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Science refers to systematic observation of natural events and conditions in order to

discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles based on these facts. Its
also the organized body of knowledge that is derived from such observations and that
can be verified or tested by further investigation. The specific branch of this general
body of knowledge, such as biology, physics, geology, or astronomy.


Technology is a body of knowledge devoted to creating tools, processing actions and

extracting of materials. We use technology to accomplish various tasks in our daily
lives, in brief; we can describe technology as products, processes or organizations. We
use technology to extend our abilities, and that makes people as the most important
part of any technological system. Technology is also an application of science to solve
a problem. But what you have to know is that technology and science are different
subjects which work hand-in-hand to accomplish a specific task or solve a particular


Society refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture. Society
also used in the sense of a group such as rural society or urban society. But in
Sociology, Society refers not to a group of people but to the complex pattern of the
norms or interaction or relationships that arise among them. Rather society refers to the
complicated network of social relationships by which every individual is interrelated with
his fellowmen. Hence Society is abstract, not concrete, in nature. We cant touch it but
fill it. Because society resides in the minds of individual.

Basic science

Basic science or "pure" science seeks to expand knowledge regardless of the shortterm application of that knowledge. It is not focused on developing a product or a
service of immediate public or commercial value. The goal of basic science is increase

the knowledge base of a particular field of study. The research done solely to expand
the knowledge base science.


Applied science

Applied science is discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific
knowledge to practical problems. Moreover, applied science the problem is usually
defined for the researcher.


The old and new paradigms for learning science

The old paradigms know as linear which as basic science lead to applied science lead
to technology concept. Moreover, the new paradigms empirically verifiable route is
exactly the opposite, going from felt need lead to STS issues or problem lead to
technology needed lead to applied science to the basic science. The new paradigm
more concern about putting human concerns at the center and applied sciences
(including materials) outside that to become the first science encountered.


Nobel prizes

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of

categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural
and scientific advances.
The order in which Nobel named the themes determines the order in which the prizes
for science are handed over at the ceremony and the order in which the recipients

parade into the banquet that follows. There is no indication that the order actually
reflected a ranking of merit by Nobel. The tangible symbols of the Nobel Prize take
three forms cash, medal, and certificate.


Two tree theory

One tree refers for basic science and other for technology. This recognizes their distinct
intrinsic character and those they are nurtured separately by separate policies. Each
tree, when properly nourished, produces its own fruit. The basic science tree grows
Nobel Prizes, and the more complex. The applied science, engineering, technology tree
grows technology.


Science, technology and society education

This is an outlook on science education that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and
technological developments in their cultural, economic, social and political contexts. In
this view of science education, students are encouraged to engage in issues pertaining
to the impact of science on everyday life and make responsible decisions about how to
address such issues.

10. Innovations
Innovation is a new idea, device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the
application of better solutions that meet new requirements, in articulated needs, or
existing market needs. This is accomplished through more effective products,
processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets,
governments and society.


Bishop, J.M (2003). How To Win The Nobel Prize : An Unexpected Life in Science.
London : Harvard University Press.

Chubin, D.E. & Kumar, D.D. (Eds) (2000). Science, Technology and Society: A
sourcebook on research and practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum