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AVIATION MECHANIC GENERAL

COURSE NOTES AND FAA FIGURES


2013 King Schools, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
KSI000A10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
COURSE NOTES
Mathematics .................................................................................................... 1
Aircraft Weight and Balance ............................................................................ 8
Reading Graphs and Charts ........................................................................... 13
Aircraft Drawings ............................................................................................ 15
Aircraft Materials and Processes .................................................................... 18
Aircraft Hardware ........................................................................................... 22
Physics ........................................................................................................... 24
Fluid Lines and Fittings .................................................................................. 26
Fuels and Fuel Systems ................................................................................. 28
Basic Electricity .............................................................................................. 29
Inspection Fundamentals ............................................................................... 42
Measuring Devices ......................................................................................... 50
Ground Handling, Safety, and Support Equipment ........................................ 52
LEARNING STATEMENT CODES
http://www.kingschools.com/AMELearningStatementCodes.asp#General
FAA FIGURES PAGES
FAA Figures .................................................................................... Appendix 1
FAA ADDENDUM A
FAA Figures .................................................................................. Addendum A

Appendix 1
FIGURES
FIGURE 1.Equation....................................................................................1
FIGURE 2.Equation....................................................................................2
FIGURE 3.Equation....................................................................................3
FIGURE 4.Circuit Diagram .........................................................................4
FIGURE 5.Formula.....................................................................................5
FIGURE 6.Circuit Diagram .........................................................................6
FIGURE 7.Circuit Diagram .........................................................................7
FIGURE 8.Circuit Diagram .........................................................................8
FIGURE 9.Circuit Diagram .........................................................................9
FIGURE 10.Battery Circuit .........................................................................10
FIGURE 11.Circuit Diagram .......................................................................11
FIGURE 12.Circuit Diagram .......................................................................12
FIGURE 13.Circuit Diagram .......................................................................13
FIGURE 14.Circuit Diagram .......................................................................14
FIGURE 15.Landing Gear Circuit ...............................................................15
FIGURE 16.Fuel System Circuit .................................................................16
FIGURE 17.Electrical Symbols ..................................................................17
FIGURE 18.Landing Gear Circuit ...............................................................18
FIGURE 19.Landing Gear Circuit ...............................................................19
FIGURE 20.Circuit Diagram .......................................................................20
FIGURE 21.Electrical Symbols ..................................................................21
FIGURE 22.Transistors ..............................................................................22
FIGURE 23.Transistorized Circuit ..............................................................23
FIGURE 24.Logic Gate ..............................................................................24
FIGURE 25.Logic Gate ..............................................................................25
FIGURE 26.Logic Gate ..............................................................................26
FIGURE 27.Object Views ...........................................................................27
FIGURE 28.Object Views ...........................................................................28

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FIGURESContinued
FIGURE 29.Object Views........................................................................... 29
FIGURE 30.Object Views........................................................................... 30
FIGURE 31.Sketches ................................................................................. 30
FIGURE 32.Sketches ................................................................................. 32
FIGURE 33.Material Symbols .................................................................... 33
FIGURE 34.Aircraft Drawing ...................................................................... 34
FIGURE 35.Aircraft Drawing ...................................................................... 35
FIGURE 36.Aircraft Drawing ...................................................................... 36
FIGURE 37.Aircraft Drawing ...................................................................... 37
FIGURE 38.Performance Chart ................................................................. 38
FIGURE 39.Electric Wire Chart ................................................................. 39
FIGURE 40.Cable Tension Chart............................................................... 40
FIGURE 41.Performance Chart ................................................................. 41
FIGURE 42.Aircraft Hardware .................................................................... 42
FIGURE 43.Aircraft Hardware .................................................................... 43
FIGURE 44.Welds .................................................................................... 44
FIGURE 45.Welds .................................................................................... 45
FIGURE 46.Precision Measurement ......................................................... 46
FIGURE 47.Precision Measurement ......................................................... 47
FIGURE 48.Precision Measurement ......................................................... 48
FIGURE 49.Precision Measurement ......................................................... 49
FIGURE 50.Marshalling Signals ............................................................... 50
FIGURE 51.Marshalling Signals ............................................................... 51
FIGURE 52.Equation ................................................................................ 52
FIGURE 53.Equation ................................................................................ 53
FIGURE 54.Trapezoid Area ...................................................................... 54
FIGURE 55.Triangle Area ......................................................................... 55
FIGURE 56.Trapezoid Area ...................................................................... 56

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FIGURESContinued
FIGURE 57.Triangle Area ........................................................................ 57
FIGURE 58.Equation ................................................................................ 58
FIGURE 59.Equation ................................................................................ 59
FIGURE 60.Equation ................................................................................ 60
FIGURE 61.Physics .................................................................................. 61
FIGURE 62.Part 1 of 3 Maintenance Data ............................................ 62
FIGURE 62A.Part 2 of 3 Maintenance Data .......................................... 63
FIGURE 62B.Part 3 of 3 Maintenance Data .......................................... 64
FIGURE 63.Airworthiness Directive Excerpt ............................................ 65
FIGURE 64.Resistance Total ................................................................... 66
FIGURE 65.Scientific Notation ................................................................. 67
FIGURE 66.Equation ................................................................................ 68
FIGURE 67.Equation ................................................................................ 69
FIGURE 68.Alternative Answer ................................................................ 70
FIGURE 69.Equation ................................................................................ 71
FIGURE 70.Alternative Answer ................................................................ 72
FIGURE 71.Volume of a Sphere .............................................................. 73

Addendum A
FIGURES
FIGURE 1.Electric Wire Chart (Replaces Fig.39 from Appendix 1) ................1
FIGURE 2.Precision Measurement (Replaces Fig.46 from Appendix 1) ........2
FIGURE 3.Precision Measurement (Replaces Fig.49 from Appendix 1) ........3
FIGURE 4.Triangle Area (Replaces Fig.55 from Appendix 1) ........................4
FIGURE 5.Triangle Area (Replaces Fig.57 from Appendix 1) ........................5

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COURSE NOTES

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MATHEMATICS
EXAMPLE - What is equal to the square root
of (-1776) / (-2) 632? (16)
(8541)

POWERS
THE CUBE OF A NUMBER - is that number
raised to the 3rd power. That means the number is
used as a factor 3 times.

THE CUBE OF 64 - is written as 643.


64 x 64 x 64 = 262,144

(8384)

3-4 MEANS - 1 is to be divided by 3 a total of 4


times.
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION - is a way to represent
any decimal number with a number between 1 and
10 raised to specific power of ten.

[888 632 ]

[256]

= 16

( 31 ) + ( 43 ) 17 2 =

( 31 ) +

( 43 )

=
17 2
6.56
5.57 +
=
289
5.57 + 0.02 = 5.59

EXAMPLE - Figure 65
3.47 x 104 = 34,700
(8540)

THE SQUARE ROOT OF A NUMBER - is a


smaller number that, when multiplied by itself, will
produce the larger number.

POWERS OF 10
For powers of 10, move the decimal to the right:

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of 1,746?


(41.7852 - use electronic calculator.)
(8380)

101 = 10
102 = 10x10 = 100
3
10 = 10x10x10 = 1,000
4
10 = 10x10x10x10 = 10,000
5
10 = 10x10x10x10x10 = 100,000
6
10 = 10x10x10x10x10x10 = 1,000,000

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of


3,722.1835? (61.0097 - use electronic calculator.)
(8382)
EXAMPLE - 8,019.0514 x 1/81 is equal to the
square root of what number? (9801.)
(8383)
8,019.0514 x 1/81 =
8,019.0514 81 = 99
To find out what 99 is the square root of, you first
need to square 99.
992 = 9,801

For negative powers of 10, move the decimal to


the left:
1

10 = 10
0
10 = 1
-1
10 = 1/10 = 0.1
-2
10 = 1/10x10 = 0.01
-3
10 = 1/10x10x10 = 0.001
-4
10 = 1/10x10x10x10 = 0.0001
-5
10 = 1/10x10x10x10x10 = 0.00001
-6
10 = 1/10x10x10x10x10x10 = 0.000001
etc.

EXAMPLE What is equal to the square root of


3844? (31(2) + 7 + (-3.5 x 2))
(8593)
31(2) + 7 + (-3.5 x 2) =
62 + 7 7 = 62

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EXAMPLE Figure 70. Which alternative


(8594)
answer is equal to 5.59? (1)

3-4 = 1/(3 x 3 x 3 x 3) = 1/81

2(410 ) = 2,097,152

( 1776 )
632]
( 2)

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

EXAMPLE - What power of 10 is equal to


1,000,000? (10 to the sixth power - refer to
(8379)
table above.)

EXAMPLE - What is the result of 7 raised to the


third power plus the square root of 39?
(8392)
(349.24)

7 x 7 x 7 = 343 on calculator.
Square root of 39 = 6.24 on calculator.
343 + 6.24 = 349.24

EXAMPLE - what power of 10 is equal to


1,000,000,000? (10 to the ninth power.) (8557)
EXAMPLE - What is the value of 10 raised to
the negative sixth power? (0.000001 - refer to
(8385)
table above.)

CONVERTING FRACTIONS TO
DECIMALS

EXAMPLE - What is an alternative answer that


is equal to 16,300? (1.63 x 10 to the fourth
(8388)
power.)

Divide the numerator by the denominator.


EXAMPLE - What decimal is most nearly equal
(8426)
to a bend radius of 31/64? (0.4844)

1 6, 3 0 0.0
1 6, 3 0 0.0 x 100
1. 6 3 0 0 x 104
1. 6 3 x 104

Divide 31 by 64 on calculator.
EXAMPLE - The radius of a piece of round
stock is 7/32. What decimal is most nearly
(8428)
equal to the diameter? (0.4375)

EXAMPLE - What is the number 3.47 x 10 to


the negative fourth power also equal to?
(8387)
(0.000347)

Two times the radius = diameter.


2 x 7/32 = 14/32
Divide 14 by 32 on calculator.

-4

3. 4 7 x 10
-4
0 0 0 3. 4 7 x 10
0
0.0 0 0 3 4 7 x 10
0.0 0 0 3 4 7

EXAMPLE - What decimal is equal to 39/32?


(8410)
(1.21875)

Divide 39 by 32 on calculator.
EXAMPLE - What decimal is most nearly equal
(8418)
to 77/64? (1.2031)

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of


124.9924? (11.18 and also 1,118 x 10 to the
(8389)
negative second power.)

Divide 77 by 64 on calculator.
EXAMPLE - What decimal is equivalent of the
fraction 43/32? (1.34375)

Square root of 124.9924 = 11.18 on


the calculator.
0
11.18 x 10
-2
1,118 x 10

Divide 43 by 32 on calculator.

CONVERTING DECIMALS TO
FRACTIONS

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of 1,824?


(42.708 and also 0.42708 x 10 to the second
(8393)
power.)

Work backwards from the answer


converting the fractions to decimals.

Square root of 1,824 = 42.708 on calculator.


0
42.708 x 10
2
0.42708 x 10

choices

EXAMPLE - Which fraction is equal to 0.025?


A. 1/4.
B. 1/400.
C. 1/40.

COMBINED ROOTS AND POWERS

(8409)

Answer choice "C", 1/40, is correct.

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of 16


(8390)
raised to the fourth power? (256)

EXAMPLE - What is the fractional equivalent


(8416)
for a 0.0625-thick sheet of aluminum?

Square root of 16 = 4 on calculator.


4 x 4 x 4 x 4 = 256.

A. 1/32.
B. 3/64.
C. 1/16.

EXAMPLE - What is the square root of 4 raised


(8386)
to the fifth power? (32)

For each answer choice convert the fraction to a


decimal and match the results to the decimal in
the question.

Square root of 4 = 2 on calculator.


2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 32.

Answer choice "C", 1/16, is correct.

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

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EXAMPLE - A blueprint shows a hole of


0.17187 to be drilled. Which fraction size drill
(8425)
bit is most nearly equal?

64 3 3
=
1 8 4
64 3 4
=
1 8 3
8 3 4
=
1 1 3
8 4 = 32

A. 11/64.
B. 9/32.
C. 11/32.

For each answer choice convert the fraction to a


decimal and match the results to the decimal in
the question.

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:


(32 3/8) (1/6) =

Answer choice "A", 11/64, is correct.

32

3 1
=
8 6
32 3 6
=
1 8 1
4 3 6 = 72

SOLVING EQUATIONS
Use a calculator.
Account for negative signs and decimal points.
Do operations starting with innermost parentheses
first.

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:


2/4(-30 + 34)5 =

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:


4 3[6(2 + 3 ) + 4] =

(8439)

4 3[ 30 + 4] =

4 3[ 26] =
4 + 78 = 82

4 125

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:

6 36

(8440)

125 36

4
6
125
6

4
36
125 1

4
6
125
24

6[ 36 20 ] =

6 [16 ] = 96

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:

[ ( 4 3) + ( 9 2) ] 2 =
( 4 3 ) + ( 9 2)

(8432)

=
2
( 12) + ( 18 )
=
2
30
= 15
2

(8438)

=
=
=
= 5.20

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:


(-3 + 2)(-12 - 4) + (-4 + 6) x 3 =

16 + 6 = 22
(8433)

(8558)

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation.

( 100 +

(10

Return to Table of Contents

(8441)

(-1)(-16) + (2) x 3 =

EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:


(64 3/8) (3/4) =

(8436)

1 4 5
=
2 1 1
1 2 5
= 10
1 1 1
EXAMPLE - Solve the equation:

4 3[ 6( 5) + 4] =

6[9(8 + 4)2(7 + 3)] =


6[ 9 ( 4 ) 2 (10 ) ] =

(8434)

36

16 )

+ 6 4 ) = 12

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

AREA OF A TRIANGLE

EXAMPLE - Figure 60. Solve the equation:

( 5 + 23)( 2) + (3 3 )( 64 )
27 9

Area =

(8442)

EXAMPLE - Figure 55. What is the area of the


(8397)
triangle shown?

(18)( 2) + 3 3 3 ( 8)
3

1
( 4 in.3 in.)
2
12
Area =
= 6 square inches
2
Area =

8
36 +
27 =
3
36 + 0.296
=
3
35.704
= 119
.
3

EXAMPLE - Figure 57. What is the area of the


triangle formed by points A, B, and C?
A to B = 7.5 inches
A to D = 16.8 inches

EXAMPLE - Figure 53. Solve the equation:


31 +

(1 7

43

( 35 + 25)( 7) + (162 )
25

Area =

AREA OF A TRAPEZOID
Area = height

Area = 5 ft.

1
( 21)
2
Area = 5 10.5 = 52.5 square feet

EXAMPLE - Figure 56. What is the area of the


(8401)
trapezoid?
1
Area = 2 ft. ( 6 ft. + 4 ft.)
2
Area = 2 5 = 10 square feet

EXAMPLE - Figure 52. Solve the equation:

( 4 )

+6+

( 1296 )( 3 )

1
(12 ft. + 9 ft.)
2

Area = 5

1
)
70 + ( 3.1416
256 =
5
70 + ( 3.1416 0.0039)
=
5
70 + 0.0123
= 14.00
5

1
(sum of the bases)
2

EXAMPLE - Figure 54. What is the area of the


(8395)
trapezoid?

(8437)

( 10)( 7) + 3.1416 16 16

(8402)

1
(16.8 in. 7.5 in.)
2
126
Area =
= 63 square inches
2

(8391)

5.5678 + 6.5574
=
289
12.1252
= 0.04195
289
EXAMPLE - Figure 50. Solve the equation:

1
( base height)
2

AREA OF A CUBE

(8381)

Use the formula for area to find the area of one


side of the cube and then multiply by 6.

1 + 6 + (6 3) =

EXAMPLE - What is the surface area of a cube


where a side (edge) measures 7.25 inches?
(8592)

1 + 6 + 18 =
25 = 5

6 (l w ) = area
6 (7.25 7.25) =
6 52.5625 = 315.375 sq. in.

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

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EXAMPLE - How many gallons of fuel will be


contained in a rectangular-shaped tank which
measures 2 feet in width, 3 feet in length, and 1
(8404)
foot 8 inches in depth?

VOLUME OF A SPHERE
EXAMPLE Figure 71. What is the volume of a
(8595)
sphere with a radius of 4.5 inches?
1/ 6 D 3 = V

(7.5 gal. = 1 cu. ft.)

3.14159 9
=
6
3.14159 729
=
6
2290.22
= 381.70 cubic inches
6

Volume = 3 ft. 2 ft. 1

20
ft.
12
Volume = 10 cu. ft.
7.5 gal.
Volume = 10 cu. ft.
1 cu. ft.
Volume = 75 gallons
Volume = 3 2

VOLUME OF RECTANGULAR SHAPED


FUEL TANKS

EXAMPLE - What container size in cubic feet


will be equal in volume to 60 gallons of fuel?

Volume = length width depth


Convert the units as required.

(8400)

(7.5 gal. = 1 cu. ft.)

EXAMPLE - A rectangular-shaped fuel tank


measures 37-1/2 inches in length, 14 inches in
width, and 8-1/4 inches in depth. How many
(8407)
cubic inches are within the tank?

Size = 60 7.5
Size = 8.0 cubic feet

CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE

Volume = 37.5 in. x 14 in. x 8.25 in.


Volume = 4,331.25 cubic inches

EXAMPLE - What size sheet of metal is


required to fabricate a cylinder 20 inches long
(8396)
and 8 inches in diameter?

EXAMPLE - A rectangular-shaped fuel tank


measures 60 inches in length, 30 inches in
width, and 12 inches in depth. How many cubic
(8399)
feet are within the tank?

Note: C = D
A. 20" x 25-5/32".
B. 20" x 24-9/64".
C. 20" x 25-9/64".

60 30 12

12 12 12
Volume = 5 ft. 2.5 ft. 1ft.
Volume =

C = 3.1416 x 8 in. = 25.1328 in.


Note: 9/64 = 0.140625
5/32 = 0.15625

Volume = 12.5 cubic feet

Convert the fractions of the 25 inch lengths in the


answer choices to decimals and choose the one
just long enough to fabricate the piece.

EXAMPLE - A rectangular-shaped fuel tank


measures 27-1/2 inches in length, 3/4 foot in
width, and 8-1/4 inches in depth. How many
gallons will the tank contain?
(231 cu. in. = 1 gal.)

8
ft.
12

Correct answer is "C", 20" x 25-9/64".

PISTON DISPLACEMENT

(8405)

Area of a circle = R 2
D
R=
2

Volume = 27.5 in. (3 / 4 12) in. 8.25 in.


Volume = 27.5 in. 9 in. 8.25 in.
1 gal.
Volume = 2,042 cu. in.
231 cu. in.
Volume = 8.8 gallons

Engine Displacement =
2

bore
Stroke No. of cylinders
2

THE TOTAL PISTON DISPLACEMENT OF A


SPECIFIC ENGINE - is the volume displaced by
all the pistons during one revolution of the
crankshaft.
(8394)

Return to Table of Contents

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

EXAMPLE - What is the piston displacement of


a master cylinder with a 1.5-inch diameter bore
(8403)
and a piston stroke of 4 inches?

Comp. Ratio =

84 6
=
14 1
Comp. Ratio = 6 to 1
Comp. Ratio =

D
Disp. = Stroke No. of cylinders
2
2

.
15
Disp. = 3.1416 4 1
2

EXAMPLE - What is the ratio of 10 feet to 30


(8430)
inches?

Disp. = 3.1416 (0.75) 4 1


Disp. = 3.1416 0.5625 4 1
Disp. = 7.0686 cubic inches
2

10 12 120 4
=
= = 4:1
30
30
1

EXAMPLE - What is the ratio of a gasoline fuel


load of 200 gallons to one of 1,680 pounds?
(8435)

EXAMPLE - A four-cylinder aircraft engine has


a cylinder bore of 3.78 inches and is 8.5 inches
deep. With the piston on bottom center, the
top of the piston measures 4.0 inches from the
bottom of the cylinder. What is the
approximate piston displacement of this
(8406)
engine?

Note: Gasoline weighs 6.0 pounds per gallon.


200 6 1200 60 5
=
=
=
1680
1680 84 7

Ratio = 5:7

D
Disp. = Stroke No. of cylinders
2

EXAMPLE - What is the speed ratio of a gear


with 36 teeth meshed to a gear with 20 teeth?
(8420)
20 10
=
=9:5
36 18

3.78
Disp. = 3.1416
(8.5 4.0) 4
2
Disp. = 3.1416 (189
. ) 4.5 4
Disp. = 3.1416 3.5721 4.5 4
Disp. = 202 cubic inches
2

Note: The gear with the most teeth would be


turning the slower of the two.

EXAMPLE - A six-cylinder engine has a bore of


3.5 inches, a cylinder height of 7 inches, and a
stroke of 4.5 inches. What is the total piston
(8408)
displacement?

PROPORTION
A proportion is a statement of equality between
two or more ratios.

EXAMPLE - An airplane flying a distance of 750


miles used 60 gallons of gasoline. How many
gallons will it need to travel 2,500 miles? (8419)

D
Disp. = Stroke No. of cylinders
2
2

3.5
Disp. = 3.1416
4.5 6
2

60 gal.
? gal.
=
750 mi.
2500 mi.
750 ? = 60 2500
60 2500
? gal. =
= 200 gallons
750

Disp. = 3.1416 (175


. ) 4.5 6
Disp. = 3.1416 3.0625 4.5 6
Disp. = 259.77 cubic inches
2

RATIOS

GEAR SPEEDS

Divide the first term by the second term, and then


reduce the resulting fraction to its lowest terms.

Use the following proportion equation:


Teeth driving RPM driven
=
Teeth driven RPM driving

EXAMPLE - If the volume of a cylinder with the


piston at bottom center is 84 cubic inches and
the piston displacement is 70 cubic inches,
(8411)
what is the compression ratio?

Comp. Ratio =

84
(84 - 70)

( Volume of piston at bottom)


( Volume of piston at top)

MATHEMATICS - NOTES

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EXAMPLE - What is the speed of a spur gear


with 42 teeth driven by a pinion gear with 14
(8421,8413)
teeth turning 420 RPM?

EXAMPLE - If an engine is turning 1,965 RPM


at 65 percent power, what is its maximum
(8423)
RPM?

To solve this problem you must presume that


power is directly proportional to RPM.

14 teeth
? RPM
=
42 teeth
420 RPM
14 420 5880
? RPM =
=
= 140 RPM
42
42

Max RPM 1965


RPM
,
=
100%
65%
65 x Max RPM = 100 x 1,965
100 1965
,
Max RPM =
65
Max RPM = 3,023

FRACTIONS AS PERCENTAGE
Convert the fraction to a decimal. Move the
decimal two places to the right. Affix the percent
symbol.
EXAMPLE - Express 5/8 as a percent.

EXAMPLE - An engine develops 108


horsepower at 87 percent power. What
horsepower would be developed at 65 percent
(8414)
power?

(8417)

5/8 = 0.625 = 62.5%


EXAMPLE - Express 7/8 as a percent.

