium is hyaline and coenocytic.
Sporangium is lobulate, zoospores are reniform in shape and biflagellate. Oospores
are produced.

2. Colletotrichum leaf spot

Symptoms: The spots are elliptic and oblong with greyish white centre, brown
margin and yellow halo. Spots coalesce and leaves dry.
Fungus: Colletotrichum capsici. Mycelium is inter-and intra-cellular. Internal
mycelium forms stroma and setae. Conidia borne on conidiophores are hyaline,
single celled and falcate.

3. Leaf blotch
Symptoms: Spots appear on both the surfaces of the leaves. It first appears as
apple yellow discolouration turning to dirty yellow and then brown with chlorotic halo.
Spots coalesce forming large necrotic blotches. Ultimately the leaves dry up.
Fungus: Taphrina maculans. Mycelium is intercellular and haustoria are branched or
lobed. Each ascus contains eight ascospores.

1. Colletotrichum leaf spot
2. Leaf blotch

: As in turmeric
: As in turmeric

3. Phyllosticta leaf spot

Symptoms: Small, oval, elongated spots of 1 to 10 x 0.5 mm size appear on the
leaves. Matured spots will have a dark brown margin, papery white centre and
yellow halo. The spots coalesce and cause extensive discolouration. It is followed
by premature leaf fall.
Fungus: Phyllosticta zingiberi. The fungus produces pycnidia.
hyaline, oblong and are with rounded ends.

The conidia are


1. Damping off
Symptoms: Infection is observed in young seedling. Collar region becomes watersoaked and the affected portion is soft and weak. Seedlings collapse and topple
down at soil level and die. Gappiness in the nursery is noticed due to death of
seedlings in patches.
Fungus: Pythium aphanidermatum. Mycelium is coenocytic, hyaline and branched.
They are intercellular and intracellular. Sporangia are lobed and hyaline. The
oospores are spherical and thick walled.

2. Die-back and fruit rot

Symptoms: Symptoms are seen on stem and fruits. Stem shows die-back
symptoms. Branches die from tip downward. Such branches are devoid of leaves
and flowers. Black dot-like acervuli are found scattered on affected stem. Infection
at pedicel and tips of branches causes shedding of flowers and flower buds. Watersoaked lesions are noticed on fruits. Affected portion becomes dirty white, fruits
shrivel, dry and fall off. Acervuli are also seen on surface of the buds. The fruits
become white in colour and loose their pungency.
Fungus: Colletotrichum capsici. In the acervulus, dark brown and septate, rigid
sterile structures called setae arise from the stoma. In between setae a layer of
hyaline single celled conidiophores are produced. They bear single celled, hyaline
and sickle-shaped conidia.

3. Alternaria leaf spot

Symptoms: Irregular, brown to dark brown spots with concentric rings observed on
the leaves. Diseased leaves become yellow and fall prematurely. Fruits show brown
irregular spots with dark brown margin. Seeds in affected fruits are discoloured.
Fungus: Alternaria solani. The fungus produces brown, septate, inter- and intracellular mycelium. Conidia are single muriform with both cross (5-10) and vertical
septa and provided with a beak at the tip.

4. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: Oval or oblong spots appear on leaves. These spots are with grey
centre and brown margin. Spots are seen on the stalks and stems also. Infected
leaves drop off prematurely.
Fungus: Cercospora capsici. Conidia needle-shaped, broad at the base and taper
towards the tip, sub-hyaline to coloured multiseptate.

5. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: White talcum powder- like growth is seen on the lower surface of
leaves. Very often it covers entire leaf surface. Corresponding upper surface turns
yellow. Severely diseased leaves become yellow and are shed.
Fungus: Leveillula taurica. Mycelium is purely endophytic. Conidiophores emerge
through stomatal opening in clusters of 3 or 4. Conidiophores are long, hyaline and
septate. Conidia are club or pear-shaped, single celled and hyaline.

6. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Leaves loose their turgidity and become flaccid. Leaves in the
branches droop, become yellow and dry. In the diseased plants, roots are brown and
poorly developed.
Fungus: Fusarium solani. The pathogen produces microconidia (hyaline, cylindrical
and 2 celled), macroconidia (falcate with blunt apical cells) and chlamydospores
(globose or oval, smooth or rough walled, intercalary or terminal).

7. Bacterial leaf spot

Symptoms: Water-soaked, scattered brown spots appear on the leaves. Spots are
circular or irregular and cankerous. The spot bulges and turns purple with black
centre. A narrow halo surrounds each spot. Petioles and young stems are also

attacked . On the green fruits round, brown coloured, raised spots with depression in
the centre are seen. Diseased green fruits turn brown or black.
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Syn. Xanthomonas campestris
vesicatoria). It is a rod shaped bacterium with polar flagellum.


8. a. Mosaic
Symptoms: Mosaic mottling, vein banding, crinkling, smalling of leaves and
interveinal chlorosis of infected leaves. Fruits show chlorotic streaks and rough skin.
Causal agent: Potato virus Y.
Vector: Aphis craccivora, A.gossypii and Myzus persicae (Aphids).
b. Mosaic
Symptoms: Infected plants are bushy, exhibit mosaic mottling, blistering and
deformation of leaves. Small rings are also found on the leaves. Leaves become
filiform. Mottling symptoms are observed on fruits also. Flowers and fruits are few in
infected plants.
Causal agent: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).
Vector: Aphis craccivora, A.gossypii and Myzus persicae (Aphids).

9. Leaf curl
Symptoms: Lower and upper curling of leaves accompanied by puckering and
blistering of interveinal areas and thickening and swelling of veins are the main
symptoms. Internodes are shortened and plants are stunted. Fruiting is stopped and
if formed they are small and deformed.
Causal agent: Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV).
Vector: Bemisia tabaci (Whitefly).

1. Phytophthora foot rot and leaf rot / Stem rot
Foot rot: The fungus attacks the veins at all stages of crop growth. The initial
symptoms of the disease are sudden wilting of vines rows after rows. The affected
vines show yellowing and drooping of leaves with tip downwards. The leaves
become dull due to the loss of lustre. The affected plants dry up completely within
two or three days. The succulent stem turns brown, brittle and dry as stick. The
lower portion of the stem near the soil region shows irregular, water-soaked lesions.
The roots at the nodal region show black discolouration and rotting. The stem
portion buried in the soil snaps at the nodes due to rotting. The diseased internodes
undergo a wet rot and the tissues become soft, slimy and completely rotten exposing
the fibrous parts.
Stem rot: The rotting due to the fungus is mainly confined to the stem portion buried
in the soil and above the soil level. If the seed vines are planted late during cold
weather the establishment of the vine is very poor. Seed vines snap at the nodes
and get rotten. This results in gappiness in the field.
Leaf rot: Leaf rot is seen in the young crop. The leaves near the soil region show
circular to irregular water-soaked spots. In the early stages, the affected leaves
show yellowing on the upper surface with a downy fungal growth on the
corresponding lower surface of the leaf. Later these spots turn brown. Such affected
leaves fall off prematurely. Sometimes affected spots rot and disintegrate.
Fungus: Phytophthora capsici.

