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It is good practice to limit the ratio of
transmitted power to surge impedance loading (SIL, or natural capacity), UPn, to & 1, with the aim to reduce voltage drop and power losses. This may be achieved by reducing phase-to-phase spacings and using subconductor bundles instead of single conductors.

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G N Alexandrov

and

G V Podporkyn

INTRODUCTIOI?

transmitted power to surge impedance loading

(SIL, or natural capacity), U P n , to & 1 ,

with the aim to reduce voltage drop and

power losses. This may be achieved by reducing phase-to-phase spacings and using subconductor bundles instead of single conductors. In so doing, it is possible to ensure

S/P 6 1 over a wide range of conductor

crofs-sections with the result that voltage

drop and power losses become independent of

conductor cross-section and the performance

and cost characteristics of lines, especially of long ones, are essentially improved.

Thus, the use of conductor bundles on 35- to

220-kV compact lines is an important means

for improving their efficiency.

It has been shown by Alexandrov et al. ( 1 )

that increasing the SIL of a line through an

increase in the number of subconductors and

a reduction in phase-to-phase spacings substantially improves the conditions of power

transmission, thus ensuring reduced voltage

drop and power losses a d larger transmission distances. However, experience in designing EKV overhead lines suggests that the

potentialities of increasing the SIL through

an increase in the number of subconductors

are limited. This was due to the fact that

as the number of subconductors increased,

the subspacings remained unchanged and the

phase-to-phase spacings were relatively

large, the maximum field strength at the

conductor surface being below its maximum

allowable value as determined from the conditions of corona-loss and radio-interference limiting, E

= E

The present paper

shows that the S I m f 3 5 5 to 220-kV lines

may be increased in proportion to the number

of subconductors by adopting simple design

measures.

the ratio S/P with increasing load P ( o r ,

which is the fame, a decrease in o r a limitation on the product Z F with increasiw

cross-section F) is posgible through an increase in the number of subconductors (not

through an increase in the cross-section of

a single conductor) in proportion to a r e quired increase in load, the use of conductor bundles being nowadays a common practice

in EHV lines.

PRINCIPLES OF CFSATINIG 2 O S T - E E Z C T I V B

i7Tmmma

P

determined by phase voltage Uph? conductor

cross-section F and current denslty j,

(1)

P = S cos Y = 3 UphF j cos Y

The SIL of a line is determined by the s u r face area of conductors, A (rather than

their cross-section), the maximum field

, the voltage

strength at their surface, E

and the factor allowing for flalfon-uniform

distribution of field strength over the conductor surface, k,, as shov6 in references

(2) and ( 3 ) ,

=$nr, ufi kn

Et?h7X

where n and r are the number of subconductors per phas8 and their radius, respectively.

The upper limit on E

is set by the requirement of corona-f%&

and radio-interference limiting (E ,C Ea, the allowable

field strength). %%refore,

a minimum surface area of conductors and thus minimum

wind and ice loads of conductors and towers

and a minimum possible

obtain with E

k

Substitutm

xa = E into (2) and taltfng the ratio of %%nsmi?ted

power to S a

yields

S _ = 120r F J k n -60% TO x j kn

(3)

pn

AEcl

Ea

whereF = F n = x r 2 Z n , de = 0.61 to 0.67

and F is tRe cross-8ection of phase subconductors.

It follows from these equations that the ratio S/P is determined by the ratio between

conduct% cross-section and surface area per

unit length, F/A, or the ratio between the

electron gas flux, F e j = I, and the f l u x of

the vector of field strength through a unit

length of the conductor surface, A-E /kn.

The other way around, a specified ra%o SIPn

corresponds with a well defined ratio, between conductor cross-section and surface

area per unit length, F/A.

Hence, in order to transmit power economically through overhead lines, it is necessary to emure a certain ratio between conductor cross-section and surface area per unit

length,

As can be seen, the smaller the required ratio S/P , the smaller the ratio F/A that

must benensured, which, by virtue of ( 4 ) . 18

equivalent to the requirement to reduce ro

and/o r X

of power transmission with an economical

current density are satisfied simultaneously,

S/P increases as r , i.e., as F , irrespechve of line voleage class ( 3 ) ? Accordingly, the maximum allowable cross-section

of subconductors and their radius may be obtained from the condition S/P 5 1 for

lines, in which the requireme% of corona

limitina determines the conductor design,

(5)

227

TABL3 2

Imiinirlwn

1 h x c - t o-phase spaciws

_-____

35

be easily c?ilculatcd by iqcrntionc.

Assumin, S / ? = 1 , 2 = 3.65, Is = 1 .3 Afmm ,nwe have F.

= 926

~~

j =

k': Ac-

1.35

subconductors is F9

300 mr: for lines

with a working vol a, of 220 kV and above.

Conductors of larger cross-sections cannot

be efficiently used on overhead lir,es. This

conclusion has been confirmed by project dovelopments for 750- and 1150-kV lines in the

USSR.

the required values of r and F for any

specified values of j an8 S/P .oTable 1

lists tlie required values of Po and I' for

different values of j and SIP nssumi8t:8 =

= 0.65 (the average value fornaluminiumsteel conductors) and k = 1. Conversion to

value of kn can be Qasily done using

and (6).

?y;

0.75

6.25

l.3

10.6

i-57-

80

~

12.5

tablo 2 n r e much smzller than conductcr-toconductor spaciws on lines in traditional

de ij i;n

on phase spacin:: is nlso set by corona considerations. Figure 1 shows the minimum

phase spacinLs ns determined by ccrona supp r e s r i o n conditions. A l s o shosm in the fis u r e n r e minimwl, insulction spacings as detcnnincd bg li;;htning surges according to

t a b l o 2. On 35-kV lines, th.e condition of

c o r o n a suppression s h o w s up only foy conduct o r radii below 1.33 cm (I' = 22 m ) (fiZ u r r I , curve I), i . c . , it'does

not praoticnlly affect the choice of phase spacings.

On 113-kV lines, its influence mapfests itself for r

3.62 cn (P < 78 mm ) (figure

1 , curve 28. O n 220-kV lynes, the condition

of corona suppression affects the choice of

cings over t h e vhole renge of

o r oss - 0 e c, t ion.5 employc d

15.1

31i:4G1

2x3-

I n table 2 , k is tile rated voitage surge fact o i - currently adopted in the USSX (at left)

nnd tha-t:.iith deep vo1tac;e surge suppression

(at ri",ht); G .

nnd GI.,,., are the miniinm ph~sc-to-~~~s~t-pacin&g

&"determined

by

the conditions of reliable operation under

lichtnin; *urges ncoordin,n to the USSR Electric Installation Code and under switching

surges, respectively.

< E practically over the whole rangPa)6f po8sible phase

spacings. Accordingly, the listed values of

S/P and j correspond with much smaller

crcgs-sections and radii of conductors by

virtue of (5) and (6).

combination of j and S/P may be ensured

using the existing condu&ors, which enables

us to consider variation of these parmeters

over a wide range in an analysis of po'ver

transmission regimes.

are currently adopted mainly on the basin of

preventing the whipping o f conductors rather

than on the basis of a required electric

strength of phase-to-phase gaps. Table 2

lists the minimum insulation spacings, S . ,

required for the operational reliobilitymln

of phase-to-phase air gaps.

2efcrring to table

2, if w e adopt on i? 35-kV ~

line, c geonotric mean conductor-to-conductor

spacing of 0.5 n, ,which can be ensured by inst:,.llin& tvio 01- three insulator spacers in a

s p a n , the 3 I L of the line with single conduct o r s increases to 4.2 - 4.8 X J depending on

conductor diLunoter. This appreciably affects

the regime of the lines as compared to lines

of t h e s m e concuctor cross-section with

t r e d i t 3 . o n a l phase spacings.

Similarly, w i t h the uae of the minimum insulation spacings according t o table 2 and fi? w e 1 for n 110-kV line, the SIL of the line

increases to 3C - 43 J W . The regimes are altered accordingly i3.s shown in reference ( l )

?educed conductor spacings do not solve com3 1 c t e l y t h e problem of inproving the regimes

of overhead lines :.iith relatively thick conductors. This brings about the need for conductor bundles. F o r three or more subconductors p e r p h a s e , it is advantazeous to use

flat phases since t h e y o n s u r e a more compact

line desipn as cho1-mby Alexandrov et a1.(4).

3VALUATIGN OF T I E DESIGN PARAKSTERS OF

220-kV LIiTCS L I Z F M T PHASES

by solving a system of equations with potential coefficients and finding the charges on

subconductors. Average working capacitance

C is dependent on the ratio of phase crosssgctional length h to phase spacing G (figure 3 ) . By varying h, for a constant G, the

228

ratio h/G was varied for the average working

capacitance to be equal to the allowable value as determined by the requirement of limiting the field strength nt the conductor

surface,

E o = ca

'

(7)

where q is the allowable charCe at the s u r face ofaa phase. The S I L of a line may be

expressed through the average working capacitance C-,

" according to reference ( 3 ) , a s

p, = 3%i

, =3vc0 u;

(9)

of the 'line.