(8412)

108 HP ? HP
=
87%
65%
? HP 87% = 108 HP 65%

7/8 = 0.875 = 87.5%


EXAMPLE - Sixty-five
percent of 80 engines?

engines

are

what
(8427)

? HP =

65/80 = 0.8125 = 81%


EXAMPLE - Maximum life for a certain part is
1100 hours. Recently, 15 of these parts were
removed from different aircraft with an average
life of 835.3 hours. What percent of the
maximum engine life has been achieved?
(8429)

108 HP 65%
= 80.69 HP
87%

EXAMPLE - The parts department's profit is 12


percent on a new part. How much does the
part cost if the selling price is $145.60? (8422)

Solution with profit based on cost:


$145.60 = 100% cost + 12% cost
$145.60 = 112% cost
$145.60
Cost =
= $130.00
1.12

835.3
= 0.76 = 76%
1100

OTHER PERCENTAGE PROBLEMS


EXAMPLE - An engine of 98 horsepower
maximum is running at 75 percent power.
What is the horsepower being developed?(8424)

75% of 98 HP =
0.75 x 98 HP = 73.5 HP

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MATHEMATICS - NOTES

AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE


are occupied, the full baggage weight is on board
and all the fuel tanks are full.
(8539)

PURPOSE
FAA REGULATIONS DO NOT REQUIRE private aircraft to be weighed periodically or after
any alteration. Their new weight and balance is
normally calculated mathematically.
(8158)

ZERO FUEL WEIGHT


ZERO FUEL WEIGHT - is the maximum
permissible weight of a loaded aircraft
(passengers, crew, and cargo) without fuel.(8167)

WEIGHT CHANGES OCCUR IN AGING


AIRCRAFT mainly because of repairs and
alterations done over its lifetime.
(8538)

DATUM
THE DATUM IS AN IMAGINARY VERTICAL
PLANE - from which all horizontal measurements
are taken for balance purposes.

EMPTY WEIGHT
WHEN YOURE DOING AIRCRAFT LOADING
COMPUTATIONS youll need information from
the weight and balance records of your aircraft to
get the current empty weight and also the empty
weight center of gravity (CG).
(8597)

IF THE REFERENCE DATUM LINE - is placed at


the nose of an airplane rather than at the firewall
or some other location aft of the nose, all
measurement arms will be in positive numbers.
(8166)

THE EMPTY WEIGHT OF AN AIRCRAFT


INCLUDES - all operating equipment that has a
fixed location and is actually installed.

ARM
THE ARM IS THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE that an object is located from the datum.

THE AMOUNT OF FUEL - used for computing


empty weight and corresponding CG is unusable
fuel.
(8176,8607)

THE LENGTH OF THE ARM (DISTANCE) - is


always given or measured in inches.
(8161)

FOR AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATED UNDER


CURRENT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS (14
CFR PART 23) - all the oil contained in the supply
tank is considered part of the empty weight. (This
became effective March 1, 1978.)
(8171)

FUSELAGE STATION NUMBERS - are used to


identify the arm distance in inches from the datum
or some other point chosen by the manufacturer.
(Station numbers are often used to identify the
location of parts.)
(8107)

USEFUL LOAD

MOMENT

THE USEFUL LOAD OF AN AIRCRAFT - consists


of the crew, usable fuel, passengers, and cargo.
(8155)

THE MOMENT IS THE PRODUCT - of a weight


multiplied by its arm. Given any two items (weight,
arm, or moment) the third number can be
calculated.

THE USEFUL LOAD OF AN AIRCRAFT - is the


difference between the maximum gross weight
and the empty weight.
(8170)

EXAMPLE - If a 40-pound generator applies


+1400-inch pounds to a reference axis, where
is the generator located?
(8182)

MAXIMUM WEIGHT
THE MAXIMUM WEIGHT OF AN AIRCRAFT - is
the maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and
its contents. Or, in other words, empty weight plus
useful load.
(8163,8169)

ARM =

CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)

THE MAXIMUM WEIGHT - as used in weight and


balance control of a given aircraft, can normally be
found in the Aircraft Specification or Type
Certificate Data Sheet.
(8173)

THE CG OF AN AIRCRAFT IS A POINT - about


which the nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments are
exactly equal.
IF AN AIRCRAFT WERE SUSPENDED FROM
THIS POINT - it would remain level.

THE MAXIMUM TAKEOFF WEIGHT will be


exceeded in most modern aircraft if all the seats

WEIGHT & BALANCE - NOTES

MOMENT +1400
=
= +35 inches
WEIGHT
40

Return to Table of Contents

WHEN COMPUTING WEIGHT AND BALANCE an airplane is considered to be in balance when


the average moment arm of the loaded airplane
falls within its CG range.
(8153)

WEIGHING AN AIRCRAFT POSITIONED - on


landing gear wheels requires the parking brake to
be released to reduce the possibility of side loads
that could give incorrect readings.
(8596)

REMOVAL OF ANY ITEM OF USEFUL LOAD will affect the center of gravity in proportion to its
weight and its location. Since the item being
removed is aft of the center of gravity, removing it
will move the center of gravity forward.
(8546)

FINDING EMPTY WEIGHT


THE WEIGHING POINTS USED - must be clearly
indicated on the aircraft weighing form. (The arm
values used in the computations are based on
those locations.)
(8165)

MAC, LEMAC, AND TEMAC

THE EMPTY WEIGHT OF AN AIRPLANE - is


determined by subtracting the tare weight from the
scale reading, and then adding the weight of each
weighing point. (Tare weight consists of items like
chocks, supports, etc.)
(8168)

THE CHORD OF A WING IS THE DISTANCE from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The
MAC or Mean Aerodynamic Chord occurs when
the chord is through the center of the wing plan
area of a sweptback wing. The CG range is a
percentage of the MAC. This measurement is
determined in inches aft of the datum or datum
line.
(8543)

EMPTY WEIGHT CG
EXAMPLE - What is the empty weight CG?
(8186)
GIVEN:
Combined net wt. at main gears
3,540 lb.
Arm of main gears
195.5 in.
Net weight at nose gear
2,322 lb.
Arm of nose gear
83.5 in.
Datum line
Forward of nose

THE FRONT OR LEADING EDGE - of MAC is


LEMAC and it is the distance of the leading edge
of the mean aerodynamic chord from the datum.
The back or trailing edge of MAC is TEMAC and is
the distance of the trailing edge of the mean
aerodynamic chord from the datum. The center of
gravity on this aircraft is 24% of MAC, which is the
distance from LEMAC.
(8544)

SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM
TOTAL MOMENT
CG =
TOTAL WEIGHT

AIRCRAFT LEVELING
TO OBTAIN USEFUL WEIGHT DATA FOR
DETERMINING THE CG - it is necessary that an
aircraft be weighed in a level flight attitude. (8160)

WEIGH POINT WT. x ARM


Main Gears
3,540
195.5
83.5
Nose Gear
2,322
TOTALS
5,862

THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO LEVEL AN


AIRCRAFT. The method with the highest degree
of accuracy is the spirit level.
(8549)

TOTAL MOMENT 885,957


=
=
TOTAL WEIGHT
5,862
CG = 151.1 inches.
CG =

AIRCRAFT WEIGHING PROCEDURE


IF THE AIRCRAFT'S WEIGHT AND BALANCE
RECORDS BECOME LOST - destroyed, or
otherwise inaccurate, the only way the empty
weight can be determined is by reweighing the
aircraft.
(8156)

EMPTY WEIGHT CG WITH


EXTRA ITEMS ON BOARD
EXAMPLE - What is the empty weight CG?
(8184,8191)
GIVEN:
Datum forward of main gear
30.24 in.
Tail gear to main gear distance
360.26 in.
Net weight at right main gear
9,980 lb.
Net weight at left main gear
9,770 lb.
Net weight at tail gear
1,970 lb.

WHEN WEIGHING AN AIRPLANE - for the


purpose of finding the CG, the weighing points are
projected on the floor with a chalk line. When
measuring the distances or arms of these lines,
the tape must be parallel to the centerline of the
airplane.
(8548)
PRIOR TO WEIGHING AN AIRCRAFT TO
DETERMINE ITS EMPTY WEIGHT - remove all
items except those on the aircraft equipment list,
drain the fuel, and fill the hydraulic reservoir.
(8154)

Return to Table of Contents

= MOMENT
692,070
193,887
885,957

Items included in aircraft when weighed:


Lavatory water tank
34 lb. at +352
Hydraulic fluid
22 lb. at - 8
Removable ballast
146 lb. at +380

WEIGHT & BALANCE - NOTES

* Note: To calculate the original arm (CG), divide


the empty weight moment by the empty weight.

SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM
TOTAL MOMENT
CG =
TOTAL WEIGHT

** Note: Hydraulic fluid is included in empty weight


and should not be subtracted. Potable water is not
part of empty weight and should be subtracted.

THE RESULT OF A WEIGHT BEING ADDED OR


REMOVED AND ITS LOCATION RELATIVE TO
THE DATUM - determines whether the value of
the moment is preceded by a plus (+) or a minus
(-) sign.
(8162)

TOTAL MOMENT 884,277


=
TOTAL WEIGHT
5,842
CG = 151365
.
inches.
CG =

EMPTY WEIGHT CG AFTER


ENGINE CHANGE

IN A BALANCE COMPUTATION WHICH


REQUIRES AN ITEM LOCATED AFT OF DATUM
- to be removed, use (-)weight x (+)arm =
(-) moment.
(8183)
WEIGH POINT
Right Gear
Left Gear
Tail Gear
Lavatory water**
Remove ballast
TOTALS

EXAMPLE - What is the new empty weight CG?


(8188)

WT. x ARM = MOMENT


9,980
30.24
301,795
9,770
30.24
295,445
1,970 *390.50
769,285
- 34 352.00
- 11,968
- 55,480
-146 380.00
21,540
1,299,077

GIVEN:
Model B engine removed
175 lb.
Model D engine installed
185 lb.
Location of engine
- 62.00-inch station
Previous empty weight
998 lb.
Previous empty weight CG
13.48 in.

* Note: Add distance between datum and main


gear (30.24 in.) to distance between main gear
and tail gear (360.26 in.) to find tail gear location
of 390.50.

SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM
TOTAL MOMENT
CG =
TOTAL WEIGHT

** Note: Hydraulic fluid is included in empty weight


and should not be subtracted. Lavatory water and
removable ballast are not part of empty weight
and should be subtracted.

ITEM
Empty Weight
B-engine rem.
D-engine add
TOTALS

CG =

TOTAL MOMENT 1299


,
,077
=
TOTAL WEIGHT
21540
,

TOTAL MOMENT 12,833.04


=
TOTAL WEIGHT
1008
,
NEW CG = 12.73 inches.
NEW CG =

CG = 60.31 inches.

EXAMPLE - What is the empty weight CG?


(8178)
GIVEN:
Total empty weight as weighed
5,862 lb.
Empty weight moment
885,957

CG SHIFT AFTER ALTERATIONS


EXAMPLE - How many inches has the new CG
moved?
(8174,8180,8181,8187)
GIVEN:
Original empty weight
2,886 lb.
Original empty weight moment
101,673.78
Remove 2 pass. seats
15 lb. each at +71
Install cabinet
97 lb. at +71
Install seat and safety belt
20 lb. at +71
Install radio equipment
30 lb. at +94

On board the aircraft when weighed:


Potable water
20 lb. at +84
Hydraulic fluid
23 lb. at +101
SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM
TOTAL MOMENT
CG =
TOTAL WEIGHT
ITEM
Empty wt.
Potable
water**
TOTALS

WT.
5,862
-20
5,842

SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM
TOTAL MOMENT
CG =
TOTAL WEIGHT

ARM = MOMENT
*151.14
885,957
84.00

WEIGHT & BALANCE - NOTES

WT. x
ARM = MOMENT
998
13.48
13,453.04
-175
- 62.00 +10,850.00
- 62.00
-11,470.00
+185
1,008
12,833.04

-1,680
884,277

10

Return to Table of Contents

ITEM WEIGHT x
Boxes 1,2
Box 3
20

ITEM
WT. x ARM = MOMENT
Empty Weight
2,886 *35.23
101,673.78
2 Seats Rem.
**-30
71.00
-2,130.00
Cabinet installed
97
71.00
+6,887.00
Seat installed
20
71.00
+1,420.00
94.00
+2,820.00
Radio installed
30
TOTALS
3,003
110,670.78

MOMENT
WEIGHT
50
ARM =
= 2.5 feet forward
20
ARM =

* Note: To calculate the original arm (CG), divide


the empty weight moment by the empty weight.

BALLAST WEIGHT TO BRING CG


WITHIN CG RANGE

** Note: Two seats at 15 lb. each is 30 lb.


NEW CG =

TOTAL MOMENT 110,670.78


=
TOTAL WEIGHT
3,003

EXAMPLE - What is the minimum weight of


ballast needed to bring the CG within the CG
range?
(8177)

NEW CG = 36.85 inches.

GIVEN:
Loaded aircraft
Loaded aircraft CG
CG range
Ballast arm

DISTANCE CHANGE FROM OLD CG:


New CG
36.85
Old CG
-35.23
Change
1.62 inches aft

LEVER ARM

4,954 lb.
+30.5 in.
+32.0 in. to +42.1 in.
+162 in.

SOLUTION:
The weight (ballast) added causes a moment
change in the entire aircraft equal to the moment
change caused by adding the weight.

THE THEORY OF WEIGHT AND BALANCE - is


that of a lever that is in equilibrium or balance
when it rests on a fulcrum in a level position.

Step 1: Find distance CG is out of limits:


Forward CG limit
32.0
Current CG
- 30.5
1.5 inches

THE DISTANCE OF ANY OBJECT FROM THE


FULCRUM - is called the lever arm.
(8157)

WEIGHT ADDITION THAT WILL


NOT CHANGE CG

Step 2: Find the lever arm of the ballast:


Ballast location
162.0
-Forward CG Limit
- 32.0
130.0 inches

EXAMPLE - How far forward of the CG should


a box weighing 20 pounds be placed so that
the CG will not change, considering the two
other boxes already added?
(8179)
GIVEN:
Box 1
Box 2

LEVER ARM = MOMENT


+50
-?
-50

Step 3: Determine the required ballast weight:


ITEM
WEIGHT x LEVER ARM = MOMENT
CG shift req. 4,954
-1.5
-7,431
Ballast
?
130.0
7,431

10 lb. at 4 ft. aft of CG


5 lb. at 2 ft. aft of CG

SOLUTION:
MOMENT = WEIGHT x ARM

WEIGHT =

ITEM WEIGHT x LEVER ARM = MOMENT


Box 1
10
4
40
Box 2
5
2
10
Total Moments Added Aft
50

MOMENT 7,431
=
ARM
130

Ballast weight required is 57.16 pounds.

For the CG not to change, the moments forward


and aft of the CG must be the same.

Return to Table of Contents

11

WEIGHT & BALANCE - NOTES

EMPTY WEIGHT CENTER OF GRAVITY


RANGE

HELICOPTER WEIGHT AND BALANCE


WHEN COMPUTING WEIGHT AND BALANCE
FOR A HELICOPTER - you must consider that it
is computed generally the same as for airplanes.
(8164)

THE EMPTY WEIGHT CG RANGE - is the


allowable travel within the CG limits.
IF THE EMPTY WEIGHT CG OF AN AIRPLANE lies within the empty weight CG limits it is not
necessary to calculate CG extremes.
(8189)

THE
CG
RANGE
IN
SINGLE-ROTOR
HELICOPTERS IS - more restricted than for
airplanes.
(8175)

WEIGHT AND BALANCE EXTREME


CONDITIONS

IMPROPER LOADING OF A HELICOPTER which results in exceeding either the fore or aft
CG limits is hazardous due to the reduction or loss
of effective cyclic pitch control. (The cyclic tilts the
plane of the main rotor in the direction of desired
horizontal movement.)
(8172)

WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO COMPUTE THE


MAXIMUM FORWARD LOADED CG - use the
minimum weights, arms, and moments of the
items of useful load that are located aft of the
forward CG limit.
(8190)
WHEN MAKING A REARWARD LOADED CG
CHECK - to determine that the CG will not exceed
the rearward limit during extreme conditions, use
the minimum weights, arms and moments of the
items of useful load that are located forward of the
rearward CG limit.
(8185)
ADVERSE LOADING CHECKS - are conducted
using loads that are at or below the maximum
gross weight of the aircraft.

WEIGHT & BALANCE - NOTES

12

Return to Table of Contents

READING GRAPHS AND CHARTS


What is the appropriate cable size of a 40-foot
length of single cable in free air, with a
continuous rating, running from a bus to the
equipment in a 28-volt system with a 15ampere load and a 1-volt drop?
(8145)

ENGINE PARAMETERS
EXAMPLES - Figure 38.
An aircraft reciprocating engine has a 1,830
cubic-inch displacement and develops 1,250
brake-horsepower at 2,500 RPM. What is the
brake mean effective pressure?
(8142)

First, determine the wire size based on voltage


drop:

Locate 1,250 BHP on the top of the chart. Drop


vertically downward to the 1,830 Cubic Inch
Displacement line. Now move horizontally to the
right to the sloping line for 2,500 RPM, then
vertically downward to read a value of 217 BMEP.

Start on the horizontal line in the 28V-1V drop


column at the 40 feet length and move horizontally
to the slanted 15-ampere line. Now move vertically
down and read wire size between 10 and 12. The
larger wire size No. 10 should be selected.

An aircraft reciprocating engine has a 2,800


cubic-inch displacement and develops 2,000
brake-horsepower at 2,200 RPM. What is the
brake mean effective pressure?
(8144)

Second, determine the wire size based on


overheating:
Move diagonally downward along the 15 ampere
line until it intersects Curve 2 (Continuous Rating Amperes Single Cable in Free-Air) and then
vertically downward falling between No. 18 and
No. 20. Selecting the larger size we would use No.
18 wire.

Locate 2,000 BHP on the top of the chart. Drop


vertically downward to the 2,800 Cubic Inch
Displacement line. Now move horizontally to the
right to the sloping line for 2,200 RPM, then
vertically downward to read a value of 257.5
BMEP.

Comparing the wire sizes obtained under both


conditions above, select No. 10 wire size as the
smallest that will satisfy both conditions.

An aircraft engine has a 2,800 cubic-inch displacement, develops 2,000 brake-horsepower,


and indicates 270 brake mean effective pressure. What is the engine speed (RPM)? (8143)

What is the minimum wire size of a single


cable in a bundle carrying a continuous
current of 20 amperes 10 feet from the bus to
the equipment in a 28-volt system with an
(8147)
allowable 1-volt drop?

Locate 2,000 BHP on the top of the chart. Drop


vertically downward to the 2,800 Cubic Inch
Displacement line. Now move horizontally to the
right to the vertical line for 270 BMEP. The
intersection is at an engine speed of 2,100 RPM.

First, determine the wire size based on voltage


drop:

ELECTRIC WIRE CHART

Start on the horizontal line in the 28V-1V drop


column at the 10 feet length and move horizontally
to the slanted 20 ampere line. Now move vertically
down and read just above No. 16 wire size,
making No. 16 wire required.

EXAMPLES - Figure 39.


TO SELECT THE PROPER SIZE OF CONDUCTOR the following must be known:
1) The conductor length in feet.
2) The number of amperes of current to be
carried.
3) The amount of voltage drop permitted.
4) Whether the current to be carried will be
intermittent or continuous, and, if continuous, whether it is a single conductor
in free air, or cables in a conduit or in
a bundle.

Return to Table of Contents

Second, determine the wire size based on


overheating:
Move diagonally downward along the 20 ampere
line until it intersects Curve 1 and then vertically
downward falling between wire sizes No. 14 and
12, making No. 12 size required.

13

GRAPHS & CHARTS - NOTES

Comparing the wire sizes obtained under both


conditions, select No. 12 wire as the smallest that
will satisfy both requirements.

CABLE TENSION
EXAMPLES - Figure 40.
What is the proper tension for a 3/16-inch
cable (7 x 19 extra flex) if the temperature is 87
F?
(8150)

TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM LENGTH OF A


CONDUCTOR - the following must be known:
1) The wire size of the cable.
2) The number of amperes of current to be
carried.
3) The amount of voltage drop permitted.
4) Whether the current to be carried will be
intermittent or continuous, and, if continuous, whether it is a single conductor
in free air, or cables in a conduit, or in
a bundle.

At a temperature of 87 oF move vertically upward


to the curve for a Cable Size of 3/16 7 x 19 and
then to the right and read a Rigging Load value of
125 pounds.
What is the proper tension for a 1/8-inch cable
(7 x 19) if the temperature is 80 F?
(8149)
At a temperature of 80 oF move vertically upward
to the curve for a Cable Size of 1/8 7 x 19 and
then to the right and read a Rigging Load value of
70 pounds.

What is the maximum length of a No. 12 single


cable that can be used between a 28-volt bus
and a component utilizing 20 amperes
continuous load in free air with a maximum
acceptable 1-volt drop?
(8148)

FUEL CONSUMPTION

Locate No. 12 wire size at the bottom of the chart.


Move vertically upward to the 20 ampere sloping
line. From this point move horizontally to the left
and read a length per 1-volt drop of 26.5 feet from
the 28 Circuit Voltage column. Note that this
length is verified by being above Curve 2.

EXAMPLES - Figure 41.


How much fuel would be required for a 30minute reserve operating at 2,300 RPM? (8151)
At an engine speed of 2,300 RPM move vertically
to the Propeller Load Specific Fuel Consumption
curve then to the right and read a value of 0.46
lb/BHP/hr. Continue vertically upward at 2,300
RPM to the Propeller Load Horsepower curve and
then to the left and read a value of 110 Brake
Horsepower.
Fuel = 0.46 lb/BHP/hr. x 110 BHP x 1/2 hr.
Fuel = 25.3 pounds

What is the maximum length of a No. 16 cable


to be installed from a bus to the equipment in
a 28-volt system with a 25-ampere intermittent
load and a 1-volt drop?
(8146)
Locate No. 16 wire size at the bottom of the chart.
Move vertically upward to an estimated 25 ampere
sloping line (half way between 20 amps and 30
amps). At this point move horizontally to the left
and read a length per 1-volt drop of 8 feet from the
28 Circuit Voltage column. Note that this length is
verified by being on or above Curve 3,
"Intermittent Rating-Amperes Maximum of 2
Minutes".

GRAPHS & CHARTS - NOTES

What is the fuel consumption with the engine


operating at cruise, 2,350 RPM?
(8152)
At an engine speed of 2,350 RPM move vertically
to the Propeller Load Specific Fuel Consumption
curve then to the right and read a value of 0.465
lb/BHP/hr. Continue vertically upward at 2,350
RPM to the Propeller Load Horsepower curve and
then to the left and read a value of 119 Brake
Horsepower.
Fuel = 0.465 lb/BHP/hr. x 119 BHP
Fuel = 55.3 pounds per hour

14

Return to Table of Contents

AIRCRAFT DRAWINGS
AN ISOMETRIC PROJECTION - is a type of
drawing which shows the object inclined at an
angle to the viewer.

