Education and Psychology Extension Series

No.
II

^HtH

Universities in Ancient India

D. G.

APTE
J

.

%

?^;

'

'.

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY '4;
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barod^

''.M^^^^^"

)

'Takshasila
History
Takshasila
is

(

i.ooo 6.C, to 500 A.t).

the oldest
It

among

the universities
of

in ancient India.

was well known as a centre

learning as early as during 700 B.C.
activities at this place

few centuties
rates

earlier.

The educational must have started at least a The place derived its name
Gandharvas,
in

from Taksha, a son of Bharata. The Ramayana nar-

how Bharata,

after defeating the
cities

founded the two famous

— Takshaiila

the
for
is

Gandharva Deia
tlie

for

Taksha and Pushkalavata

other son Pushkala in the Gandhara.
serpent-sacrifice * to

This

also the place

where king Janamejaya performed
Until very lately
it

his

famous

avenge the death of

his father tarikshita.
possitile to locate

was not

the place exactly. Pliny has point-

ed out that the place was situated at a distance of
about
fifty-five miles to the east of the river

Sindhu.
iand

Witli the help of the

numerous Stupas, Viharas
exactly located.
city covered

temples as found out by Cunningham, the situation
of the city has
logical findings

now been

Archaeo-

show that the

an area

ol six square miles.

A copper-plate inscription bearis

ing the

name
site.

of Takshalila has also been unearthed

from the

The place

situated twenty miles

to the west of Rawalpindi, somewhere near Shah*

Sarpasatra

dheri at a distance of one mile to the south-east of

Kalaksarai.

Administration
Takshasila came to be
teachers

known

as

a

famous

centre of higher education because several learned

who were

recognised as authorities on variIt

ous subjects resided at the place.
of students

was because
hundreds

of their excellence that they could attract

from distant parts of the sub-continent,

in spite of the long

and dangerous journey which
There was nothing by way work done by teachers nor
like the
activities.

they had to undergo.
of co-ordination of the

was there any external authority
the local leaders to direct their

king or

Each

teacher was an institution in himself and enjoyed

complete autonomy in his work. His authority was
final in fixing

up the duration

of

the

course,

in

directing the courses of studies, in selecting or reject-

ing students and in laying the day-to-day work.

down rules for guiding As each teacher was an

authority on the subject of his specialisation, there

was

little

scope for any conflict of interests or com-

petition

among them.

The knowledge
in

of all these

teachers put together represented everything that

was worth knowing
achievement

those days.

The

studies

terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the
of his student

and there was no

rigid

regulation of any sort to regiment the duration of the

10
course.

Normally specialisation
in

in various subjects

of study took eight years, but the period could

be
of

reduced or lengthened

accordance with the iatel-

lectual capacity of the students

and the amount

energy and application shown by them.

There were

also some cases where teachers advised students to

leave their studies, because they could not
selves in the social, intellectual or

fit

them-

moral atmosphere
of studies

of their schools,

which were invariably located in the

teachers' private houses.

The completion

was not marred by any formal examination nor was there any convocation for conferring degrees.
Examinations were treated as superfluous, because
the procedure of teaching subjects was critical and

thorough and unless one unit was very thoroughly
mastered by the student, he was not allowed to
proceed to the succeeding portions.

who completed

their

written certificates or
lieved that knowledge
it

The students studies did not receive any diplomas because it was beits

was

own reward and

using

for earning

bread or for achieving any

selfish

end

was a

sacrilege.

Only higher education was imparted

As has already been pointed out

before, only

higher courses were taught in these institutions.

These institutions therefore took students to the end of the knowledge of some particular subjects^
taking
it

up from the secondary stage which the

ir
student had already finished elsewhere before joining these institutions.

The process

of

education

which began at home with primary education and widened
in extent in the education in the to

A'ramas

which imparted what corresponded
education reached
its

secondary
level.

culmination in these places
in ancient India,

which imparted education at the university
According to the system prevalent

primary education was imparted to children upto
the age of eight and secondary education covered

from eight to twelve years more.

So the students

who came

to learn in ancient Indian universities

were approximately sixteen to twenty years of age.
Taksha§ila was so well

known

for its teachers that
this place in search

hundreds of students went to
of their

of knowledge, leaving aside the comforts

and safety

home.

Their parents' sacrifice in sending

them to this place was indeed great, particularly when one takes into consideration the risk involved in long journeys in those days when travel was slow, dangerous and uncertain. Numerous references
show that students
city

in hundreds used to flock to this
like Banaras,

from distant places
in

Rajagrha,
the

Mithila, Ujjain, Koiala,

Madhya Desa and from
Takshasila

Kuru Kingdoms

the north.

was

thus the intellectual capital of India, a central
university that exercised suzerainty over the world
of letters in India.
All the other centres of learning
in di^erent parts of the country

were

affiliated'

to

it.

12

Courses taught
There was a wide variety of courses offered at
Taksliasila,

both

in literary

and

scientific or tech-

nical subjects.

The terms used
yedas studied
but

to denote these

two

types of courses were the Vedas and the Silpas.

The number
the fourth

of

in this university is

mentioned as

three,

it is difficult

to explain

why

should have been dropped from the

Veda and most probably the Atharvaveda list. It was
less secular in

so perhaps because the content of the Atharvaveda

was more or

nature and the topics
impossible to

treated" therein were also included in the various

other branches of study.

In fact

it is

drop the Atharvaveda, because the minister for
religious affairs

— the

Purohita

— according to Manu
The them

Smrti had to be an expert in Atharvaveda.

study of the Vedas probably meant learning by heart for that was the most important service the Brahmanas rendered to the preservation and
propagation of the Hindu culture.
It is

very likely

that the study of the Vedas also included the interpretation and exposition of the content of these

sacred books.

A number
this

of

books had already
the com-

been written by

time to facilitate

prehension of the content of the Veda and as the

author of Nirukta, a treatise on Vedic etymology
says a

man who knew

merely the chanting of the
its

Veda but did not know

meaning

was

like

T3
a
pillar

merely carrying the burden and

that

,

all',

prosperity attended upon those \vho
ing.

knew the mean-

Probably the term Veda also included the
its six

study of

auxiliary sciences, the Science of

correct pronunciation, Aphoristic literature guiding

the performance of various

rites

and

sacrifices,

Grammar, Astronomy, Prosody and Etymology. The study of these auxiliary sciences had necessarily
to precede the comprehension of the mcaningof the

Vedas.

There

is

no precise mention

of.

what the eighteen
and
liter-

Silpas were, indicating a craft or vocation based on
practical skill as contrasted with religious

ary subjects.
cular law,
(

According to one source, the Silpas
:

or crafts were as follows

Holy tradition and
(

se-

Sankhya, Nyaya
),

Logic

),

Vaiseshika

Atomic theory of creation

Arithmetic, Music,
(

Medicine, four Vedas, Puranas

Antiquities

),

Iti-

hasas

(

History), Military Art, Poetry and Convey-

ancing.

But

this list includes the

Vedasand many
study of various

other subjects which cannot be termed aa crafts and

seems to be very loosely given.
references

A

taught in this university

shows that the following crafts were Conveyancing or Law,
:

Mathematics, Accountancy, Agriculture, Commercej Cattle breeding, Smithy, Carpentry, Medicine arid
Surgery, Archery and allied Military
norriy, Astrology., Diviiiation, Ma^ic,
arts.

Astro?
cl^afti^r

Snake

14
ing,

Art of finding hidden treasures, Music, Dancing
It
is

'

and Painting.

obvious

that

the

number

eighteen need not be taken too literally.

These courses must have remained unchanged
throughout the period of existence of the university.

There were certainly some additions made to the
list

of subjects taught

whenever a need was
its

felt for

the same as a result of religious, political and social

changes which came during
fifteen

existence of about

hundred years.

The place was conquered

by the Persians
of

in the sixth century B. C. as a result

which the Brah mi script that was in vogue was replaced by the Kharoshtri script. In the second
century B. C.
trians,
it

was conquered by the Indo-Bacthe inheritors of the Greek culture.

who were

This must have brought about some additions to the courses taught at the university. It is difficult
to decide
finitely

what these subjects were, but it has debeen ascertained that the Greek language began to be taught and that even among neighbouring places, the Greek language could be understood

by a number of people. The teachers* at the place had no objection to collecting knowledge from whatsoever source it was available and they were sufficiently

broad-minded

to

honour even foreign savants

The place was overrun by the Sythians in the first century B. C. and by the Kusans in the first century A. D. Both these had no culture
like Rshis.

t5

and

civilization

worth the name and the curficulum

in the university

Was

little

affected as a result of

their invasions.

In the

fifth

century A. D., the

Huns

also overran the part of the country
It
is

where

the University was situated.

not possible to

ascertain the extent to which the curriculutti

was

by their invasion, because the met with its ruin in the same century.
affected

university

One

other influence which was mainly religious

in nature

must
in

also

have affected the curriculum at

Takshasila. It was the influence of

Buddhism which

was born
B.C.

about the middle of the sixth century

The place of the birth and development of Buddhism was, however, far removed from Takshasila,

which continued to be the stronghold of Vedic

learning.

But

as the

number

of students

coming

from the Eastern parts
siderable,

of the country

was very conIt
is

the prin<:ipal tenets of
in
thte

Buddhism must
also

have found place

curriculum.

probable that the study Of Buddhist tenets must

have received more
in

critical attention, particularly

Mahayana Buddhism The object in including Buddhism as a subject must obviously have been not to support the spread of Buddhism
after the birth of the assertive

about the second century A. D.

bt to justify

its tenets,

but Chiefly to enable the

scholars studying at the place to disprove effectively

Buddhist teaching.

i6
In sciences, arts and crafts, both the theory and
practice of the different subjects

had

to be studied.

Usually every theoretical discussion followed a practical

performance leading to a more
of the student.

skilful

attempt

But actual practice of every art reveals certain important principles and as such these had to be postponed and the student had to be left to his own capacities and resourceon the part
fulness to find out these.

In special sciences like

medicine where incompleteness of knowledge could
result in a disaster, special care
it

was taken to see to

that the student had become a thorough master

of the science.

Finance
All the necessary financial assistance

was supall

plied

by

the society to teachers

who

as a general

rule provided free boarding

and lodging to

the

students.

No

student was required to pay any fees
basis.

on a compulsory
in

The non-payment
In

of fees

never resulted in expulsion from the institution nor

any

differential treatment.

fact, stipulation

that fees should be paid was vehemently condemned.

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money and Hindu scriptures contain specific
injunctions
students.

against

those

A

salaried

who charge money to teacher, i. e., a teacher who
is

charges fees on a compulsory basis

to be treated,
unfit
for

according to the scripture of Manu, as

17

company

at

the table.

There were, however, no

financial difficulties that affected the

smooth work-

ing of institutions for higher learning, because every-

thing that was necessary became easily available.

The

spiritual

standing,

renunciation

and

deep
rich

knowledge of

the

teachers inspired

many

persons to give voluntary help in various ways to
these institutions.

Some

well-to-do

parents also

gave generous monetary help.
either at the beginning or at the
of their children.

This was given

end

of the studies

Those who had no convenience

could without any restraint, conduct their studies
as long as they liked
privileges

and enjoyed the same

rights,

and duties as those who were monetarily

better placed.

A

completely democratic

spirit

thus

reigned in these sacred places.

The number

of stu-

dents studying with every guru was large enough
to be counted in hundreds, yet all

monetary conof the teachers,

veniences were'supplied in various ways by people

who
of

appreciated the

selfless

work

for balanced

development

in

morals and attainment
of the country.

knowledge of the capable youths

Kings also helped the cause by direct and indirect

monetary help without exercising any control over The teacher's authority was these institutions. It is true that every complete and absolute. student at the termination of his studies paid something to his teacher by way of Dakshina, but the sum thus paid was never sufficient to qoyer the

i8
expenses of his education.

Many

times

it

was only a

turban, a pair of sandals, an umbrella or an upper

The dominating idea was that every qualified student had a right to free education and that it was unholy to associate knowledge with any monetary gift as the price of knowledge and conveniences received. The Dakshina offered was
garment.
simply an indication of the recognition of the deep
debt of gratitude that the student owed to the guru.

The community
often used to

also

was conscious

of its

duty

to the cause of education.

Moneyed people very make arrangements for the food of
throughout^ their courses of educa-

the students
tion.

all

Sometimes kings of various places sent students

to the university for education

and made

all

the

necessary arrangements for boarding and lodging
for

them

at State expense.

As the teacher was not
it

a money-monger, even poor families considered

their duty to maintain students studying under him

by

regularly offering

him some part

of their cooked

food.

There were certain occasions when money
to the

was offered
of learning

and knowledge

Brahmanas who were custodians for enabling them to conPoor students
after

tinue their charitable work.
finishing their education

approached kings for get-

ting

money

for the

Dakshina to be offered to the
in this respect is

guru and their requests were always granted by
kings.

One well-known example

19
that of King

Raghu

of

Ayodhya who,
to

in spite of hiS

having
crores

renounced
of

everything,
coins

supplied fourteen
disciple

golden

Varatantu's
for

Kautsa,

who had approached him

money.
for

Failure to help a student in need of

money

paying the teacher's honorarium was regarded aa
the greatest slur on a king's reputation.
teachers were offered ample money.

On

the

occasion of the performance of various sacrifices, the

They were

also

given exemption from payment of taxes.

All these

means

facilitated the

work

of giving free education,

lodging and boarding to every student
learn in this university.

who came

to

Admission
Admission was
Chandalas
left
(

free

to all castes
).

except the
restric-

the fifth caste

There was no

tion about the choice of subjects which

was

entirely

the pupil learnt at the university was based on the dictum " Knowledge
to students.
for knowledge's sake".

What

The accomplishment had
was a problem
find a complete
in ancient

not to be used as an instrument for earning one's
livelihood which never
India.

democracy The different classes and castes merged in the democracy of learning. The democracy was strengthened by the existence of a common code of rules and observances prescribed
This
is

how we

reigning in this university.

for students irrespective of their social or

economic

26
status.

The students could be admitted freely to any course provided they had the necessary background. Although we have no record of instances
where incompetent students were asked to return
without admission, the very fame of the teachers of
Takshasila

must have forced the aspirants

for

admission to

make

ar

very serious scrutiny of their
the

own

capacity to comprehend

high

level

of

knowledge imparted at the place.

Admission never
the requi-

became a problem
site qualifications,

for

those

who had

namely, freedom from jealousy,

straightforwardness and self-control. In fact, teachers

were thirsting for pupils and offering prayers for

receiving such pupils.
lated stands thus, "

One such prayer when
months pass

trans-

O

Creator, just as water flows
incessantly,

to the lower level, just as
so

may Brahmacharins (young
students
that

pupils)

come

to

me.

Some famous
It in
is

unfortunate

we

are

completely

the dark

about the names of the renowned

who adorned the hallowed precincts of Even the Jatakas which have supplied Takshasila.
teachers
to us most of the information regarding this university are conipletely silent

on

this point.

Traditions
of

rnention that Panini, the greatest grammarian

the Sanskrit language, was a student of this uniyersity
;

so also

was Chanakya,

(

known

also

as

21
Kautilya) the minister of Chandra Gupta Mourya,

who reduced
ashes.

the

Nanda dynasty

of

Magadha
is

to

jTvaka, the famous physician,

also de-

scribed as a student of this university.

He was an
'

expert in medicine and had studied under a

world-

renowned physician
It is said that

'

for a period of seven years.

Jivaka cured Emperor Bimbisara of

his fistula and, as a result,

was appointed a physi-

cian to the King and to the Buddhist saiiigha.
is

He

also said to

have cured King Pradyota

of Ujjayini
for his sur-

of jaundice.

He was very

well

known

gical operations.

In the case of one rich merchant

who was

suffering

from a head disease,

it

has been

pointed out that he tied him fast to his bed, cut

through the skin of the head, drew apart the

flesh

on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out of the wound, then closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head and anointed it
with salve.

He

is

also said to

have successfully

cured cases of twisted intestines.

The end
It has already

been pointed out before that

the Kusans conquered that part of the country in the first century A. D. and ruled over it upto about

250 A. D. As these people were little cultured, those times must have been most unfavourable for the
propagation of education.
followed by that of the

The

little

Kusans was They also yuch-chis.
rule of

22
were foreign to any kind of culture and learning. The
final

blow was struck by the Hunas

in the

middle

of the 5th century. A.D.
this

when

the dying embers of

proud seat

of learning got completely exting-

uished.

Related Interests

.

%

?^;

'

'.

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY '4;
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barod^

''.M^^^^^"

)

'Takshasila
History
Takshasila
is

(

i.ooo 6.C, to 500 A.t).

the oldest
It

among

the universities
of

in ancient India.

was well known as a centre

learning as early as during 700 B.C.
activities at this place

few centuties
rates

earlier.

The educational must have started at least a The place derived its name
Gandharvas,
in

from Taksha, a son of Bharata. The Ramayana nar-

how Bharata,

after defeating the
cities

founded the two famous

— Takshaiila

the
for
is

Gandharva Deia
tlie

for

Taksha and Pushkalavata

other son Pushkala in the Gandhara.
serpent-sacrifice * to

This

also the place

where king Janamejaya performed
Until very lately
it

his

famous

avenge the death of

his father tarikshita.
possitile to locate

was not

the place exactly. Pliny has point-

ed out that the place was situated at a distance of
about
fifty-five miles to the east of the river

Sindhu.
iand

Witli the help of the

numerous Stupas, Viharas
exactly located.
city covered

temples as found out by Cunningham, the situation
of the city has
logical findings

now been

Archaeo-

show that the

an area

ol six square miles.

A copper-plate inscription bearis

ing the

name
site.

of Takshalila has also been unearthed

from the

The place

situated twenty miles

to the west of Rawalpindi, somewhere near Shah*

Sarpasatra

dheri at a distance of one mile to the south-east of

Kalaksarai.

Administration
Takshasila came to be
teachers

known

as

a

famous

centre of higher education because several learned

who were

recognised as authorities on variIt

ous subjects resided at the place.
of students

was because
hundreds

of their excellence that they could attract

from distant parts of the sub-continent,

in spite of the long

and dangerous journey which
There was nothing by way work done by teachers nor
like the
activities.

they had to undergo.
of co-ordination of the

was there any external authority
the local leaders to direct their

king or

Each

teacher was an institution in himself and enjoyed

complete autonomy in his work. His authority was
final in fixing

up the duration

of

the

course,

in

directing the courses of studies, in selecting or reject-

ing students and in laying the day-to-day work.

down rules for guiding As each teacher was an

authority on the subject of his specialisation, there

was

little

scope for any conflict of interests or com-

petition

among them.

The knowledge
in

of all these

teachers put together represented everything that

was worth knowing
achievement

those days.

The

studies

terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the
of his student

and there was no

rigid

regulation of any sort to regiment the duration of the

10
course.

Normally specialisation
in

in various subjects

of study took eight years, but the period could

be
of

reduced or lengthened

accordance with the iatel-

lectual capacity of the students

and the amount

energy and application shown by them.

There were

also some cases where teachers advised students to

leave their studies, because they could not
selves in the social, intellectual or

fit

them-

moral atmosphere
of studies

of their schools,

which were invariably located in the

teachers' private houses.

The completion

was not marred by any formal examination nor was there any convocation for conferring degrees.
Examinations were treated as superfluous, because
the procedure of teaching subjects was critical and

thorough and unless one unit was very thoroughly
mastered by the student, he was not allowed to
proceed to the succeeding portions.

who completed

their

written certificates or
lieved that knowledge
it

The students studies did not receive any diplomas because it was beits

was

own reward and

using

for earning

bread or for achieving any

selfish

end

was a

sacrilege.

Only higher education was imparted

As has already been pointed out

before, only

higher courses were taught in these institutions.

These institutions therefore took students to the end of the knowledge of some particular subjects^
taking
it

up from the secondary stage which the

ir
student had already finished elsewhere before joining these institutions.

The process

of

education

which began at home with primary education and widened
in extent in the education in the to

A'ramas

which imparted what corresponded
education reached
its

secondary
level.

culmination in these places
in ancient India,

which imparted education at the university
According to the system prevalent

primary education was imparted to children upto
the age of eight and secondary education covered

from eight to twelve years more.

So the students

who came

to learn in ancient Indian universities

were approximately sixteen to twenty years of age.
Taksha§ila was so well

known

for its teachers that
this place in search

hundreds of students went to
of their

of knowledge, leaving aside the comforts

and safety

home.

Their parents' sacrifice in sending

them to this place was indeed great, particularly when one takes into consideration the risk involved in long journeys in those days when travel was slow, dangerous and uncertain. Numerous references
show that students
city

in hundreds used to flock to this
like Banaras,

from distant places
in

Rajagrha,
the

Mithila, Ujjain, Koiala,

Madhya Desa and from
Takshasila

Kuru Kingdoms

the north.

was

thus the intellectual capital of India, a central
university that exercised suzerainty over the world
of letters in India.
All the other centres of learning
in di^erent parts of the country

were

affiliated'

to

it.

12

Courses taught
There was a wide variety of courses offered at
Taksliasila,

both

in literary

and

scientific or tech-

nical subjects.

The terms used
yedas studied
but

to denote these

two

types of courses were the Vedas and the Silpas.

The number
the fourth

of

in this university is

mentioned as

three,

it is difficult

to explain

why

should have been dropped from the

Veda and most probably the Atharvaveda list. It was
less secular in

so perhaps because the content of the Atharvaveda

was more or

nature and the topics
impossible to

treated" therein were also included in the various

other branches of study.

In fact

it is

drop the Atharvaveda, because the minister for
religious affairs

— the

Purohita

— according to Manu
The them

Smrti had to be an expert in Atharvaveda.

study of the Vedas probably meant learning by heart for that was the most important service the Brahmanas rendered to the preservation and
propagation of the Hindu culture.
It is

very likely

that the study of the Vedas also included the interpretation and exposition of the content of these

sacred books.

A number
this

of

books had already
the com-

been written by

time to facilitate

prehension of the content of the Veda and as the

author of Nirukta, a treatise on Vedic etymology
says a

man who knew

merely the chanting of the
its

Veda but did not know

meaning

was

like

T3
a
pillar

merely carrying the burden and

that

,

all',

prosperity attended upon those \vho
ing.

knew the mean-

Probably the term Veda also included the
its six

study of

auxiliary sciences, the Science of

correct pronunciation, Aphoristic literature guiding

the performance of various

rites

and

sacrifices,

Grammar, Astronomy, Prosody and Etymology. The study of these auxiliary sciences had necessarily
to precede the comprehension of the mcaningof the

Vedas.

There

is

no precise mention

of.

what the eighteen
and
liter-

Silpas were, indicating a craft or vocation based on
practical skill as contrasted with religious

ary subjects.
cular law,
(

According to one source, the Silpas
:

or crafts were as follows

Holy tradition and
(

se-

Sankhya, Nyaya
),

Logic

),

Vaiseshika

Atomic theory of creation

Arithmetic, Music,
(

Medicine, four Vedas, Puranas

Antiquities

),

Iti-

hasas

(

History), Military Art, Poetry and Convey-

ancing.

But

this list includes the

Vedasand many
study of various

other subjects which cannot be termed aa crafts and

seems to be very loosely given.
references

A

taught in this university

shows that the following crafts were Conveyancing or Law,
:

Mathematics, Accountancy, Agriculture, Commercej Cattle breeding, Smithy, Carpentry, Medicine arid
Surgery, Archery and allied Military
norriy, Astrology., Diviiiation, Ma^ic,
arts.

Astro?
cl^afti^r

Snake

14
ing,

Art of finding hidden treasures, Music, Dancing
It
is

'

and Painting.

obvious

that

the

number

eighteen need not be taken too literally.

These courses must have remained unchanged
throughout the period of existence of the university.

There were certainly some additions made to the
list

of subjects taught

whenever a need was
its

felt for

the same as a result of religious, political and social

changes which came during
fifteen

existence of about

hundred years.

The place was conquered

by the Persians
of

in the sixth century B. C. as a result

which the Brah mi script that was in vogue was replaced by the Kharoshtri script. In the second
century B. C.
trians,
it

was conquered by the Indo-Bacthe inheritors of the Greek culture.

who were

This must have brought about some additions to the courses taught at the university. It is difficult
to decide
finitely

what these subjects were, but it has debeen ascertained that the Greek language began to be taught and that even among neighbouring places, the Greek language could be understood

by a number of people. The teachers* at the place had no objection to collecting knowledge from whatsoever source it was available and they were sufficiently

broad-minded

to

honour even foreign savants

The place was overrun by the Sythians in the first century B. C. and by the Kusans in the first century A. D. Both these had no culture
like Rshis.

t5

and

civilization

worth the name and the curficulum

in the university

Was

little

affected as a result of

their invasions.

In the

fifth

century A. D., the

Huns

also overran the part of the country
It
is

where

the University was situated.

not possible to

ascertain the extent to which the curriculutti

was

by their invasion, because the met with its ruin in the same century.
affected

university

One

other influence which was mainly religious

in nature

must
in

also

have affected the curriculum at

Takshasila. It was the influence of

Buddhism which

was born
B.C.

about the middle of the sixth century

The place of the birth and development of Buddhism was, however, far removed from Takshasila,

which continued to be the stronghold of Vedic

learning.

But

as the

number

of students

coming

from the Eastern parts
siderable,

of the country

was very conIt
is

the prin<:ipal tenets of
in
thte

Buddhism must
also

have found place

curriculum.

probable that the study Of Buddhist tenets must

have received more
in

critical attention, particularly

Mahayana Buddhism The object in including Buddhism as a subject must obviously have been not to support the spread of Buddhism
after the birth of the assertive

about the second century A. D.

bt to justify

its tenets,

but Chiefly to enable the

scholars studying at the place to disprove effectively

Buddhist teaching.

i6
In sciences, arts and crafts, both the theory and
practice of the different subjects

had

to be studied.

