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S. Wyatt Shely
Ms. Caruso
UWRT 1103-037
16 November 2015
Solutions for Poverty Reduction
Billions of people in todays society experience the debilitating effects of poverty: loss of
dignity, deprivation of basic necessities, and crippled ability to thrive in society. Although there
have been efforts to reduce the disheartening effects of this issue, the prevalence is still widely
noticeable across the globe, especially in underdeveloped countries.

Poverty is a

multidimensional problem that requires a multidimensional solution. Solely focusing on

government methods for alleviating poverty is not a convincing approach. Instead, societies
must incorporate internal elements such as disruptive innovation and new venture creation
(Bruton 14). Increasing entrepreneurship and innovation is the most critical step for poverty
reduction within a society. Distributing entrepreneurial business guides serve as an applicable
strategy to increase entrepreneurship among impoverished societies. In order to continue
alleviating poverty, education and healthcare standards should also be enhanced.
When observing environments that are undergoing economic growth, in general, the
population will experience a reduction in poverty. There is a negative correlation between
economic growth and poverty. As a society experiences growth in their economy, the poverty
rate is reduced. The most effective method to grow an economy is to develop new businesses
that not only provide an avenue for new jobs and incomes, but also increase healthy economic
competition (Shirima 3). Impoverished societies lack job opportunities that provide incomes to
support families. The key to counter this unfortunate circumstance is to promote the benefits of

Comment [SS1]: Taking Ms. Carusos comments into

account, I actively strove to enhance transition statements
at the beginning of paragraphs throughout the paper. This
is exemplified here, with the intent to have a smoother
Comment [SS2]: Considering my previous revision, I aimed
to avoid repetition. I felt the newly formed sentence
captured my intended message. Therefore, making these
two sentences redundant and unnecessary.


entrepreneurship. Now, how does one go about promoting entrepreneurship? This is the simple
question that led to the creation of entrepreneur guides. Poverty is a real world problem that
calls for a real world solution. By developing a guide that teaches readers about the benefits of
pursuing entrepreneurship, as well as basic business rules, impoverished individuals have a better
chance of success at pursuing and excelling in self-employment. Societies whose institutions,
politics and culture hinders entrepreneurship, do not experience the increase in development of
societies that do actively promote entrepreneurship development (Oghojafor 8). Different
regions of China have exemplified undeniable proof of this theory throughout the past few
decades. In fact, this nation is noted for a poverty reduction of more than 630 million people
since the 1980s (Jacket). By investigating countries that have had incredibly drastic reductions
in poverty, the international community might discover encouraging processes to employ in
different geographic regions.
Coinciding with the statements presented earlier, Chinas poverty was alleviated while
also experiencing economic growth, primarily from small business creation. Research
performed on over 700 manufacturing firms in the Yangzi region, has led to the notion that
entrepreneurs in the region, despite the strict Chinese government, created institutional
innovations that led them to start up and grow small, private manufacturing firms to develop
these firms (Jacket). As these manufacturing firms began to grow, aspects characteristic of
private enterprise economies developed along with them. This new private enterprise economy
spread like wildfire throughout the rest of the country. The resulting economic growth, wealth
creation, and manufacturing jobs caused the establishment of China to acknowledge the
numerous benefits of utilizing a private enterprise economy (Jacket). The innovative
entrepreneurs that founded manufacturing firms in the Yangzi region, serves as a symbolic

Comment [SS3]: I decided to delete this quote because of

its repetitive word choice: manufacturing firms. Instead
of repeating manufacturing firms in two quotes in the
same sentence, I paraphrased the quote in order to
maintain a higher quality word choice.
Comment [SS4]: I deleted private enterprise in order to
eliminate repetition from the previous sentence. This
deletion provides a smoother read, while also maintaining
the meaning.


difference in job creation for China; a job creation that helped cause an incredible reduction in
The causal relationship between the increase of entrepreneurship and poverty alleviation
is further exemplified by a case study of the Chinese City of Yiwu. In the 1980s, Yiwu was
considered an example of desperate poverty (Si 123). Throughout the past few decades, Yiwu
inhabitants began escaping poverty through their own efforts. These efforts included innovative
and entrepreneurial strategies that shed light on a progression of new business opportunities.
Yiwus steps of poverty alleviation, as a result of entrepreneurship, include:
(1) A shift from passive to active attitudes and behavior towards fighting poverty;
(2) Causal mutual interactions among the regions impoverished people and the
people they saw emerging from poverty; (3) The pursuit of small profits rather
than maximized profits; and (4) The creation of disruptive business models
conducive to poverty reduction by people acting both as consumers and
producers. (Si 130)
This depicts Yiwus progression to become a universal example of how effective
entrepreneurship is a favorable route toward poverty alleviation. It is an inspiring notion that
these steps of pro-entrepreneurship strategies can be emulated in different regions of the world in
hopes to reduce poverty on a global scale.
Undeniably, entrepreneurship reduces poverty. Figuring out a way to produce more
entrepreneurs is critical in order to further decrease the poverty rate. A study of undergraduate
students at Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria, shows that entrepreneurship education is a
key factor to increase ones attitude of self-employment. Out of a group of students that received
entrepreneur education, 94% of respondents indicated their preference for self-employment,