For an approximate evaluation of the parameters of overhead lines, the values of kn,

were adopted on the basis of experience in

the analysis of line parameters presented by

Alexandrov et al. ( 5 ) in accordance with

table 3.

TABLE 3

- Values

of k and r for different

n in flat p f l f a s e s ( P calculated

' f o r .j = 1 . 3 ~ / m

, Osrpn---J-= 3.3 .

n

k

ro (cm)

1

1

2

1.05

3

1.15

4

1.20

5

1.20

6

1.29

1.0

0.95

0.87

0.85

0.85

0.85

___.

from 1 to 1.20. F o r larger n,%he value of

k = 1.20 may be assumed to be constant.

radius r variffs accordin~ly(see table 3 ) .

The radi8s is the largestofor single conductors. With n increasing from 1 to 4, it decreases and thereafter remains constant.

Figures 2 and 3 present the principal calculated parameters of 220-kV lines with flat

phases f o r n varying from 2 to 5. Increasing

n drastically increases the ower transmitted

(figure 2 ) . Indeed, using ( 5 7 and (6), the

power transmitted through a line may be written down in the form

However since k varies with increasing n

from 2

4 (tabye 3), the S vs. n curves

somewhat differ from straight lines (figure

2). A s n further increases, k remains constant so that S VS. n dependehies become

linear and, according to figure 2 , may be

extrapolated to any n.

40

250 to 950 W A may be transmitted through n

220-kV line with n increasing from 2 to 5

(figure 2 ) .

F o r S/P

( 1 0 ) and figure 2

square of S/P

This is due to the fact that

decreasing S/f proportionally decreases r

(5) with the r8sult that F decreases as t8e

square of S/P ( 6 ) and so 8oes the power

transmitted ( 4 0 ) . It is a l s o seen from (10)

that, for a specified S/P , the power transmitted decreases with inchasing j , which is

also a result of decreasing ro and Fo.

the SIL of thc line also increases, which%

equivalent to a decrease in Z (figure 2).

For S/P = 1 , Z varies from"l80 to 90 R

vith n %.rying faom 2 to 5 , respectively.

F i p r e 3 show the required ratios of phase

croon-sectional length to phase spacing, h/G,

for uhich the 3 v s . n and Z vs. n dependen-

cies of figure 2 hold true.s8s seen from figure 3, increasing the number of subconductors per phase, i.e., the total cross-secticn

of o phase, increases the ratio h/G, uhich,

for a constant G, implies longer phase crosssections (greater h).

Smaller S/P considerably reduces the phase

size by dragtically decreasing the poner

transmitted (figure 2 ) and, for a specified

S/P , the SIL must be accordin:;ly reduced,

i.e?, the average worki

capacitance of a

phase must be reduced

which is obtained

just by reducing thc phase size.

(3,

reduces the phase size (figure 3).2E.g., for

n = 2 S/P = 0.8 and j = 1 . 3 A / m , we have

h/G ='0.4 f o that h = G x 0 4 = 2.5 x 0 . 4 =

= 1 m, and for j = 1 . 6 B/mm2, we obtain h/G=

= 0.16, o r h = 2.5 x 0.16 = 0.4 m, the size

of the phase being thus reduced by a factor

of Z.?. Bote, howyer, that changip over

I r o m J = 1 . 3 A/mm to j = l.G A / m also decreases the power transmitted, S , from 180

to 160 IKI ( l o ) , i.e., 11%.

Note that figure 3 gives the phase size for

a preliminary evaluation of the parameters of

a line from the averaged working capacitance,

C , allowance being made for non-uniform

caarge and field distribution over subconductors by non-uniformity factor kn. For a specific line design version under study, the

data of figures 2 and 3 may be used as a

first approximation in elaborating an optimum phase design that ensures equal working

capacitances of phases and a uniform charge

distribution over subconductors, according

to reference ( 5 ) . In so doing, the inner

phase should be 'compressed' and the outer

phases 'stretched' about 20% as compared to

the data of figure 3 by arranging the subconductors non-uniformly within their phases.

A s shown in reference ( 5 ) , the parameters of

lines with flat phases are essentially independent of whether the phases are arranged

vertically or horizontally. Therefore, the

data of figures 2 and 3 may be a l s o used for

evaluating the parameters of lines with horizontally o r otherwise (e.g., parabolically) arranged phases (figure 4).

Tho reported data corroborate the feasibility of 220-kV lines using conductor bundles.

The phase size (specifically, the cross-sectional length) is found to be reasonable

even with a large number of subconductors,

in which case the SIL is 4 times or more

that of lines in traditional design.

3VALUATIOIJ OF THE DESIGN PAhUJETERS OF

35- TO 110-kV LINES VITH FLAT PHASES

As shown above for 35-kV lines (in most cas e s , this is also valid for 110-kV lines),

the electric field strength at the surface

of conductors, Emax, lies below an allowable

value f o r all actually used conductor types.

Therefore, it is not reasonable to choose ro

229

Prom the condition or th8 povier tranomitted not to exceed the line SIL with due regard to the restrictions imposed by the requirements relating to the mechanical

strength of conductors.

TIiBLZ 4-~

Parametors

_ _of 35-BV lines

(j =

35- and 110-kV lines in traditional design,

of single-conductor lines with reduced phase

spacings and of compact lines with flat phases comprised of different nunbers of suhconductors with a subspacing of 39 to 60 cm,

respectively.

As seen from table 4, the SIL of 35-1cV lines

with a geometric mean phase spacing of 4 m

is 3 blW. Reducing the phase spacing to 0.5 m

(see table 2 ) increases the SIL to 4.3 LX

whereas, for flat phases, varying n from 2

to 5 increases the SIL from 7.9 to 16.0 V : I ,

i.e., for n = 5, the SIL is 5 times t1in.t of

lines in traditional design, the condition

S/Pn

I being satisfied for any n.

0.6

1 .2

1.8

2.4

mmm7-7i

phase spacing and number of subconductors

are valid for 110-kV lines (see table.4).

Figures 5 and 6 show the calculated average

working capacitances and their proportional

SIL's for 35- to 110-kV lines as functions

of h/G for different numbers of subconductors in flat phases. It is seen that the SIL

of a line can be varied to a large extent by

varying h/G. This enables the most suitable

phase design to be determined for a specific

line version.

REFERENCES

1.

Nosov, I.M., Podporkyn, G.V.,

Seleznev, Yu.G., and Yevdokunin, G.A.,

1987, "New Means for Power Transmission

in Power Systems", Lenin ad University

Press, USSR. (In Russiany

2.

Venikov, V.A., Lyslcov, Yu.I.,

Podporkyn, G . V . , and Postolatiy, V . K . ,

1982, "Electric Transmission Lines of

Increased Capacity and Reduced Ecological Effect", CIGRE, 31-03.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of flat phases and reduced phaso s p e

cings enable the ratio S/P to be confined

to ,C 1 , which considerablynenhances the economic efficiency and quality of power transmission, enables the transmission distance

to be increased and the operational lifetime

of existing systems to be extended with

their increased loads prior to putting into

operation new or reconstructed systems.

Alexandrov and L.L. Peterson,

1983, Lenin rad, Energoatomizdat.

(In Russian?.

G.N.

phase spacings, down to distances determined

by the requirements of reliable operation

and lightning surges, allow an increase in

the transmission capacity of 35- to 220-kV

lines virtually in proportion to the number

of subconductors per phase, i.e., b y a factor of 3, 4 or more as compared to traditional lines.

An increased transmission capacity of compact lines is attained with relatively small

phase sizes. A s a guide, the subspacing may

be 30 cm on 35-kV lines, 60 cm on 110-kV

lines and 1.2 m on 220-kV lines with a phase

spacing of 0.5, 1.4 and 2.5 m, respectively.

4.

Krylov, S . V . , Nosov, I.M., Podporkyn,

G.V., Solovyov, E.P., and Trifonov,

V . Z . , 1984, "Insulation of Compact

Lines, its Electric Strength under

Switching Surges and Working Voltage",

CIGRE, 11-15.

5. Alexandrov, G J T . ,

Podporkyn, G.V., 1982, "The Parameters

of Overhead Transmission Lines in Compact Design", Elektrichestvo, 4,10-17.

(In Russian. )

6. Alexandrov, G . N . ,

230

Figure lG,,i,as

determined by corona l i m i t i n g

- 110 kV,

r : ( 1 ) - 35 kV, ( 2 )

( 3 ) -'220

kV

VS.

10

18

76

14

12

y 20

c

0.3

ob

124

02

*

2

= 0.6, 0 8, 1.0, and j = 1.3 m c l

1 .6 A / m *

F i g u r e 2 S ( s o l i d ) and Z ( d a s h e d ) v s . n

i n a flat p h 2 s e s f o r d i f f e r e n t S/Pn:

j = 1.3 A/mm

231

l i n e w i t h p a r a b o l i c phases

s u g g e s t e d i n r e f e r e n c e (6)

Figure 6

fa

I7

14

13

12

$

<

a a?

10

a

7

6

5

h /G

Figure 5

t? ( s o l i d ) and Pn

f 8 r 35-BV l i n e s :

(dashed)

G =

0.5

VS.

II

h/G

fXr 110-kV l i n e s : G = 1 ..I II

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