2. Sclerotium wilt
Symptoms: The vine is susceptible at all stages of its growth. The plants are
usually affected at the collar region. Whitish cottony mass of fungal mycelial growth
is seen on the stem and roots. The stem rots at the point of attack and darkens up
to 10 to 12 mm above the soil line. The affected plants show drooping of leaves and
they dry up ultimately. Darkened portion of the stem shrinks, becomes soft and the
bark peels off easily. Darkening stem turns black in colour. Brown coloured mustardlike sclerotia are formed on the stem and also on the soil near the basal part of the

Fungus: Corticium rolfsii (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.). The hyphae are hyaline when
young and become white to ash coloured with age. Sclerotia are spherical, brown to
dark brown, shiny, smooth and are found mixed with mycelium.

3. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: The disease occurs on the tender shoots, buds and leaves and affects
the crop at all stages. The disease appears as whitish powdery patches on both the
surfaces of the leaves. Affected leaves get shriveled and deformed and the margins
of the leaves turn inwards. Such leaves turn pale and fall off easily. In older leaves
the fungus causes light brown blotches and such affected leaves are rejected when
the leaves are picked for marketing.
Fungus: Oidium piperis. Mycelium is septate. Haustoria are sac-like. Conidiophores
are simple, 2 to 3 septate and bear conidia in chains of 3 to 10. Conidia are cut off in
basipetal succession. They are unicellular, hyaline and barrel shaped.

4. Cercospora leaf spot

Symptoms: The disease appears as minute deep brown to black dots especially on
the margins and tips of older leaves. The dots develop close to each other in cluster.
The area surrounding the spots show yellow halo. Affected leaves fall off
Fungus: Cercospora piperis-betle. Conidiophores are non-fasciculate, septate, nongeniculate, olive-brown. Conidia are sub-hyaline straight or curved, 5 to 15 septate,
truncate at the base with acute tips.

5. Anthracnose
Symptoms: Generally older leaves show small, brownish black and circular spots.
These spots enlarge in size and develop to a size of 2 cm dia. The spots become
concentric with a light yellow halo. Acervuli as black dots are seen on the spots. The
affected leaves turn pale yellow and dry up. The infected regions gradually become
thin and dry and do not undergo any rotting. When the spots are present on the
margin of the leaves, leaf blade tends to droop owing to the shrinkage of tissues.
Such infected leaves are generally rejected at the time of picking or harvest. Some
times the central dead portion of the spot is found to fall off causing a shot-hole
symptom. Infected leaves fall off prematurely. On the stem, black, circular specks
appear under the green bark. These specks increase in size and form into narrow
streaks. Later, two or three streaks coalesce and encircle the stem completely. The

stem above the diseased internode wilts rapidly. Acervuli of the fungus are found on
stem lesions.
Fungus: Colletotrichum capsici.

6. Bacterial leaf spot

Symptoms: This disease is common in wet weather. The affected leaves show
minute water-soaked angular spots on the lower surface of the leaves. These spots
become angular and are surrounded by a yellow halo. Sometimes the spots are
confined to the interveinal space. The infection spreads to a larger area and
becomes necrotic.
These leaves lose their lustre and turn yellow and fall off.
Gummy ooze is seen during wet weather from these spots and the ooze turn into
yellow deposits on the lower surfaces of the leaves. The vine above the point of
stem infection gets killed ultimately. The stem infection spreads to the adjoining vine
also in the same standard through injuries that occur during the tying operation of
Bacterium: Xanthomonas campestris pv. betlicola. The bacterium is Gram-negative,
rod shaped and is motile by polar flagellum. The bacterium produces yellow, slimy,
circular and shiny colony on the medium.


1. Quick wilt / Phytophthora foot rot

Symptoms: A dark patch appears on the stem and spreads to 30 cm from the base
of the plant. Stem breaks off at the nodes. Leaves turn yellow flaccid and droop.
The vine dies in 3-4 weeks (Quick wilt). On the leaves dark brown spots appear and
enlarge causing concentric zonations with grey centre. Affected leaves and spikes
are shed. Infection on aerial branches causes die-back.
Fungus: Phytophthora capsici.

2. Pollu disease / Anthracnose

Symptoms: Spots on leaves are brown to dark brown. Spots exhibit coalescence
and form bigger lesions with concentric zonations. A yellow halo surrounds each
spot. On the berries water-soaked dirty brown sunken areas appear. Discoloured

berries occur in groups of two to five. Berries split at the lesion site. Berries dry up
resulting in hollow and chaffy berries. The word pollu in malayalam means a
Fungus: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Mycelium is septate and dark. Conidia
are hyaline, single -elled and oval in shape.

3. Red rust
Symptoms: Orange brown spots appear on the leaves. Spots turn green on maturity.
Intense spotting causes withering of leaves.
Alga: Cephaleuros sp. This is an algal parasite. The alga produces thallus,
sporangiophores and sporangia on the host. All the structures are coloured.

Questions to be answered
1. Write the mode of spread of purple blotch of onion
2. The chemical which prevents the entry of Colletotrichum circinans in onion is
3. Black dots appearing on the chilli fruit infected by Colletotrichum capsici
represent ________________
4. Colletortichum capsici infects ________, __________ and _______ crops
5. Phytophthora capsici infects __________ and _________ crops
True or False
1. Red scaled onions are susceptible to Colletotrichum circinans
2. Leveillula taurica produces oidiopsis type of conidia
1. Smut and downy mildew of onion
2. Damping off and Fusarium wilt of chillies
3. Leaf curl and mosaic of chillies
4. Phytophthora foot rot and Sclerotium wilt
5. Colletotrichum leaf spot and leaf blotch of turmeric