WORKING DRAWINGS
WORKING DRAWINGS MAY BE DIVIDED INTO
THREE CLASSES - they are: detail drawings,
assembly drawings, and installation drawings.
(8119)

EXAMPLE - Figure 27. In the isometric view of


a typical aileron balance weight, which is the
view indicated by the arrow? (The view
indicated by the arrow is view "3".)
(8104)

DETAIL DRAWINGS
A DETAIL DRAWING - is a description of a single
part carefully and accurately drawn to scale and
dimensioned.
(8105,8136)

SKETCHES
SKETCHES ARE SIMPLE, ROUGH DRAWINGS that are made rapidly and without much detail.

ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS

ONE OR A COMBINATION OF SIX BASIC


SHAPES - triangle, circle, cube, cylinder, cone,
and sphere - will be used when sketching nearly
any object.
(8116)

AN ASSEMBLY DRAWING - is a description of an


object made up of two or more parts.

INSTALLATION DRAWINGS

SINCE SKETCHES ARE DRAWN WITHOUT THE


USE OF DRAFTING INSTRUMENTS - using
graph paper makes the layout process easier.
(8120)

AN INSTALLATION DRAWING - shows all the


subassemblies or parts as brought together on the
aircraft.
(8138)
EXPLODED VIEW DRAWINGS - are often used in
illustrated parts manuals.
(8137)

PROJECTIONS

A SIMPLE WAY TO FIND THE CENTER OF A


CIRCLE - is to draw two non-parallel chord lines
across a circle. Then draw two bisecting lines
perpendicular to the two chord lines. Extend those
perpendicular lines until they intersect. That
intersection is the center of the circle.
(8551)

AN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION - shows the


exact size and shape of all the parts of complex
objects. A number of views are necessary.

IF USED FOR MAKING A PART - a sketch must


show all information to manufacture the part.
(8114)

EXAMPLE - Figure 28. Which is the bottom


view of the object shown? (The bottom view is
"2".)
(8106)

ON OCCASION, A MECHANIC - may need to


make a simple sketch of a proposed repair to an
aircraft, a new design, or a modification.
(8118)
(There is no requirement that repairs to an aircraft
skin have a detailed dimensional sketch included
in the permanent records.)

A WIRING DIAGRAM - would show the wire size


required for a particular installation.

EXAMPLE - Figure 29. Which is the left side


view of the object shown? (The left side view
is "3".)
(8109)

EXAMPLE - Figure 31. What are the proper


procedural steps for sketching repairs and
alterations?
(8113,8117)

EXAMPLE - Figure 30. Which is the bottom


view of the object shown? (The bottom view is
"1".)
(8111)

3 - Blocking in the views.


1 - Adding detail.
4 - Darkening the views.
2 - Adding the dimensions.

ONE-VIEW, TWO-VIEW, AND THREE-VIEW


DRAWINGS - are the most common with
orthographic projections. (For example, see Figure
32.)
(8108)

EXAMPLE - Figure 32. What is the next step


required for a working sketch of the
illustration? (Sketch extension and dimension
lines.)
(8115)

WHEN THREE-VIEW PROJECTION IS USED the top, front, and right side views are usually
shown. (For example, see Figure 32.)

Return to Table of Contents

15

DRAWINGS - NOTES

ON WORKING DRAWINGS OF INDIVIDUAL


PARTS - called detail drawings, the material
specification is usually indicated in a note or in a
parts list. It is not necessary, therefore, to repeat
this information by use of a specific section-line
symbol. In this case, the symbol for cast iron may
be used for all materials.
(8121)

SCHEMATICS
ONE PURPOSE FOR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS is to show the functional (not physical) location of
components within a system.
(8131)
SCHEMATIC
DIAGRAMS
INDICATE
THE
LOCATION - of components with respect to each
other within the system, but do not indicate the
location of individual components in the aircraft.
(8112)
EXAMPLE - Would a hydraulic system
schematic drawing indicate the direction of
fluid flow through the system? (Yes.)
(8134)

EXAMPLE - Figure 33. Which material sectionline symbol indicates cast iron? (Symbol 3.)
(8122)

READING DIMENSIONS
A MEASUREMENT SHOULD NOT BE SCALED
FROM AN AIRCRAFT PRINT - because the paper
shrinks or stretches when the print is made. (8136)

A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - is best suited to


troubleshoot a system malfunction because they
show the location of the components in relation to
each other.
(8140)

EXAMPLE - Figure 36. What is the diameter of


the holes in the finished object? (1/2 inch.)
(8129)
Note 1. says:
"Drill 31/64 inch, ream 1/2 inch."

PICTORIAL
A PICTORIAL DIAGRAM uses pictures to show
electrical components instead of using the more
familiar electrical symbols.
(8139)

EXAMPLE - Figure 34. Using the information,


what size drill would be required to drill the
clevis bolthole? (5/16 inch.)
(8126)

MEANING OF LINES

Note: A clevis bolt is a special-purpose bolt used


only where shear loads occur and never in
tension. It is often inserted as a mechanical pin in
a control system.
0.3125 in. hole = 5/16 in. drill

A MEDIUM-WEIGHT DASHED LINE, ALSO


KNOWN AS A HIDDEN LINE - is the type of line
normally used in a mechanical drawing or
blueprint to represent an edge or object not visible
to the viewer. (A series of short dashes evenly
spaced).
(8103,8110)

EXAMPLE - Figure 34. What would be the


minimum diameter of 4130 round stock
required for the construction of the clevis that
would produce a machined surface? (1 inch.)
A. 55/64 inch.
B. 1 inch.
C. 7/8 inch.
(8125)

AN EXTENSION LINE - is a light, solid line that


extends from the point of the view to which a
dimension refers.
EXAMPLE - Figure 35. Which is the extension
line? (Line "3" is an extension line.)
(8128)

In order to machine the clevis pin, the starting


dimension would have to be larger than 7/8 inch.
Of the answer choices given, Choice "B", 1 inch, is
the minimum diameter.

OTHER DATA
DIMENSIONS - are the means of conveying
measurements through the medium of drawings.
(For example, see Figure 34.)
(8127)

EXAMPLE - Figure 34. What is the dimension


of the chamfer? (0.0625 x 45.)
(8123)

ZONE NUMBERS ON AIRCRAFT BLUEPRINTS are used to locate parts, sections, and views on
large drawings. (Similar to the numbers and letters
printed on the borders of a map).
(8130)

DRAWINGS - NOTES

Note: A chamfer is the beveled corner or edge of


an object.
1/16 x 45 = 0.0625 x 45

16

Return to Table of Contents

EXAMPLE - Figure 37. What is the vertical


distance between the top of the plate and the
bottom of the lowest 15/64" hole? (2.367) (8135)
Add together the following:
From top of plate to center of
first 15/64 hole
3/8
From center of first 15/64 hole
to center of second 15/64 hole 7/8
From center of second 15/64 hole
to center of third 15/64 hole
7/8
From center of third 15/64 hole
to center of fourth 15/64 hole 1/8
From center of fourth 15/64 hole
to bottom of that hole
15/128

EXAMPLE - What is the allowable manufacturing


tolerance for a bushing where the outside
dimensions shown on the blueprint are:
1.0625 + .0025 - .0003?
(0.0028)
(8133)
Tolerance = 0.0025 + 0.0003 = 0.0028

0.375

EXAMPLE - When reading a blueprint, a


dimension is given as 4.387 inches + .005 .002. What is the maximum acceptable size
and what is the minimum acceptable size?
(4.392, 4.385)
(8132)

0.875
0.875
0.125

Maximum: 4.387 + 0.005 = 4.392 inches


Minimum: 4.387 + 0.002 = 4.385 inches

0.117
2.367

TOLERANCES/ALLOWANCES

EXAMPLE - Figure 34. What is the maximum


diameter of the hole for the clevis pin? (0.3175)
(8124)

TOLERANCE - is the difference between extreme


permissible dimensions that a part may have and
still be acceptable.
(8141)

The hole in the clevis in which the pin fits has a


diameter of:
0.3125 + 0.005 - 0.000 inch.

ALLOWANCE - is the difference between the


nominal dimension of a part and its upper or lower
limit.

This tolerance makes the maximum diameter


0.3175 inch:
0.3125 + 0.005 = 0.3175

Return to Table of Contents

17

DRAWINGS - NOTES

AIRCRAFT MATERIALS AND


PROCESSES
ON A FILLET WELD - the penetration requirement
includes 25 to 50 percent of the base metal
thickness.
(8288)

WELDING
A CHARACTERISTIC OF A GOOD GAS WELD is that it tapers off smoothly into the base metal.
(8283)

CHEMICAL CORROSION
THE RUST OR CORROSION - that occurs with
most metals is the result of a tendency for them to
return to their natural state.
(8357)

ONE CHARACTERISTIC OF A GOOD WELD - is


that no oxide should be formed on the base metal
at a distance from the weld of more than 1/2 inch.
(8284)

THE TWO GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF


CHEMICAL CORROSION - are direct chemical
attack and electrochemical attack.

CRACKING ADJACENT TO THE WELD indicates a part has cooled too quickly after being
welded.
(8282)

DIRECT CHEMICAL ATTACK

WHEN EVALUATING A WELDED JOINT, - a


mechanic should be familiar with the parts,
proportions, and formation of the weld.
(8553)

DIRECT CHEMICAL ATTACK OR PURE


CHEMICAL CORROSION - is an attack resulting
from a direct exposure of a bare surface to caustic
liquid or gaseous agents (battery acid, etc.).

EXAMPLES - Figure 44.

CAUSTIC CLEANING PRODUCTS - used on


aluminum structures have the effect of producing
corrosion.
(8355)

Which illustration depicts a cold weld?


(Illustration "2". A weld that appears rough and
irregular and with its edges not feathered into
the base metal is indicative of a cold weld.)
(8279)

SPILLED MERCURY ON ALUMINUM - causes


rapid and severe corrosion that is very difficult to
control.
(8378)

Which weld is caused by an excessive amount


of acetylene? (Illustration "3". Slight bumps
along the center and craters at the finish of the
weld are caused by the boiling of the puddle
due to excessive acetylene being used.) (8278)

ELECTROCHEMICAL ATTACK
ELECTROCHEMICAL
ATTACK
(GALVANIC
ACTION) IS RESPONSIBLE - for most forms of
corrosion on aircraft structure and component
parts.

IF HOLES AND A FEW PROJECTING


GLOBULES ARE FOUND IN A WELD - remove
all the old weld and reweld the joint.
(8281)

CORROSION CAUSED BY GALVANIC ACTION


IS THE RESULT OF - contact between two unlike
metals.
(8371,8542)

EXAMPLES - Figure 45.

IN THE CORROSION PROCESS - it is the anodic


area or dissimilar anodic material that corrodes.
(The cathode does not corrode.)
(8377)

What type of weld is shown at "A"? ("A" is a


butt weld. It is made by placing two pieces of
material edge to edge and welded without
lapping.)
(8285)

IN THE GALVANIC OR ELECTRO-CHEMICAL


SERIES FOR METALS - the most anodic metals
are those that will give up electrons most easily.
(8377)

What type of weld is shown at "B"? ("B" is a


double butt weld. A bead has been applied on
both sides of the joint.)
(8286)
What type of weld is shown at "G"? ("G" is a
lap weld. Two pieces of metal are overlapped
and welded at the joint.)
(8287)

MATERIALS/PROCESSES - NOTES

18

Return to Table of Contents

A PARTIAL LIST - of the Electro-Chemical Series


for metals arranged from most anodic to most
cathodic follows:
Magnesium
Zinc
Clad 2024 aluminum alloy
Cadmium
7075-T6 aluminum alloy
Stainless steel
Gold

FRETTING CORROSION
FRETTING CORROSION IS MOST LIKELY TO
OCCUR - when two surfaces fit tightly together but
can move relative to one another.
(8356)

CORROSION REMOVAL
ALUMINUM WOOL - is used for general
mechanical cleaning of aluminum surfaces.
FINE-GRIT ALUMINUM OXIDE - may be used to
remove corrosion from highly stressed steel
surfaces.
(8364)

EXAMPLE - Of the following listed materials:


Cadmium,
7075-T6 aluminum alloy,
Magnesium,
which is the most anodic? (Magnesium.) (8372)

CORROSION SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM


MAGNESIUM PARTS - with a stiff, nonmetallic
brush.
(8366)

EXAMPLE - Of the following listed materials:


Zinc,
2024 aluminum alloy,
Stainless steel,
which is the most cathodic? (Stainless steel.)
(8374)

CORROSION CONTROL
ALUMINUM OXIDE - is a naturally protective film
that forms on aluminum. It can be formed by
electrolytic treatment at the factory (anodizing) or
chemical treatment in the field (alodizing).

GALVANIC CORROSION IS LIKELY TO BE


MOST RAPID AND SEVERE - when the surface
area of the anodic metal is smaller than the
surface area of the cathodic material.
(8375)

WHEN AN ANODIZED SURFACE COATING IS


DAMAGED IN SERVICE - it can be partially
restored by chemical surface treatment.
(8349)
ALODINE - is a brand name of a chemical coating
treatment applied for corrosion control.

GALVANIC ACTION CAUSED BY DISSIMILAR


METAL CONTACT - may best be prevented by
placing a nonporous dielectric between the
surfaces.
(8370)

ALODIZING IS A NONELECTROLYTIC CHEMICAL


TREATMENT FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS - to
improve paint-bonding qualities by leaving a
slightly roughened finish, and increase corrosion
resistance by leaving a hard, airtight oxide film.
(8358,8361)

A PASSIVE OXIDE FILM IS NOT AN


ELECTROLYTE - and would tend to prevent
electrical contact between anodic and cathodic
areas. Therefore, it would not be a requirement for
corrosion to occur.
(8359)

TO CLEAN AN ANODIZED SURFACE - you


should use a mechanical cleaner that will not
scratch and compromise the coating. Aluminum
wool and fiber bristle brushes will be acceptable to
use to clean an anodized surface.
(8362)

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
INTERGRANULAR CORROSION (DELAMINATION
OF THE GRAIN BOUNDARIES) - is a type of
corrosion that attacks along the grain boundaries
of an alloy, and commonly results from a lack of
uniformity in the alloy structure.

THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF SEALED


STRUCTURAL STEEL TUBING - is best
protected against corrosion by a coating of hot
linseed oil.
(8373)

A PRIMARY CAUSE OF INTERGRANULAR


CORROSION - is improper or inadequate heat
treatment.
(8245,8365)

RESISTING STRESS CORROSION


ONE
WAY
OF
OBTAINING
INCREASED
RESISTANCE TO STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
- is by creating compressive stresses on the metal
surface (by shot peening). (This must be
overcome by tensile forces before the surface
sees any tension stress.)
(8376)

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION IN ALUMINUM


ALLOY PARTS - cannot always be detected by
surface indications.
(8363)
EXFOLIATION IS THE LIFTING OR FLAKING - of
the metal at the surface due to delamination of the
grain boundaries caused by the pressure of
corrosion residual product buildup.
(8360)

Return to Table of Contents

19

MATERIALS/PROCESSES - NOTES

ENGINE STORAGE

AFTER CLEANING METAL OF ALL GREASE,


PAINT, DIRT AND CORROSION, - the surface
that remains should be cleaned with a metal
cleaner until a film of water rests unbroken on the
surface. This is a water break test.
(8554)

TO PREVENT CORROSION ON AN ENGINE


BEING PREPARED FOR STORAGE - spray each
cylinder interior with corrosion preventive mixture.
ON ENGINES PREPARED FOR STORAGE - it is
important not to rotate the propeller shaft after the
final spraying of corrosion-preventive mixture into
the cylinders because the seal of corrosion
preventive mixture will be broken.
(8367)

STEEL
THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
(SAE) USES A NUMERICAL INDEX SYSTEM - to
identify the composition of various steels.

SOAP AND WATER CLEANING

THE FIRST DIGIT - indicates the basic alloying


element.

BEFORE CLEANING PLASTIC SURFACES WITH


SOAP AND WATER - (such as windows) flush the
plastic surfaces with fresh water to prevent
scratching.
(8368)
TO PREVENT RAPID DETERIORATION OF A
TIRE WHEN IT COMES IN CONTACT WITH OIL
OR GREASE - wipe the tire with a dry cloth
followed by a washdown with soap and water.
(8369)

THE SECOND DIGIT - indicates the percentage of


the basic element in the alloy.
THE THIRD AND FOURTH DIGITS - indicate the
percentage of carbon in the alloy in hundredths of
a percent.
EXAMPLE - In the number "4130" designating
chromium molybdenum steel, what does the
first digit indicate? (The basic alloying
element.)
(8261)

CHEMICAL CLEANERS
MAGNESIUM ENGINE PARTS MAY BE
CLEANED - by washing with a commercial
solvent, decarbonize (with a hot dichromate
solution), and scrape or grit blast.
(8348)

STAINLESS STEEL IS GENERALLY USED - in


the construction of aircraft engine firewalls. (8257)

HEAT TREATMENT

ALIPHATIC NAPHTHA IS THE SOLVENT


RECOMMENDED - for wipedown of cleaned
surfaces just before painting.
(8350)

CHANGING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A


FERROUS METAL - is accomplished by heating
the metal to a temperature above its upper critical
point, holding it there, and then cooling it under
controlled conditions.

ALIPHATIC NAPHTHA CAN ALSO BE USED - to


clean acrylics and rubber.
(8353)
FAYED SURFACES CAUSE CONCERN IN
CHEMICAL CLEANING - because of the danger
of entrapping corrosive materials. (Fayed surfaces
are ones that are tightly joined as in lap joints.)
(8354)
WHEN A FLAMMABLE AGENT - (such as a
solvent), is used to chemically clean an aircraft,
natural fibers like cotton are acceptable to be used
for wiping cloths.
(8352)

THE REHEATING OF A HEAT TREATED METAL


- such as with a welding torch, can significantly
alter a metal's properties in the reheated area.
(8251)

HARDNESS
HARDNESS REFERS TO THE ABILITY OF A
METAL - to resist abrasion, penetration, cutting
action, or permanent distortion.

ORDINARY OR OTHERWISE NONAPPROVED


CLEANING COMPOUNDS should not be used
for washing an aircraft because a condition called
hydrogen embrittlement may result in the metal
structures. (Hydrogen embrittlement happens
when chemical cleaning compounds react with the
metal and produce hydrogen gas that is then
absorbed into the metal. This results in a loss of
flexibility and cracks or stress corrosion can
develop in the metal.)
(8347)

MATERIALS/PROCESSES - NOTES

HARDNESS MAY BE INCREASED BY - coldworking the metal and, with steel and certain
aluminum alloys, by heat treatment.
REPEATEDLY
APPLYING
MECHANICAL
FORCE - such as rolling, hammering, bending, or
twisting to most metals at room temperature,
causes a condition commonly known as cold
working, or strain hardening.
(8250)

20

Return to Table of Contents

IN THE 2xxx THROUGH 8xxx GROUP, THE


FIRST DIGIT INDICATES - the major alloying
element used in the formation of the alloy.

TEMPERING
TEMPERING IS A PROCESS - that relieves
brittleness and/or internal strain. The steel is
heated in a furnace to a specified temperature and
then cooled in air, oil, water, or a special solution.

2xxx = copper.
7xxx = zinc.
EXAMPLE - In the four-digit aluminum index
system number 2024, what does the first digit
indicate? (The first digit, 2, indicates copper is
the major alloying element.)
(8276)

STEEL
IS
TEMPERED
AFTER
BEING
HARDENED - to relieve its internal stresses and
reduce its brittleness.
(8252)

ANNEALING AND NORMALIZING

"ALCLAD" DESIGNATES A METAL - consisting of


pure aluminum surface layers on an aluminum
alloy core.
(8259)

ANNEALING AND NORMALIZING - remove the


internal stresses in metal.
THE PRIMARY EFFECTS OF ANNEALING - steel
and aluminum alloys are softening of the metal
and a decrease in internal stress.
(8246)

EXAMPLE - What is the core material of Alclad


2024-T4? (The -T4 indicates the core material
is heat treated aluminum alloy; the surface
material is commercially pure aluminum.)(8273)

SLOW COOLING; LOW STRENGTH - is


descriptive of the annealing process of steel
during and after it has been annealed.
(8255)

HARDNESS AND TEMPER


DESIGNATIONS

NORMALIZING IS A PROCESS - of heat treating


iron-base metals only.
(8249)

A LETTER AND OFTEN A NUMBER


COMBINATION - is placed after the alloy code to
indicate the processes that have taken place and
the degree of hardness. Basic designations are:
F - As fabricated (no treatment)
O - Annealed
H - Cold worked or strain condition
W - Unstable (temporary) condition
T - Solution heat treated

IT IS CONSIDERED GOOD PRACTICE TO


NORMALIZE A PART AFTER WELDING - to
relieve internal stresses developed within the base
metal.
(8280)

CASE HARDENING
CASE HARDENING IS A HEAT-TREATING
PROCESS OF METAL - which produces a hard,
wear- resistant surface over a strong, tough core.
(8247)

EXAMPLE - Which of the following aluminum


alloy designations:
3003-F
5052-H36
6061-O
indicate that the metal has received no
hardening or tempering treatment? (3003-F.)
(8253)

IN CASE HARDENING THE SURFACE OF THE


METAL - is changed chemically by introducing a
high carbide or nitride content.
(8248)

ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

QUENCHING

ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS ARE


DESIGNATED BY - a four digit index system.

QUENCHING IS THE PROCESS - of cooling


heat-treated metal in a liquid bath. Rapid
quenching is needed with aluminum alloys to keep
the alloy grains very small and thus prevent
intergranular corrosion.

THE SYSTEM IS BROKEN INTO THREE


DISTINCT GROUPS - 1xxx group, 2xxx through
8xxx group, and the 9xxx group.
THE FIRST DIGIT OF A DESIGNATION
IDENTIFIES - the alloy type (but 1xxx = 99% pure
aluminum).

PARTS HEAT TREATED IN A SODIUM AND


POTASSIUM NITRATE BATH - are rinsed
thoroughly in hot water to prevent corrosion.

EXAMPLE - The aluminum code number 1100


identifies what type of aluminum? (99 percent
commercially pure aluminum.)
(8274)

Return to Table of Contents

RE-HEAT TREATMENT
CLAD ALUMINUM ALLOYS CANNOT BE - heat
treated repeatedly without harmful effects. (The
pure aluminum and the aluminum alloy tend to
intermix.)
(8254)

21

MATERIALS/PROCESSES - NOTES

AIRCRAFT HARDWARE
EXAMPLE - A certain aircraft bolt has an
overall length of 1-1/2 inches, with a shank
length of 1-3/16 inches, and a threaded portion
length of 5/8 inch. What is the grip length?
(0.5625 inches.)
(8415)

AIRCRAFT BOLTS
MOST
BOLTS
USED
IN
AIRCRAFT
STRUCTURES - are either general purpose AN
(Air Force-Navy) or NAS (National Aircraft
Standard) close tolerance bolts.