Usually every theoretical discussion followed a practical

performance leading to a more
of the student.

skilful

attempt

But actual practice of every art reveals certain important principles and as such these had to be postponed and the student had to be left to his own capacities and resourceon the part
fulness to find out these.

In special sciences like

medicine where incompleteness of knowledge could
result in a disaster, special care
it

was taken to see to

that the student had become a thorough master

of the science.

Finance
All the necessary financial assistance

was supall

plied

by

the society to teachers

who

as a general

rule provided free boarding

and lodging to

the

students.

No

student was required to pay any fees
basis.

on a compulsory
in

The non-payment
In

of fees

never resulted in expulsion from the institution nor

any

differential treatment.

fact, stipulation

that fees should be paid was vehemently condemned.

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money and Hindu scriptures contain specific
injunctions
students.

against

those

A

salaried

who charge money to teacher, i. e., a teacher who
is

charges fees on a compulsory basis

to be treated,
unfit
for

according to the scripture of Manu, as

17

company

at

the table.

There were, however, no

financial difficulties that affected the

smooth work-

ing of institutions for higher learning, because every-

thing that was necessary became easily available.

The

spiritual

standing,

renunciation

and

deep
rich

knowledge of

the

teachers inspired

many

persons to give voluntary help in various ways to
these institutions.

Some

well-to-do

parents also

gave generous monetary help.
either at the beginning or at the
of their children.

This was given

end

of the studies

Those who had no convenience

could without any restraint, conduct their studies
as long as they liked
privileges

and enjoyed the same

rights,

and duties as those who were monetarily

better placed.

A

completely democratic

spirit

thus

reigned in these sacred places.

The number

of stu-

dents studying with every guru was large enough
to be counted in hundreds, yet all

monetary conof the teachers,

veniences were'supplied in various ways by people

who
of

appreciated the

selfless

work

for balanced

development

in

morals and attainment
of the country.

knowledge of the capable youths

Kings also helped the cause by direct and indirect

monetary help without exercising any control over The teacher's authority was these institutions. It is true that every complete and absolute. student at the termination of his studies paid something to his teacher by way of Dakshina, but the sum thus paid was never sufficient to qoyer the

i8
expenses of his education.

Many

times

it

was only a

turban, a pair of sandals, an umbrella or an upper

The dominating idea was that every qualified student had a right to free education and that it was unholy to associate knowledge with any monetary gift as the price of knowledge and conveniences received. The Dakshina offered was
garment.
simply an indication of the recognition of the deep
debt of gratitude that the student owed to the guru.

The community
often used to

also

was conscious

of its

duty

to the cause of education.

Moneyed people very make arrangements for the food of
throughout^ their courses of educa-

the students
tion.

all

Sometimes kings of various places sent students

to the university for education

and made

all

the

necessary arrangements for boarding and lodging
for

them

at State expense.

As the teacher was not
it

a money-monger, even poor families considered

their duty to maintain students studying under him

by

regularly offering

him some part

of their cooked

food.

There were certain occasions when money
to the

was offered
of learning

and knowledge

Brahmanas who were custodians for enabling them to conPoor students
after

tinue their charitable work.
finishing their education

approached kings for get-

ting

money

for the

Dakshina to be offered to the
in this respect is

guru and their requests were always granted by
kings.

One well-known example

19
that of King

Raghu

of

Ayodhya who,
to

in spite of hiS

having
crores

renounced
of

everything,
coins

supplied fourteen
disciple

golden

Varatantu's
for

Kautsa,

who had approached him

money.
for

Failure to help a student in need of

money

paying the teacher's honorarium was regarded aa
the greatest slur on a king's reputation.
teachers were offered ample money.

On

the

occasion of the performance of various sacrifices, the

They were

also

given exemption from payment of taxes.

All these

means

facilitated the

work

of giving free education,

lodging and boarding to every student
learn in this university.

who came

to

Admission
Admission was
Chandalas
left
(

free

to all castes
).

except the
restric-

the fifth caste

There was no

tion about the choice of subjects which

was

entirely

the pupil learnt at the university was based on the dictum " Knowledge
to students.
for knowledge's sake".

What

The accomplishment had
was a problem
find a complete
in ancient

not to be used as an instrument for earning one's
livelihood which never
India.

democracy The different classes and castes merged in the democracy of learning. The democracy was strengthened by the existence of a common code of rules and observances prescribed
This
is

how we

reigning in this university.

for students irrespective of their social or

economic

26
status.

The students could be admitted freely to any course provided they had the necessary background. Although we have no record of instances
where incompetent students were asked to return
without admission, the very fame of the teachers of
Takshasila

must have forced the aspirants

for

admission to

make

ar

very serious scrutiny of their
the

own

capacity to comprehend

high

level

of

knowledge imparted at the place.

Admission never
the requi-

became a problem
site qualifications,

for

those

who had

namely, freedom from jealousy,

straightforwardness and self-control. In fact, teachers

were thirsting for pupils and offering prayers for

receiving such pupils.
lated stands thus, "

One such prayer when
months pass

trans-

O

Creator, just as water flows
incessantly,

to the lower level, just as
so

may Brahmacharins (young
students
that

pupils)

come

to

me.

Some famous
It in
is

unfortunate

we

are

completely

the dark

about the names of the renowned

who adorned the hallowed precincts of Even the Jatakas which have supplied Takshasila.
teachers
to us most of the information regarding this university are conipletely silent

on

this point.

Traditions
of

rnention that Panini, the greatest grammarian

the Sanskrit language, was a student of this uniyersity
;

so also

was Chanakya,

(

known

also

as

21
Kautilya) the minister of Chandra Gupta Mourya,

who reduced
ashes.

the

Nanda dynasty

of

Magadha
is

to

jTvaka, the famous physician,

also de-

scribed as a student of this university.

He was an
'

expert in medicine and had studied under a

world-

renowned physician
It is said that

'

for a period of seven years.

Jivaka cured Emperor Bimbisara of

his fistula and, as a result,

was appointed a physi-

cian to the King and to the Buddhist saiiigha.
is

He

also said to

have cured King Pradyota

of Ujjayini
for his sur-

of jaundice.

He was very

well

known

gical operations.

In the case of one rich merchant

who was

suffering

from a head disease,

it

has been

pointed out that he tied him fast to his bed, cut

through the skin of the head, drew apart the

flesh

on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out of the wound, then closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head and anointed it
with salve.

He

is

also said to

have successfully

cured cases of twisted intestines.

The end
It has already

been pointed out before that

the Kusans conquered that part of the country in the first century A. D. and ruled over it upto about

250 A. D. As these people were little cultured, those times must have been most unfavourable for the
propagation of education.
followed by that of the

The

little

Kusans was They also yuch-chis.
rule of

22
were foreign to any kind of culture and learning. The
final

blow was struck by the Hunas

in the

middle

of the 5th century. A.D.
this

when

the dying embers of

proud seat

of learning got completely exting-

uished.