Ex. No. 11




1. Blister blight

Symptoms: It is a disease in the nursery and planted crop. The first visible
symptom is circular, oily, yellowish, translucent spot on the tender leaf and later it
turns into deep red shiny blisters. The circular spot gradually enlarges to 3 to13 mm
dia. bulged on the under surface of the leaf with concave trough-like depression on
the upper surface forming a classic blistered lesion. Leaves become curled and
distorted. The disease attacks first flush of 2 to 3 young leaves and kills the young
shoots and buds. Matured leaves are less affected. The disease occurs in the
nursery when the stem is 15 cm in height. Repeated attacks cause death of
Fungus: Exobasidium vexans. Mycelium is septate. It produces two kinds of spores
viz., conidia and basidiospores. The conidia are borne singly at the tips of long stalks.
They are hyaline, elliptical, straight or slightly curved. Basidia are long, club-shaped
and thin walled. The basidiospores are ovate or oblong and hyaline.
2. Grey blight
Symptoms: The disease appears as minute, brown spots on older leaves, which
soon turn grey. The spots are mostly irregular and several of them may coalesce to
form irregular patches. The spots have fine concentric lines. Acervuli appear as
black dots in the older spots on the upper surface. The fungus attacks plucking
points and causes die-back.
Fungus: Pestalotiopsis theae. Acervuli are globose, sub-epidermal erumpent and
dehisce rupturing epidermis by a pore. Conidiophores are hyaline and cylindrical.
Conidia are cylindrical and 5-celled with 3 filiform setulae.
3. Pink disease
Symptoms: Number of fine silky threads united into a thin film appears on the stem.
They are not found on the leaves. The fungus forms pink fructifications over affected
stems. Young branches on the outside of the bush lose their leaves and die-back.
The pink concentrations crack into smaller fractions at right angles. They are
generally confined to lower or more shaded side of branches. Barks are killed in
patches. Pink tissues become white when they become old.
Fungus: Corticium salmonicolor (Pellicularia salmonicolor)

4. Black rot
Symptoms: The disease appears normally at the end of May or early June. Small
dark-brown irregular spots appear on the leaves. They coalesce to form dark brown
patches, which eventually cover the whole leaf. Diseased leaves fall off. Before the
leaves turn black the lower surface assumes a white powdery appearance.
Fungi: Corticium invisum and C. theae.
5. Red rust
Symptoms: Small translucent watery spots appear on the leaves. On the upper
surface of the leaves, they become purple red and then black with a purple margin.
On the under surface it is purple red and it becomes grey brown when old. Infection
on new stem reduces vigour or causes death.
Alga: Cephaleuros mycoidea and C. parasiticus.
6. Sooty mould
Symptoms: A black superficial fungal growth (mycelium and spores) is seen on the
leaf, stem, branches and shoot of tea plants. The infection is superficial and
associated with the presence of scale insects and aphids. The disease reduces
photosynthetic activity of the plant.
Fungus: Capnodium spp.


1. Leaf rust
Symptoms: Small, yellow translucent oily spots appear on upper surface of the
young leaves. Spots enlarge into round shape of 10 to 15 mm in dia. Spots later
turn into orange yellow colour. The corresponding lower surface is covered with
orange brown, dusty, powdery growth of uredospores. The affected leaves are shed.
In severe cases complete defoliation is seen. Berries from diseased plants remain
Fungus: Hemileia vastatrix. The dusty powder consists of uredospores, which are
orange-segment shaped. The convex surface is echinulated and the concave

surface is and smooth. Teleutospores are thick walled, smooth and turnip-shaped.
Aecial and pycnial stages are not noticed.

2. Anthracnose / Nilgiri twig disease

Symptoms: Greyish spots are observed on leaves, twigs and berries. On the
leaves and branches spots are necrotic. Elongated brown or black lesions are seen
on the branches, which result in blackening of twigs and dying from tip downwards.
Spots on berries are black and irregular. Berries fail to mature and form kattekai.
Fungus: Colletotrichum coffeanun (Syn. Glomerella cingulata). Acervuli producing
single celled conidia are noticed.

3. Brown eye spot / Berry blotch

Symptoms: Disease is severe on nursery seedlings and young crop. Spots on leaf
are black and necrotic and have dark margin and grey centre and are surrounded by
yellow haloes. Berries turn dark brown or black with irregular sunken blotch with a
purple halo. They shrink and fall off. The skin of the fruits becomes dry and hard,
making it difficult to pulp.

Cercospora coffeicola. Conidia are sub-cylindrical, hyaline and 2 or 3

4. Sooty mould
Symptoms: Leaves, stem and berries are covered with a black fungal growth
(mycelium and spores) resulting in reduced photosynthetic activity. Wherever heavy
attack of aphids and scale insects are found sooty mould occurs. The fungus feeds
on the secretions of these insects.
Fungus: Capnodium braziliense.

5. Koleroga / Black rot

Symptoms: Affected leaves, twigs and berries change into black colour (Black rot).
The under surface of the affected leaves is covered by a thin, hyaline, spreading web
of fungal mycelium. Leaves and berries become brown and finally black.
Fungus: Corticium koleroge (Syn. Pellicularia koleroga).
Mycelium is hyaline,
septate, profusely branched with numerous basidia, which arise in groups of 4 or 5
on short branches. Basidiospores are hyaline and thin-walled.


1. Basal stem rot

Symptoms: The diseased trees show the following typical symptoms in different
parts of the palm viz., stem, leaves, inflorescence and roots.

a. Stem: The first visible symptom of the disease is found on the basal portion of
the stem. Diseased palm show exudation of reddish brown, viscous liquid from
the basal portion of the stem, up to three metres. Discolouration of the stem and
internal rotting are commonly noticed up to the height of bleeding (exudation). In
advanced stages the basal portion of the stem decays completely. Some palms
show wilting symptoms without external bleeding. In some trees, the bark of the
stem peels off. In diseased palms in the advanced phase or in dead palms the
fructifications of the fungus can be observed at the base of the tree just above the
ground level as a bracket.

b. Leaves: In the diseased palms the leaflets in the outer one or two whorls show
yellowing and drooping. In advanced stages of infection, the remaining leaves
droop down in quick succession leaving the spindle leaf alone. Delayed
production of new leaves and reduction in the size of leaves are the other
symptoms. Outer leaves fall off. The spindles become short and do not unfold

c. Inflorescence and nuts: Development of flowers is arrested and button

shedding is common. As the leaves of diseased palms droop down, the
subtended bunches hang down. The quality of kernels from such bunches is
poor. Nuts are barren. When the disease progress is slow, only very few normal
nuts are produced. Most of the coconut trees bear profusely just prior to and at
the time of initiation of symptoms. In severely diseased palms, nut and kernel
weight , water content, copra weight and oil content decrease.

d. Roots: Decay and death of finer roots ( 70 %) proceeds bleeding symptoms in

the stem. Production of new roots in a diseased palm is very poor.
Fungus: Ganoderma lucidum. Mycelium is hyaline, thin-walled, branches with
frequent clamp connections. Chlamydospores are ellipsoid and slightly thick-walled.
They may be terminal or intercalary and sometimes found in chains. The fruit body is
perennial, stipitate, usually lateral and sometimes sessile. It is corky at first and
become woody later. Fruit bodies upto 30 cm size occur. Hymenial surface is white

or cream at first and turn brown later. Pores are small and round. Basidiospores are
thick-walled, brown, minutely verrucose and truncate at one end.

2. Bud rot
Symptoms: Primary symptoms consist of pale colour, bending over, browning and
breaking down of the heart leaf or central shoot. The affected heart leaf comes off
easily when it is pulled. The young leaves lose colour and droop before the heart
leaf breaks down. At the base of these young leaves brown sunken spots develop
affecting a long strip of leaf tissue. When rotting extends downward the surrounding
whorl become dull yellow. Later it becomes brown. Young nuts cease to develop
and fall off prematurely. The softer infected portion will be rotten and degenerated to
slimy mass emitting foul smell. When the growing bud is affected the tree is killed.
Trees of all ages are affected. But young trees are severely infected. The period
taken for withering of heart leaf depends on the point of infection and relative
Fungus: Phytophthora palmivora. The hyphae are intercellular. Sporangia are ovoid
with the widest part near the base, papillate and with a short pedicel. The base of
the sporangium is usually rounded and attached with the sporangiophore almost at
right angle. The zoospores are biflagellate and motile. Chlamydospores are 30 to 40
mm in dia. Oospores are 30 mm in size.

3. Stem bleeding
Symptoms: The characteristic symptom of the disease is the exudation of a dark
reddish brown fluid from cracks in the outer tissue of the stem. The fluid turns black
as it dries up on the bark. The tissues beneath the bleeding patches decay and
become yellow. In the early stages, the decay of the internal tissue is localized but
as the disease progresses, these patches coalesce resulting in a general decay. The
infection may occur anywhere on the trunk but is rarely observed on the soft portion
immediately below the crown.
The symptoms exhibited by young trees are different. On young palms the
spread of the disease is more rapid. The external patches do not indicate the extent
of the internal decay. The infected trees are not killed generally but their yield is
reduced. The trees may become very thin at the top and they are likely to be broken
by wind.
Fungus: Ceratostomella paradoxa.(Thielaviopsis paradoxa). T.paradoxa produces
pale brown to brown hyphae. Conidiophores are slender, arising laterally from the
hyphae and produce cylindrical endoconidia. Matured endoconidia are hyaline to

pale brown and smooth walled. Chlamydospores are terminal in chains, oval, thickwalled and brown. The perithecial stage is Ceratostomella (=Ceratocysis) paradoxa.
Perithecia are partly immersed and light brown. Perithecia are ostiolate. Ascospores
are ellipsoid with unequally curved sides, hyaline, non-septate and smooth.

4. Grey leaf spot / Blight

Symptoms: The disease symptoms develop on the outer whorl of leaves. At first
minute yellow spots encircled by a greyish band are seen on the leaflets. They
increase up to 5 cm. Gradually the centre of these spots turn greyish white with
brown margin. Several such spots coalesce into irregular and grey necrotic patches.
On the upper leaf surface globose or rectangular or ovoid, black, minute, acervuli are
formed. In advanced stages, the tips and the margins and at times the whole leaflets
dry and shrivel giving the leaf a burnt appearance.
Fungus: Pestalotiopsis (= Pestalotia) palmarum. The fungus produces acervuli.
Conidiophores are cylindric to ovoid. Conidia are 5-celled straight or curved. The
three median cells are coloured and the terminal cells are hyaline. Apical cell
tapering, crowned with three setulae.

5. Pencil point
Symptoms: Affected trees produce a fewer small leaves with yellowing. The stem
tapers gradually and small crown fails to produce new leaves and trunk remains
barren like a pointed pencil.
Cause: Pencil point disease is caused due to micronutrients deficiency like boron,
zinc, manganese, iron, copper and molybdenum.


1. Mahali disease / Fruit rot

Symptoms: Characteristic symptoms include rotting and excessive shedding of
immature nuts from the trees. The first visible symptom appears as water-soaked
lesions on the surface of affected nuts. Infected nuts lose their lustre. The lesions
gradually spread and cover the entire nut which later rot and shed from the bunches.
White mycelial mat develops on the fallen nuts. Fruit stalks and rachis of
inflorescence are also affected. Affected nuts are lighter in weight, deteriorate and
become unsuitable for chewing.
Fungus: Phytophthora arecae var. arecae. Sporangia are pear-shaped, single celled
and papillate.

2. Anabe roga / Foot rot

Symptoms: The first symptom is slight discolouration of the leaflets in the outer
whorl of the leaves. This pale discolouration spreads to the whole leaf and the entire
crown becomes yellow with the outer whorl drooping down and covering the stem.
Later the leaves in the inner whorl also become yellow. Development of the
inflorescence and nuts is arrested. Infected palms exhibit symptoms similar to
drought. Subsequently the leaves dry up, droop and fall off leaving the base stem.
The infected stem is easily broken off during heavy wind. The base of the stem
shows brown discolouration and oozing of dark fluid. On cutting open the affected
trunk, dark brown discolouration of internal tissues upto one metre from the ground
level can be seen. Bracket-shaped fructification of the fungus called anabe appears
at the base of the trunk. Roots of affected palms are brittle, discoloured and dried.
Fungus: Ganoderma lucidum. The fungus forms hard leathery brackets with brown
polished upper surface and dirty white lower surface with numerous pores.

3. Inflorescence die-back and button shedding

Symptoms: The disease appears on the rachillae of the male flowers and then on
the main rachis as brown patches which soon spread from tip downwards covering
the entire rachis and cause wilting. Affected female flowers are shed. Embryo of
female flowers is attacked which shrivel up and show brown discolouration. The
inflorescence die-back in severe infection.
Fungus: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The fungus produces conidia which are
single celled, subhyaline, cylindrical, straight with obtuse ends with one or two oil
globules. Conidia in mass looks pink.

4. Stem bleeding
Symptoms: During initial stages, small, discoloured depressions appear on the
basal portion of the stem. Later the spots coalesce and cracks develop on the stem.
Hollowness develop inside the stem upto varying depths. Crowns of affected palms
get reduced in size followed by reduction in yield. Finally a dark brown liquid oozes
out from the cracks.
Fungus: Thielaviopsis paradoxa.
1. Blister blight and grey blight of tea

2. Coffee leaf rust and red rust of tea

3. Basal stem rot and Bud rot of coconut
4. Basal stem rot and stem bleeding of coconut
5. Mahali disease and Anabe roga of arecanut
Ex. No. 12

(Rose, Jasmine, Crossandra and Chrysanthemum)


1. Powdery mildew
Symptoms: Raised blister-like areas with greyish white powdery growth are seen on
the leaves. Young shoots and flower buds are also infected. Affected young leaves
curl and are distorted. Older leaves show usually little distortion. Diseased flower
buds may not open and dry later.
Fungus: Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae. (The fungus is of Oidium type).
Mycelium is septate, white and sends globose haustoria into epidermal cell. Conidia
are oval-shaped and are produced in chains (5 to 10) on short, erect conidiophores.
The fungus produces cleistothecia with myceloid appendages. Each cleistothecium
(ascocarp) contains only one large ascus. Asci are subglobose and each ascus
contains eight ascospores. Ascospores are spherical.