Grip Length = Shank Length - Thread Length


Grip Length = 1-3/16 in. - 5/8 in.
1-3/16 = 19/16
Divide 19 by 16 on calculator
Divide 5 by 8 on calculator
Grip Length = 1.1875 in. 0.625 in.
Grip Length = 0.5625 inch

IDENTIFICATION AND CODING


OF BOLTS
BOLTS ARE IDENTIFIED BY - the code markings
on the bolt heads.
EXAMPLE - Aircraft bolts with a cross or
asterisk marked on the bolthead identifies
what kind of bolt? (AN standard steel bolts.)
(8263)

CLASSIFICATION OF THREADS
THE CLASS OF A THREAD INDICATES - the
tolerance allowed in manufacturing (whether the
nut can be turned with the fingers or requires a
wrench).
CLASS 1 - is a loose fit.
CLASS 2 - is a free fit.
CLASS 3 - is a medium fit, and is what aircraft
bolts are usually manufactured with.
CLASS 4 - is a close fit.
(8275)

EXAMPLE - A bolt with an X inside a triangle


on the head identifies what kind of bolt? (NAS
close tolerance bolt.)
(8272)
EXAMPLE - Figure 42. Which of the bolthead
code markings shown identifies a corrosion
resistant AN standard steel bolt? (A single
raised dash on the head, "3", identifies a
corrosion resistant AN standard steel bolt.)
(8262,8269)

FIBER-TYPE LOCKNUT
THE LOCKING FEATURE OF A FIBER-TYPE
LOCKNUT - is obtained by the use of an
unthreaded fiber locking insert.
(8277)

CLEVIS BOLTS
THE HEAD OF A CLEVIS BOLT IS ROUND - and
is either slotted to receive a common screwdriver
or recessed to receive a crosspoint screwdriver.

A FIBER-TYPE, SELF-LOCKING NUT - must


never be used on an aircraft if the bolt is subject to
rotation.
(8260)

EXAMPLE - Figure 43. Which illustration is a


clevis bolt? (Illustration "3".)
(8267)

INSTALLATION OF NUTS AND BOLTS

AN-TYPE CLEVIS BOLTS ARE USED IN


AIRPLANES - only for shear load applications and
never in tension.
(8271)

ADVISORY CIRCULAR 43.13-1B, "AIRCRAFT


INSPECTION AND REPAIR" - contains standards
for protrusions of bolts, studs, and screws through
self-locking nuts.
(8534)

A CLEVIS BOLT - used with a fork-end cable


terminal is secured with a shear nut tightened to a
snug fit, but with no strain imposed on the fork,
and safetied with a cotter pin.
(8270)

UNLESS
OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED
OR
REQUIRED - aircraft bolts should be installed so
that the bolthead is upward, or in a forward
direction.
(8258)

GRIP LENGTH

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED - torque


values for tightening aircraft nuts and bolts relate
to clean, dry, threads.
(8256)

AIRCRAFT BOLT GRIP LENGTHS - should be


equal to the thickness of the material through
which they extend. (The bolt grip length is the
unthreaded portion.)
(8264,8265)

HARDWARE - NOTES

22

Return to Table of Contents

WHEN THE SPECIFIC TORQUE VALUE FOR


NUTS IS NOT GIVEN - the recommended torque
values can be found in Advisory Circular 43.13-1B.
(8266)

Return to Table of Contents

A PARTICULAR COMPONENT IS ATTACHED


TO THE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - by the use of
an aircraft bolt and a castellated tension nut
combination. If the cotter pin hole does not align
within the recommended torque range, the
acceptable practice is to change washers and try
again.
(8268)

23

HARDWARE - NOTES

PHYSICS
THE TRUE LANDING SPEED OF AN AIRCRAFT
IS GREATEST - under atmospheric conditions of
high temperature with high humidity.
(8478)

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE


TEMPERATURE - is a measure of the kinetic
energy of the molecules of any substance. (8482)

FLUID SYSTEMS

HEAT MAY BE TRANSFERRED - by convection,


conduction, or radiation. Heat is not transferred by
diffusion.
(8467)

BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE STATES - that the


pressure of a fluid decreases at points where the
velocity of the fluid increases.
(8216)

IF THE VOLUME OF A CONFINED GAS IS


DOUBLED - (without the addition of more gas),
the pressure will (assume the temperature
remains constant) be reduced to one-half its
original value. (Boyle's law.)
(8475)

THE GREATER THE PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL


BETWEEN
UNMETERED
PRESSURE
AND
METERED PRESSURE - the greater the rate of
flow of liquid through the metering orifice.

IF BOTH THE VOLUME AND THE ABSOLUTE


TEMPERATURE - of a confined gas are doubled,
the pressure will not change.
(8485)

EXAMPLE - Under which conditions will the


rate of flow of liquid through a metering orifice
(or jet) be the greatest (all other factors being
equal)? (Orifice "C".)

IF THE TEMPERATURE OF A CONFINED


LIQUID IS HELD CONSTANT - and its pressure is
tripled, the volume will remain the same.
(8476)

A. Unmetered pressure: 18 PSI,


metered pressure: 17.5 PSI,
atmospheric pressure: 14.5 PSI.
B. Unmetered pressure: 23 PSI,
metered pressure: 12 PSI,
atmospheric pressure: 14.3 PSI.
C. Unmetered pressure: 17 PSI,
metered pressure: 5 PSI,
atmospheric pressure: 14.7 PSI. (8470)

THE BOILING POINT OF A GIVEN LIQUID varies directly with pressure.


(8466)
THE SPEED OF SOUND - in the atmosphere
changes with a change in temperature.
(8474)

HUMIDITY
ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY - is the actual amount of
water vapor in a mixture of air and water.
(8469,8483)

The metering jet with the greatest pressure


differential across it (Orifice C: 17 PSI - 5 PSI = 12
PSI) will have the greatest flow rate through it.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - is the ratio of the water


vapor actually present in the atmosphere to the
amount that would be present if the air were
saturated at the prevailing temperature and
pressure.
(8473)

AERODYNAMICS
NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION also
called the law of inertia states that a body (object)
persists in its state of rest, or of motion in a
straight line, unless acted upon by some outside
force.
(8606)

DEWPOINT - is the temperature to which humid


air must be cooled at constant pressure to
become saturated.
(8484)

AN AIRPLANE WING - is designed to produce lift


resulting from positive air pressure below the
wing's surface and negative air pressure above
the wing's surface (in addition to the downward
deflection of air at the trailing edges of the wings).
(8487)

HUMID AIR AT A GIVEN TEMPERATURE AND


PRESSURE - is lighter than dry air at the same
temperature and pressure.
EXAMPLE - Does 35 parts of dry air and 65
parts of water vapor weigh less than 50 parts
of dry air and 50 parts of water vapor, or any
other combination where the dry air content is
more than 35 parts out of 100 parts? (Yes.)
(8472)

PHYSICS - NOTES

ASPECT RATIO OF A WING - is defined as the


ratio of the wingspan to the mean chord.
(8489)
A WING WITH A VERY HIGH ASPECT RATIO (in comparison with a low aspect ratio wing) will
have a low stall speed.
(8490)

24

Return to Table of Contents

IF ALL, OR A SIGNIFICANT PART OF A STALL


STRIP IS MISSING ON AN AIRPLANE WING - a
likely result will be asymmetrical lateral control at
or near stall angles of attack. Stall strips ensure
that the wing root areas stall first.
(8486,8600)

SYSTEM - is to count the number of rope strands


that move or support the movable block.
EXAMPLE - Figure 61. What is the amount of
force applied to rope A to lift the weight? (15
pounds.)
(8471)
Four supporting ropes.
Mechanical advantage = 4.
60 lbs./4 = 15 lbs.
Each rope supports 15 lbs.
Therefore, pull at rope A = 15 pounds
THE INCLINED PLANE - is a simple machine that
facilitates the raising or lowering of heavy objects
by applying a small force over a long distance.

WINGLETS
ARE
SMALL
WING-SHAPED
DEVICES mounted at the wingtips and
perpendicular to the wings.
WINGLETS ON AN AIRCRAFT'S WINGTIPS
increase the lift to drag ratio. Winglets reduce the
strength of trailing vortices by lessening the
amount of crossflow on the wings. The reduced
vortices reduces drag and increases the wing's lift
to drag ratio.
(8491)

(L) length of ramp (R) weight of object


=
(I) height of ramp (E) force required

THE
PURPOSE
OF
AIRCRAFT
WING
DIHEDRAL - is to increase lateral stability. (8488)

EXAMPLE - What force must be applied to roll


a 120-pound barrel up an inclined plane 9 feet
long to a height of 3 feet (disregard friction)?
(40 pounds.)
(8481)

WORK AND POWER


WORK IS DONE - when a resistance is overcome
by a force acting through a measurable distance.

L R
=
I E
9 ft. 120 lbs.
=
3 ft.
E
120 lbs.3 ft.
E=
= 40 pounds
9 ft.

WORK = FORCE x DISTANCE


W=FxD
EXAMPLE - How much work input is required
to lower (not drop) a 120-pound weight from
the top of a 3-foot table to the floor? (360 footpounds.)
(8477)
W = F x D = 120 lbs. x 3 ft.
W = 360 foot-pounds

HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS
PASCAL'S LAW STATES - that the force available
in a hydraulic system is equal to the pressure in
the cylinder multiplied by the cross sectional area
of the piston.
Force = Pressure x Area
F=PxA
EXAMPLE - What force is exerted on the piston
in a hydraulic cylinder if the area of the piston
is 1.2 square inches and the fluid pressure is
850 PSI? (1,020 pounds.)
(8398,8479)
F = P x A = 850 PSI x 1.2 sq. in.
F = 1,020 pounds
EXAMPLE - Approximately how much force
will the actuator be able to produce when
retracting, if a double-acting actuating cylinder
in a 3,000 psi system has a piston with a
surface area of three square inches on the
extension side, and a rod with a cross-section
area of one square inch attached to the piston
on the other side?
(8465)
F=PxA
F = 3,000 x (3-1)
F = 6,000

EXAMPLE - An engine that weighs 350 pounds


is removed from an aircraft by means of a
mobile hoist. The engine is raised 3 feet above
its attachment mount, and the entire assembly
is then moved forward 12 feet. A constant
force of 70 pounds is required to move the
loaded hoist. What is the total work input
required to move the hoist? (840 footpounds.)
(8468)
W = F x D = 70 lbs. x 12 ft.
W = 840 foot-pounds
POWER MEANS RATE OF DOING WORK - and
is measured in terms of work accomplished per
unit of time.
(8480)
FORCE DISTANCE
POWER =
TIME
F D
P=
T

MACHINES
A SHORTHAND METHOD OF FINDING THE
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE OF A PULLEY

Return to Table of Contents

25

PHYSICS - NOTES

FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS


EXCESSIVE
STRESS
ON
FLUID
OR
PNEUMATIC METAL TUBING - caused by
expansion and contraction due to temperature
changes can best be avoided by providing suitable
bends in the tubing. Preventing excessive stress
on the tubing is the primary reason for adding
bends.
(8203,8605)

FLEXIBLE LINES
TEFLON OR BUTYL ARE HOSE MATERIALS that can be used to carry a wide range of
petroleum
and
synthetic
fluids
including
phosphate-ester based hydraulic fluid (such as
Skydrol).
(8211)
FLEXIBLE
HOSE
USED
IN
AIRCRAFT
PLUMBING - is classified in size according to the
inside diameter.
(8209)

MINIMUM ALLOWABLE BEND RADII IS


SOMETIMES DIFFERENT for steel tubing than
aluminum tubing. For tubing 1.5 OD or less, the
minimum radius for steel is greater than for
aluminum.
(8599)

EXAMPLE - A 3/8 inch aircraft high pressure


flexible hose as compared to 3/8 inch metal
tubing used in the same system will have
what? (Equivalent flow characteristics.) (8218)

THE FLATTENING IN A BEND - must not be


more than 25% of the original tubes outside
diameter and also be free of wrinkles and kinks.(8562)

A GAS OR FLUID LINE MARKED WITH THE


LETTERS "PHDAN" - is a line carrying a
substance that may be PHysically DANgerous or
hazardous to personnel.
(8215)

ALUMINUM TUBING - or other soft metal tubing is


cut best with a hand operated wheel-type tubing
cutter.
(8561)

GEOMETRIC SHAPES - that appear with colorcoded bands are always black against a white
background regardless of content. (They are used
to identify line contents.)
(8559)

SCRATCHES OR NICKS IN ALUMINUM ALLOY


TUBING CAN BE REPAIRED BY BURNISHING provided the scratch or nick does not appear in
the heel of a bend, or if in a straight section is no
deeper than 10% of the wall thickness.
(8208,8210)

A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF SLACK - must be left in


a flexible hose during installation because, when
under pressure, it contracts in length and expands
in diameter.
(8197)

DEFECTS THAT ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR


METAL LINES ARE:

FLEXIBLE LINES MUST BE INSTALLED - with a


slack of 5 to 8 percent of the length.
(8201)

EXAMPLE - The maximum distance between


end fittings to which a straight hose assembly
is to be connected is 50 inches. What is the
minimum hose length to make such a
connection? (52-1/2 inches.)
(8202)

WHEN INSTALLING BONDED CLAMPS TO


SUPPORT METAL TUBING - remove paint or
anodizing from tube at clamp location. Note:
Unbonded clamps are used for support when
installing wiring.
(8213,8217)

50 inches x 5% slack = 2-1/2 inches


50 inches + 2-1/2 inches = 52-1/2 inches
THE TERM "COLD FLOW" - is generally
associated with rubber hose. It describes the
deep, permanent impressions in the hose
produced by the pressure of hose clamps or
supports.
(8198)

METAL TUBING FLUID LINES - are sized by wall


thickness and outside diameter in 1/16 inch
increments.
(8193)
TO FIND THE INSIDE DIAMETER OF TUBING subtract 2 wall thicknesses from the outside
diameter.

METAL TUBING
IN A METAL TUBING INSTALLATION - tension is
undesirable because pressurization will cause it to
expand and shift.
(8214)

FLUID LINES & FITTINGS - NOTES

Cracked flare,
Seams,
Dents in the heel of a bend less than 20%
of tube diameter, and
Dents in straight sections that are 20% of
wall thickness.
(8598)

26

Return to Table of Contents

AN ADVANTAGE OF A DOUBLE FLARE ON


ALUMINUM TUBING - is that it is more resistant
to the shearing effect of torque.
(8196)

EXAMPLE - A replacement oil line must be


fabricated from 3/4-inch, 0.072 5052-0
aluminum alloy tubing. What is the inside
dimension of this tubing? (0.606 inch.) (8204)

COUPLING SIZES

Outside diameter = 0.750 in.


2 x wall thickness = (2 x 0.072) = 0.144 in.
Inside diameter = 0.750 - 0.144 = 0.606 in.

THE END DASH NUMBER OF AN-818


COUPLING NUTS INDICATES - in 1/16 inch
increments the size of tubing on which the nut
should be used.

FLARES

EXAMPLE - What end dash number of an AN818 coupling nut should be selected for use
with 1/2-inch aluminum oil lines which are to
be assembled using flared tube ends and
standard AN nuts, sleeves, and fittings? (1/2
inch = 8/16, select an AN-818-8.)
(8192)

AN (ARMY/NAVY) FLARE FITTINGS HAVE


REPLACED - AC (Air Corp) fittings in newer
aircraft. The fittings are shaped differently, but are
sometimes (although not always) interchangeable.
AN (ARMY/NAVY) FLARE FITTINGS CAN
EASILY BE IDENTIFIED - by the shoulder
between the end of the threads and the flare cone.
(8200)

MS FLARELESS FITTINGS
DURING
INSTALLATION,
MS
(MILITARY
STANDARD) FLARELESS FITTINGS - are
normally tightened by turning the nut a specified
amount after the sleeve and fitting sealing surface
have made contact, rather than being torqued.
(8206)

THE COLOR - of an AN steel flared-tube fitting is


black.
(8199)
WHEN FLARING ALUMINUM TUBING - for use
with AN fittings, the flare angle must be 37. (8207)
IN MOST AIRCRAFT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS two-piece tube connectors consisting of a sleeve
and nut are used when a tubing flare is required.
The use of this type connector eliminates the
possibility of reducing the flare thickness by wiping
or ironing during the tightening process.
(8205)

HYDRAULIC LINES
CORROSION-RESISTANT
STEEL
TUBING,
ANNEALED OR 1/4H (1/4 HARD) - has the
characteristics (high strength, abrasion resistance)
necessary for use in a high-pressure (3,000 PSI)
hydraulic system for operation of landing gear and
flaps.
(8212)

WHEN
THE
COUPLING
NUT
IS
OVERTIGHTENED - on a flared tube, damage is
most likely at the sleeve and flare junction. (8560)

HYDRAULIC TUBING WHICH IS DAMAGED IN A


LOCALIZED AREA - to such an extent that repair
is necessary, may be repaired by cutting out the
damaged area and utilizing a swaged tube fitting
to join the tube ends.
(8195)

THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE OF STEPS indicates the proper order you would use to make
a single flare on a piece of tubing:
1. Slip the fitting nut and sleeve on the tube.
2. Place the tube in proper size hole in the
flaring block.
3. Center the plunger or flaring pin over the
tube.
4. Project the end of the tube slightly from the
top of the flaring tool, about the thickness
of a dime.
5. Tighten the clamp bar securely to prevent
slippage.
6. Strike the plunger several light blows with a
light weight hammer or mallet and turn the
plunger one-half turn after each blow.
(8194)

Return to Table of Contents

27

FLUID LINES & FITTINGS - NOTES

FUELS AND FUEL SYSTEMS


TWO DIFFERENT SCALES - are used to
designate fuel grades. Fuels below grade 100 are
classified by octane numbers.

CHARACTERISTICS OF
AVIATION GASOLINE
CHARACTERISTICS OF AVIATION GASOLINE
ARE - high heat value and high volatility.
(8344)

FUELS WHICH POSSESS GREATER ANTIKNOCK


QUALITIES THAN 100 OCTANE - are classified by
performance numbers.
(8336)

VOLATILITY

THE MAIN DIFFERENCES - between grades 100


and 100LL fuel are lead content and color. (8343)

VOLATILITY IS A MEASURE OF THE


TENDENCY OF A LIQUID SUBSTANCE - to
vaporize under given conditions.

FUEL COLORS

A FUEL THAT VAPORIZES TOO READILY - may


cause vapor lock.
(8341)

AVIATION GASOLINES ARE COLOR CODED for purposes of identification. For example, 100LL
fuel is blue.
(8335)

A FUEL THAT DOES NOT VAPORIZE READILY


ENOUGH - can cause hard starting.
(8346)

TURBINE FUELS

AN ABSORPTION OF HEAT - must accompany


fuel vaporization (which can contribute to
carburetor icing).
(8339)

BOTH GASOLINE AND KEROSENE HAVE


CERTAIN ADVANTAGES - for use as turbine fuel.
Kerosene, however, has a higher heat energy per
unit volume than gasoline (because kerosene
weighs more per gallon).
(8338)

FUEL ADDITIVES
TETRAETHYL LEAD IS ADDED TO AVIATION
GASOLINE - to improve the gasoline's
performance in the engine.
(8345)

JET FUEL NUMBER IDENTIFIERS - are type


numbers and have no relation to the fuel's
performance in the aircraft engine.
(8342)

ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE IS ADDED TO


AVIATION GASOLINE - to scavenge lead oxide
from the cylinder combustion chambers.
(8337)

FUEL SYSTEM
CONTAMINATION

DETONATION

JET FUEL IS MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO


CONTAMINATION THAN AVIATION GASOLINE because jet fuel is of higher viscosity and
therefore holds contaminants better.
(8325)

DETONATION IS AN ABNORMAL TYPE OF


COMBUSTION - which occurs when the first
portion of the charge burns in a normal manner
but the last portion burns almost instantaneously.

AVIATION GASOLINE MIXED WITH JET FUEL


CAN BE BURNED BY A JET ENGINE - but the
tetraethyl lead in the gasoline forms deposits on
the turbine blades reducing turbine engine
efficiency.
(8324)

CHARACTERISTICS OF DETONATION ARE:


Rapid rise in cylinder pressure,
Excessive cylinder head temperature,
Decrease in engine power.
(8340)

FUEL RATING
ANTIKNOCK QUALITIES OF AVIATION FUEL
ARE DESIGNATED BY GRADES - and the higher
the grade, the more compression the fuel charge
can stand without detonating.

FUELS/ FUEL SYSTEMS - NOTES

28

Return to Table of Contents

BASIC ELECTRICITY
CURRENT

VOLTAGE

ELECTRONS IN MOTION - make up an electric


current. When the current flow is in one direction
only, it is called direct current. Current that
reverses itself periodically is called alternating
current.

THE FORCE WHICH CAUSES ELECTRONS TO


FLOW - through a conductor is electric pressure
or electromotive force (emf). The practical unit for
measurement of emf is the volt (V). The symbol
for emf or electric pressure is the letter "E".

CURRENT FLOW - is measured in amperes.

THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO


CONDUCTORS - which are insulated from each
other is measured in volts.
(8020)

MILLIAMPERE - is a measure
equivalent to 0.001 ampere.

of

current
(8030)

ONE VOLT IS THE EMF - required to cause


current to flow at the rate of 1 ampere through a
resistance of 1 ohm.

ONE WAY TO SHOW CURRENT IN AN


ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM is the ground
symbol. It shows that there is a return path for the
current between the source of electrical energy
and the load.
(8604)

1.0 KILOVOLT = 1,000 VOLTS.


EXAMPLE - 0.002 KV equals how many volts?
(2.0 volts.)
(8033)

RESISTORS

Volts = Kilovolts x 1,000 = 0.002 x 1,000 Volts


= 2.0

RESISTANCE is the property of a conductor that


limits the flow of electric current.

OHM'S LAW

THE RESISTANCE OF A CONDUCTOR - will


decrease when its length is decreased or its
cross-sectional area is increased.
(8051)

OHM'S LAW OUTLINES THE RELATIONSHIP between voltage, current, and resistance in a
direct current electrical circuit. Basically, Ohm's
Law states that as voltage increases, current
increases, and when the voltage decreases, the
current decreases, if the resistance in the circuit
remains constant.

A RESISTOR IS A CIRCUIT ELEMENT designed to insert resistance in the circuit. It may


be of low or of extremely high value, varying from
only a few ohms up to several million ohms. They
are generally classed as fixed, adjustable, or
variable dependent on their construction and use.
Typical fixed resistors are constructed of a small
rod of a carbon compound.

THE OHM - is the unit used to measure


resistance. In mathematical formulas, the capital
letter "R", for "Resistance", is used.

AN ADJUSTABLE RESISTOR - is usually of the


wire-wound type with a metal collar that can be
moved along the resistance wire to vary the value
of resistance placed in the circuit.