while the group that was not educated in entrepreneurship resulted in 14.7% of respondents
preferring self-employment (Obisanya). Clearly, impoverished societies need a source of
entrepreneur education that will not only teach them about the benefits and characteristics of an
entrepreneur, but will also explain basic business concepts that are necessary to be successful
when starting ones own business.
There is a growing need and demand for entrepreneurial opportunities that have yet to be
exploited. These needs will be met through the provision This is the role of the entrepreneurial
business guide, Be an Entrepreneur | Build a Business | Escape Poverty. It simplifies
complicated business ideas by explaining them through the development of a lemonade stand
business. This concrete scenario of a lemonade stand business eliminates ambiguity, while also
maintaining real-world applicability. The step-by-step guide is created for impoverished
individuals across the globe. Entrepreneurship is not limited by geographic location. There are
successful business developers all around the world. In order to receive the funding and
distribution channel necessary to get Be an Entrepreneur | Build a Business | Escape Poverty
into the hands of those in poverty, the publication rights will be given to HOPE International.
This is an organization that invests in the lives of those living in poverty, focusing on
encouraging saving and entrepreneurship in countries around the world (Huizinga par. 1). Their
mission served as inspiration for the development of the entrepreneur guide. When members of
HOPE International travel to various countries, they will be equipped with an effective
educational tool that will help spread the message about the power of entrepreneurship. As the
message is spread, poverty will be reduced one business at a time. Remember, poverty is an

Comment [SS5]: I separated one paragraph into two, while

also adding an introductory sentence that transitioned into
the second paragraph. Originally, the paragraph was
entirely too long, depicting two ideas that needed to be
separated. Fortunately, there was a natural transition point
in the paragraph that went from talking about a problem,
and led to explaining how to address the problem. This
revision did not change the message, but will allow readers
to better grasp one idea before consciously transitioning to
the next.


issue of multiple dimensions. These guides are not the ultimate solution to the problem. To
continue reducing poverty, other methods must be utilized.
Advocates of entrepreneurial approaches for poverty alleviation tend to overlook other
components that are instrumental for the war on poverty. Both education, especially primary
education, and healthcare should have a position in the conversation of poverty reduction.
Considering that Education gives people the knowledge and tools to break the cycle of
poverty, it becomes clear that education should hold a significant role when attempting to
alleviate poverty (Burnett sec. 1). Furthermore, the literacy rate among underdeveloped nations
is substantially lower than that of more developed nations. This expresses the urgent demand for
education in impoverished countries.
The idea that education will aid and reverse the trajectory of destitute populations is
validated by the findings of two separate research groups studying two completely different
geographical regions. The findings of Jung, Cho, and Roberts, studying poverty in the Southern
United States, have concluded that poverty rates have been reduced by the expansion in

Comment [SS6]: I split this paragraph into two separate

paragraphs, similar to that of the one on page four. Again,
there was a natural transition within one paragraph that
needed to be split. In fact, the transition was so natural that
I did not need to add any words. Due to my revision, my
first paragraph presents the idea that education and
healthcare play a role in poverty reduction. The newly
formed second paragraph separates its message of proof
and validation that increased education standards reduce
poverty. This allows readers to analyze the ideas being
present with more clarity.

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education funding (Jung Abstract). Similarly, it has been found that China is experiencing a
decrease in poverty through the support of primary education (Song Abstract). Therefore, it can
be concluded that targeting funding toward education will be beneficial for impoverished
societies. The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, under the United Nations, also
recognized the need for primary education to be made compulsory and freely available to all
(Burnett sec. 2). Taking into account immense similarities of these preceding conclusions,
governments of underdeveloped countries should focus on strategies that provide quality primary
schooling for all of their citizens. The upside of increasing the literacy rate while decreasing the


poverty rate clearly outweighs the initial cost of supplying free primary education. In the long
run, all societies will benefit from the investment in the young populations education.
Mentioned earlier, it is understood that entrepreneurship is not the end all be all only
solution to eradicate poverty. Relating to educations benefits for poverty, improving healthcare

Comment [SS7]: I deleted end all be all and added only

because it is more concise. This strengthens my message by
providing a more effective way to hold my audiences

will yield similar results. It has been concluded by many sources that those who live in
povertyexperience more health problems and shorter life spans (Gien sec. 2). When
comparing the healthcare standards and spending of impoverished nations to more developed
nations, there are obvious disparities. Even differences in healthcare funding of different
counties in the United States create variations in the poverty rates (Jung Abstract). This depicts
the need to monetarily target healthcare systems when attempting to reduce poverty. It is
important to note that simply throwing money into a healthcare system will not magically
diminish the poverty rate.
In regards to alleviating disparity gaps commonly found in the United States, effective,
yet fundable, channels must be implemented. Similar to intelligent Much like smart business
planning, it is critical to identify what avenues, if funded, will create a positive impact the most
effective avenues must be identified prior to funding the general healthcare system. One
possible method is to provide funding capital for more social workers, as well as enhance the
quality of their training. This was one of the many successful strategies used in a project in
Vietnam that reduced the poverty by over eight percent (Gien sec. 2, 7). Another approach is to
contract primary healthcare out to non-state providers; providers outside of the public sector,
whether commercial or philanthropic. This will aid in the sufficient provision of the majority of
healthcare needs. Afghanistan has effectively implemented this strategy to give priority access

