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Types of Electrical Protection

Relays or Protective Relays


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Under Electrical Protection

Definition of Protective Relay

A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of electrical circuit and
closes its contacts. These contacts in turns close and complete the circuit breaker trip
coil circuit hence make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of
the electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.

Now lets have a discussion on some terms related to protective relay.


Pickup level of actuating signal: The value of actuating quantity (voltage or current)
which is on threshold above which the relay initiates to be operated.
If the value of actuating quantity is increased, the electromagnetic effect of the relay
coil is increased and above a certain level of actuating quantity the moving mechanism
of the relay just starts to move.
Reset level: The value of current or voltage below which a relay opens its contacts and
comes in original position.
Operating time of relay -Just after exceeding pickup level of actuating quantity the
moving mechanism (for example rotating disc) of relay starts moving and it ultimately
close the relay contacts at the end of its journey. The time which elapses between the
instant when actuating quantity exceeds the pickup value to the instant when the relay
contacts close.
Reset time of relay The time which elapses between the instant when the actuating
quantity becomes less than the reset value to the instant when the relay contacts
returns to its normal position.
Reach of relay A distance relay operates whenever the distance seen by the relay is
less than the pre-specified impedance. The actuating impedance in the relay is the
function of distance in a distance protection relay. This impedance or corresponding
distance is called reach of the relay.
Power system protection relays can be categorized into different types of relays.

Types of Relays

Types of protection relays are mainly based on their characteristic, logic, on actuating
parameter and operation mechanism. Based on operation mechanism protection relay
can be categorized as electromagnetic relay, static relay and mechanical relay. Actually
relay is nothing but a combination of one or more open or closed contacts. These all or
some specific contacts the relay change their state when actuating parameters are
applied to the relay. That means open contacts become closed and closed contacts

become open. In electromagnetic relay these closing and opening of relay contacts are
done by electromagnetic action of a solenoid.
In mechanical relay these closing and opening of relay contacts are done by mechanical
displacement of different gear level system.
In static relay it is mainly done by semiconductor switches like thyristor. In digital relay
on and off state can be referred as 1 and 0 state.
Based on Characteristic the protection relay can be categorized as1.
Definite time relays
2.
Inverse time relays with definite minimum time(IDMT)
3.
Instantaneous relays.
4.
IDMT with inst.
5.
Stepped characteristic.
6.
Programmed switches.
7.
Voltage restraint over current relay.
Based on of logic the protection relay can be categorized as1.
Differential.
2.
Unbalance.
3.
Neutral displacement.
4.
Directional.
5.
Restricted earth fault.
6.
Over fluxing.
7.
Distance schemes.
8.
Bus bar protection.
9.
Reverse power relays.
10.
Loss of excitation.
11.
Negative phase sequence relays etc.
Based on actuating parameter the protection relay can be categorized as1.
Current relays.
2.
Voltage relays.
3.
Frequency relays.
4.
Power relays etc.
Based on application the protection relay can be categorized as1.
Primary relay.
2.
Backup relay.
Primary relay or primary protection relay is the first line of power system protection
whereas backup relay is operated only when primary relay fails to be operated during
fault. Hence backup relay is slower in action than primary relay. Any relay may fail to be
operated due to any of the following reasons,
1.
The protective relay itself is defective.
2.
DC Trip voltage supply to the relay is unavailable.
3.
Trip lead from relay panel to circuit breaker is disconnected.
4.
Trip coil in the circuit breaker is disconnected or defective.
5.
Current or voltage signals from CT or PT respectively is unavailable.
As because backup relay operates only when primary relay fails, backup protection
relay should not have anything common with primary protection relay.
Some examples of Mechanical Relay are1.
Thermal
(a) OT trip (Oil Temperature Trip) (b) WT trip (Winding Temperature Trip) (C) Bearing
temp trip etc.

2.
Float type
(a) Buchholz (b) OSR (c) PRV (d) Water level Controls etc.
3.
4.
5.

Pressure switches.
Mechanical interlocks.
Pole discrepancy relay.

List Different Protective Relays are used for Different Power System
Equipment Protection
Now lets have a look on which different protective relays are used in different power
system equipment protection schemes.
Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection
SL Lines to be protected Relays to be used

400 KV
Main-I: Non switched or Numerical Distance Scheme
Transmission Line Main-II: Non switched or Numerical Distance Scheme

Main-I : Non switched distance scheme (Fed from Bus


PTs)
220 KV
2
Main-II: Switched distance scheme (Fed from line CVTs)
Transmission Line
With a changeover facility from bus PT to line CVT and
vice-versa.
Main Protection : Switched distance scheme (fed from
bus PT).
132 KV
3
Backup Protection: 3 Nos. directional IDMT O/L Relays
Transmission Line
and
1 No. Directional IDMT E/L relay.
4 33 KV lines

Non-directional IDMT 3 O/L and 1 E/L relays.

5 11 KV lines

Non-directional IDMT 2 O/L and 1 E/L relays.

Relays for Transformer Protection


Voltage Ratio and
SL Capacity of
Transformer

1 11/132 KV
Generator
Transformer

Relays on HV Side

Relays on LV Side

Common Relays

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
1 no NonDirectional E/L

--

Differential
Relay or
Overall
differential
Relay

Relay
and/or standby E/F
+ REF Relay

Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

13.8/220 KV
15.75/220 KV
18/400 KV
2
21/400 KV
Generator
Transformer

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
1 no Non-Directional E/L
Relay
and/or standby E/F
+ REF Relay

Differential
Relay or
Overall
differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

220 /6.6KV
3 Station
Transformer

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay
3 nos Non1 no NonDirectional O/L
Directional E/L
Relay
Relay
and/or standby E/F
+ REF Relay

Differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay

Differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

Gen-volt/6.6KV
4
UAT

5 132/33/11KV upto 3 nos O/L Relay

3 nos NonDirectional O/L


Relay

2 nos O/L Relays Buchholz Relay

8 MVA

1 no E/L Relay

1 no E/L Relay

OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

3 nos O/L Relay


3 nos O/L Relay
1 no Directional E/L
1 no E/L Relay
Relay

Differential
Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

3 nos O/L Relay


3 nos O/L Relay
1 no Directional E/L
1 no E/L Relay
Relay

Differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

220/33 KV,
3 nos O/L Relay
3 nos O/L Relay
31.5MVA &
8
1 no Directional E/L 1 no Directional
50MVA 220/132KV,
Relay
E/L Relay
100 MVA

Differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

132/33/11KV
6 above 8 MVA &
below 31.5 MVA

132/33KV, 31.5
7
MVA & above

9 400/220KV
315MVA

3 nos Directional
3 nos Directional
O/L Relay
O/L Relay
(with dir.highset)
(with dir.highset)
1 no Directional E/L 1 no Directional
relay.
E/L relay.
Restricted E/F relay Restricted E/F

Differential
Relay
Overflux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz
Relay
PRV Relay

3 nos Directional
relay
O/L Relay for action

OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay
Over Load
(Alarm) Relay

Points to be remembered in respect of protection of transformers


1.
No Buchholz relay for transformers below 500 KVA capacity.
2.
Transformers up to 1500 KVA shall have only Horn gap protection.
3.
Transformers above 1500 KVA and upto 8000 KVA of 33/11KV ratio shall have
one group control breaker on HV side and individual LV breakers if there is more
than one transformer.
4.
Transformers above 8000 KVA shall have individual HV and LV circuit breakers.
5.
The relays indicate above shall be provided on HV and LV.
6.
LAs to be provided on HV & LV for transformers of all capacities and voltage
class.
7.
OLTC out of step protection is to be provided where master follower scheme is in
operation.
8.
Fans failure and pumps failure alarms to be connected.
9.
Alarms for O.T., W.T., Buchholz (Main tank & OLTC) should be connected.