AS AN EQUATION - Ohm's law is expressed as


follows:
E
I=
where:
R

A VARIABLE RESISTOR - is arranged so that it


can be changed in value at any time by the
operator. Variable resistors are commonly known
as rheostats or potentiometers.

I = current in amperes,
E = potential difference in volts,
R = resistance in ohms.
If any two circuit quantities are known, the third
may be found algebraically by:

EXAMPLE - Figure 17. Which of the components is


a potentiometer? ("3" is a potentiometer.)(8065)

E
R
E=IR
E
R=
I
I=

EXAMPLE - Figure 21. Which symbol represents a


variable resistor? ("2 " is a variable resistor.)
(8074)

Return to Table of Contents

29

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

THE VOLTAGE DROP IN A CONDUCTOR - of


known resistance is dependent on the amperage
of the circuit.
(8055)

E 25.2
= 2.52 ohms
=
10
I
Rinternal = 2.52 - 2.00 = 0.52 ohms
Rt =

USING THE OHMMETER

PARALLEL CIRCUITS

EXAMPLE - Figure 7. If resistor R3 is


disconnected at terminal D, what will the
ohmmeter read? (The current path is broken
and the ohmmeter would read infinite
resistance.)
(8026)

A PARALLEL CIRCUIT - is one in which two or


more electrical resistances, or loads, are
connected across the same voltage source.
THE PARALLEL CIRCUIT - differs from the series
circuit in that more than one path is provided for
current flow. The more paths added in parallel, the
less opposition to flow of electrons from the
source.

SERIES CIRCUITS
THE SERIES CIRCUIT - is the most basic of
electrical circuits. It is called a series circuit
because the current can flow in only one possible
path and must pass through all the circuit
components, such as the battery and the resistor,
one after the other, or "in series".

IN A PARALLEL CIRCUIT THE VOLTAGE


ACROSS ANY RESISTANCE IN A GROUP - is
equal to the voltage across any other resistance in
the group. When the current flow and voltage are
given for each resistor, the value of each resistor
can be determined by Ohm's law.

NO MATTER HOW MANY COMPONENTS ARE


INCLUDED IN A SERIES CIRCUIT - the current is
the same intensity throughout the circuit.

EXAMPLE - Figure 11. What is the voltage


across the 8-ohm resistor? (24 volts.)
(8045)

IN A SERIES CIRCUIT - the total resistance is


equal to the sum of all the resistances in the
circuit:
R t = R1 + R 2 + R 3 + etc.

In this parallel circuit, the applied voltage is the


same across points C and F as it is across points
D and G and across points E and H.
IN REFERENCE TO A PARALLEL CIRCUIT - the
total current is equal to the sum of the currents
through the individual branches of the circuit.
(8039)

EXAMPLE - A circuit has an applied voltage of


30 volts and a load consisting of a 10-ohm
resistor in series with a 20-ohm resistor. What
is the voltage drop across the 10-ohm
resistor? (10 volts.)
(8043)

EXAMPLE - Figure 13. What is the total current


flow in the circuit? (1.4 amperes.)
(8049)

E
30
30
I = =
=
= 1 ampere
R 10 + 20 30
E = I R = 1 10 = 10 volts

EXAMPLE - If three resistors of 3 ohms, 5


ohms, and 22 ohms are connected in series in
a 28-volt circuit, how much current will flow
through the 3-ohm resistor? (0.93 ampere.)
(8042)
R t = R1 + R 2 + R 3 = 3 + 5 + 22 = 30

IR2
IR3

THE FORMULA FOR THE TOTAL RESISTANCE IN


A PARALLEL CIRCUIT - is:
1
Rt =
1
1
1
+
+
R1 R2 R3

E 28
I= =
= 0.93 ampere
R 30

EXAMPLE - A lead-acid battery with 12 cells


connected in series (no-load voltage = 2.1 volts per
cell) furnishes 10 amperes to a load of 2-ohm
resistance. What is the internal resistance of the
battery in this instance? (0.52 ohm.)
(8085)

IN A PARALLEL CIRCUIT - total resistance will be


smaller than the smallest resistor.
(8054)
IF ONE OF THREE BULBS IN A PARALLEL
LIGHTING CIRCUIT - is removed, the total resistance
of the circuit will become greater.
(8047)

Total Voltage = 12 x 2.1 = 25.2 volts

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

12 volts
= 0.4 amperes
30 ohms
12 volts
=
= 0.2 amperes
60 ohms
12 volts
=
= 0.8 amperes
15 ohms
Total = 14
. amperes

IR1 =

30

Return to Table of Contents

EXAMPLE - Figure 8. With an ohmmeter connected


into the circuit as shown, what will the ohmmeter
read? (The ohmmeter will read the resistance of R1
and R2 in parallel. The break in R3 gives it an
infinite resistance and does not affect the
ohmmeter reading. In this case, the ohmmeter will
read 10 ohms.)
(8027)
1
Rt =
1
1
+
R1 R2
1
Rt =
1
1
+
20 20
1
Rt =
2
20
1
Rt =
1
10
1
Rt = 1
10
10
Rt = 1
1
Rt = 10 ohms

EXAMPLE - Figure 6. If resistor R5 is disconnected


at the junction of R3 and R4, what will the
ohmmeter read? (3 ohms.)
(8025)
1
Rt =
1
1
1
+
+
R1 R2 R3 + R4
1
Rt =
1 1
1
+ +
12 6 6 + 6
1
Rt =
1 1 1
+ +
12 6 12
1
Rt =
1
2
1
+
+
12 12 12
1
Rt =
4
12
1
Rt =
1
3
1
Rt = 1
3
3
Rt = 1
1
R t = 3 ohms

EXAMPLE - How many amperes will a 28-volt


generator be required to supply to a circuit
containing five lamps in parallel, three of which
have a resistance of 6 ohms each and two of which
have a resistance of 5 ohms each? (25.23
amperes.)
(8018)

Example - Figure 14.


What is the total
resistance of the circuit? (17 ohms.)
(8050)
The total resistance can be found in two steps:
1. Total resistance in the parallel circuit is:

Rt
Rt
Rt
Rt
Rt
I
I
I

Return to Table of Contents

1
1 1 1
+ +
4 6 12
1
=
3
2
1
+
+
12 12 12
1
=
6
12
1
=
1
2
1
= 1
2
2
= 1
1
= 2 ohms

Rt =

1
1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
6 6 6 5 5
1
=
3 2
+
6 5
1
=
1 2
+
2 5
1
=
0.5 + 0.4
1
=
0.9
. ohms
= 111
E
=
R
28
=
111
.
= 25.23 amperes

Rt =

Rt

Rt

Rt

Rt
Rt
Rt

31

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

2. Total resistance in the remaining series circuit


is:

Rt = 3.2 + 18 = 21.2 ohms


EXAMPLE - Figure 11. What is the total current
flowing in the wire between points C and D? (3.0
amperes.)
(8044)

Rt = 2 + 5 + 10 = 17 ohms
EXAMPLE - Figure 12. What is the total resistance
of the circuit? (21.2 ohms.)
(8046)

The total resistance between points C,D,G and


C,D,E,H is:

The total resistance can be found in four steps:

Rt =

1
1
+
R 2 R3
1
Rt =
1
1
+
10 40
1
Rt =
4
1
+
40 40
1
Rt =
5
40
5
Rt = 1
40
40
Rt = 1
5
R t = 8 ohms
E
I=
R
24
I=
8
I = 3 amperes

1. R4 and R5 are in parallel:

1
1 1
+
12 6
1
=
1 2
+
12 12
1
=
3
12
1
=
1
4
1
= 1
4
4
= 1
1
= 4 ohms

Rt =

Rt

Rt

Rt

Rt
Rt
Rt

2. The above 4 ohm combined resistance is in


series with R2 for a total of 16 ohms:

DIODES

Rt = R2 + 4 = 12 + 4 = 16 ohms

THE DIODE IS THE SIMPLEST - of electron tubes. It


has two operating electrodes. One of these is the
heated cathode, which emits the electrons, and the
other is the plate or anode.

3. The above 16 ohms is in parallel with R3 giving


a total of 3.2 ohms:
1
Rt =
1 1
+
12 4
1
Rt =
1
4
+
16 16
1
Rt =
5
16
5
Rt = 1
16
16
Rt = 1
5
Rt = 3.2 ohms
4. This 3.2 ohms is in series with R1 for a total
circuit resistance of 21.2 ohms:

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

THE PRINCIPAL ADVANTAGE OF THE DIODE


TUBE - is that it will permit the flow of current in one
direction only, from the cathode to the anode. If an
alternating current is applied to the cathode, the tube
will conduct only during one-half of each cycle, that is,
while the cathode is negative and the anode is positive.
For this reason, diode tubes are often used as rectifiers.
A RECTIFIER IS A DEVICE - which allows current
to flow in one direction but will stop, or oppose,
current flow in the opposite direction. Rectifiers
are, so to speak, one way gates for electrons.
DIODES ARE USED - in electrical power circuits
primarily as rectifiers.
(8040)

32

Return to Table of Contents

A ZENER DIODE - is a solid state device which


will conduct electricity only under certain voltage
conditions. Typical application for zener diodes,
therefore, is as voltage regulators.
(8077)

12 =

1
3
R

3
R
R
12 = 1
3
R
12 =
3
R = 36 ohms
12 = 1

TRANSFORMERS
A TRANSFORMER CHANGES ELECTRICAL
ENERGY - of a given voltage into electrical energy
at a different voltage level. It consists of two coils
which are not electrically connected, but which are
arranged so that the magnetic field surrounding
one coil cuts across the other coil.

EXAMPLE - What is the operating resistance of a


30-watt light bulb designed for a 28-volt system?
(26 ohms.)
(8038)
P 30
I= =
= 107
. amperes
E 28
E 28
= 26.17 ohms
R= =
I 107
.

THE CURRENT IS STEPPED DOWN - by a 1 to 4


ratio in a voltage step-up transformer with a ratio
of 1 to 4. (When voltage steps up, current steps
down by the same ratio.)
(8048)

POWER
POWER IS DEFINED AS - the rate of doing work,
and is equal to the product of the voltage and
current in a dc circuit.

EXAMPLE - A 24-volt source is required to furnish


48 watts to a parallel circuit consisting of two
resistors of equal value. What is the value of each
resistor? (24 ohms.)

WHEN THE CURRENT - in amperes (I) is


multiplied by the emf in volts (E), the result is
power measured in watts (P):
P=IxE

GIVEN:
Rt =

THE UNIT USED TO EXPRESS - electrical power


is the watt.
(8037)

E2
P

(8035)

SOLUTION:

E2 (24)
=
= 12 ohms
P
48
1
Rt =
1 1
+
R R
1
Rt =
(1+ 1)

A 24-VOLT SOURCE - is required to furnish 48


watts to a parallel circuit consisting of four
resistors of equal value. Since the resistors are all
in parallel across the 24-volt power source, each
resistor will have a 24-volt drop across it. (8021)

Rt =

A CABIN ENTRY LIGHT - of 10 watts and a dome


light of 20 watts are connected in parallel to a 30volt source. If the voltage across the 10-watt light
is measured, it will be equal to the voltage across
the 20-watt light.
(8031)

1
Rt =
2
R

EXAMPLE - A 48-volt source is required to furnish


192 watts to a parallel circuit consisting of three
resistors of equal value. What is the value of each
resistor? (36 ohms.)
(8053)

2
R
R
Rt = 1
2
R
Rt =
2
R
12 =
2
R = 24 ohms
Rt = 1

P 192
=
= 4 amperes
E 48
E 48
= 12 ohms
Rt = =
I
4
1
Rt =
1 1 1
+ +
R R R
I=

EXAMPLE - How much power must a 24-volt


generator furnish to a system which contains
the following loads?
(8016)

Return to Table of Contents

33

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

UNIT
One motor (75% efficient)
Three position lights
One heating element
One anticollision light
(Note: 1 hp = 746 watts.)

RATING

1 HP 746 watts / HP
75%
P = 994.7 watts
P=

1/5 hp
20 watts each
5 amp
3 amp

EXAMPLE - A 14-ohm resistor is to be installed


in a series circuit carrying 0.05 ampere. How
much power will the resistor be required to
(8032)
dissipate? (At least 35 milliwatts.)

1 746

=
199 watts
5 75%
Position lights: P = 3 x 20 =
60 watts
Heating element: P = IE = 5 x 24 = 120 watts
Anticollision light: P = IE = 3 x 24 = 72 watts
Total = 451 watts

Motor: P =

E = IR = 0.05 x 14 = 0.7 volt


P = IE = 0.05 x 0.7 = 0.035 watt
0.035 watt = 35 milliwatts
EXAMPLE - Figure 4. How much power is
being furnished to the circuit? (2,645 watts.)(8023)

EXAMPLE - Which of the following will require


the most electrical power?
(8015,8036)

E = IR = 23 x 5 = 115 volts
P = IE = 23 x 115 = 2,645 watts

(Note: 1 hp = 746 watts.)

EXAMPLE - How much current does a 30-volt


motor, 1/2 horsepower, 85 percent efficient,
(8431)
draw from the bus? (14.6 amperes.)

1. Four 30-watt lamps arranged in a 12-volt


parallel circuit.
P = 4 x 30 = 120 watts

(Note: 1 horsepower = 746 watts)

2. A 1/5-horsepower, 24-volt motor which is


75 percent efficient.
1 746
P=
= 199 watts
5 75%

1 746

= 438.8 watts
2 85%
P 438.8
I = =
= 14.6 amperes
E
30

P=

3. A
24-volt
anticollision
light
circuit
consisting of two light assemblies which
require 3 amps each during operation.

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS
OHM'S LAW
E
I=
R
E = IR
E
R=
I

P = IE = (2 x 3) x 24 = 144 watts
Circuit No. 2 at 199 watts requires the most
power.
A 12-VOLT ELECTRIC MOTOR - has 1,000 watts
input and 1 hp output. Maintaining the same
efficiency, a 24-volt, 1-hp electric motor would also
require 1,000 watts input power.
(8017)

RESISTORS
R t = R1 + R2 + R3 + ect. (series )
1
(parallel)
Rt =
1
1
1
+
+
R1 R 2 R3

EXAMPLE - A 1-horsepower, 24-volt dc electric


motor that is 80 percent efficient requires
932.5 watts. How much power will a 1horsepower, 12-volt dc electric motor that is 75
percent efficient require? (994.7 watts.) (8019)

POWER
P = I E
P
I =
E

(Note: 1 horsepower = 746 watts

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

34

Return to Table of Contents

ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS


ALTERNATING CURRENT - is defined as current
which periodically changes direction and
continuously changes in magnitude.

WHEN MORE THAN TWO INDUCTORS - of


different inductances are connected in parallel in
a circuit, the total inductance is less than the
inductances of the lowest rated inductor. (8013)
1
LT =
1
1
1
+
+
...
L1 L 2 L 3

THERE ARE THREE VALUES - of alternating


current which should be considered. They are:
Instantaneous,
Maximum, and
Effective.

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE

THE INSTANTANEOUS VALUE - is the value of


the induced voltage or current flowing at any
instant.
THE MAXIMUM VALUE
instantaneous value.

is

the

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE - is the effect of


inductance in an ac circuit and is measured in
ohms, because, like resistance, it impedes the
flow of current.

largest

INDUCTIVE REACTANCE - is the opposition


offered by a coil to the flow of alternating current
(disregarding resistance).
(8004)

THE EFFECTIVE VALUE - of alternating current is


the same as the value of a direct current which
can produce an equal heating effect.

AN
INCREASE
IN
INDUCTANCE
AND
FREQUENCY - will cause an increase in the
inductive reactance of a circuit.
(8005)

IN AN AC CIRCUIT - the effective voltage is less


than the maximum instantaneous voltage. (The
effective is 0.707 times the maximum.)
(8007)

CAPACITORS

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED - any values


given for current or voltage in an ac circuit are
assumed to be effective values.
(8010)

A
CAPACITOR
CONSISTS
OF
TWO
CONDUCTORS - capable of holding an electric
charge separated by an insulating medium.

LINES OF FORCE

THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY A CAPACITOR


CAN STORE - is directly proportional to the plate
area and inversely proportional to the distance
between the plates.
(8008)

MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE - will pass most


readily through iron (when compared with copper
or aluminum).
(8052)

INDUCTANCE

THE WORKING VOLTAGE OF A CAPACITOR in an ac circuit should be at least 50 percent


greater than the highest applied voltage.
(8001)

WHEN AC CURRENT FLOWS IN A COIL OF


WIRE - the rise and fall of the current flow sets up
an expanding and collapsing magnetic field about
the coil. A voltage is induced in the coil which is
opposite in direction to the applied voltage. The
property of a coil to oppose any change in the
current flowing through it is called inductance.

WHILE CAPACITORS ARE NORMALLY FOUND


IN AC CIRCUITS, - they can be used in dc circuits
to smooth out any slight pulsations in
current/voltage.
(8547)
EXAMPLE - Figure 17. The electrical symbol at
number 5 represents what kind of component?
(8066)
(A variable capacitor.)

TRANSFER OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY - from


one conductor to another without the aid of
electrical connections is called induction.
(8041)

WHEN DIFFERENT RATED CAPACITORS ARE


CONNECTED IN SERIES IN A CIRCUIT - the
total capacitance is less than the capacitance of
the lowest rated capacitor.
(8006)
1
CT =
1
1
1
+
+
...
C1 C 2 C 3

THE BASIS FOR TRANSFORMER OPERATION in the use of alternating current is mutual
inductance.
(8003)
WHEN INDUCTORS ARE CONNECTED IN
SERIES IN A CIRCUIT - the total inductance is
(where the magnetic fields of each inductor do not
affect the others) equal to the sum of the individual
inductances.
(8012)
LT = L1 + L2 + L3 ...

Return to Table of Contents

35

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

EXAMPLE - Figure 2. What is the total


capacitance of a certain circuit containing
three capacitors with capacitances of 0.02
microfarad, 0.05 microfarad, and 0.10
(8009)
microfarad, respectively? (0.0125 F.)

IMPEDANCE
IMPEDANCE - which is the combination of
resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive
reactance is the total opposition to current in an ac
circuit.

GIVEN:
CT =

THE UNIT FOR THE MEASURE OF IMPEDANCE is the ohm.

1
1
1
1
+
+
C1 C2 C3

THE TERM THAT DESCRIBES THE COMBINED


RESISTIVE FORCES - in an ac circuit is
impedance.
(8002)

SOLUTION:
1
1
1
1
+
+
0.02 0.05 0.10
1
CT =
50 + 20 + 10
1
CT =
80
C T = 0.0125 F

EXAMPLE - Figure 5. What is the impedance of


an ac-series circuit consisting of an inductor
with a reactance of 10 ohms, a capacitor with a
reactance of 4 ohms, and a resistor with a
resistance of 8 ohms? (Impedance is 10
(8024)
ohms.)

CT =

GIVEN:
Z = R 2 + (XL X C )2

WHEN DIFFERENT RATED CAPACITORS ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL IN A CIRCUIT - the
total capacitance is equal to the sum of all the
capacitances.
(8011)
CT = C1 + C2 + C3 ...

Z = Impedance
R = Resistance
XL = Inductive reactance
XC = Capacitive reactance
SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE - What is the total capacitance of a


certain circuit containing three capacitors with
capacitances of 0.25 microfarad, 0.03
microfarad, and 0.12 microfarad, respectively?
(8014)
(0.40 F.)

Z = 8 2 + (10 4) 2
Z = 64 + 6 2
Z = 64 + 36

GIVEN:
CT = C1 + C2 + C3

Z = 100
Z = 10 ohms

SOLUTION:
CT = 0.25 + 0.03 + 0.12
CT = 0.40 F

POWER
TRUE POWER - is the power consumed by the
resistance of an ac circuit.

CAPACITIVE REACTANCE

APPARENT POWER - is the power consumed by


the entire ac circuit.

CAPACITIVE REACTANCE - like inductive


reactance, offers opposition to the flow of current
and is also measured in ohms.

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

WHEN CALCULATING POWER - in a reactive or


inductive ac circuit, the true power is less than the
apparent power.
(8022)

36

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BATTERIES
BATTERIES MAY BE CONNECTED - in parallel,
in series, or in a combination of parallel and
series.

NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES
THE ELECTROLYTE OF A NICKEL-CADMIUM
BATTERY - is lowest when the battery is in a
discharged condition.

FOR BATTERIES CONNECTED IN PARALLEL (positive to positive to positive, etc. and negative
to negative to negative, etc.) the total voltage is
the same as any one battery.

THE ELECTROLYTE IS HIGHEST IN A NICAD


BATTERY when the battery is in a fully charged
condition.
(8096)

FOR BATTERIES CONNECTED IN SERIES (positive to negative to positive to negative, etc.)


the voltages are added to obtain the total voltage.

EXCESSIVE SPEWING IS LIKELY TO OCCUR


DURING THE CHARGING CYCLE - if water is
added to a nickel-cadmium battery when it is not
fully charged.
(8100)

EXAMPLE - Figure 10. What is the measured


voltage of the series-parallel circuit between
(8034)
terminals A and B? (3.0 volts.)

NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES WHICH ARE


STORED FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME - will
show a low liquid level because the electrolyte
becomes absorbed in the plates.
(8098)

There are two sets of batteries in series connected


in parallel with each other. The voltage of batteries
in series is added, giving a total of 3.0 volts for
each pair of batteries. The voltage of batteries in
parallel remains the same. The total voltage
produced by the batteries, therefore, is 3.0 volts.

THE STATE-OF-CHARGE - of
battery can be determined
discharge. (That is, discharge
specified rate and measure
capacity, then recharge it.)

THE STATE-OF-CHARGE OF THE BATTERY determines the amount of current which will flow
through a battery while it is being charged by a
constant voltage source.
(8089)

THE SERVICING AND CHARGING OF NICKELCADMIUM - and lead-acid batteries together in


the same service area is likely to result in
contamination of both types of batteries. (The
electrolytes and their fumes are chemically
opposite.)
(8095)

LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
A FULLY CHARGED LEAD-ACID BATTERY
WILL NOT FREEZE - until extremely low
temperatures are reached because most of the
acid is in solution. (Sulfuric acid has a much lower
freezing point than water.)
(8088)

THERE ARE TWO METHODS - of battery


charging:
1.

THE HYDROMETER READING - of a lead-acid


storage battery electrolyte does not require a
temperature
correction
if
the
electrolyte
temperature is 80 oF. (A hydrometer correction for
specific gravity is not required for electrolyte
temperature between 70 oF and 90 oF.)
(8087)

CONSTANT
VOLTAGE
constant, current varies.

voltage

USED IN THE AIR - generator puts


out constant voltage.
ADVANTAGE - rapid charging rate.
DISADVANTAGE - high charging rate
could cause over heating (NICAD).

IF ELECTROLYTE FROM A LEAD-ACID


BATTERY IS SPILLED IN THE BATTERY
COMPARTMENT - neutralize the spilled battery
acid by applying sodium bicarbonate solution to
the affected area followed by a water rinse. (8086)

2.

CONSTANT
CURRENT
constant, voltage varies.

current

ADVANTAGE - controls charging rate.


DISADVANTAGE - lower rate of charge.

TO PREVENT SEDIMENT BUILDUP - a space is


provided underneath the plates in a lead acid
batterys cell container so the sediment does not
contact the plates and cause a short circuit. (8092)

Return to Table of Contents

a nickel-cadmium
by a measured
the battery at a
its ampere-hour
(8099)

THE METHOD USED - to rapidly charge a nickelcadmium battery utilizes constant voltage and
varying current.
(8091)

37

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

MULTIPLE BATTERIES - may be charged by


either method:
1. CONSTANT VOLTAGE METHOD
Batteries connected in parallel.
May be different capacities.
Must be same voltage.
2.

WHEN A CHARGING CURRENT IS APPLIED TO


A NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY - the cells emit
gas only toward the end of the charging cycle.
(8102)
THE END-OF-CHARGE VOLTAGE OF A 19CELL NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY - measured
while still on charge, depends upon its
temperature and the method used for charging.
(About 1.45 volts to 1.58 volts per cell.)
(8097)

CONSTANT CURRENT METHOD.


Batteries connected in series can be of
different voltages.
Must be about the same capacity.

IF BATTERIES ARE SAME VOLTAGE


CAPACITY- either method may be used.

IN NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES - a rise in cell


temperature causes a decrease in internal
resistance.
(8101)

AND

THERMAL RUNAWAY - is the result of the high


temperatures associated with nickel-cadmium
batteries.
(8550)

EXAMPLE - Can several aircraft batteries with


different voltages (but similar capacities) be
connected in series with each other across the
charger and charged using the constant current
(8090)
method? (Yes.)

HEAT OR BURN MARKS ON THE HARDWARE is an indication of improperly torqued cell link
connections of a nickel-cadmium battery. (8093)

EXAMPLE - Can several aircraft batteries of


different ampere-hour capacity and same voltage
be connected in parallel with each other across the
charger and charged using the constant voltage
(8090)
method? (Yes.)

THE PRESENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF


POTASSIUM CARBONATE DEPOSITS - on the
top of nickel-cadmium battery cells that have been
in service for a time is an indication of normal
operation.
(8094)

EXAMPLE - When charging several aircraft


batteries of the same voltage and same
ampere-hour capacity, must they be connected
in series with each other across the charger
and charged using the constant current
(8090)
method? (No.)

NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY CASES AND


DRAIN SURFACES - which have been affected by
electrolyte should be neutralized with a solution of
boric acid.
(8351)

TROUBLESHOOTING AND DIAGRAMS


the battery provides an unintended second path
for the current. The other voltmeter is installed
with reversed polarity.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
THE CORRECT WAY TO USE AN OHMMETER - is
to connect it in parallel with the unit to be evaluated with
at least one end of that unit disconnected.

EXAMPLE - Figure 20. Will troubleshooting an


open circuit with a voltmeter as shown in this
circuit permit the battery voltage to appear on
the voltmeter? (Yes, since no current is
flowing in the circuit, there is no voltage drop
(8073)
across the lamp).

THE PROPER METHOD OF CONNECTING A TEST


AMMETER - is to connect it in series with the load.
THE CORRECT WAY TO CONNECT A TEST
VOLTMETER - in a circuit is in parallel with a unit.
(8029)

IF AN AIRCRAFT AMMETER SHOWS A FULL


CHARGING RATE - but the battery remains in a
discharged state, the most likely cause is an
internally shorted battery.

EXAMPLE - Figure 9. How many instruments


(voltmeters and ammeters) are installed correctly?
(8028)
(Two.)

LANDING GEAR CIRCUITS

The ammeter in series with the light and battery


and the voltmeter in parallel with the light are
properly installed. The ammeter in parallel with

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

IN AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM - the ground


reference point is considered to be at zero voltage.
(8072)

38

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A GROUND SYMBOL in electrical circuit diagrams


shows that there is a return path between the source of
electrical energy and the load.
(8604)

Wire #13 is out of the warning horn circuit when


the left gear switch is not in the Down position
(and the control valve switch is in other than the
Neutral position).

EXAMPLES - Figure 18.

When the landing gears are up and the


throttles are retarded, the warning horn will
not sound if an open occurs in which wire: No.
(8071)
5, No. 6, or No. 7? (Wire No. 6.)

Must the control valve switch be placed in the


neutral position when the landing gears are down
to prevent the warning horn from sounding when
(8068)
the throttles are closed? (Yes.)

The ground circuit for the landing gear warning


horn is completed by the right gear switch in the
Up position, wire #6, wire #12, the throttle
switches in the Closed position, and wire #11.

As shown, current for the warning horn through


wires #14, #3, and #11 is interrupted at the control
valve switch when the control valve switch is in
neutral. If the control valve switch were not in the
neutral position, ground for the horn would be
supplied through wire #14, the left gear switch,
wire #3, the right gear switch, wire #11, the control
valve switch, wires #10 and #5, the closed throttle
switch, and wire #6.

Wire #5 is out of the warning horn circuit when the


right gear switch is in the Up position.
Wire #7 is out of the warning horn circuit when the
left gear switch is in the Up position.
EXAMPLES - Figure 15.

When the landing gears are up and the


throttles are retarded, the warning horn will
not sound if an open occurs in which wire: No.
(8067)
2, No. 4, or No. 9? (Wire No. 4.)

The No. 7 wire is used to complete what


circuit? (The PUSH-TO-TEST circuit.)
(8058)

Wire No. 7 supplies power to both the red and


green indicator lights from the bus through the 5amp circuit breaker, and wires #18 and #17.

The ground circuit for the warning horn is through


wire #14, the left gear switch in the Up position,
wire #4, the throttle switch in the Closed position,
and wire #6.

When either of the push-to-test lamps is pushed


in, the circuit to ground is completed and the bulb
will remain lighted as long as it is pressed in.

Wire #2 is in the red warning light circuit.

With the landing gear retracted, the red


indicator light will not come on if an open
occurs in which wire: No. 7, No. 17, or No. 19?
(8057)
(Wire No. 19.)

Wire #9 is in the landing gear green light circuit.


EXAMPLES - Figure 19.
Under which condition will a ground be
provided for the warning horn through both
gear switches when the throttles are closed?
(8069)
(Left gear up and right gear down.)

Power to the red indicator light is from the bus


through the 5-amp circuit breaker, the up limit
switch in the Closed position (shown Open in
Figure 15), and wire #8.

The ground circuit for the warning horn would then


be through the right gear switch in the Down
position, wire #5, the left gear switch in the Up
position, wire #12, the closed throttle switches,
and wire #11.

Wire #7 supplies power to the red and green


indicator lights push-to-test circuit.
Wire #17 is the power to the green indicator light
push-to-test circuit.

When the throttles are retarded with only the


right gear down, the warning horn will not
sound if an open occurs in which wire: No. 5,
(8070)
No. 6, or No. 13? (Wire No. 5.)

When the landing gear is down, the green light


will not come on if an open occurs in which
wire: No. 6, No. 7, or No. 17? (Wire No. 6.)(8059)

Power for the green indicator light comes from the


bus through the 5-amp circuit breaker, wire #6, the
nose gear down switch, wire #5, the left gear
down switch, wire #4, the right gear down switch,
and wire #3.

The ground circuit for the warning horn would be


through the right gear switch in the Down position,
wire #5, the left gear switch in the Up position,
wire #12, the throttle switches in the Closed
position, and wire #11.

Wires No. 7 and No. 17 supply power to the green


indicator light push-to-test function.

Wire #6 is out of the warning horn circuit when the


right gear switch is in the Down position.

Return to Table of Contents

39

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

RELAY ACTIVATION TABLE


RELAYS
LTS
RTS
FCF
PCO
PCC
TCO
TCC
FUEL PRESS SOLENOID
FUEL TANK SOLENOID

POWER ON
RIGHT TANK
(8062)

POWER ON
LEFT TANK
(8064)

NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO

YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO

NO
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO

When the circuit is energized with the fuel tank


selector switch selected to the left-hand position,
what switches will change position? (Switches
(8064)
5,6,11,12,13,15, and 16.)

FUEL SYSTEM CIRCUITS


EXAMPLES - Figure 16.
When electrical power is applied to the bus,
which relays are energized? (Relays PCC and
(8063)
TCC are energized.)

Current will flow from the bus through the left-hand


5-amp circuit breaker, the fuel selector switch in
the left-hand tank position, and to the coils of relay
LTS. Activation of relay LTS changes position of
switches 5 and 6.
With switch 5 now open, current is cut off through
switches 7,9, and 11 resulting in de-energizing
relay PCC. This changes the position of switch 15.
(Switch 15 will snap open and then close again
almost instantly).
Current now flowing through closed switch 6
activates the fuel pressure X-feed valve and
changes the position of switches 11 and 12.
Closing of switch 12 energizes relay PCO which
closes switch 13.
At the same time, current is flowing from the bus
through the right-hand 5-amp circuit breaker,
switches 18 and 20, and to the coil of relay TCC.
Activation of relay TCC changes the position of
switch 16.
What will be the effect if the PCO relay fails to
operate when the left-hand tank is selected?
(The fuel pressure crossfeed valve open light
(8060)
will not illuminate.)
If relay PCO fails and does not operate, contacts
13 will not close and no power will get to and light
the "Fuel Pressure Cross Feed Valve Open"
warning light in the cockpit. Current is supplied to
this warning light from the bus through the center
5-amp circuit breaker, and contacts 13 and 15.

To energize relay PCC, current flows from the bus


through the left-hand 5-amp circuit breaker,
contacts 5,7,9, and 11, and then through the coil
of relay PCC.
At the same time to energize relay TCC, current
flows from the bus through the right-hand 5-amp
circuit breaker, contacts 18 and 20, and then
through the coil of relay TCC.
Since contact 12 will remain open, relay PCO will
not be energized. Similarly, since contacts 19 will
remain open, relay TCO will not be energized.
EXAMPLE - With power to the bus and the fuel
selector switched to the right-hand tank, how
many relays in the system are operating?
(Three relays, RTS, PCO, and TCC, will have
(8062)
operated.)

With the fuel selector in the right-hand tank


position, current will flow from the bus through the
left-hand 5-amp circuit breaker, the fuel selector
switch, and the coils of relay RTS.
Actuation of relay RTS opened contacts 7 and
closed contacts 8. Current will flow through
contacts 5 and 8 and cause contacts 12 of the fuel
pressure X-feed valve to close. Closed contacts
12 will allow current to actuate relay PCO.
Current from the bus will also flow through the
right-hand 5-amp circuit breaker, contacts 18 and
20, and the coils of relay TCC to actuate that
relay.

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

POWER ON
NORMAL
(8063)

40

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Even if relay PCO fails to operate, the rest of the


system will operate normally.

TRANSISTORS
THE JUNCTION TRANSISTOR - is a three
layered device in which the outer layers are one
type of semiconductor, either P or N, and the
center layer is the opposite type, N or P,
respectively. Both junctions must be biased
correctly to allow the transistor to conduct.

The TCO relay will operate if 24-volts dc is


applied to the bus and the fuel tank selector is
in which position? (The crossfeed position.)
(8061)

With the fuel selector switch in the X-FEED


position, current from the bus will flow through the
left-hand 5-amp circuit breaker, the fuel selector
switch, and to the coils of the FCF relay. When the
FCF relay is energized, contacts 17 will close
which will in turn drive contacts 19 closed. With
contacts 19 closed, current can flow to relay TCO
coils and operate it.

FORWARD BIASING - of a solid state device


(such as a transistor) will cause the device to
conduct.
(8079)
IN AN N-P-N TRANSISTOR APPLICATION - the
solid state device is turned on when the base is
positive with respect to the emitter.
(8076)

THERMAL SWITCH

IN A P-N-P TRANSISTOR APPLICATION - the


solid state device is turned on when the base is
negative with respect to the emitter.
(8075)

A THERMAL SWITCH - as used in an electric


motor, is designed to open the circuit in order to
allow cooling of the motor.
(8056)

EXAMPLE - Figure 22. Which application is


correct concerning bias application and
current flow? (Illustration 1 is correct. The
base of this N-P-N transistor is positive with
respect to the emitter, and the base-emitter
current adds to the collector-emitter current.)
(8078)
EXAMPLES - Figure 23.
If an open occurs at R1, how will the light be
affected? (The light cannot be turned off.)
(8080)

LOGIC GATES
LOGIC SYSTEMS - involve the use of binary
mathematics. The binary system of mathematics
uses only two digits, 1 and 0. If a circuit is
conducting, the signal is 1, if the circuit is not
conducting, the signal is 0. A switch, transistor, or
other unit can be used, therefore, as a "gate" to
provide the desired signal for the required result.
Examples of the symbolic depiction of gates are
shown in Figures 24, 25, and 26.

Above a certain minimum base voltage the


transistor will conduct, lighting the bulb. If R1 is
open, then no matter where variable resistor R2 is
set, it will always be at maximum voltage causing
the light to stay on all the time.

EXAMPLE - Figure 25. The depicted logic gate


output will be zero only with what inputs? (The
symbol depicts an "AND" gate. All inputs must
be a 1 to produce a 1 output. If one or more
inputs are zero, the output will be zero.) (8083)

If R2 sticks in the up position, how will the


light be affected? (The light will be on full
bright.)
(8081)

EXAMPLE - Figure 24. What is the relation


between the inputs and output of the depicted
logic gate? (The symbol depicts an "OR" gate.
Any input being 1 will produce a 1 output.)
(8082)

If the variable resistor R2 is in the zero resistance


setting (full up), then the base voltage will be
maximum. The resulting maximum current flowing
through the transistor will cause the light to be on
full bright.

EXAMPLE - Figure 26. Which of the logic gate


output conditions is correct with respect to the
given inputs? (Gate 2 is correct. The symbol
depicts an "EXCLUSIVE OR" gate which is
designed to produce a 1 output whenever its
input signals are dissimilar. Only gate 2 shows
(8084)
that arrangement.)

Return to Table of Contents

41

ELECTRICITY - NOTES

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS
that the certificate holder is able to do the work or
the certificate holder has served as a mechanic
under the certificate and rating for at least 6
months.
(8531)

MECHANIC CERTIFICATION
FAR 65, Subpart D
THE
REQUIREMENTS
FOR
ISSUING
MECHANIC CERTIFICATES - and associated
ratings and the general operating rules for the
holders of these certificates and ratings can be
found in FAR Part 65, Subpart D.
(8530)

65.21
THE HOLDER OF A CERTIFICATE UNDER
PART 65 - who has made a change in his
permanent mailing address must notify the FAA
Airmen Certification Branch in writing of the new
address within 30 days.
(8586)

65.18
ANY CHEATING - or other unauthorized conduct
while taking any FAA test carries a maximum
penalty of ineligibility for any certificate or rating
for one year and a suspension or revocation of
any certificate held.
(8584)

1.1
THE DEFINITION OF MAINTENANCE - is
overhaul, repair, parts replacement, inspection,
and preservation.
(8583)

65.71
A QUALIFIED MECHANIC - that does not read,
write, speak, or understand English is eligible to
apply for a mechanic certificate when a U.S. air
carrier outside the United States employs him/her.
(8590)

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE concerns simple


preservation operations. It also means replacing
small standard parts. It does not involve complex
operations.
(8602)
43.13
WHEN
PERFORMING
ANY
KIND
OF
MAINTENANCE on an aircraft, the work done
should at least equal to its original or properly
altered condition.
(8603)

EXAMPLE Why should an aircraft


maintenance technician be familiar with weld
nomenclature? (To compare welds with written
(non-pictorial) description standards.) (8606)

100-HOUR INSPECTIONS

65.13, 65.14
A TEMPORARY CERTIFICATE - is valid for 120
days.
(8589)

65.87
A CERTIFICATED MECHANIC WITH A
POWERPLANT RATING - may perform or
supervise the 100-hour inspection required by the
Federal Aviation Regulations on a powerplant or
propeller or any component thereof, and may
release the same to service.
(8519,8529,8536)

AFTER SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETING - the


required tests, a mechanic applicant is issued a
temporary certificate. This period allows time for
review of the application and supplementary
documents.
(8588)

65.85, 65.87
A CERTIFICATED AIRFRAME AND POWERPLANT MECHANIC - is authorized to approve for
return to service an aircraft, including certain
aircraft being operated for hire (like pipeline patrol
or banner towing), after a 100-hour inspection.
(8464,8523)

65.15
ANY MECHANIC CERTIFICATE - (except
Repairman) is valid until it is surrendered,
suspended, or revoked.
(8587)
43.12
THE MAXIMUM PENALTY - for falsification,
alteration,
or
fraudulent
reproduction
of
certificates, logbooks, reports, and records is
suspension or revocation of any certificate held.
(8585)

43.3(d), 65.81
A
PERSON
WORKING
UNDER
THE
SUPERVISION - of a certificated mechanic with
an airframe and powerplant rating is not
authorized to perform a 100-hour inspection. (The
mechanic must actually perform the inspection.) (8524)

65.83
A CERTIFICATED MECHANIC SHALL NOT
EXERCISE
THE
PRIVILEGES
OF
THE
CERTIFICATE AND RATING - unless, within the
preceding 24 months, the Administrator has found

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

42

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condition for safe operation after damage or


deterioration.
(8520)
43.13(b)
THE INSTALLING PERSON OR AGENCY - is
responsible for determining that materials used in
aircraft maintenance and repair are of the proper
type and conform to the appropriate standards.
(8533)

43.11
AFTER A MECHANIC HOLDING AN AIRFRAME
AND POWERPLANT RATING COMPLETES A
100-HOUR INSPECTION - and before the aircraft
is returned to service, the mechanic is required to
make the proper entries in the aircraft's
maintenance record.
(8463)
43.11
THE PERSON APPROVING OR DISAPPROVING AN
AIRCRAFT FOR RETURN TO SERVICE - is
responsible for making the entry in the
maintenance records after an annual, 100-hour, or
progressive inspection.
(8454)

A MINOR REPAIR - generally is one that can be


accomplished without any welding, riveting, or
gluing.
FAR 43, Appendix A(b)(1)
THE REPLACEMENT OF A DAMAGED ENGINE
MOUNT - with a new identical engine mount
purchased from the aircraft manufacturer is
considered a minor repair.
(8535)

65.81
CERTIFICATED MECHANICS - under their
general certificate privileges, may perform 100hour inspection of instruments (but not repair).
(8525)

THE REPLACEMENT OF A DAMAGED VERTICAL


STABILIZER - with a new identical stabilizer purchased
from the aircraft manufacturer is considered a minor
repair.
(8527)

ANNUAL INSPECTIONS
43.15(c)
EACH PERSON PERFORMING AN ANNUAL OR
100-HOUR INSPECTION - shall use a checklist
that contains at least those items in FAR Part 43,
Appendix D.
(8461)

65.81
FAA CERTIFICATED MECHANICS - may
approve for return to service a minor alteration
they have performed appropriate to the rating(s)
they hold. (Major repairs and alterations require an
IA's approval.)
(8528)

43.11(b)
DURING AN ANNUAL INSPECTION - if a defect
is found which makes the aircraft unairworthy, the
person disapproving must provide a written notice
of the defect to the owner.
(8445)

43.9
WHEN A MINOR REPAIR IS PERFORMED - on a
certificated aircraft, an entry in the aircraft's
permanent records is required.
(8457)

AC 43-9C, Part 43
DISCREPANCY LISTS - consist of items found
during an inspection that could render the aircraft
unairworthy. When the list is given to the aircraft
owner/operator after an inspection it says in effect
that except for the these discrepancies, the item
inspected is airworthy.
(8571)

MAJOR REPAIRS
A MAJOR REPAIR - is any repair that, if done
improperly, might affect the structural strength or
flight characteristics of the aircraft.
65.81
CERTIFICATED MECHANICS WITH A POWERPLANT RATING - may not perform a major repair
to a propeller even if they have the necessary
equipment available.
(8532,8591)

43.3(b)
IF AN AIRCRAFT OWNER WAS PROVIDED A
LIST OF DISCREPANCIES - on an aircraft that
was not approved for return to service after an
annual inspection, any appropriately rated
mechanic may correct the discrepancies. (8455)

FAR 43, Appendix A(b)


THE REPLACEMENT OF FABRIC ON FABRICCOVERED PARTS - such as wings, fuselages,
stabilizers, or control surfaces is considered to be
a major repair even though no other alteration or
repair is performed.
(8521)

43.11(a), 91.409(c)
IF AN AIRCRAFT WAS NOT APPROVED FOR
RETURN TO SERVICE - after an annual
inspection and the owner wanted to fly the aircraft
to another maintenance base, the owner must
obtain a special flight permit.
(8460)

MINOR REPAIRS

THE REPAIR OF PORTIONS OF SKIN SHEETS - by


making additional seams (the splicing of skin sheets) is
classified as a major repair.
(8449,8522)

43.13
A REPAIR, AS PERFORMED ON AN AIRFRAME
- means the restoration of the airframe to a

OVERHAUL OF A HYDRAULIC PRESSURE


PUMP - is considered an appliance major repair.
(8447)

Return to Table of Contents

43

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

MAJOR ALTERATIONS

DATA THAT IS USED AS A BASIS FOR


APPROVING
MAJOR
REPAIRS
OR
ALTERATIONS - for return to service must be
FAA-approved prior to its use for that purpose.
(8574)

A MAJOR ALTERATION - is a change in the basic


design, not listed in the manufacturers'
specifications, which could affect the structural
strength or flight characteristics of the aircraft.

DETERMINING INSPECTION
INTERVALS

EXAMPLES - Figures 62, 62A, and 62B.


To which doubler part number(s) is the -100 in
the title block (Area 1) applicable? (-101.) (8514)

EXAMPLE - Given the statement below, at


what intervals should the thrust bearing nut be
checked for tightness? (Every 150 hours.)
(8518)

Which doubler(s) require(s) heat treatment


before installation? (-102.)
(8512)
Using only the information given (when bend
allowance, set back, etc. have been calculated)
which doubler is it possible to construct and
install? (The -101 doubler. The Process
Specifications to construct the -102 doubler
are not detailed in Area 3.)
(8513)

"Check thrust bearing nuts for tightness on


new or newly overhauled engines at the first
50-hour inspection following installation.
Subsequent inspections on thrust bearing nuts
will be made at each third 50-hour inspection."
From the above statement, thrust bearing nuts
should be checked for tightness at 150 hour
intervals.

How many parts will need to be fabricated by


the mechanic in the construction and
installation of one doubler? (For either a -100
or a -200 kit, you need to fabricate two clips
and one doubler for a total of three parts.)
(8576)

EXAMPLE - Given the statement below, at what


intervals will valve mechanism inspections be
performed? (Every 100 hours.)
(8517)
"A complete detailed inspection and
adjustment of the valve mechanism will be
made at the first 25 hours after the engine has
been placed in service. Subsequent
inspections of the valve mechanism will be
made at each second 50-hour period."