Comment [SS8]: Due to my paragraph break, I need to

replace the original sentence with a conclusory sentence
that not only wrapped up the ideas in its paragraph, but
also provided a comfortable transition to the next
Comment [SS9]: I added a paragraph break to this
originally lengthy paragraph. Similar to the paragraph
breaks used earlier, I wanted to separate the presentation
of one idea with the solution of that idea. This helps
readers understand the two separate thoughts more

Formatted: Indent: First line: 0.5"

Comment [SS10]: With the addition of a paragraph break, I
had to craft an introductory sentence in order to provide a
smoother transition to the following idea. The original
sentence was choppy, and did not provide an effective
transition for the following idea. Also, I replaced Much like
smart with Similar to intelligent because it denotes a
higher degree of sophistication and professionalism.
Comment [SS11]: I decided to add the word capital
instead of funding because I used funding in the
previous sentence. This is another instance eliminating
Comment [SS12]: This word need to be deleted to
maintain correct grammar.


to the population groups greatest in need, such as those living in poverty (Trani sec. 1).
Evidently, meeting healthcare needs will cause beneficial differences toward impoverished
societies. It is critical to equip strategies to reduce poverty with a comprehensive plan
addressing healthcare needs. Adequate funding along with a method for accurately targeting
low-income individuals, are necessary to detach the shackles of poverty.
Poverty is a solvable problem in need of a specific multifaceted strategy. An effective
formula to alleviate poverty is the combination of the provision of free primary education,
quality healthcare, and most importantly, education in entrepreneurship. The increase in
entrepreneurship and the development of new businesses offer the surest route to economic
growth and development, including job creation (Bruton 4). Be an Entrepreneur | Build a
Business | Escape Poverty is one tool to promote entrepreneurship education, but it is crucial that
scholars, nonprofit organizations, and philanthropists alike, continue researching ways to educate
communities about business creation. Find ways to help them get back on their feet, take control
of their own destiny, and climb their way out of poverty through their business.


Works Cited
Original Sources
Oghojafor, Akpoyomare, Olayemi, Olabode, Okonji, Sunday, and Olaywola. Entrepreneurship
as a Intervention Strategy to Poverty Alleviation in Developing Economy. International
Entrepreneurship Forum. University of Essex, Jan. 2011. Web. 30 Sept. 2015. PDF file.
Shirima, Ludovick. "Alleviating Poverty Through Innovation and Entrepreneurship." Web. 29
Sept. 2015. PDF file.

New Sources
Bruton, Garry D, David Ahlstrom, and Steven Si. "Entrepreneurship, Poverty, and Asia: Moving
Beyond Subsistence Entrepreneurship." Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 32.1
(2015): 1-22. Print.
Burnett, Nicholas. "Education for Allan Imperative for Reducing Poverty." Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences. 1136.1 (2008): 269-275. Print.
Gien, Lan, Sharon Taylor, Ken Barter, Nguyen Tiep, Bui X. Mai, and Nguyen T. Lan.
"Education Article: Poverty Reduction by Improving Health and Social Services in
Vietnam." Nursing and Health Sciences. 9.4 (2007): 304-309. Print.
Huizinga, Daniel. "Fighting Poverty with Entrepreneurship." Consider Again. WordPress, 17
Jan. 2015. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Jacket. Summary. Nee, Victor, and Sonja Opper. Capitalism from Below: Markets and
Institutional Change in China. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2012. Print.


Jung, Suhyun, Seong-Hoon Cho, and Roland K. Roberts. "The Impact of Government Funding
of Poverty Reduction Programmes." Papers in Regional Science. 94.3 (2015). Print.
Obisanya, J.F, C.A.O Akinbami, and A.O Fayomi. Summary. "Entrepreneurship Education and
Undergraduates' Attitude to Self-Employment : a Case Study of a Nigerian University."
Ife Psychologia : an International Journal. 18.2 (2010): 87-107. Print.
Si, Steven, Xuebao Yu, Aiqi Wu, Shouming Chen, Song Chen, and Yiyi Su. "Entrepreneurship
and Poverty Reduction: a Case Study of Yiwu, China." Asia Pacific Journal of
Management. 32.1 (2015): 119-143. Print.
Song, Yang. "Poverty Reduction in China: the Contribution of Popularizing Primary Education."
China & World Economy. 20.1 (2012): 105-122. Print.
Trani, JF, P Bakhshi, AA Noor, D Lopez, and A Mashkoor. "Poverty, Vulnerability, and
Provision of Healthcare in Afghanistan." Social Science & Medicine (1982). 70.11
(2010): 1745-55. Print.