2. Black spot
Symptoms: Characteristic black spots appear on the leaves. Spots are more or less
circular with fringed margin. Black colour of the spot is prominently seen on the
upper leaf surface. Yellow halo is present around matured spots. Affected leaves
become yellow and fall off, prematurely leaving the canes almost completely
defoliated. Raised, purple to red blotches are seen on immature wood of first-year
Fungus: Diplocarpon rosae. The fungus produces ascospores in tiny apothecia and
Marssonina type conidia in acervuli.

3. Die-back
Symptoms: Pruned twigs of the bushes show drying from tip downwards and
become black. The disease passes from the branch / twig to the main stem and from

there to the roots killing the whole plant. Stem and roots show browning of the
internal tissues.
Fungus: Diplodia rosarum. The fungus produces pycnidia and pycnidiospores.

4. Rust
Symptoms: Orange to lemon yellow coloured pustules are seen on the under
surface of the leaves which later turn to brick red in colour (uredial stage). Minute
black hair-like tufts are produced on the under surface of the leaves (telial stage).
Diseased leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely. Bushes are weakened and may
Fungus: Phragmidium mucronatum. Aeciospores are orange yellow. Uredospores
are single celled, ellipsoid or ovate, echinulate, orange-yellow and stalked.
Teliospores are dark, cylindrical, 6 to 8 celled with a pointed papilla.


1. Fusarium wilt
Symptoms: Plants of all age are attacked and wilt occurs in patches. Top leaves wilt
and bottom leaves show yellowing. Yellowing spreads upward resulting in death of
the plant. Roots show black discolouration.
Fungus: Fusarium solani

2. Leaf spot
Symptoms: Dark brown, irregular spots appear on the leaf surface. Spots join
together to form bigger lesions. Elongated and light brown lesions are found on the
leaf stalks.
Fungus: Cercospora jasminicola. Mycelium is septate and dark coloured. The
conidia are septate and pale to olivaceous, obclavate-cylindrical, straight to mildly
curved. The base of the conidia is obconically truncate and its tip is subobtuse.

3. Rust
Symptoms: It attacks all aerial parts and cause blisters or tumours. It produces
orange pustules predominantly on lower surface. Infected plant parts are
hypertrophied. In severe cases leaves become yellow and defoliate. Oval and
orange cankers are seen on stems and twigs. Flower buds are swollen, deformed

and do not open. Flower production is highly reduced. Splitting of barks in branches
subsequently lead to its death.
Fungus: Uromyces hobsonii. It is an autoecious rust.

4. Bacterial leaf spot

Symptoms: Yellowish green water-soaked, irregular spots are seen on the leaves.
Young and old leaves both in bushy and climber type are affected. Defoliation and
thereby stunting are also observed.
Fungus: Xanthomonas campestris pv. jasmini.

5. Phyllody
Symptoms: Clustering of the leaves and bushy appearance of the plants are the
characteristic symptoms. The leaves become linear and small and are closely
arranged. In the place of flowers, green, leafy and malformed flowers are seen.
Causal agent: Phytoplasma.
Vector: Dialeurodes kirkaldii (Whitefly)


1. Wilt
Symptoms: The disease is noticed in plants one month after transplanting. Initially
leaves turn pale green or yellow and later change into pink colour. Drooping of
leaves and wilting of plants are noticed.
Fungus: Fusarium solani. Mycelium is hyaline and septate. Microconidia,
macroconidia and chlamydospores are produced. The disease is associated with the
root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus delatreii.

2. Root rot
Symptoms: Sudden wilting of plants in patches is noticed. The leaves droop, dry
and the plant dies. The roots rot, bark shreds and decay and show large number of
Fungus: Macrophomina phaseolina. The mycelium is dark coloured and septate.
The sclerotia are brown to black and spherical to irregular in shape.

1. Blotch / Leaf spot
Symptoms: Blackish-brown. Circular to irregular spots appear on leaves. Each spot
is surrounded by yellow halo. They coalesce with one another and form large
patches covering major portion of the leaf. In severe infection, the leaves remain
small and curl. The dead leaves hang on the stem for sometime.
Fungus: Septoria chrysanthemella. Pycnidia are numerous, dark, sub-epidermal,
globose and ostiolate. Conidia are hyaline, filiform, straight or flexuous, oftern curved
or worm-like, transversely septate (1-4 septate).

2. Aspermy
Symptoms: Mild mosaic mottling with marked distortion of the flowers. The flowers
borne on the diseased plants are small in size and are distorted with irregular
curllings and waviness of the ray florets. The central disc florets remain green and
stunted. Line pattern with diffused chlorotic mottling appear on the new leaves.
Causal agent: Chrysanthemum aspermy virus. The aphids spread aspermy disease

3. Stunt
Symptoms: Plants and flowers are smaller and paler. Some flowers may appear
bleached and inferior in quality. Flowers from diseased plants open 7 10 days
earlier than flowers from healthy plant. Axillary buds often grow prematurely and
produce excess number of branches and stolons. Cuttings from diseased plants root
Fungus: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (ChSV). It is transmitted through sap and
through knives or tools during cultural operations.

4. Minor diseases
Cercospora leaf spot Cercospora chrysanthemi
Alternaria leaf spot and blossom blight Alternaria tenuis and A. chrysanthemi
Powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum and Oidium chrysanthemi

Rust Puccinia chrysanthemi

Questions to be answered
1. Anamorph of Diplocarpon rosae is _______________
2. Sphaerotheca pannosa var rosae produces __________ type of conidia
3. How the powdery mildew of rose survives and spread?
1. Wilt and root rot of crossandra

Ex. No. 13


Ex. No. 14


To estimate plant-parasitic nematode population in a particular crop/field
Materials required
Trowel, shovel, soil auger or hand hoe, polythene bag, label, rubber band,
pencil, knife Sieves, Petridish, Wiregauge, Filter paper, Centrifuge, Sugar, Conical
flask, Fendwickcan, Blender, Lactophenol and Acidfuchion Lactophenol,

Methods of sampling
1. Sampling from field crops

Leave about 1m peripheral area of the field

Remove 2-3 cm top soil

Collect 200 cc soil along with feeder roots up to a depth of 15-20 cm

Collect 10 subsamples from one-hectare area in a zigzag manner

Put all the subsamples in a polythene bag (composite sample)
Label the sample properly and tie it with a rubber band

2. Sampling from vegetable crops

Select 6 rows of a field (2 from the beginning, 2 from the middle and 2
from the far end of the field)

Collect 10 subsamples up to a depth of 20-30 cm from each pair of rows in

zigzag manner
Put all the subsamples in a polythene bag
Label and tie the sample

3. Sampling from an orchard

Take a sample from a tree up to a depth of 30-60 cm (feeder root zone)

Collect subsamples from 10 trees randomly from one hectare area

Pool all the subsamples in a polythene bag

Label and tie the sample

4. Sampling from a tree

Collect 5 subsamples each from around the trunk and drip line of the tree
Put all the subsamples in a polythene bag
Label and tie the sample

Samples taken in polythene bag should be labeled with the following
Host/crop and stage of crop
Previous crop
Date of sampling
Soil type
Name of the collector
Important precautions

Select live plants showing symptoms

Take samples from the rhizosphere
Avoid sampling immediately after fertilizer or pesticide application and
irrigation or heavy rainfall
Avoid surface soil pebbles and plant debris
Keep the plant materials moist in polythene bags

Storage of samples
Samples should be processed immediately after collection for precise results.
If immediate processing is not possible, the samples can be stored in a refrigerator at
5C for about a week.

Extraction of nematodes from soil samples

To extract nematodes and cysts from soil sample for identification, counting
and assessing their population density

1. Cobbs decanting and sieving method


The soil particles and nematodes settle at different rates due to differences in
their specific gravity

Different sized nematodes are retained on sieves of different pore sizes


Mix thoroughly the composite soil sample and take 250 cc in a pan I
Add about one litre water and stir well breaking clods and clumps
Wait for 10-20 sec and pass this suspension to pan II through a 20-mesh
sieve leaving heavy soil particles in the pan I
Add one litre water to pan I and repeat the same process
Collect the filtrate in pan II and roots in a beaker discarding the remaining
Stir the suspension of pan II gently, wait for a few seconds and pour it through
a series of 60, 100 and 200-mesh sieves (mesh: number of apertures/linear
Collect the residues left over 60, 100 and 200-mesh sieves separately in
beakers and label it
Pass the contents again through a 350-mesh sieve discarding the filtrate
Collect the residue left over 350-mesh sieve in a beaker and label it
Examine the contents of beakers labeled as 60 for cyst nematodes and
process 100, 200 and 350-mesh residues further for separating nematodes

2. Baermanns funnel method


The active and motile nematodes tend to move towards water surface
through tissue paper and get collected at the base of rubber tube due to
gravitational force whereas inert soil particles and debris remain on the tissue


Process the soil sample by Cobbs decanting and sieving technique

Take a glass funnel of 10 cm diameter attached with a short rubber tube to
the stem and closed at the other end with a Hoffmans clip and place the
funnel on a suitable support
Fill the funnel assembly with water carefully

Place double layers of tissue paper over a wire gauze (mesh) and place it on
the funnel
Allow the nematode suspension to settle, decant the supernatant, pour the
remaining suspension on to the tissue paper set up
Add water in such a way that the lower surface of the wire gauze touches the
Collect the nematode suspension carefully after 24-48 h, by releasing the
Hoffmans clip


Clear nematode suspension free of debris can be obtained

Nematodes can be collected in a small amount of water


Time consumed is more

Nematodes may loose their activity due to lack of oxygen
Sedentary and slow moving nematodes cannot be extracted

2a. Modified Baermanns funnel technique

A Petri dish is used in this technique, instead of funnel in the Baermanns
funnel technique and the nematodes get collected in Petri dish.

3. Sugar Floatation Technique


The difference in specific gravity of nematodes and sugar solution results in

the separation of nematodes using the centrifugation (Specific gravity of
sugar solution = 1.18, nematodes = 1.05)


Process the soil sample by Cobbs decanting and sieving technique and
collect the suspension in a beaker
Distribute the suspension into the centrifugal tubes equally and add water, if
necessary, to bring the level equally in the tube to 0.5 cm from the top
Centrifuge at 3500 rpm for three minutes
Discard the supernatant solution and retain the soil residue containing

Fill half of the tubes with sugar solution of 1.18 specific gravity, shake well
and fill again with the sugar solution up to 0.5 cm from the top (For
preparation of sugar solution of 1.18 specific gravity, dissolve 484g sugar in
water and make up the volume to one litre and add 10% lactic acid in water to
inhibit the bacterial and mould growth)
Centrifuge at 3500 rpm for one minute
Decant the supernatant suspension from each tube through 350-mesh sieve
Never leave nematodes in sugar solution for longer time and so wash the
residues on the sieves repeatedly to remove the sugar solution
Transfer the residues on the sieve to a beaker for observation

Extraction of cysts
4. Conical flask method

Dry cysts lighter in weight will float in water and adhere to the sides of the
container due to surface tension


Collect the soil sample and shade dry

Transfer a known quantity of soil into a conical flask, add water and shake
Add water up to the rim of the conical flask and leave it for 10 minutes
Cysts will float and get collected in the rim
Place a filter paper over a beaker and pour the suspension into it
Cysts will be retained in the filter paper
Allow the filter paper to dry and examine under microscope

5. Fenwick can method


Dry cysts lighter in weight will float in water and adhere to the sides of the
container due to surface tension

Fill the Fenwick can with water and place the dry sample in the 20 mesh sieve
(Fenwick can is a brass can having a broad inclined base and narrow neck
provided with a 20-mesh sieve over a funnel. Outside the neck of the can, a

collar is attached with 60-mesh sieve to drain water. The can is provided with
a drain plug at the bottom)

Wash the shade dried sample with water into the apparatus
Cysts will pass on to the collar region and get collected in 60-mesh sieve
Allow the water to drain
Wash the contents of the sieve into a white enamel basin
Collect the floating cysts in periphery of the basin

Extraction of nematodes from root samples

To extract nematodes from plant parts for identification and estimation of

1. Direct examination

Wash the infested plant material thoroughly and chop into small pieces

Put this material in a Petri dish containing water

Migratory and endo/semi endoparasitic nematodes that come out of the
chopped material and move into water can be seen directly under microscope
Alternatively the chopped material can be processed by modified Baermanns
funnel technique

2. Root incubation method


The nematodes migrate out of the roots due to suffocation


Wash the roots to remove the adhering soil particles

Place the longitudinally cut wet roots in half of the polythene bag/glass jar
Seal the jar by screwing the lid with a few loose turns (do not tighten) or
secure the polythene bag with rubber band
Incubate at 15C for 72 h

Remove the nematodes, which have migrated out of the roots by flushing the
roots with water for three times
Pass the washed water through 350-mesh sieve and collect the residue into a
beaker with little water

3. Blender technique or Mechanical maceration or Homogenizer or

Disintegrator technique

On maceration of the infested roots, the nematodes get separated from the
root tissues because of mechanical force


Wash the roots with water to remove adhering soil particles

Chop the roots to 0.5-1.0 cm pieces and transfer them to a blender containing
about 100 ml water (up to blade level)
Run the blender for 15 sec (30-60 sec for aged/hard roots)
Pour the resultant mixture into 60-mesh sieve followed by 350-mesh sieve
and wash gently with a stream of water
Discard root residues in 60-mesh sieve and collect the nematode suspension
on 350-mesh sieve in a beaker
Transfer the nematode suspension into modified Baermanns funnel

4. Observation of Endo and Semiendo parasitic nematodes in situ

Wash the roots with water to remove the soil particles

Cut the roots into 1 cm bits

Plunge root bits of 1cm length in a test tube with boiling acid fuchsin
lactophenol and heat it over a flame (to prepare acid fuchsin lactophenol,
dissolve one gram of acid fuchsin stain in 100ml of distilled water and take 5
ml of this solution in 100 ml of lacto phenol)
Drain the excess stain and wash the stained roots with water
Submerge the roots in plain lactophenol in a Petri dish and leave it over night

Ex. No. 15




To differentiate plant parasitic nematodes from free living nematodes

To differentiate males, females and juveniles
To study the important morphological features of plant parasitic nematodes

Examine the given specimens under microscope and identify them with the
following characters.
Saprophyte (free living)

Stylet is present
Slow in movement

Stylet is absent
Comparatively faster in movement

Examine the nematodes under various magnifications of a compound

microscope and stereomicroscope and note the following characters.