","doc_promotions_enabled":false,"static_promo_banner_cta_url":""},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/29235449","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=29235449&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"ids":[24473620,305220956,100068695,123302529,79761102,22756778,353458282,95002162,251440707,6719554,271820295,278960385,63796776,22378083,85613940,201646082,258774565,232569310,224693198,229322567,138951779,343513346,78389527,103518516,221122362,27086084,234400285,34003912,382254498,288913869,244157917,212863738,253264900,263504218,282766939,239488191,163646054,224419023,224369806,224355300,238704340,225916486,224258670,293461549,224410295,182553141,211302755,202691564,239588474,224426877,224326250,224349281,234028503,224306619,337536061,249309502,254039238,182565115,273582508,273440534,182546874,249308781,224270540,163580087,235411767,224252178,224285255,235583696,250006950,224248577,231689346,246897514,163579056,182560283,224248520,163564256,249308236,182522032,216442529,224266633,163647832,163603389,249309690],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"KbOjMNnlwCRUi0U8kWI8IiELaio=","module_id":"nAncK73s4LDB0CfqhPEwWY2qavw=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"ids":[24473620,305220956,100068695,123302529,79761102,22756778,353458282,95002162,251440707,6719554,271820295,278960385,63796776,22378083,85613940,201646082,258774565,232569310,224693198,229322567,138951779,343513346,78389527,103518516,221122362,27086084,234400285,34003912,382254498,288913869],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To Apte-Takshashila","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"KbOjMNnlwCRUi0U8kWI8IiELaio=","module_id":"DxIQvt63X2gkT4ETYybXV8CsgrM=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]},"documents":{"6719554":{"type":"document","id":6719554,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/6719554/108x144/f50d9ffa91/1395169341?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/6719554/216x288/0b7e93ea1f/1395169341?v=1","title":"Hindu 10 Questions","short_title":"Hindu 10 Questions","author":"api-3734576","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":6719554,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Pm/+mRiyUhhozuYyh2eYh3A6wuE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/6719554/Hindu-10-Questions"},"22378083":{"type":"document","id":22378083,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/22378083/108x144/5d0a1ad001/1286444660?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/22378083/216x288/d87668df4f/1286444660?v=1","title":"10 Hindu Questions","short_title":"10 Hindu Questions","author":"rahulborntobewild","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":22378083,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8E0sw6L9/Q7mZ0bTv58rRKjvOQE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/22378083/10-Hindu-Questions"},"22756778":{"type":"document","id":22756778,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/22756778/108x144/6da5644335/1375129597?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/22756778/216x288/a0e0d4626b/1375129597?v=1","title":"Hindu Questions","short_title":"Hindu Questions","author":"yegengovender","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":22756778,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"m6tVkLUVodk4kTkNVjKQHBh75Hs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/22756778/Hindu-Questions"},"24473620":{"type":"document","id":24473620,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/24473620/108x144/d980696144/1320179582?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/24473620/216x288/640cb6721e/1320179582?v=1","title":"Hindu Questions","short_title":"Hindu Questions","author":"mgramalingam","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":24473620,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"CoCGFMrH16YlZtpybXX5eOdTSlA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/24473620/Hindu-Questions"},"27086084":{"type":"document","id":27086084,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/27086084/108x144/446e1b9c0e/1426225082?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/27086084/216x288/9b6c72b541/1426225082?v=1","title":"Navaneetham Feb 2010","short_title":"Navaneetham Feb 2010","author":"guruvayur","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":27086084,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QZACebdRVW9s5AkT7hepBcGGF/w="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/27086084/Navaneetham-Feb-2010"},"34003912":{"type":"document","id":34003912,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/34003912/108x144/4079c95d47/1283652359?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/34003912/216x288/16bcf1137c/1283652359?v=1","title":"Wisdom Blog - Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Art of Living","short_title":"Wisdom Blog - Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Art of Living","author":"Shrikrishna Potdar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":34003912,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PixhEM1RIvOCwzQ93HGUOarcJR0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/34003912/Wisdom-Blog-Sri-Sri-Ravi-Shankar-Art-of-Living"},"63796776":{"type":"document","id":63796776,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/63796776/108x144/3ce3b0d20e/1376988940?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/63796776/216x288/a55af0ccb9/1376988940?v=1","title":"What Can INDIA Teach Part 1","short_title":"What Can INDIA Teach Part 1","author":"Satyendra Nath Dwivedi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":63796776,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"E2wKHN5FP4tfsl0Y4XYbZAgR/Hc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/63796776/What-Can-INDIA-Teach-Part-1"},"78389527":{"type":"document","id":78389527,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/78389527/108x144/be6579a3b6/1437408536?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/78389527/216x288/751c8a0571/1437408536?v=1","title":"Upanishads 002","short_title":"Upanishads 002","author":"natzucow","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":78389527,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hF+WKdOvNdXs18e0z8Az5RNAT+M="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/78389527/Upanishads-002"},"79761102":{"type":"document","id":79761102,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/79761102/108x144/e71a3e2bf3/1327859969?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/79761102/216x288/e053713cff/1327859969?v=1","title":"13-Yoga-a","short_title":"13-Yoga-a","author":"Andrea Brais","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":79761102,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QN5x5HYZMrbXkVy85GvOuDjS160="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/79761102/13-Yoga-a"},"85613940":{"type":"document","id":85613940,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/85613940/108x144/dd8b06e74b/1400034278?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/85613940/216x288/fe0123b8d5/1400034278?v=1","title":"History of Edu.","short_title":"History of Edu.","author":"அருண் குமார். ஜா","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":85613940,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Pnxl6xbbms9BI5M62MgxhltWvfY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/85613940/History-of-Edu"},"95002162":{"type":"document","id":95002162,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95002162/108x144/e5ae86c490/1401260486?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/95002162/216x288/527e96f615/1401260486?v=1","title":"Reading Other Peoples Scripture","short_title":"Reading Other Peoples Scripture","author":"Whitney Bodman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":95002162,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"j5Zi9aeegh/H54UJZ33zZdtVmIk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/95002162/Reading-Other-Peoples-Scripture"},"100068695":{"type":"document","id":100068695,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100068695/108x144/559038ace8/1523855396?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/100068695/216x288/caf80ec915/1523855396?v=1","title":"Bhoja Champu/Champu Ramayana","short_title":"Bhoja Champu/Champu Ramayana","author":"Deepak Kumar Vasudevan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":100068695,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"DT4QENmZ8zLwOu/bLMOgXGQ2CGI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/100068695/Bhoja-Champu-Champu-Ramayana"},"103518516":{"type":"document","id":103518516,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/103518516/108x144/288bf53990/1388858644?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/103518516/216x288/d411b15f70/1388858644?v=1","title":"Dreams of Bhadda","short_title":"Dreams of Bhadda","author":"sujato","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":103518516,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"LPBOWfspLQMutCi32V0bUT2tvDI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/103518516/Dreams-of-Bhadda"},"123302529":{"type":"document","id":123302529,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/123302529/108x144/36911a9bb2/1413028713?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/123302529/216x288/4e1183f3da/1413028713?v=1","title":"how to make brahmin sacred thread","short_title":"how to make brahmin sacred thread","author":"Rajendra Kamath","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":123302529,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"z4GcIC4wNxhD9zP0gXS/OMrRUzw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/123302529/how-to-make-brahmin-sacred-thread"},"138951779":{"type":"document","id":138951779,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/138951779/108x144/37577fca12/1486484093?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/138951779/216x288/19ef448831/1486484093?v=1","title":"india inquirymcgregor","short_title":"india inquirymcgregor","author":"api-194648534","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":138951779,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"1ilop9EpoQ10kg7uSaeOc8c6m7M="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/138951779/india-inquirymcgregor"},"163564256":{"type":"book","id":163564256,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163564256/108x144/19b813ddea/1537861282?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163564256/216x288/50918b57c9/1537861282?v=1","title":"Beautiful Ruins: A Novel","short_title":"Beautiful Ruins","author":"Jess Walter","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163564256,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Coek9NGjOeT3c0bQLqe6YjQImjs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163564256/Beautiful-Ruins-A-Novel"},"163579056":{"type":"book","id":163579056,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163579056/108x144/b0cc4a522d/1537866497?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163579056/216x288/cc1bed9752/1537866497?v=1","title":"The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel","short_title":"The Art of Racing in the Rain","author":"Garth Stein","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163579056,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"vhGm1sjfNH6MYQ7BW4Sk9xKMfkc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163579056/The-Art-of-Racing-in-the-Rain-A-Novel"},"163580087":{"type":"book","id":163580087,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163580087/108x144/865888b820/1537786991?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163580087/216x288/a50ec4d378/1537786991?v=1","title":"Bel Canto","short_title":"Bel Canto","author":"Ann Patchett","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163580087,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"K/wVFeS3vFNvIp7omOBfYi5ppVY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163580087/Bel-Canto"},"163603389":{"type":"book","id":163603389,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163603389/108x144/9281c90791/1537790825?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163603389/216x288/a0de7e7dea/1537790825?v=1","title":"A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel","short_title":"A Prayer for Owen Meany","author":"John Irving","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163603389,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yfnodVY5dOL1QVQUxk5fNe5I2cY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163603389/A-Prayer-for-Owen-Meany-A-Novel"},"163646054":{"type":"book","id":163646054,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163646054/108x144/c8eb9eae18/1537860215?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163646054/216x288/d6d700f05f/1537860215?v=1","title":"Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America","short_title":"Devil in the Grove","author":"Gilbert King","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163646054,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"4fBW5+6fWiuK/tri1PcRTwpipdA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163646054/Devil-in-the-Grove-Thurgood-Marshall-the-Groveland-Boys-and-the-Dawn-of-a-New-America"},"163647832":{"type":"book","id":163647832,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163647832/108x144/9f4ce0c73a/1537859774?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/163647832/216x288/c8974e0a45/1537859774?v=1","title":"The Cider House Rules","short_title":"The Cider House Rules","author":"John Irving","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":163647832,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QYn8m5JPJWvF2MnM3MjgRGRUOjs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/163647832/The-Cider-House-Rules"},"182522032":{"type":"book","id":182522032,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182522032/108x144/671b9a055b/1537860651?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182522032/216x288/ec6eb5c88b/1537860651?v=1","title":"The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel","short_title":"The Bonfire of the Vanities","author":"Tom Wolfe","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":182522032,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"sZlpSfKKkOqTtOs9IwMSPQu+Uck="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/182522032/The-Bonfire-of-the-Vanities-A-Novel"},"182546874":{"type":"book","id":182546874,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182546874/108x144/817bab2149/1537786992?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182546874/216x288/a6b6573207/1537786992?v=1","title":"The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel","short_title":"The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.","author":"Adelle Waldman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":182546874,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hyCUjJQsY3keuqfcCQkyZVLlmpo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/182546874/The-Love-Affairs-of-Nathaniel-P-A-Novel"},"182553141":{"type":"book","id":182553141,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182553141/108x144/1b40063d80/1537866887?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182553141/216x288/098f7f1651/1537866887?v=1","title":"The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century","short_title":"The World Is Flat 3.0","author":"Thomas L. Friedman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":182553141,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"e73r1uuM/2+KieS8LKnMMS/VJ/M="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/182553141/The-World-Is-Flat-3-0-A-Brief-History-of-the-Twenty-first-Century"},"182560283":{"type":"book","id":182560283,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182560283/108x144/229169a793/1537864537?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182560283/216x288/fc0b9ebffa/1537864537?v=1","title":"Wolf Hall: A Novel","short_title":"Wolf Hall","author":"Hilary Mantel","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":182560283,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"znV+CUWDFOnvVEu/lzdKzn6jIrQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/182560283/Wolf-Hall-A-Novel"},"182565115":{"type":"book","id":182565115,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182565115/108x144/50e3fc9eb2/1537865971?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/182565115/216x288/8bbf81282a/1537865971?v=1","title":"The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel","short_title":"The Silver Linings Playbook","author":"Matthew Quick","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":182565115,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bC/QVJ5ixmKvR8FtqGax/85Fp60="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/182565115/The-Silver-Linings-Playbook-A-Novel"},"201646082":{"type":"document","id":201646082,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/201646082/108x144/4a697c7ebf/1400159725?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/201646082/216x288/1f8daad802/1400159725?v=1","title":"Lake of Lotus (5)-The Meaning of Near-Death Experiences (5)-Reason for the Generation of the “Light of Life and Death”-By Vajra Master Pema Lhadren-Dudjom Buddhist Association","short_title":"Lake of Lotus (5)-The Meaning of Near-Death Experiences (5)-Reason for the Generation of the “Light of Life and Death”-By Vajra Master Pema Lhadren-Dudjom Buddhist Association","author":"DudjomBuddhistAsso","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":201646082,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"XZ1OkkC0hAAQDQR098p4irWCIKY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/201646082/Lake-of-Lotus-5-The-Meaning-of-Near-Death-Experiences-5-Reason-for-the-Generation-of-the-Light-of-Life-and-Death-By-Vajra-Master-Pema-Lhadren-Du"},"202691564":{"type":"book","id":202691564,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/202691564/108x144/f0e6e6416d/1537788668?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/202691564/216x288/56a5d067c6/1537788668?v=1","title":"Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America","short_title":"Smart People Should Build Things","author":"Andrew Yang","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":202691564,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"6oTb41jk2hTmqp0+p5Xc66DQAqU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/202691564/Smart-People-Should-Build-Things-How-to-Restore-Our-Culture-of-Achievement-Build-a-Path-for-Entrepreneurs-and-Create-New-Jobs-in-America"},"211302755":{"type":"book","id":211302755,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/211302755/108x144/2424de51a2/1537789483?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/211302755/216x288/09ee7462f3/1537789483?v=1","title":"The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers","short_title":"The Hard Thing About Hard Things","author":"Ben Horowitz","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":211302755,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"AdBc4+PZ1ObJf3wfMZUwlYL4gGw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/211302755/The-Hard-Thing-About-Hard-Things-Building-a-Business-When-There-Are-No-Easy-Answers"},"212863738":{"type":"book","id":212863738,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/212863738/108x144/5bad102ef1/1537787551?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/212863738/216x288/8fc36df455/1537787551?v=1","title":"The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America","short_title":"The Unwinding","author":"George Packer","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":212863738,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gikj87X7Irw2LaJuWQJS2JmldtI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/212863738/The-Unwinding-An-Inner-History-of-the-New-America"},"216442529":{"type":"book","id":216442529,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/216442529/108x144/7945e537de/1537861570?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/216442529/216x288/95db88293e/1537861570?v=1","title":"Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel","short_title":"Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932","author":"Francine Prose","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":216442529,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"IFZIAgbr8PS+EI7I6vbRN8TDaCY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/216442529/Lovers-at-the-Chameleon-Club-Paris-1932-A-Novel"},"221122362":{"type":"document","id":221122362,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/221122362/108x144/131986d856/1400148265?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/221122362/216x288/de133152a9/1400148265?v=1","title":"Bridging India and Scandinavia_Institutional Transmission and Elite Conquest During the Bronze Age_Kristiansen","short_title":"Bridging India and Scandinavia_Institutional Transmission and Elite Conquest During the Bronze Age_Kristiansen","author":"Filip_Tesar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":221122362,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"2PXGNWrPOBApkKQhvCg+P5ogVKw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/221122362/Bridging-India-and-Scandinavia-Institutional-Transmission-and-Elite-Conquest-During-the-Bronze-Age-Kristiansen"},"224248520":{"type":"book","id":224248520,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224248520/108x144/57b8f15c1c/1537790791?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224248520/216x288/2fc602273a/1537790791?v=1","title":"The Kitchen House: A Novel","short_title":"The Kitchen House","author":"Kathleen Grissom","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224248520,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"+MXZfFNvX4zpUPmV7diDJC6Qitg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224248520/The-Kitchen-House-A-Novel"},"224248577":{"type":"book","id":224248577,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224248577/108x144/d525463c67/1537857173?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224248577/216x288/2b59844b99/1537857173?v=1","title":"The Rosie Project: A Novel","short_title":"The Rosie Project","author":"Graeme Simsion","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224248577,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"dR73RnZYJ165PlACBbnm4GYpp/4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224248577/The-Rosie-Project-A-Novel"},"224252178":{"type":"book","id":224252178,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224252178/108x144/68dbc1000d/1537863398?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224252178/216x288/57a65a5750/1537863398?v=1","title":"Brooklyn: A Novel","short_title":"Brooklyn","author":"Colm Toibin","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224252178,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"M8x0a/kUnA+lkfwqJy9m+QvinmA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224252178/Brooklyn-A-Novel"},"224258670":{"type":"book","id":224258670,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224258670/108x144/3c7a87a449/1537793861?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224258670/216x288/ef3c1ca84d/1537793861?v=1","title":"The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power","short_title":"The Prize","author":"Daniel Yergin","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224258670,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"vxcKeUrEwBY6yXxBVjp73Dl1exE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224258670/The-Prize-The-Epic-Quest-for-Oil-Money-Power"},"224266633":{"type":"book","id":224266633,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224266633/108x144/d0de7b5bf4/1537794150?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224266633/216x288/a40600a76d/1537794150?v=1","title":"The Perks of Being a Wallflower","short_title":"The Perks of Being a Wallflower","author":"Stephen Chbosky","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224266633,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"xpdxkVHkoF/kaBMZS2lXkUFKGfM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224266633/The-Perks-of-Being-a-Wallflower"},"224270540":{"type":"book","id":224270540,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224270540/108x144/f484685ce1/1537819642?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224270540/216x288/f0d4e09ce0/1537819642?v=1","title":"The Master","short_title":"The Master","author":"Colm Toibin","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224270540,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"JhMWGoRq4SMIDKu9l3NAAuOJ3rM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224270540/The-Master"},"224285255":{"type":"book","id":224285255,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224285255/108x144/144bc668f6/1537862920?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224285255/216x288/9dbee53a6c/1537862920?v=1","title":"The Flamethrowers: A Novel","short_title":"The Flamethrowers","author":"Rachel Kushner","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224285255,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hl2r3VEY3K7CClfBmm6Nx5g2sG4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224285255/The-Flamethrowers-A-Novel"},"224306619":{"type":"book","id":224306619,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224306619/108x144/7eeca5a1bc/1537790771?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224306619/216x288/4a8f75444a/1537790771?v=1","title":"The Light Between Oceans: A Novel","short_title":"The Light Between Oceans","author":"M.L. Stedman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224306619,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"AAeQzJ6rZ1Wvf0ybzKpNCoM6Fng="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224306619/The-Light-Between-Oceans-A-Novel"},"224326250":{"type":"book","id":224326250,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224326250/108x144/b659f5fb6a/1537786890?