This is a lecture note on solid mechanics field on a topic called Fracture. This is the first part of its series on fracture topic taught at University of Melbourne, Australia.

© All Rights Reserved

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This is a lecture note on solid mechanics field on a topic called Fracture. This is the first part of its series on fracture topic taught at University of Melbourne, Australia.

© All Rights Reserved

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MCEN90029

Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16

Fracture

Lecture L16 - 1

Summary

Over the next 7 lectures, we will investigate concepts of

linear elastic fracture mechanics

Fracture mechanics involves the study of stress and strain,

theories of elasticity and plasticity, and relates to the

microscopic crystallographic defects found in real

materials. Fracture mechanics primarily seeks to predict

microscopic mechanical failure

Lecture L16 - 2

Fracture Mechanics

(an introduction)

Fracture mechanics is the study of structural failure by

crack formation

Analytical methods to calculate crack driving force

Experimental methods to characterise material crack

resistance

Study of fracture mechanics leads to improved component

design

Lecture L16 - 3

History

Fracture is a problem that has been around since

the first man-made structures

In 1978, the US economic cost of fracture was

$119 billion

TYPE I: Negligence during design, construction

and operation

TYPE II: Application of a new material, and an

unexpected (unpredictable) result

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 4

Type I failure

The MSV Kurdistan oil tanker, which sustained brittle fracture when

sailing in the North Atlantic (1979).

Combination of warm oil in taker and cold water on outer hull

produced thermal stresses.

Fracture and crack propagation initiated from poorly welded keel

Lecture L16 - 5

Type II failure

Pinch clamping of polyethylene gas pipes have been known to

weaken the pipes, cause rupture, and gas leaking

A small flaw on inner surface propagated through wall

Stresses in pressurised pipe were sufficient to cause time-dependent

crack growth (over 6 years)

Pinch clamp

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 6

The Challenger Space Shuttle disaster, caused by failure of an O-ring

seal in one of the main boosters, did not respond to the extreme

temperature drops

Relatively new technology, where service experience was limited

(Type II)

Engineers suspected issue, delaying launch (Type I)

Lecture L16 - 7

A historical perspective

Designing to avoid fracture is not new.

Pyramids

The Romans bridge design

causes loads to be transmitted as compressive stresses

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 8

Lecture L16 - 9

Leonardo da Vincis experiments (1500 AD): The strength of iron

wires varied inversely with wire length (number of flaws proportional to

wire length?)

Alan Arnold Griffith (1920s) performed stress and fatigue analysis on

an elliptic hole

Flaws were unstable when strain energy change overcame material

surface energy - theories valid for brittle materials (glass)

Irwin (1956) modified Griffiths approach to include plastic flow

Wells (1956) showed that failure occurs when crack sizes reach

critical values

Rice (1968) developed the J-integral for energy release rate

Fracture mechanics is now an established engineering discipline!

Lecture L16 - 10

In traditional approaches (a), a material was assumed to be adequate

if its strength was greater than the expected applied stress

The fracture mechanics approach (b) has 3 variables (flaw size and

fracture toughness replace strength). Fracture mechanics quantifies all

combinations of these variables

(a)

But, there are two additional

approaches

1. The energy criterion

2. The stress-intensity approach

(b)

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 11

Fracture (crack extension) occurs when the energy available for

crack growth is sufficient to overcome the resistance of the material

Energy release rate G is defined as the rate of change in potential

energy with crack area

At fracture, G = Gc, the critical energy release rate (similar to fracture

toughness)

For a crack of length 2a in an infinite plate

subject to a remote tensile stress:

2 a

G=

E

(1)

E: Youngs modulus

: Remotely applied stress

a: Half crack length

At fracture:

2f ac

Gc =

E

Lecture L16 - 12

Below, an element near the tip of a crack is shown in an elastic material

KI = stress intensity factor, assumes crack tip conditions are linear elastic

K I = a

(2)

KIc = critical stress intensity at which failure occurs. Fracture when KI = KIc

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

K I2

G=

E

Lecture L16 - 13

and damage control

Fracture mechanics important in life prediction

Rate of cracking related to stress intensity factor and critical crack size

In metals:

da

m

= C ( K )

dN

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

K = stress-intensity range

C,m = material constants

examination

Critical crack size from applied

stress and fracture toughness

Allowable size (divide critical size

by factor of safety)

Lecture L16 - 14

For low toughness, brittle fracture governs failure mechanism

For high toughness, LEFM not valid (failure governed by plastic flow)

For intermediate toughness, transition between LEFM and ductile

overload

Branches of fracture mechanics

(LEFM)

Linear timeindependent

materials

Non-linear timeindependent

materials

Timedependent

materials

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 15

Fracture occurs when

sufficient work/energy

breaks atomic bonds

Equilibrium (steady state

spacing) occurs when PE

minimum

Bond energy:

Eb =

P dx

x0

$ x '

P = Pc sin& )

%(

x = atomic spacing

x0 = equilibrium spacing

P = applied force

Pc = cohesive force amplitude

= half sine wave length

Lecture L16 - 16

For small displacements,

force/displacement is linear

$ x '

P = Pc & )

%(

Thus, bond stiffness (gradient) is

$'

k = Pc & )

% (

Multiply by equilibrium distance,

x0, and divide by cross sectional

area, A

%(

1

1

= Pc ' * x 0

& )

A

A

%(

E = c' * x0

& )

E E

c =

(1)

x 0

k x 0

Assuming x0 =

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L16 - 17

Surface energy:

& x )

1

s = Pc sin( + dx

'*

2 0

(area under force/displacement

curve)

1

s =

2

' x *

sin

c )( ,+ dx

0

s = c

(2)

1 ' c x 0 *

s = c = c )

( E ,+

c =

E s

x0

(3)

Lecture L16 - 18

What can we discern from this proof?

The theoretical cohesive strength of a material is approximately E/

BUT, experimental fracture strengths are usually 2 or 3 times below these

these values (e.g Leonardo da Vinci). Why?

- flaws in the materials

strength c.

Flaws lower global strength by magnifying local stresses

Lecture L16 - 19

Lecture summary

Today we introduced the concept of fracture

We investigated the atomic basis of fracture

In the next lecture we will discuss the stress

concentration effect of flaws

Lecture L16 - 20

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