Morphology of Order Tylenchida

Lance nematode, Hoplolaimus
Major hosts

: Sugarcane, cotton


: Medium, 1 - 2 mm in length, slightly curved ventrally when relaxed

(open C shaped)


: High, set off, rounded with massive sclerotization having cap like lip


: Massive, 4050 m long, well developed with anteriorly projecting

basal knobs

Oesophagus: Well developed with dorsally overlapping gland lobe


: Vulva - 50-60%; ovaries didelphic, amphidelphic; tail - short,

bluntly rounded


: Tail - short; spicules - well developed, arcuate, bursa extending to

tail tip

Morphology of Order Dorylaimida

Dagger nematode, Xiphinema
Major hosts : Rose, citrus, groundnut

: Typically long (5.5mm in length), slender, without annulation

: Typically long, very slender with typical flanges, guiding ring in the
posterior part of the spear


: With slender anterior tube and wide posterior part (bottle shaped)


: Bluntly rounded with projection on ventral side in both male and



: Vulva - near the middle of the body or near posterior end of

oesophagus when only one ovary is present; ovary mono or
didelphic; Male: spicules prominent, arcuate

Identification of nematodes
A. Stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus
Major hosts

: Tobacco, maize, small grains, potato, sweet potato


: Medium, 0.6 1.4 mm in length, lip region typically continuous

with body


: Usually strong with large basal knobs

Oesophagus : Typical with well developed median bulb, abutting basal glands

: Vulva - near middle of body; ovaries didelphic, amphidelphic; tail

tapering to rounded, 2-3 times the anal body diameter


: Tail - elongate, conical, pointed, spicules slightly curved, bursa

extending to tail tip

B. Spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus

Major hosts : Banana, vegetables.

: 0.5 to 1.2 mm in length, spiral when relaxed


: Conoid to round, sclerotization moderate


: Well developed, long, 3-4 times the lip width with rounded or cup
shaped knobs

Oesophagus: Gland lobe overlapping ventrally


: Vulva - 6070%; ovary - didelphic, amphidelphic, posterior branch

rarely reduced and nonfunctional, usually fully developed; tail short, dorsally round
to nearly pointed convex to conoid or hemispherical with short projection on ventral

: Short; spicules well developed with bursa reaching tail tip

C. Ring nematode, Hemicriconemoides

Major hosts : Perennial fruit trees, vines

: Straight, 0.5 mm long, stout; cuticle with two detached layers,

external layer marked by fewer annules, annules - prominent, but not


: Strong, long with anteriorly directed knobs

Oesophagus : With strong median bulb fused with the procorpus


: Vulva posterior; ovary monodelphic


: Tail - conoid, short; spicule - present, bursa weakly present

D. Ring nematode, Criconemoides

Major hosts

: Perennial fruits, vines


: Length typically short (0.3-0.8 mm), wide with large annules in

female and juveniles; annules of male are much smaller, cuticle
provided with 42-200 prominent, retrose annules


: Typical, medium with anteriorly directed process, males without

forwardly directed knobs

Oesophagus : With a strong median bulb which is fused with the procarpus, glands
forming small posterior bulb; males with degenerated oesophagus

: Vulva - near posterior part of the body; ovary - monodelphic,

extending anteriorly


: Tail pointed; spicules - short, slightly curved, bursa weakly


E. Root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus

Major hosts : Coffee, maize, crossandra, banana


: Small, 0.4-0.8 mm in length, slightly curved ventrally when relaxed

: Low, flattened, strongly sclerotized

Oesophagus: Median bulb well developed, oesophageal gland lobes overlapping


: Vulva posterior (80-85%); ovary monodelphic, prodelphic with

post uterine sac; tail subcylindrical or conoid
: Tail - short, dorsally convex to conoid; spicules - slender, arcuate,
bursa extending to tail tip


F. Rice root nematode, Hirschmanniella

Major host

: Rice (host specific)


: Long, 1.2-3.0 mm in length, straight or ventrally arcuate when



: Strongly developed, typically short with rounded knobs

Oesophagus : Elongated with conspicuous median bulb, lobe overlapping on

ventral side

: Vulva median; ovaries didelphic, amphidelphic; tail elongate,

conoid with terminal mucron
: Tail elongate; spicules - slender, arcuate, bursa not reaching to
tail tip

G. Citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

Major host

: Citrus (host specific)

Immature female
Vermiform, small (<0.5 mm); head - continuous, round, sclerotization weak;
stylet medium with round basal knob; oesophagus strong but median bulb not
well separated from procorpus; vulva very posterior; ovary monodelphic,
anteriorly outstretched; excretory pore slightly anterior to the vulva; tail conical,
no anus or rectum
Mature female
Anterior part slender, irregular with thin cuticle; posterior part swollen with
thick cuticle and projecting tail, vulva and excretory pore very posterior; ovary
monodelphic, anterior, convoluted; no anus or rectum
Vermiform, short and slender; cephalic sclerotization, stylet and oesophagus
reduced; spicule slightly curved, no bursa; tail conical, pointed

Vermiform; tail long, pointed; genital primordium differently shaped in male

and female juveniles

H. Cyst nematode, Heterodera

Important species and major hosts
Sugarbeet cyst nematode
H. schachtii
Cereal cyst nematode H. avenae
Rice cyst nematode H. oryzicola
Pigeonpea cyst nematode
H. cajani
Body : Slender in males (1.02.0mm in length) and juveniles (0.3-0.6mm in length),
typically swollen, lemon or globe shaped in females (0.5-0.8mm in length)

: Short in males with rounded basal knobs, more than 0.02mm long in

Oesophagus: With well developed median bulb and lobe extending back and
overlapping the intestine

: Cuticle thick, whitish first, tanning to brownish black as the cysts

mature; vulva subterminal near anus, vulva and anus located on
terminal cone (vulval cone/cone top) with two translucent areas
(fenestrae) on either side of vulval slit


: Spicules near the posterior end, gubernaculum present, bursa


I. Potato cyst nematode, Globodera

Major host

Potato (host specific)

Similar to Heterodera, but the cyst is globose; vulva and anus are not on a
terminal cone, vulval slit is surrounded by a single, circular fenestra.

J. Rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi


: Slender, 0.6 mm in length, straight or ventrally arcuate when

relaxed, male tail curls ventrally forming shape of a walking stick
: With thickening at the base without knobs

Oesophagus: Prominent median bulb, spherical or rectangular in shape, more or

less occupying the body width, lobe overlapping the intestine dorsally.


: Vulva posterior (60-75%); ovary monodelphic, prodelphic; tail

medium, conoid, with or without mucron


: Tail medium, conoid; spicules - well developed, thorne shaped,

no bursa

Ex. No. 16


A. Caused by above ground feeders

Dead or devitalized buds
Nematodes, which feed on vegetative and reproductive parts, produce this symptom.

Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

Crinkled and distorted stems and foliage

The growing point or leaf infested with nematode is not killed, but continues to grow
and hence the resultant stem or leaf is crinkled, distorted and twisted.

Ditylenchus angustus on paddy

Seed galls

Nematode feeds on flower primordia and completes its life cycle and the infested
flower primordium develops into gall containing large number of nematodes.

Anguina tritici
Necrosis and discolouration

Some nematodes live and feed within the tissues of stem and leaves causing varying
degree of necrosis and discoloration.
Onion and garlic

- Ditylenchus dipsaci

Coconut (red ring) - Bursaphelenchus cocophilus

Leaf lesions
In dicot plants some foliar nematodes penetrate leaf tissue through stomata and feed
on the parenchyma tissues causing leaf lesions.
Chrysanthemum (Leaf lesions)

- Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

Leaf gall
Nematodes that feed on leaves produce galls on the leaves of their host plants.
These are comparable to seed galls and they serve as structures in which the
parasites mature and reproduce.
Solanum elaegnifolium

- Ditylenchus phyllobia

B. Caused by below ground feeders

Nematodes that feed on below ground parts produce symptoms both on below
ground and above ground parts.

Symptoms on above ground parts

Destruction of roots by nematode feeding leads to physiological changes and
nutritional deficiency in plants. Hence, most of the nematode damage symptoms
resemble the symptoms of nutritional disorder.
Yellowing in coffee

Pratylenchus coffeae

Light green foliage in potato

Globodera rostochiensis

Yellow or White tip in rice

Aphelenchoides besseyi

Mottled leaves in orange

Tylenchulus semipenetrans

Stunting/poor growth
Wheat and barley

Heterodera avenae

Globodera rostochiensis

Meloidogyne incognita

Day wilting
Plants infested with the root knot nematodes tend to wilt in hot weather even though
enough moisture is present in the soil. It is called as day wilt.
Broad leaved plants like tobacco and brinjal Meloidogyne incognita
Patchy appearance
Unlike nutrient deficiency, the nematode infested plants can be seen in patches here
and there due to random distribution of nematodes in the field.


Meloidogyne incognita


Globodera rostochiensis

The affected foliar parts will be malformed.

Twisting of leaves and stem in rice

Ditylenchus angustus

Twisting of basal leaves in onion

Ditylenchus dipsaci

Symptoms on below ground parts

Root galls
Formation of galls on the roots is the typical symptom caused by Meloidogyne spp on
various crops. The galls are produced due to the formation of giant cells (syncytia).
The galls may vary in size and shape depending on the initial nematode population,
species of the nematode, crop etc. The primary galls are small but at later stage, due
to reinfestation, larger galls are formed.
Vegetables and banana

- Meloidogyne spp.

Other nematodes also produce smaller galls but without the formation of giant cells.
Oat, rye and wheat

Ditylenchus radicicola


Hemicycliophora arenaria


Xiphinema diversicaudatum


Longidorus sp.

In leguminous plants, galls produced by nematode differ from nodules produced by

bacterium. The differences between nematode gall and bacterial nodule are as
Swelling of root itself
Can not be detached
Colour of the inner content unchanged
Different size and shape

Attached laterally on the side of the root
Can be detached easily
Inner content is pinkish
Uniform size and shape

Reduced root system

Feeding of nematodes on root tip affects the root growth.

Rotylenchulus reniformis

Stubby root
The lateral roots produce excessive rootlets. The resultant root system is
composed of numerous short stubby branches arranged in clusters giving a stubby

Trichodorus sp.
Coarse root

When the lateral roots are completely fed by nematodes, the main roots will
be devoid of any rootlets. This symptom is called as coarse root system.

Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Root proliferation
Nematode attack on young roots stimulates the branching of rootlets near the
region of invasion.

Meloidogyne hapla

Root lesion
Migratory endoparasites, which feed on root cortex or epidermis, produce elongate
brown coloured necrotic lesions due to accumulation and oxidation of phenolic
compounds on the feeding site. These lesions are clearly visible by splitting the
affected roots longitudinally. The lesions lead to the formation of rotting or tunnels
and cavities in the roots.
Rotting of roots in many crops

- Pratylenchus spp.

Cavities on roots in banana and Coconut - Radopholus similis


- Helicotylenchus multicinctus

Fish hook
The root tip will look bent upwards.

Xiphinema sp.

Forking of storage roots

The root -knot nematode damage results in forking of storage roots and causes
malformation thus reduces its market value. E.g. Meloidogyne hapla on carrot.

Malformation of tubers/pods
Root-knot infestation results in malformation of below ground tubers/pods.

M. arenaria


M. incognita

Rotting of fleshy parts

The tubers are injured due to nematode feeding and this injury act as a predisposing
agent for certain micro organisums and results in rotting of tubers. E.g. Ditylenchus
destructor on potato, Scutellonema bradys on yam.















_________________________ (I.D. No. ___________________) of IV Semester

during the academic year _____________________ for the course PAT 202.




Name of the Student :



I.D. No.

Academic Year







Diseases of rice and wheat


Diseases of millets (Sorghum,

maize, pearlmillet and ragi)


Diseases of pulses
(Blackgram, greengram,
pigeonpea and chickpea)


Diseases of oilseeds
(Groundnut, gingelly, castor
and sunflower)


Diseases of cotton and



Diseases of mango, banana,

sapota and guava


Diseases of citrus, grapes,

pomegranate, papaya, apple
and peach


Diseases of tomato, brinjal

and bhendi


Date of

Grade /

Signature of


Diseases of cucurbits,
crucifers, potato, tapioca, and


Diseases of onion, garlic,

coriander, turmeric, ginger,
chillies, betelvine and pepper


Diseases of tea, coffee,

coconut and arecanut


Diseases of flower crops

(rose, jasmine, crossandra
and chrysanthemum)


Field visit


Sampling and Extraction of



Soil and root sampling

Different methods


iii Observation

of Endo
and Semiendo parasitic
nematodes in situ


General morphology of plant

parasitic nematodes

i. Order Tylenchida and


ii. Identification of plant

parasitic nematodes

Symptoms of nematode