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224326250/216x288/900e8864ca/1537786890?v=1","title":"Steve Jobs","short_title":"Steve Jobs","author":"Walter Isaacson","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224326250,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BJzLTm8NQrgl19EflKh3kK8wCsQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224326250/Steve-Jobs"},"224349281":{"type":"book","id":224349281,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224349281/108x144/4df0918cea/1537795347?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224349281/216x288/befa0c6317/1537795347?v=1","title":"How To Win Friends and Influence People","short_title":"How To Win Friends and Influence People","author":"Dale Carnegie","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224349281,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ztymKBGO7YQdvEAyrKgllwceRVk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224349281/How-To-Win-Friends-and-Influence-People"},"224355300":{"type":"book","id":224355300,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224355300/108x144/0f2130a60a/1537864013?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224355300/216x288/9b9b19254a/1537864013?v=1","title":"Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius","short_title":"Grand Pursuit","author":"Sylvia Nasar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224355300,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"eyTmcAfB8nGlsOepulpBzDC/xnM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224355300/Grand-Pursuit-The-Story-of-Economic-Genius"},"224369806":{"type":"book","id":224369806,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224369806/108x144/6fb23377a8/1537864222?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224369806/216x288/b1d476d0fb/1537864222?v=1","title":"The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer","short_title":"The Emperor of All Maladies","author":"Siddhartha Mukherjee","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224369806,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"J9hk5QE/bSFMpNj7MdAA5nPYnE4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224369806/The-Emperor-of-All-Maladies-A-Biography-of-Cancer"},"224410295":{"type":"book","id":224410295,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224410295/108x144/514b1bea0b/1537863981?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224410295/216x288/f7c9469e6c/1537863981?v=1","title":"Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln","short_title":"Team of Rivals","author":"Doris Kearns Goodwin","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224410295,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7JZUdj+oisO2eceUiI8SvOVFzO4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224410295/Team-of-Rivals-The-Political-Genius-of-Abraham-Lincoln"},"224419023":{"type":"book","id":224419023,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224419023/108x144/48b209bbb5/1537864054?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224419023/216x288/39263c2334/1537864054?v=1","title":"John Adams","short_title":"John Adams","author":"David McCullough","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224419023,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"zOdJujkqwiL3MNqmikzYibq5TWc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224419023/John-Adams"},"224426877":{"type":"book","id":224426877,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224426877/108x144/f22cf865fe/1537861600?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/224426877/216x288/a73f25e252/1537861600?v=1","title":"Angela's Ashes: A Memoir","short_title":"Angela's Ashes","author":"Frank McCourt","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224426877,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3tsd2ILUpx5X+a11Bj8RZQrT3CU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/224426877/Angela-s-Ashes-A-Memoir"},"224693198":{"type":"document","id":224693198,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224693198/108x144/5d47e5555a/1400330032?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224693198/216x288/713d375688/1400330032?v=1","title":"A Map of the Journey","short_title":"A Map of the Journey","author":"zayarminnhlaing","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224693198,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"VLeXpgX//qspKyRtEynhq6zfIEc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224693198/A-Map-of-the-Journey"},"225916486":{"type":"book","id":225916486,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/225916486/108x144/241cf75eb3/1537867248?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/225916486/216x288/a042fe186a/1537867248?v=1","title":"A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story","short_title":"A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius","author":"Dave Eggers","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":225916486,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Bhs6wz0SViIsaot8xNG3zURkbwo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/225916486/A-Heartbreaking-Work-Of-Staggering-Genius-A-Memoir-Based-on-a-True-Story"},"229322567":{"type":"document","id":229322567,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/229322567/108x144/6e86ee13b0/1402553848?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/229322567/216x288/a8975766e8/1402553848?v=1","title":"Purusha Sooktm Word by Word Meaning","short_title":"Purusha Sooktm Word by Word Meaning","author":"Ativ Joshi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":229322567,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"H9QuzU9muQ+DxpVUBm1CRai4HOY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/229322567/Purusha-Sooktm-Word-by-Word-Meaning"},"231689346":{"type":"book","id":231689346,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/231689346/108x144/7e5fbbde4a/1537857432?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/231689346/216x288/b7fe80231f/1537857432?v=1","title":"The Blazing World: A Novel","short_title":"The Blazing World","author":"Siri Hustvedt","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":231689346,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/uYyl73xt8XhW5wCkDZPZ1f+JuI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/231689346/The-Blazing-World-A-Novel"},"232569310":{"type":"document","id":232569310,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/232569310/108x144/783f4040af/1404465222?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/232569310/216x288/7e8db86fdb/1404465222?v=1","title":"Swami Vivekananda on the Vedas and Upanishads Part 1","short_title":"Swami Vivekananda on the Vedas and Upanishads Part 1","author":"chitratr_bala7846","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":232569310,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"n5e08H9nE4uSMNTPOGjAGm9UxJc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/232569310/Swami-Vivekananda-on-the-Vedas-and-Upanishads-Part-1"},"234028503":{"type":"book","id":234028503,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/234028503/108x144/2c4440aa6c/1537787913?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/234028503/216x288/cfe54b8013/1537787913?v=1","title":"Bad Feminist: Essays","short_title":"Bad Feminist","author":"Roxane Gay","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":234028503,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QRPPuPyviwuH47+DAwd6jb/6OKw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/234028503/Bad-Feminist-Essays"},"234400285":{"type":"document","id":234400285,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/234400285/108x144/64256e2940/1436023232?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/234400285/216x288/f1735e276e/1436023232?v=1","title":"Rigveda Philosophy","short_title":"Rigveda Philosophy","author":"adya_tripathi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":234400285,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"VUEupkxy3qJFdHx+Uda/zCM8tIo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/234400285/Rigveda-Philosophy"},"235411767":{"type":"book","id":235411767,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/235411767/108x144/b2ad7aa7d5/1537864199?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/235411767/216x288/1740216c8c/1537864199?v=1","title":"A Man Called Ove: A Novel","short_title":"A Man Called Ove","author":"Fredrik Backman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":235411767,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3XtANwT6yNVEaLg3GV1gjZJAk5s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/235411767/A-Man-Called-Ove-A-Novel"},"235583696":{"type":"book","id":235583696,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/235583696/108x144/a9f15763be/1537789636?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/235583696/216x288/7c5ab0af0f/1537789636?v=1","title":"We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel","short_title":"We Are Not Ourselves","author":"Matthew Thomas","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":235583696,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"FLrxm+KNbJIXSO6l9cj9awQ6U8c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/235583696/We-Are-Not-Ourselves-A-Novel"},"238704340":{"type":"book","id":238704340,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/238704340/108x144/2fd0be1590/1537866560?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/238704340/216x288/191539db56/1537866560?v=1","title":"This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate","short_title":"This Changes Everything","author":"Naomi Klein","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":238704340,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"sTMCqL34fli1OP73jl46nZBU4yo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/238704340/This-Changes-Everything-Capitalism-vs-The-Climate"},"239488191":{"type":"book","id":239488191,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/239488191/108x144/a9a21bdc0e/1537861129?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/239488191/216x288/73448c1779/1537861129?v=1","title":"The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution","short_title":"The Innovators","author":"Walter Isaacson","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":239488191,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"2cyYg9+uPR7D9fJs2MsGIuNkr1c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/239488191/The-Innovators-How-a-Group-of-Hackers-Geniuses-and-Geeks-Created-the-Digital-Revolution"},"239588474":{"type":"book","id":239588474,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/239588474/108x144/149fb5e6af/1537832245?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/239588474/216x288/15f36354f8/1537832245?v=1","title":"Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore","short_title":"Rise of ISIS","author":"Jay Sekulow","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":239588474,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"5q6OI6w8rr45vXPdxlRYjAJXuOE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/239588474/Rise-of-ISIS-A-Threat-We-Can-t-Ignore"},"244157917":{"type":"book","id":244157917,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/244157917/108x144/c55ae5929d/1537862008?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/244157917/216x288/c42f4ff9aa/1537862008?v=1","title":"Yes Please","short_title":"Yes Please","author":"Amy Poehler","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":244157917,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/zP/mwmde5WP3CxbLYZBmCA4nrA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/244157917/Yes-Please"},"246897514":{"type":"book","id":246897514,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/246897514/108x144/60f21686b1/1537791268?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/246897514/216x288/4b640ccfe4/1537791268?v=1","title":"The Wallcreeper","short_title":"The Wallcreeper","author":"Nell Zink","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":246897514,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"XlhPVbZdd/wVMEypKeFAF3aUEBU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/246897514/The-Wallcreeper"},"249308236":{"type":"book","id":249308236,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249308236/108x144/0b356a7d6a/1537861777?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249308236/216x288/cbef455d67/1537861777?v=1","title":"Interpreter of Maladies","short_title":"Interpreter of Maladies","author":"Jhumpa Lahiri","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":249308236,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3WQCyQSNrZHFPSCfvM1BUI35Ykg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/249308236/Interpreter-of-Maladies"},"249308781":{"type":"book","id":249308781,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249308781/108x144/8ccbad3c4a/1537788002?