FAA FORM 337


FAR 43, Appendix B
MAJOR REPAIRS AND MAJOR ALTERATIONS are entered on an FAA Form 337 (as well as in the
appropriate logbook).
(8462)

From the above statement, valve mechanism


inspections should be performed at 100 hour
intervals.

AFTER MAKING A MAJOR REPAIR TO AN


AIRCRAFT ENGINE - that is to be returned to
service, two copies of FAA FORM 337 must be
prepared: one copy for the aircraft owner and one
copy for the FAA.
(8458)

MAINTENANCE ENTRIES
ENTRIES IN AN AIRCRAFTS MAINTENANCE
RECORDS - must include certain required
information. The regulations specify what
information but do not specify any particular
format whether from the manufacturer or the FAA.
As long as there is continuity of the entries and
required data, any format is acceptable.
(8563)

THE
PERSON
PERFORMING
OR
SUPERVISING - the work must prepare FORM
337.
(8573)
WHEN A CERTIFICATED MECHANIC - (who may
or may not be an IA) signs the form, he/she is
certifying that the work was done under the
requirements of 14 CFR Part 43.
(8570)

91.417
MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
AND INSPECTIONS - must be recorded for each
aircraft (which includes airframe) and for each
engine, propeller, rotor and appliance of the
aircraft. A 100-hour inspection must be recorded
in each of the records.
(8564)

WHEN FILLING OUT FORM 337 - you may need


extra sheets. Extra sheets must show the aircraft
nationality, registration mark and the date the work
was completed.
(8567)
FORM 337 FOR MAJOR REPAIRS AND
ALTERATIONS - is only authorized for use on
U.S. registered aircraft.
(8575)

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

44

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IF WORK PERFORMED ON AN AIRCRAFT - has


been done satisfactorily, the signature of an
authorized person on the maintenance records for
maintenance or alterations performed constitutes
approval for return to service only for the work
performed (not for the entire aircraft).
(8444)

43.11
AIRCRAFT OPERATING UNDER PART 91 - must
have aircraft total time recorded in the
maintenance record after completing any required
inspection.
(8565,8566)
THE MAINTENANCE RECORD ENTRY THAT BEST
DESCRIBES THE ACTION TAKEN - for a control
cable showing approximately 20 percent wear on
several of the individual outer wires at a fairlead is:

91.417(a)
THE AIRCRAFT OWNER IS RESPONSIBLE - for
maintaining the required maintenance records for
an airplane.
(8459)

"Wear within acceptable limits, repair not


necessary."
(8451)

91.417, 91.419
WHEN OPERATING UNDER PART 91, - records
of
maintenance,
preventive
maintenance,
alterations and 100-hour, annual and progressive
inspections must be retained at least one year or
until the work is repeated or superceded. These
same records that must be retained and then
transferred when the aircraft is sold. (8568,8569)

THE MAINTENANCE RECORD ENTRY THAT


BEST DESCRIBES THE ACTION TAKEN - for a
0.125-inch deep dent in a straight section of 1/2inch aluminum alloy tubing is:
"Dented section removed and replaced with
identical new tubing flared to 37%.
(8452)
THE MAINTENANCE RECORD ENTRY THAT
BEST DESCRIBES - a repair of a dent in a tubular
steel structure dented at a cluster is:

IF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE RECORDS ARE


LOST OR DESTROYED, - the records must be
reconstructed. In order to do this total time-inservice of the airframe must be established. (8572)

"Welded a reinforcing plate over the dented


area."
(8453)

INSTRUMENTS

THE MAINTENANCE RECORD ENTRY THAT


BEST DESCRIBES THE REPLACEMENT - of
several damaged heli-coils in a casting is:

23.1543
INFORMATION REGARDING INSTRUMENT
RANGE MARKINGS - for an airplane certificated
in the normal category would be provided in FAR
Part 23.
(8505)

"Eight 1/4 - 20 inch standard heli-coils were


replaced. The damaged inserts were extracted, the
tapped holes gauged, then new inserts installed,
and tangs removed."
(8450)

23.1545
EXAMPLE - Given the following table of
airspeed limits in an FAA-issued aircraft
specification, what would be the high end of
the white arc on the airspeed instrument? (139
knots.)
(8516)

THE FOLLOWING TYPE ENTRY WOULD BE


FOUND - on FAA Form 337, Major Repair and
Alteration:
"Removed right wing from aircraft and
removed skin from outer 6 feet. Repaired
buckled spar 49 inches from tip in accordance
with figure 8 in manufacturer's structural repair
manual No. 28-1."
(This is a major repair.)

Normal operating speed


Never-exceed speed
Max. gear operation speed
Maximum flap extended speed

(8448)

43.9(a)
WHEN APPROVING FOR RETURN TO
SERVICE - after maintenance or alteration, the
approving person must enter in the maintenance
record of the aircraft:
A description (or reference to acceptable
data) of work performed,
Date of completion, (not date begun),
The name of the person performing the work
(if someone else),
Signature,
Certificate number, and
Kind of certificate held.
(8456)

Return to Table of Contents

260 knots
293 knots
174 knots
139 knots

The high end of the white arc is the maximum


flaps extended speed: 139 knots.
65.81
A CERTIFICATED MECHANIC WITH AN
AIRFRAME RATING - may not perform a minor
repair to an airspeed indicator, even if they have
the necessary equipment available. (They may not
perform any repairs on any instruments.)
(8532)
AC 43.13-1A
INSTRUMENT REPAIRS MAY BE PERFORMED
BY - an FAA-approved instrument repair station.
(8537)

45

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

accumulated before the AD must again be


complied with? (186 hours.)
(8515)

ATA MANUAL STANDARDS


THE AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF
AMERICA (ATA) SPECIFICATION NO. 100 establishes a standard for the presentation of
technical data in maintenance manuals, and
divides the aircraft into numbered systems and
subsystems in order to simplify locating
maintenance instructions.
(8510)

"Compliance required as indicated, unless


already accomplished:
I. Aircraft with less than 500-hours' total time
in service: Inspect in accordance with
instructions below at 500-hours' total time, or
within the next 50-hours' time in service after
the effective date of this AD, and repeat after
each subsequent 200 hours in service.

AVIATION MAINTENANCE ALERTS

II. Aircraft with 500-hours' through 1,000hours' total time in service: Inspect in
accordance with instructions below within the
next 50-hours' time in service after the
effective date of this AD, and repeat after each
subsequent 200 hours in service.

AVIATION MAINTENANCE ALERTS - provide


information about aircraft problems and suggested
corrective actions.
(8511)

AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES

III. Aircraft with more than 1,000-hours' time in


service:
Inspect
in
accordance
with
instructions below within the next 25-hours'
time in service after the effective date of this
AD, and repeat after each subsequent 200
hours in service."

FAR 39
FAA AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES - are
issued primarily to correct an unsafe condition.
This is the means by which the FAA notifies
aircraft owners and other interested persons of
unsafe conditions and prescribes the condition
under which the product may continue to be
operated.
(8446,8492,8494)

The aircraft comes under Paragraph I. The AD


was complied with at 454 hours. The next
inspection is due after 200 hours time in service,
or at 654 hours. The aircraft currently has 468
hours. 654 - 468 = 186 hours left before the next
inspection is due. (The paragraphs have to do with
when the first inspection is due. In all cases,
subsequent inspections must be done at 200
hours after the previous inspection.)

THE STATEMENT ON AN AD - that tells you how


quickly the AD must be accomplished is the
Compliance statement.
(8577)
THE APPLICABILTY STATEMENT ON AN AD
tells you what the AD refers to aircraft, aircraft
engine, propeller or appliance.
(8601)

PROPELLERS ARE INCLUDED


Airworthiness Directive system.

An Airworthiness Directive, or AD, requires a


specific action in order to comply with it. The
action may take the form of an:

in the
(8506)

(8578)

65.81, 65.87
IF AN AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVE REQUIRES
- that a propeller be altered, a certificated
powerplant mechanic could perform and approve
the work for return to service if it is a minor
alteration or a minor repair on an aluminum
propeller.
(8506,8526)

43.15
EACH PERSON WHO PERFORMS AN
INSPECTION - required under Part 91, 123, 125,
or 135 must determine whether the aircraft meets
all applicable airworthiness requirements. This
includes compliance with ADs.
(8580)

43.9
THE PERSON WHO COMPLIES WITH AN
AIRWORTHINESS
DIRECTIVE
or
manufacturers' service bulletin must make an
entry in the maintenance record of that equipment.
(8443,8508)

91.417, 91.419
AD COMPLIANCE RECORDS - are required to be
retained and, when the aircraft is sold, transferred
with the aircraft.
(8581)

AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES

1.
2.
3.
4.

Inspection.
Part(s) replacement.
Design modification.
Change in operating procedure(s).

FAR 21, Subpart H


THE
ISSUANCE
OF
AIRWORTHINESS
CERTIFICATES - is governed by FAR Part 21,
Subpart H. (Parts 23 and 25 cover Airworthiness
Standards; Part 39 covers Airworthiness
Directives.)
(8498)

EXAMPLE - Figure 63. An aircraft has a total


time in service of 468 hours. The
Airworthiness Directive given below was
initially complied with at 454 hours in service.
How many additional hours in service may be

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

46

Return to Table of Contents

21.179
IF AN AIRWORTHY AIRCRAFT IS SOLD - the
Airworthiness Certificate is transferred with the
aircraft.
(8497)

THE FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS


REQUIRE APPROVAL - after compliance with the
data of a Supplemental Type Certificate. (This is a
major alteration.)
(8504)

TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEETS

TECHNICAL STANDARD ORDERS


(TSO's)

THE TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET - will


reference the required equipment needed to
maintain the validity of a standard Airworthiness
Certificate.
(8159)

FAR 21, Subpart O


ITEMS MANUFACTURED IN ACCORDANCE
WITH A TECHNICAL STANDARD ORDER - still
require approval for installation in a particular
aircraft.
(8493,8504)

THERE ARE MINIMUM STANDARDS SET BY


THE FAA - regarding design, materials,
workmanship, construction, and performance of
aircraft, aircraft engines and propellers. When the
standards are met or exceeded, a Type Certificate
Data Sheet is issued.
(8579)

FAA PUBLICATIONS SUCH AS - Technical


Standard Orders, Airworthiness Certificates, Type
Certificate Data Sheets, and Aircraft Specifications
and Supplemental Type Certificates are all
approved data. Not all manufacturer's data is
approved. Advisory Circular 43.13-2A, for
example, is not "approved" data either, because it
is neither specific nor mandatory.
(8507,8509)

THE SUITABILITY FOR USE OF A SPECIFIC


PROPELLER - with a particular engine-airplane
combination can be determined by reference to
the Aircraft Specifications or Type Certificate Data
Sheets.
(8496)

PROPELLER TYPE CERTIFICATES

PLACARDS REQUIRED ON AN AIRCRAFT - are


specified in the Aircraft Specifications or Type
Certificate Data Sheets.
(8502)

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF CERTIFICATED


PROPELLERS - can be found in the Propeller Type
Certificate Data Sheets.
(8500)

THE LOCATION OF THE DATUM - is an item that


would be contained in an aircraft Type Certificate
Data Sheet.
(8495)

AIRCRAFT LISTING
TECHNICAL INFORMATION ABOUT OLDER
AIRCRAFT MODELS - of which no more than 50
remain in service, or of which a limited number
were manufactured under a type certificate and for
which there is no current Aircraft Specification,
can be found in the Aircraft Listing.
(8499,8503)

CONTROL SURFACE MOVEMENTS - is


information that is generally contained in Aircraft
Specifications or Type Certificate Data Sheets.
(8501)
MANY
AIRCRAFT
AND
ENGINE
SPECIFICATIONS - and some type certificate
data sheets, carry coded information to describe
the general characteristics of the item. 2 P C S M
means a two place (number of seats), closed
cockpit, sea, monoplane.
(8582)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION


MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION - is a
method of detecting invisible cracks and other
defects in magnetic materials, such as iron and
steel. It is not applicable to nonmagnetic materials.

THESE
ARE
SOMETIMES
USED
AS
AUTHORIZATION - to deviate from an aircraft's
original type design:
1. FAA Form 337.
2. Supplemental Type Certificate.
3. Airworthiness Directive.

IRON ALLOYS - can be inspected using the


magnetic particle inspection procedure (but not
aluminum, magnesium, copper or zinc alloys).
(8229)
THE INSPECTION PROCESS - consists of
magnetizing the part and then applying
ferromagnetic particles, in either liquid or powder
form, to the surface area to be inspected.

(8555)

SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE CERTIFICATES


FAR 21, Subpart E
A SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE CERTIFICATE MAY
BE ISSUED TO - more than one applicant for the
same design change, providing each applicant
shows
compliance
with
the
applicable
airworthiness requirement.
(8493)

Return to Table of Contents

WET AND DRY PROCESS MATERIALS - are two


types of indicating mediums available for magnetic
particle inspection.
(8228)

47

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

THE TESTING MEDIUM - that is generally used in


a magnetic particle inspection utilizes a
ferromagnetic material that has high permeability
and low retentivity.
(8225)

A DISCONTINUITY - may or may not affect the


usefulness of a part.
(8244)

IN USING THIS METHOD OF INSPECTION - the


location of the defect is indicated and the
approximate size and shape are outlined.

FATIGUE CRACKS - give sharp, clear patterns.


They are found in highly stressed areas of parts
that have been in service.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION - is used


primarily to detect flaws on or near the surface.
(8219)

UNDER MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION - a part


will be identified as having a fatigue crack when the
discontinuity is found in a highly stressed area of the
part.
(8240)

FATIGUE CRACKS

CONTINUOUS MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION


IS USED MOST OFTEN - to inspect aircraft parts for
invisible cracks and other defects. The continuous
method is likely to reveal more than the residual
method.
(8223)

INCLUSIONS
INCLUSIONS ARE - nonmetallic materials, such
as slag materials and chemical compounds, that
have been trapped in the solidifying metal.

RESIDUAL MAGNETIZING INSPECTION - may


be used with steels which have been heat treated
for stressed applications. (It is less sensitive in
detecting subsurface flaws.)
(8226)

THE PATTERN FOR AN INCLUSION - is a


magnetic particle buildup forming parallel lines.
(8238)

DYE PENETRANT INSPECTION

WHEN CHECKING AN ITEM WITH THE


MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION METHOD circular and longitudinal magnetization should be
used to reveal all possible defects.
(8234)

DYE
PENETRANT
INSPECTION
IS
A
NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST - for defects open to the
surface (cracks, etc.) in parts made of any nonporous
material.

A FLAW THAT IS PERPENDICULAR - to the


magnetic field flux lines generally causes a large
disruption of the magnetic field.
(8235)

DYE PENETRANT INSPECTION - is a nondestructive


test and will only detect defects open to the surface of
any nonporous material. This requirement is the
primary limitation of the dye penetrant method of
inspection.

CIRCULAR MAGNETIZATION - of a part can be


used to detect defects parallel to the long axis of
the part.
(8243)

LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTIONS - may be used


on:
1. Ferrous metals.
2. Nonferrous metals.
3. Nonporous plastics.
Liquid penetrant inspection is not suitable for use on
porous plastics or smooth primer-sealed wood. (8220)

CONTINUOUS LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIZATION


WITH A CABLE - will detect defects perpendicular
to the long axis of the part.
(8242)
A 45 CRACK CAN BE DETECTED - by magnetic
particle inspection using either circular or
longitudinal magnetization.
(8231)

PENETRANT INSPECTION CALLS FOR VISUAL


INSPECTION - of the part after it has been processed,
but the visibility of the defect is increased by the addition
of a dye. The dye may be either visible or fluorescent.

ONE WAY A PART MAY BE DEMAGNETIZED after a magnetic particle inspection is by slowly
moving the part out of an ac magnetic field of
sufficient strength or by gradually reducing the
strength of the field.
(8230,8237)
AN AIRCRAFT PART MAY BE DEMAGNETIZED
- by subjecting it to a magnetizing force from direct
current that is alternately reversed in direction and
gradually reduced in strength.
(8237)

THE STEPS TO BE TAKEN WHEN PERFORMING A


PENETRANT INSPECTION ARE:
1. Thorough cleaning of the metal surface.
2. Applying penetrant.
3. Removing penetrant with remover-emulsifier or
cleaner.
4. Drying the part.
5. Applying the developer.
6. Inspecting and interpreting results.

DISCONTINUITIES
IN
NONDESTRUCTIVE
TESTING
A
DISCONTINUITY - may be defined as an interruption in
the normal physical structure or configuration of a part.
(8244)

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

48

Return to Table of Contents

A PART WHICH IS BEING PREPARED FOR DYE


PENETRANT INSPECTION - should be cleaned
with a volatile petroleum-base solvent.
(8239)

RADIOGRAPHY
X- AND GAMMA RADIATIONS - because of their
unique ability to penetrate material and disclose
discontinuities, have been applied to the
radiographic
(X-ray)
inspection
of
metal
fabrications and nonmetallic products.

IN PERFORMING A DYE PENETRANT


INSPECTION - the developer acts as a blotter to
produce a visible indication.
(8241)
IF
DYE
PENETRANT
INSPECTION
INDICATIONS ARE NOT SHARP AND CLEAR the most probable cause is that the part was not
thoroughly washed before developer was applied.
(8236)

THE PENETRATING RADIATION - is projected


through the part to be inspected. The processed
film shows a shadow picture of the object.
THE THREE MAJOR STEPS IN THE X-RAY
PROCESS ARE:
Exposure to radiation.
Processing of film.
Interpretation of the radiograph.

TO DETECT A MINUTE CRACK - using dye


penetrant inspection requires a longer-thannormal penetrating time.
(8233)
WHEN THE PENETRANT IS APPLIED - it must
be cured and this waiting period is called dwell
time. If the size and shape of cracks are small, the
dwell time will be longer because it takes more
time to penetrate small discontinuities.
(8552)

THE ESSENTIAL FACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHIC


EXPOSURE - are interdependent. These factors
include, but are not limited to:
(a) Material thickness and density.
(b) Exposure distance and angle.
(c) Film characteristics.

ULTRASONIC INSPECTION

(Processing of the film is not a factor for the


exposure.)
(8224)

ULTRASONIC
INSPECTION
IS
A
NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHOD - which
employs electronically produced, high-frequency
sound waves that will penetrate metals, liquids,
and many other materials.

METALLIC RING TEST


AFTER A MECHANIC HAS COMPLETED - a
bonded honeycomb repair using the potted
compound repair technique, a metallic ring test is
the nondestructive testing method used to
determine the soundness of the repair after the
repair has cured.
(8227)

ULTRASONIC INSPECTION IS SUITABLE FOR the inspection of most metals, plastics, and
ceramics for surface and subsurface defects.
(8221)

EDDY CURRENT INSPECTION

SURFACE CRACKS

THE
PRINCIPLE
OF
EDDY
CURRENT
INSPECTION - is based on determining the ease
with which a material will accept induced current.

SURFACE CRACKS IN ALUMINUM CASTINGS AND


FORGINGS - may usually be detected by:
1. Dye penetrant inspection.
2. Eddy current inspection.
3. Ultrasonic inspection.
4. Visual inspection.
(8232)

EDDY CURRENT INSPECTION - is a


nondestructive testing method which requires little
or no part preparation, is used to detect surface or
near-surface defects in most metals, and may also
be used to separate metals or alloys and their
heat-treat conditions.
(8222)

Return to Table of Contents

49

INSPECTION FUNDAMENTALS - NOTES

MEASURING DEVICES
COMBINATION SET

TELESCOPIC GAUGE

A COMBINATION SET - is the tool used to find


the center of a shaft or other cylindrical work. (Use
the center head.)
(8295)

A TELESCOPIC GAUGE AND MICROMETER can be used for the dimensional inspection of a
bearing in a rocker arm.
(8303)

DIVIDERS

MICROMETER CALIPER

DIVIDERS DO NOT - provide a reading when


used as a measuring device.
(8291)

A MICROMETER CALIPER - is the precision


measuring tool used for measuring crankpin and main
bearing journals for out-of-round wear.
(8301)

A MACHINIST SCALE - is the tool generally used


to set a divider to an exact dimension.
(8299)

TO DETERMINE PISTON PIN OUT-OF-ROUND


WEAR - use a micrometer caliper to check different
diameter positions on the piston pin.
(8307)

DIAL INDICATOR
A DIAL INDICATOR - is the tool that can be used
to measure the alignment of a rotor shaft or the
plane of rotation of a disk.
(8289)

A MICROMETER MAY BE USED - to check the


stem on a poppet-type valve for stretch.
(8306)
A GAUGE BLOCK - is the tool generally used to
calibrate a micrometer or check its accuracy.
(8300)

THICKNESS GAUGE
A THICKNESS GAUGE - (feeler gauge) is used to
measure the side clearances of piston rings.
(8302)

READING A MICROMETER
THE LARGE MARKS ON THE LONGITUDINAL
LINE - on the barrel of a micrometer represent
tenths of inches (0.10, 0.20, etc.). Each small
mark between the numbers represents 0.025
inches.

THE CLEARANCE BETWEEN THE PISTON


RINGS AND THE RING LANDS - is measured
with a thickness gauge.
(8305)
A THICKNESS GAUGE - is the tool used to
measure the clearance between a surface plate
and a relatively narrow surface being checked for
flatness.
(8293)

THE RELATIVELY NARROW MARKS ON THE


THIMBLE - of a micrometer represent onethousandths of an inch (0.001, 0.002, etc.).

THE TWIST OF A CONNECTING ROD IS


CHECKED - by installing push-fit arbors in both
ends, supported by parallel steel bars on a surface
plate. Measurements are taken between the arbor
and the parallel bar with a thickness gauge. (8304)

THE VERNIER SCALE GRADUATIONS OF A


MICROMETER - are each equal to 0.0001 inch
(one ten-thousandths of an inch).
(8294)
EXAMPLE - Figure 49. What is the
measurement reading on the micrometer?
(0.275 + 0.004 +0.0002 = 0.2792)
(8298)

SMALL-HOLE GAUGE
TO ACCURATELY MEASURE THE DIAMETER
OF A HOLE APPROXIMATELY 1/4 INCH IN
DIAMETER - the mechanic should use a smallhole gauge and determine the size of the hole by
taking a micrometer reading of the ball end of the
gauge.
(8297)

MEASURING DEVICES- NOTES

EXAMPLE - Figure 48. What is the reading on


the micrometer? (0.300 + 0.0004 = 0.3004)
(8296)
EXAMPLE - Figure 46. What is the
measurement reading on the micrometer?
(0.275 + 0.010 + 0.0001 = 0.2851)
(8290)

50

Return to Table of Contents

ON A VERNIER CALIPER - each large number


represents inches (not fractions of inches).

