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12 IPT

Intro

Information Systems & Databases


Information Systems
An information system is an arrangement of components that are integrated in order to fulfil the
information needs of an organization. Information systems can be placed into two groups:
Personal information systems that serve the needs of an individual
Group information systems that serve the needs of organizations and people in the community.

Characteristics of an Information system

Data is raw facts.

Information is data organised in a way that gives data meaning.

Organising involves structuring data in some way sorting, grouping, indexing, summarising,
listing, tabling.

Analysing is the extraction of specific information from data by synthesis, hierarchies or


priority listing, questioning or querying, reporting.

The creation of information from data is called information processing.

Knowledge comes from the analysis of information (organised data), by seeing patterns, trends
or changes in the data.

Information systems:
1. Organise data to give information.
2. Analyse information to give knowledge.

Types and Purposes of Information systems:

(refer to pg 37, Powers text)

In general, information systems belong to a few broad types:


Type

Resources and
processes used

Purpose

Example

Transaction Processing
systems (TPS)
Decision Support
systems (DSS)
Management
Information systems
(MIS)
Office Automation
systems (OAS)
From Wilson text pg 33

There are a range of other information systems that may support or extend the four major types of
information system.
Type

Resources and
processes used

Purpose

Example

Production information
systems
Marketing Information
systems
Info Systems & Databases

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12 IPT

Intro

Expert systems

Examples of Database Information Systems


1. Examine the three examples given on pages 3339 of the Ware text. From your reading,
construct an Information system in Context diagram for each of them, one per A4 page.
2. Answer the Activities questions 1-5 from page 39 of the text.

Basic data organization methods


Manual Methods
Provide notes on this from class discussion of the text material. Pg39 41. Teacher Res: Wilson Pg )
Advantages

Disadvantages

Computer-based Methods
Computer-based information systems offer many advantages over manual versions:
Advantages
Faster

Disadvantages
Requires a computer and power

Software specifically designed to organise data and produce information falls into three broad
categories:
flat-file database management systems
relational database management systems
hypermedia systems
Database Activity:
Create an AppleWorks database file to demonstrate some of the features of flat-file database
management systems. An address book system will be created (will contain these fields: FName,
LName, StreetAddress, Suburb, postcode, PhoneNo).
Teacher directed construction, with explanation of elements as it is developed. That is, fields, naming
fields, selection of data types for fields and its importance, sorting data, layout (user interface)
Flat-file database management systems
List the features of these systems:

What?

Describe them.

Examples?

Name examples of software used to create and manipulate them

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Intro

Use?

Info Systems & Databases

What are they most suitable for?

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12 IPT

Intro

Relational database management systems


List the features of these systems:

What?

Describe them.

Examples?

Name examples of software used to create and manipulate them

Use?

What are they most suitable for?

Hypermedia systems
List the features of these systems:

What?

Describe them.

Examples?

Name examples of software used to create and manipulate them

Use?

What are they most suitable for?

Answer Ques 4 & 5 from Activity in text, page 46

Which System to use?


Read text (Ware, et al) and answer Activity question 1,3,4-6 from pg 46.
Generally manual methods will be more efficient when:
Instant access is required and portability
Task is simple and involves small quantities of data that doesnt change quickly.
Choosing between the computer-based methods rests on:
If the data has to be widely distributed but little or no processing will be needed - Hypermedia
If there are relationships involving data from more than one database - Relational DBMS
If basic processing operations are needed on a simple to learn and use system Flat file DBMS
Growing trend toward the use of web-based applications for computers. The main reasons are because
this provides access to from any location, no need to buy the information management software.
Examples of this are the calendar/appointments diary provided by Yahoo, Book-marking software?

Info Systems & Databases

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12 IPT

Intro

Logical organization of a database


Flat File
A flat file database has a simple top-down structure, which consists of:
Database
File
Record
Field
Key field (other keys such as a single key, composite key and secondary keys also allow sorting
and retrieval of information)
Character
** provide Powers text pg 43 46 for additional reference with both DB
Activity:
Describe each of these components and identify them on a diagram using labels and
arrows. Copy and paste a screen shot of your address database in Table and Form view from the
previous Flat file database activity to complete this activity.
Relational DBMS
A relational database is made by linking two or more databases together. Each database has the same
logical structure as a normal flat file database (file, records, fields, a key field, and characters).
However, it also needs items that describe the relations (the links and the new data structures they
create):
Schemas consisting of
o Relationship
o Attributes
o Entity
o Calculated field
o Foreign key
Tables - the implementation of entities which consist of
o Attributes
o Records
Views of the data for different purposes
o Forms
o List
o Table

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