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Chapter

2: Cells
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Parts of a cell
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Cell surface membrane/plasma membrane

a partially permeable membrane

function: control the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Cytoplasm

contains specialised structures -> organelles -> carry out many


functions in the cell

place where most cell activities occur

Nucleus

Parts:

Nuclear envelope (separates the contents of the nucleus


from the rest of the cytoplasm)

Nucleoplasm (dense material within the nucleus)

Nucleolus (making protein in the cell)

Chromatin (long thread-like structures found in the nucleus


each thread -> made up of DNA/deoxyribonucleic


acid

cell division -> thread condense -> chromosomes

functions: controls cell activities (cell growth, repair of worn-out


parts), essential for cell division

Cell wall (ONLY IN PLANT CELL)

encloses the entire plant cell

made of cellulose

functions: protect plant cell from injury, gives plant cell a fixed
shape

fully permeable membrane

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

network of flattened space lined with a membrane

rough surface -> ribosomes attached to its outer surface

outer surface -> continuous with the nuclear envelope

Ribosomes

small round structure

attached to the ER (RER) or lie freely in the cytoplasm

needed to synthesise proteins in the cell

ribosomes attached to ER -> proteins to be transported out


of the cell

ribosomes lying freely -> proteins used within the cell

Golgi apparatus

shape: disc

vesicles -> seen fusing from one side, pinching off from the other
side

functions: chemically modifies substances made by the ER, stores


and packages substances in vesicles to be transported out of the cell

HOW PROTEIN IS MADE AND TRANSPORTED IN A CELL


1. Vesicles containing proteins made by the ribosomes
attached to the ER pinched off from the RER
2. Vesicles fuse into Golgi apparatus + release contents ->
substances are then modified inside the Golgi apparatus
3. Secretory vesicles -> containing these substances -> pinched
off from the Golgi apparatus -> move to cell surface
membrane
4. Secretory vesicles -> fuse with cell surface membrane ->
release its contents outside the cell

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)

no ribosomes attached, more tubular than RER, connected to RER

functions:

synthesises fats and steroids

detoxification -> convert harmful substances into harmless


substances

Mitochondria

small, oval or sausage-shaped

functions: place where aerobic respiration of cells occur -> release


energy to perform cell activities -> eg, cell growth, reproduction

Chloroplasts

oval structures found in plant cells

contain green pigment -> chlorophyll -> essential for photosynthesis

Vacuoles

fluid-filled space enclosed by a membrane

ANIMAL: many small vacuoles, contains water and food


substances, exist temporarily

PLANT: large central vacuole, contains cell sap (dissolved


subs, eg. sugars, mineral salts, amino acids), enclosed by a
partially permeable membrane (tonoplast)

Specialised cells
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Red blood cell

contains haemoglobin (red pigment, binds with oxygen and


transport it round the body)

circular, biconcave shape (increases SA to V ratio, take in and


release oxygen at a faster rate)

no nucleus (can store more haemoglobin -> able to transport more


oxygen)

Xylem vessels

long hollow tubes, extends from root to leaves

narrow, no cross walls -> no obstruction of water flow through the


lumen

no protoplasm -> no resistance to water flow

walls thickened with lignin -> prevent collapse of vessel

Root hair cell

has a long and narrow root hair -> absorb water and mineral at a
faster rate

Level of organisation in living things


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Cells: building blocks of life

Tissues: group of similar cells which work together to perform a specific


function

Organs: a structure made of different tissues working together to perform a


specific function

Organ system: made up of several organs working together for a common


purpose