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249308781/216x288/b0591f1a45/1537788002?v=1","title":"Life of Pi","short_title":"Life of Pi","author":"Yann Martel","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":249308781,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"l0jY+S8r6b0JQ2gb1UtfKXc+ud4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/249308781/Life-of-Pi"},"249309502":{"type":"book","id":249309502,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249309502/108x144/06f5527c5d/1537862881?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249309502/216x288/ec3bf7c24b/1537862881?v=1","title":"Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel","short_title":"Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close","author":"Jonathan Safran Foer","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":249309502,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Rk/PQYJ7yj5wxxzyhMboRF5xcGU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/249309502/Extremely-Loud-and-Incredibly-Close-A-Novel"},"249309690":{"type":"book","id":249309690,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249309690/108x144/48e07febe4/1537787460?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/249309690/216x288/aa98599d5e/1537787460?v=1","title":"Everything Is Illuminated","short_title":"Everything Is Illuminated","author":"Jonathan Safran Foer","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":249309690,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"JV/1wQZW5XyH44i++Q3VtZhnWdc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/249309690/Everything-Is-Illuminated"},"250006950":{"type":"book","id":250006950,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/250006950/108x144/2a1edbdeca/1537862176?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/250006950/216x288/139a0bb438/1537862176?v=1","title":"The First Bad Man: A Novel","short_title":"The First Bad Man","author":"Miranda July","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":250006950,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nGcoVJt0jZF6uHSmKpvQHMNuK/s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/250006950/The-First-Bad-Man-A-Novel"},"251440707":{"type":"document","id":251440707,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/251440707/108x144/9350f2916d/1469767786?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/251440707/216x288/6a564e6a77/1469767786?v=1","title":"Revealing Rudimentary Criteria For Indian music mp3 songs\r","short_title":"Revealing Rudimentary Criteria For Indian music mp3 songs\r","author":"buenalesh251785","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":251440707,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PoW22Ht9XeQGm2NT/XU+UvxJlOM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/251440707/Revealing-Rudimentary-Criteria-For-Indian-music-mp3-songs"},"253264900":{"type":"book","id":253264900,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/253264900/108x144/dcda7770b5/1537789840?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/253264900/216x288/ca2dc9eb25/1537789840?v=1","title":"Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind","short_title":"Sapiens","author":"Yuval Noah Harari","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":253264900,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QFxNFx5B8EWH7jTLEGdWHyw47Og="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/253264900/Sapiens-A-Brief-History-of-Humankind"},"254039238":{"type":"book","id":254039238,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/254039238/108x144/a8c6c5e065/1537867235?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/254039238/216x288/0e4e5ae0d4/1537867235?v=1","title":"Leaving Berlin: A Novel","short_title":"Leaving Berlin","author":"Joseph Kanon","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":254039238,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"M0RRgQ8nEci1huamOmDATPugkLA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/254039238/Leaving-Berlin-A-Novel"},"258774565":{"type":"document","id":258774565,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258774565/108x144/0c2b5eaeca/1426412336?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/258774565/216x288/f595b4fdcb/1426412336?v=1","title":"Caste and Hierarchical Observation-libre","short_title":"Caste and Hierarchical Observation-libre","author":"Ataullah Mohammed Khan","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":258774565,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"y3ocJpN2J0uTsnPVmfSII2hDtMY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/258774565/Caste-and-Hierarchical-Observation-libre"},"263504218":{"type":"book","id":263504218,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/263504218/108x144/986fa89e8b/1537787611?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/263504218/216x288/c40eb7e9a8/1537787611?v=1","title":"Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future","short_title":"Elon Musk","author":"Ashlee Vance","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263504218,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"zEewPkjTzRXQ5z+vG+RgbAhLSCk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/263504218/Elon-Musk-Tesla-SpaceX-and-the-Quest-for-a-Fantastic-Future"},"271820295":{"type":"document","id":271820295,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/271820295/108x144/b9093bb6b7/1437126246?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/271820295/216x288/25049a2db9/1437126246?v=1","title":"about unisoul","short_title":"about unisoul","author":"Hari Kumar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":271820295,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8CJe+Y+1PdLxhCq105tc98Cs67w="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/271820295/about-unisoul"},"273440534":{"type":"book","id":273440534,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/273440534/108x144/b7e49e07d3/1537787686?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/273440534/216x288/aaec1b2b1a/1537787686?v=1","title":"The Incarnations: A Novel","short_title":"The Incarnations","author":"Susan Barker","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":273440534,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"a2GcIu6r+4+JbBvD4xhs858UzRU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/273440534/The-Incarnations-A-Novel"},"273582508":{"type":"book","id":273582508,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/273582508/108x144/fb92cadae3/1537865442?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/273582508/216x288/135562ba06/1537865442?v=1","title":"You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel","short_title":"You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine","author":"Alexandra Kleeman","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":273582508,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pDEkx76EFDFBYH3epztMWFvN3eM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/273582508/You-Too-Can-Have-a-Body-Like-Mine-A-Novel"},"278960385":{"type":"document","id":278960385,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/278960385/108x144/97e61b592e/1441556600?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/278960385/216x288/81cb3bdcd1/1441556600?v=1","title":"The AYsuriy Kalpa","short_title":"The AYsuriy Kalpa","author":"Andrei Pascari","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":278960385,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"IUPwIKGt2n5QGdESinDtjBf9CnA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/278960385/The-AYsuriy-Kalpa"},"282766939":{"type":"book","id":282766939,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/282766939/108x144/1355dd3a71/1537788003?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/282766939/216x288/076d3f356c/1537788003?v=1","title":"Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta","short_title":"Dispatches from Pluto","author":"Richard Grant","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":282766939,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ESJ0m/Kd3nAPucVULZCCXjwlvF8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/282766939/Dispatches-from-Pluto-Lost-and-Found-in-the-Mississippi-Delta"},"288913869":{"type":"document","id":288913869,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/288913869/108x144/ed41d3b388/1447018749?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/288913869/216x288/dbd5905604/1447018749?v=1","title":"The Raven and the Serpent- The Great All Pervading Rahula and D","short_title":"The Raven and the Serpent- The Great All Pervading Rahula and D","author":"tsvoro","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":288913869,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"bx8slON2mdoy43aKjNW8FkLrN+E="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/288913869/The-Raven-and-the-Serpent-The-Great-All-Pervading-Rahula-and-D"},"293461549":{"type":"book","id":293461549,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/293461549/108x144/07628d60db/1537864863?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/293461549/216x288/8d1185b7ff/1537864863?v=1","title":"The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man","short_title":"The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man","author":"John Perkins","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":293461549,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"eYuc9E+ccbkjzDR1zqHbnsSxpaQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/293461549/The-New-Confessions-of-an-Economic-Hit-Man"},"305220956":{"type":"document","id":305220956,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/305220956/108x144/a1eb7c40bc/1458312838?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/305220956/216x288/e5f893c742/1458312838?v=1","title":"Soma Chapter","short_title":"Soma Chapter","author":"BabuPD","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":305220956,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"EoBmNP4QpseCuAlbVTh9BQFIUgM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/305220956/Soma-Chapter"},"337536061":{"type":"book","id":337536061,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/337536061/108x144/8c1b451da6/1537791429?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/word_document/337536061/216x288/45d81f5c37/1537791429?v=1","title":"The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)","short_title":"The Sympathizer","author":"Viet Thanh Nguyen","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":337536061,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8Gv+36iKmMeh8HmGQY8gFCJtElM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/book/337536061/The-Sympathizer-A-Novel-Pulitzer-Prize-for-Fiction"},"343513346":{"type":"document","id":343513346,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/343513346/108x144/e8cd5b57ed/1490879758?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/343513346/216x288/f3b0ded19e/1490879758?v=1","title":"Indian Languages and Literature","short_title":"Indian Languages and Literature","author":"Chaudharybana","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":343513346,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"v7nLDy3hqyjcejwe4J03IFofkMU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/343513346/Indian-Languages-and-Literature"},"353458282":{"type":"document","id":353458282,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/353458282/108x144/134cd184da/1499751421?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/353458282/216x288/2a77e7cbd8/1499751421?v=1","title":"India_2","short_title":"India_2","author":"Abhishek Banerjee","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":353458282,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"XsBZpuOpJ+RfQIdEIPjFsYKrAsI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/353458282/India-2"},"382254498":{"type":"document","id":382254498,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/382254498/108x144/5ffd948086/1529574929?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/382254498/216x288/24a39e7002/1529574929?v=1","title":"HIGHER EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA","short_title":"HIGHER EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA","author":"scholarlyresearchj","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":382254498,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8hP2FV2B6HHT7T1ETv6J/zT6n0w="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/382254498/HIGHER-EDUCATION-IN-ANCIENT-INDIA"}}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/29235449","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=&auth_token=lTIKyn0l%2BdqKL%2B5gA33oJH0T96o%3D&authenticity_token=%2FINfTN%2BV6mVxgCj%2FrbraiICicVdu72KgjYuNDrYFXMHvhYYR2Owe1GAUtn8tRe8m%2BKRVKwsdDyRL4sXCdZg2bg%3D%3D&expires=1538472391&wordDocumentId=29235449&wordUploadId=31655825"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->