VERNIER CALIPER
A VERNIER CALIPER - is used for making
measurements faster than with a micrometer
caliper, and for bigger measurements than a
micrometer can practically do.

Return to Table of Contents

EXAMPLE - Figure 47. What is the measurement


reading on the vernier caliper scale? (1.000 + 0.400
+ 0.025 + 0.011 = 1.436 inches.)
(8292)

51

MEASURING DEVICES - NOTES

GROUND HANDLING, SAFETY, AND


SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
A HUNG START OCCURS IN A TURBOJET
ENGINE - when the RPM remains below normal
starting RPM. If a hung start occurs, shut the
engine down.
(8308)

PISTON ENGINE STARTING


IF A RADIAL ENGINE HAS BEEN SHUT DOWN for more than 30 minutes, the propeller should be
rotated through several revolutions to check for
hydraulic lock.
(8315)

A HUNG START IN A TURBOJET ENGINE - is


often caused by the starter cutting off too soon.
(8309)

WHEN STARTING AND OPERATING AN


AIRCRAFT ENGINE ON THE GROUND it
should be heading into the wind primarily to help
keep the engine cool. (In flight, ram air serves the
same purpose.)
(8321)

APPROACHING AIRCRAFT
WHEN APPROACHING AN IDLING TURBOJET
ENGINE - the hazard area extends forward of the
engine approximately 25 feet and aft of the engine
approximately 100 feet.
(8312,8322)

WHEN STARTING AN ENGINE EQUIPPED


WITH A FLOAT-TYPE CARBURETOR - with an
idle cutoff unit, place the mixture control in the
FULL-RICH position.

A PERSON SHOULD APPROACH OR LEAVE A


HELICOPTER - in the pilot's field of vision
whenever the engine is running in order to avoid
the tail rotor.
(8330)

TO CLEAR A FLOODED ENGINE EQUIPPED


WITH A FLOAT-TYPE CARBURETOR OF
EXCESSIVE FUEL - crank the engine with the
starter or by hand, with the mixture control in
cutoff, ignition switch off, and the throttle fully
open, until the fuel charge has been cleared.
(8318)

TAXIING AIRCRAFT
WHEN FIRST STARTING TO MOVE AN AIRCRAFT
WHILE TAXIING - it is important to test the brakes.
(8334)

PRIMING

WEATHERVANING IS THE TENDENCY DISPLAYED


BY AN AIRPLANE that wants to turn it into the wind.
The greatest danger is when the wind is a direct
crosswind for either nosewheel or tailwheel airplanes.

TO PRIME A HORIZONTALLY OPPOSED FUEL


INJECTED ENGINE - place the fuel control lever
in the FULL-RICH position.
(8316)

WEATHERVANING - is greatest with a direct


crosswind because a tailwheel airplane has a bigger
surface area behind the main gear (which acts as
a pivot point) than the nosewheel airplane. (8327)

INDUCTION FIRES
GENERALLY, WHEN AN INDUCTION FIRE
OCCURS DURING STARTING - of a
reciprocating engine, the first course of action
should be to continue cranking and start the
engine if possible.
(8320)

WITH A QUARTERING TAILWIND DURING TAXI


keeping the aileron and elevators down on the
side from which the wind is blowing (upwind side)
will help keep the wind from picking up that wing.
(8328)

THE MOST SATISFACTORY EXTINGUISHING


AGENT - for use in case of carburetor or intake
fire is carbon dioxide.
(8313)

LIGHT GUN SIGNALS


WHEN TAXIING (OR TOWING) AN AIRCRAFT at an airport with an operating control tower and
not in radio contact with the tower, the following
light signals from the tower would apply:
Flashing Green - OK to move.
Steady Red - Stop.
Flashing Red - Move clear of runway or taxiway
immediately.
(8329)

TURBINE ENGINE STARTING


A HOT START OCCURS IN A TURBOJET ENGINE when the fuel/air mixture is excessively rich.
(8323,8556)
THE MOST IMPORTANT CONDITION - to be
monitored during start after fuel flow begins in a
turbine engine is the EGT, TIT, or ITT.
(8317)

GROUND EQUIPMENT - NOTES

52

Return to Table of Contents

Flashing White - Return to starting point.

(8331)

TOWING AIRCRAFT

Alternating Red and Green - OK to proceed


but use extreme caution.
(8332)

DURING TOWING OPERATIONS - a person


should be in the cockpit to operate brakes. (8326)

HAND SIGNALS

WHEN TOWING AN AIRCRAFT WITH A


STEERABLE NOSEWHEEL - the torque-link
lock should be set to full swivel.
(8310)

EXAMPLE - Figure 50. Which is the signal to


engage rotor on a rotorcraft? ("3" is ENGAGE
ROTOR; "1" is START ENGINE; "2" is STOP
ROTOR.)
(8314)

STOPPING AND TIEDOWN


WHEN STOPPING A NOSEWHEEL-TYPE
AIRPLANE - after taxiing, the nosewheel should
be left pointed straight ahead.
(8333)

EXAMPLE - Figure 51. Which marshalling signals


should be given if a taxiing aircraft were in danger
of striking some object? ("3" is EMERGENCY
STOP; "1" is STOP; "2" is COME AHEAD.) (8319)

Return to Table of Contents

NYLON OR DACRON ROPE - is preferred to


manila rope because manila (hemp) rope has
a tendency to shrink when it gets wet. (8311)

53

GROUND EQUIPMENT - NOTES

APPENDIX 1

Return to Table of Contents

1
CT= 1/C + 1/C + 1/C ...
1
2
3
Figure 1. Equation.

Return to Appendix

1
CT= 1/C + 1/C + 1/C
1
2
3
Figure 2. Equation.

Return to Appendix

1
LT= 1/L + 1/L + 1/L ...
1
2
3
Figure 3. Equation.

Return to Appendix

23A

Figure 4. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

Z = R2+(XLXC)2
Z =
R =
XL =
XC =

Impedance
Resistance
Inductive reactance
Capacitive reactance

Figure 5. Formula.

Return to Appendix

R5 = 6 ohms

R4 = 6 ohms
R3 = 6 ohms

R2 = 6 ohms

R1 = 12 ohms

Disconnected

Figure 6. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

R1

R2

R3

40

40

40

Break

Figure 7. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

R1

R2

R3

20

20

20

Break

Figure 8. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

+
V

V
+

Figure 9. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

1.5V

1.5V

1.5V

1.5V

Figure 10. Battery circuit.

10

Return to Appendix

E
D

Figure 11. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

R3 = 40 ohms

R1 = 8 ohms

24V

R2 = 10 ohms

11

R2 =12 ohms

1
1/Rb + 1/R3

Rc =

R3 = 4 ohms

Rb =Ra + R2
24V

R5 = 6 ohms

R1 =18 ohms

R4 = 12 ohms

1
1/R
+
1/R
Ra =
4
5

Rt = Rc + R1
Figure 12. Circuit diagram.

12

Return to Appendix

I1

Et
12V

It

I2

R2

Figure 13. Circuit diagram.

Return to Appendix

60

30

R1

13

I3

15

R3

R1 =5

Et = 36V

R2 =4

R3 =6

R4 =12

R5 =10

Figure 14. Circuit diagram.

14

Return to Appendix

Gear switch

Up

#13

#1

Relay

Motor

Down

#14
#15

Gear safety switch

Up limit
switch

#11

#2
Down limit
switch
#12

#19

5
#6

NAV. switch bypass relay

#10
Throttle switches (closed position)
#8
#7
#18 Red
Nose gear
down switch
#5
#4
Left gear
Right gear
down switch
down switch

Figure 15. Landing gear circuit.

Return to Appendix

15

#17

BUS

20

#3

#16

Horn

Green

NOTE: Switches shown


gear down - on the ground

Drawing shown without electrical power to bus


BUS 24 VDC

All relays spring


loaded to position
shown

Fuel selector switch


4 Norm
1 X-feed

RH tank
2

13

Pump
X-feed
closed

14

Relay
TCO

Relay TCC

15

16

Tank
X-feed
closed

Fuel pressure
cross feed
valve open

LTS
relay
7

Fuel tank
cross feed
valve open

Caution warning
lights in cockpit

RTS relay
9

11

Close

18

17

10

FCF relay
Fuel press
X-feed valve

Tank
X-feed
open

Relay PCC

LH tank

Pump
X-feed
open

Relay
PCO

C D

D C

12

Fuel tank
X-feed valve

Open

FCF
A

19

Open

B
20

Close

Figure 16. Fuel system circuit.

16

Return to Appendix

5
6

4
3

9
10

+
G

11

Figure 17. Electrical symbols.

Return to Appendix

17

28 V DC
#13

#1

#8

#12

#7
Warning horn
#9
Throttle switch (open)
#2

Neutral

#6
#5
#4 Down
#3
#14

Down

#10

#11
Right gear switch

Control
valve switch

Left gear switch

Figure 18. Landing gear circuit.

18

Return to Appendix

28 V DC
#1
R

#2
#3

#9

Test

#10
Warning horn

#8
Neutral
#4

Control
valve
switch #7

Down
#12

Down
Right gear switch

#5

Left gear switch

#6

Figure 19. Landing gear circuit.

Return to Appendix

#11

#13

19

Throttle switches

Open

Figure 20. Circuit diagram.

20

Return to Appendix

Figure 21. Electrical symbols.

Return to Appendix

21

Current flow
Emitter
Collector

Current flow

Emitter

+
Collector

+
Base

Base

Current flow
Emitter
Collector

Base
3

Figure 22. Transistors.

22

Return to Appendix

Emitter
Base

Collector
Up
position
Down
position

Figure 23. Transistorized circuit.

Return to Appendix

23

12V
R2
R1

Inputs

Output

Figure 24. Logic gate.

24

Return to Appendix

Inputs

Output

Figure 25. Logic gate.

Return to Appendix

25

1
1

Inputs

Output

Inputs

Output
2

0
0
1
Inputs

Output
3

Figure 26. Logic gate.

26

Return to Appendix

Figure 27. Object views.

Return to Appendix

27

Front view

Figure 28. Object views.

28

Return to Appendix

Front view

Figure 29. Object views.

Return to Appendix

29

Front view

Figure 30. Object views.

30

Return to Appendix

1"
2

1"
2

1"
2

1"
12

3"
4
3"

Figure 31. Sketches.

Return to Appendix

31

Figure 32. Sketches.

32

Return to Appendix

Figure 33. Material symbols.

Return to Appendix

33

1/16 R.

+.005
.3125.000 DIA.

1/16x45

7/8 DIA.

3/32
1 3/4
1/2 DIA.

.221.003

7/8

15/32

.665.001 DIA.

19/32

19/64

.110.001
12/32 R. Spherical
1/16 R.

Figure 34. Aircraft drawing.

34

Return to Appendix

1
3

0.25

Paint stripe

Figure 35. Aircraft drawing.

Return to Appendix

35

"

Notes:
1. Drill 31/64 inch ream inch.
2. All tolerances 1/32 unless
otherwise specified.
3. Finish all over 25

"

Note 1.

Note 1.
E

B
D

"
1"

"
1"

"

"

+1/64"
17" 3/64"
H

Figure 36. Aircraft drawing.

36

Return to Appendix

3
8
15
64 Drill

7
8

4 Holes
1
3 16

11
16

7
8

1
8
1
2 Drill

Figure 37. Aircraft drawing.

Return to Appendix

37

21
2 32

Brake - Horsepower (BHP)


0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000
00

00
28
00
26
00
24 0
0
22
00
20
00
18
00
16

40
18
20 30
00

13

985

30

0
80

CI

140

120
eed
e sp

1000

RPM

in

Eng

25

50

CID = Cubic inch displacement

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP)

Figure 38. Performance chart.

38

Return to Appendix

275

Circuit Voltage

Wire length in feet for allowable voltage drop

115

14

28

800

200

100

200

600

75

150

400

700

50

100

360

630

45

90

320

560

40

80

280

490

35

70

240

420

30

60

200

350

25

50

160

280

20

40

120

210

15

30

100

175

12

25

80

140

10

20

72

120

18

64

112

16

56

98

14

48

84

12

40

70

10

36

63

32

56

28

49

24

42

20
4

Electric Wire Chart


20

18 16

14

12

10

1.

6 7 8 9 10

15

35

.5

30

0 5 0
40 50 60 70 80 90 10 12 155
170
20

ve 1

Cur

ve 2
Cur
e3
v
Cur

20

18 16

14

12

Curves:
1. Continous rating-amperes cables
in conduit and bundles
2. Continous rating-amperes single
cable in free-air
3. Intermittent rating-amperes
maximum of 2 minutes.

10

8
Wire Size

Voltage Drop

Figure 39. Electric wire chart.

See FAA Replacement Figure 1, Addendum A

Return to Appendix

20

0
30
0
40

7
6

2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0

Amperes
1

8
3

39

2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0

Values Include 10 Percent Structural Deflection


340

n
sig
De

d
oa
gl
t ri
i
lim

320
300
280
260
240
200
180

Cable sizes
1/4 7x19
3/16 7x19
5/32 7x19
1/8 7x19
3/32 7x7
1/16 7x7

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

65 60 50 40 30 20 10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

Figure 40. Cable tension chart.

40

Return to Appendix

Rigging load in pounds

220

Normal rated power


180
170

Full throttle power

160
150

Brake Horsepower

140
Propeller load horsepower

130
120
110
100
90

Full throttle spec. fuel cons


70

.55

60

.50

50

.45
Propeller load spec. fuel cons.

1800

2000

2200

2400
Engine Speed - RPM

Figure 41. Performance chart.

Return to Appendix

41

2600

2800

Specific fuel cons


LB/BHP/HR

.60

80

Figure 42. Aircraft hardware.

42

Return to Appendix

Figure 43. Aircraft hardware.

Return to Appendix

43

Figure 44. Welds.

44

Return to Appendix

E
F

Figure 45. Welds.

Return to Appendix

45

765

20

4 32 1 0

0 1

15

2
10

Figure 46. Precision measurement.

See FAA Replacement Figure 2, Addendum A

46

Return to Appendix

2
4

10

15

1
Inch
1000
Figure 47. Precision measurement.

Return to Appendix

47

20

25

15
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10

0 1 2 3

20

Figure 48. Precision measurement.

48

Return to Appendix

15

765

4 32 1 0

0 1

10

2
5

Figure 49. Precision measurement.

See FAA Figure Replacement Figure 3, Addendum A

Return to Appendix

49

Figure 50. Marshalling signals.

50

Return to Appendix

Figure 51. Marshalling signals.

Return to Appendix

51

((4)0+6+(4 1296)(3)2=
Figure 52. Equation.

52

Return to Appendix

31 + 43
=
2
(17)
Figure 53. Equation.

Return to Appendix

53

9'

5'

12'

Figure 54. Trapezoid area.

54

Return to Appendix

3"

7.5

"

4"
Figure 55. Trapezoid area.

See FAA Replacement Figure 4, Addendum A

Return to Appendix

55

4'

2'

6'

Figure 56. Trapezoid area.

56

Return to Appendix

Figure 57. Trapezoid area.

See FAA Replacement Figure 57, Addendum A

Return to Appendix

57

-2

(-35 + 25) (-7) + () (16 )


=
25
Figure 58. Equation.

58

Return to Appendix

-4 125
=
-6 -36
Figure 59. Equation.

Return to Appendix

59

-3

(-5+23)(-2)+(3 )(64)=
-279
Figure 60. Equation.

60

Return to Appendix

60 POUNDS
Figure 61. Physics.

Return to Appendix

61

4
8
4
5
37
2
1

Area 1

4
8
4
5
37
2

-100

-200

Rivet
Rivet
Domed Nutplate
Rivet
Rivet
Clip
Doubler
Doubler

MS20470AD-4-4
NAS1097-3-4
NAS1473-3A
NAS1097-4-5
NAS1097-4-4
-103
-102
-101
Part number

REV.

.040
sheet
.040
sheet
.040
sheet
stock
size

2024-T3
CLAD AL.
7075-0 AL.
2024-T3
CLAD AL.
MATL
DESCR

MATL
Zone
NAME
SPEC.
DASH NUMBERS SHOWN DASH NUMBERS OPPOSITE UNIT WT. DWG. AREA
All
N/A
FIRST
RELEASE
For continuation see zone
Unless otherwise noted

REQd. PER ASSEM.

ADD-200

MATL THKNESS

LET. CHANGE

1
1
1

BY Date Appr.

Break all sharp edges


No. req.
per
Scale full
Airplane
992-148-XXX

The use of this document shall be restricted


to conveyance of information to customers of
vendors only. Neither classified nor unclassified
documents may be reproduced without the
written consent of
THE SPEEDWIND AIRCRAFT CORP.

-200 36TCP 001-All


-200 36P
088-All
-200 36P
001-087
Type
EFF
A/C

PROJECT

T. Smith

DESIGN

R. Eamer

Engineer
FAA D.E.R G. Winn
DWG.
Checker

I. Wright

DFTSMIN.

S. Linz

Speedwind aircraft
engineering section last
chance airport anytown
OK 73125-1234

Figure 62. Maintenance data - part 1 of 3.

62

Return to Appendix

AREA 2
GENERAL NOTES - 100
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ALL BENDS +/ .5 deg.


All holes +/ .003.
Apply Alodine 1,000.
Prime with MIL-P-23377 or equivalent.
Trim S-1 C just aft of the clip at STA. 355.750 and forward of the front face of the STA. 370.25 frame and remove from the
airplane.
6. Position the 101 doubler as shown. Install wet with NAS1097AD-4-4 and -4-5 rivets and a faying surface seal of PR 1,422.
Pick up the rivet row that was in S-1 C and the aft rivets in sta. 370.25. Tie doubler into front frame with clips as shown using
MS20470AD-4-4 rivets through the clips and the frame.
7. Install 4 NAS1473-3A nutplates with NAS1097-3-4 rivets through the skin and doubler to retain the antenna.
8. Strip paint and primer from under the antenna footprint.
9. Treat skin with Alodine 1,000.
10. Install antenna and apply weather seal fillet around antenna base.
AREA 3
GENERAL NOTES - 200

Note:

P.S. = Process Specification


IAW = in accordance with

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ALL BENDS IAW P.S. 1,000.


All holes IAW P.S. 1,015.
Heat treat 102 to T6 IAW P.S. 5,602.
Alodine IAW P.S. 10,000.
Prime IAW P.S. 10,125.
Trim S-1 C just aft of the clip at STA. 355.750 and forward of the front face of the STA. 370.25 frame and remove from airplane.
Position the 102 doubler as shown. Install wet with NAS1097AD-4-4 and -4-5 rivets, and a faying surface seal IAW P.S.
41,255. Pick up the rivet row that was S-1 C and the aft rivets in STA. 370.25. Add two edge rows as shown. Tie doubler into
front frame with clips as shown using MS20470AD-4-4 rivets through the clips and the frame.
8. Install 4 NAS1473-3A nutplates with NAS 1097-3-4 rivets through the skin and doubler to retain the antenna.
9. Strip paint and primer from under the antenna footprint.
10. Treat skin IAW P.S. 10,000.
11. Install antenna and apply weather seal fillet around antenna base.

Figure 62A. Maintenance data - part 2 of 3.

Return to Appendix

63

Figure 62B. Maintenance data - part 3 of 3.

R-3T min.

Joggle as necessary

0.50
4.980
3.00
3.70
2.30

0.1875 4PL

1.0

0.6250

4.50

2.40

2.0
1.0
103
Trim as reqd for instl

Size this area as required to clear S-1C.

14.25

R-3T min.

Area 4

101,102

Station
355.750

View looking up

62

Centerline
Stringer
1 Center
(S-1C)

Station
370.250

Return to Appendix

The following is the compliance portion of an Airworthiness Directive.


Compliance required as indicated, unless already accomplished:
I.

Aircraft with less than 500 hours total time in service: Inspect in accordance with instructions below at 500 hours total
time, or within the next 50 hours time in service after the effective date of this AD, and repeat after each subsequent 200
hours in service.

II. Aircraft with 500 hours through 1,000 hours total time in service: Inspect in accordance with instructions below within the
next 50 hours time in service after the effective date of this AD, and repeat after each subsequent 200 hours in service.
III. Aircraft with more than 1,000 hours time in service: Inspect in accordance with instructions below within the next 25 hours
time in service after the effective date of this AD, and repeat after each subsequent 200 hours in service.

Figure 63. Airworthiness directive excerpt.

Return to Appendix

65

Rt = E2/P
Figure 64. Resistance total.

66

Return to Appendix

1. 3.47 104 = 34,700.


2. 2(410) = 2,097,152.
Figure 65. Scientific notation.

Return to Appendix

67

4 + 6 + 10 (1296) =
3

Figure 66. Equation.

68

Return to Appendix

31 + 43
=
2
(17)
Figure 67. Equation.

Return to Appendix

69

1. (4.631)5
2. 4.631 105
3. 4.631 10-5
Figure 68. Alternative answer.

70

Return to Appendix

(100 + 36 16) =
Figure 69. Equation.

Return to Appendix

71

1. (31) + (43) 172


2. (31) + 43) 172
3. (31) + (43) 172
Figure 70. Alternative answer.

72

Return to Appendix

V= 1/6D3
Figure 71. Volume of a sphere.

Return to Appendix

73

ADDENDUM A

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Electric Wire Chart

Circuit Voltage

Wire length in feet for allowable voltage drop

115

200

14

28

800

100

200

600

75

150

400
360
320
280

700
630
560
490

50
45
40
35

100
90
80
70

240

420

30

60

200

350

25

50

160

280

20

40

120

210

15

30

100

175

12

25

80
72
64
56

140
120
112
98

10
9
8
7

20
18
16
14

48

84

12

40
36
32
28
24

70
63
56
49
42

5
4
3

10
9
8
7
6

20

35

.5

20

18 16
1

1.

14

12

2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0

Amperes
3

6 7 8 9 10

15

20

30

0 5 0
40 50 60 70 80 90 10 12 155
170
20
0
30
0
40

ve 1

Cur

ve 2
Cur
ve 3
Cur

20

18 16

14

12

Voltage Drop

Curves:
1. Continuous rating-amperes cables
in conduit and bundles
2. Continuous rating-amperes single
cable in free-air
3. Intermittent rating-amperes
maximum of 2 minutes

10

8
Wire Size

Figure 1. Electric wire chart. (Replaces Figure 39 from Appendix 1.)

Figure 39

Return to Addendum A

10

2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0

765

20

4 32 1 0

0 1

20
15

2
10

Figure 2. Percision measurement. (Replaces Figure 46 from Appendix 1.)

Figure 46

Return to Addendum A

10

Figure 3. Precision measurement. (Replaces Figure 49 from Appendix 1.)

Figure 49

Return to Addendum A

3"3"

7.5
7.5
" "

4"4"
Figure 4. Triangle area. (Replaces Figure 55 from Appendix 1.)

Figure 55

Return to Addendum A

Figure 5. Triangle area. (Replaces Figure 57 from Appendix 1.)

Figure 57

Return to Addendum A