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# GRLWEAP Fundamentals

Frank Rausche
2009, GRL Engineers, Inc.

CONTENT

## Background and Terminology

Wave Equation Hammer Models
Wave Equation Pile Model
Wave Equation Soil Model
The Program Flow
Bearing graph
Driveability
Di
bilit
Inspectors Chart

Summary

## Some important developments in

Dynamic Pile Analysis
1800s
1950:
1976:
1980s:
1986:
1996, 2006:

## Closed Form Solutions and Energy

Formulas
Smiths Wave Equation
WEAP, TTI
GRLWEAP
Hammer Performance Study
FHWA Manual updates

## WAVE EQUATION OBJECTIVES

Smiths Basic Premise:
Replace Energy Formula
Use improved pile model (elastic pile) and soil model
(elasto
elasto--plastic with damping)
Allow for stress calculations

## realistic Diesel hammer model

comparison with pile top measurements
development of more reliable soil constants
driveability and inspectors chart options
residual stress analysis option

GRLWEAP Application
WHEN?
Before pile driving begins
or after initial pile tests have been done (refined)

WHY?

## Formulate driving criterion

Equipment selection
Stress determination
Blow count calculation
Capacity determination

## Some WEAP Terminology

Hammer
Hammer Assembly
Hammer efficiency
Driving system
Helmet weight
Hammer cushion
Pile cushion
Cap

Pile damping
Soil damping
Quake

## Ram plus hammer assembly

All non
non--striking hammer components
Ratio of Ek just before impact to Ep
All components between hammer and pile top
Weight of driving system
Protects hammer - between helmet and ram
Protects pile - between helmet and pile top
Generally the striker plate + hammer
cushion+helmet
Damping of pile material
Damping of soil in pile
pile--soil interface
Pile displacement when static resistance
reaches ultimate

## Some WEAP Terminology

Bearing Graph
Driveability analysis
Inspectors Chart

Gain/loss factor
SRD
Variable setup

## Ult. Capacity and max. stress vs. blow count

Calculate blow count and stresses vs. depth
based on static soils analysis
Calculates blow count, stresses for given
ult. capacity as a function of stroke/energy
Ratio of long term to EOD resistance
Ratio of SRD to long term resistance
Static resistance to driving
Setup occurring during a limited driving
interruption

## THE WAVE EQUATION MODEL

The Wave Equation Analysis calculates
the displacement of any point of a slender
elastic rod at any time.
The calculation is based on rod
Length
Cross Sectional Area
Elastic Modulus
Mass density

GRLWEAP Fundamentals
For a pile driving analysis, the rod
rod is
Hammer+Driving System+Pile
The rod is assumed to be elastic(?) and
slender(?)
The soil is represented by resistance
forces acting at the pile soil interface

EP = WR h

## (potential or rated energy)

EK = mR vi2

(kinetic energy)
energy)

EK = EP

( - hammer efficiency)

WR

vi W
R

vi =
2g
2g h
N
Note:
ET = T EP

(T - transfer efficiency)

WP

## Cylinder and upper frame =

assembly top mass
Ram guides for assembly stiffness
Drop height
Ram: A, L for stiffness, mass
Hammer base =
assembly bottom mass

Ram Model

Ram segments
~1m long

Combined Ram
Ram-H.Cushion
Helmet mass

## External Combustion Hammers

Combined Ram Assembly Model

Ram segments

Assembly segments

Combined Ram
Ram-H.Cushion
Helmet mass

DIESEL HAMMERS

## Diesel hammer components

Piston = Ram

Cylinder
Port (closed by piston)
Compressive stroke
Combustion chamber
Impact block
Hammer Cushion; Helmet

## Ram bottom/impact block

Impact Block mass
Hammer Cushion
Helmet mass

## Diesel Hammer Combustion Pressure Model

Compressive Stroke, hC
Cylinder Area, ACH
Final Chamber Volume, VCH
Max. Pressure, pMAX
PrecompressionPrecompressionCombustion-Combustion
Expansion-Expansion
Pressure

Ports
hC

## DIESEL PRESSURE MODEL

Liquid Injection Hammers
Liquid Injection Timing Parameters:

Pressure

Combustion Delay,
y t

tD

Port

Expansion:

Open

Combustion Duration, tD

p=pMAX(VCH/V)1.25

Compression:
p=patm(Vin/V)1.35

pMAX

Time

## Program Flow Diesel Hammers

Fixed pressure, variable stroke
Setup hammer,
pile, soil model

Downward =
rated stroke

ram motion

Find upward
stroke

Downward =
upward stroke

Next Ru?

N
Strokes
match?

N
Output

## GRLWEAP hammer efficiencies

The hammer efficiency reduces the
impact
p
velocity
y of the ram;; it is based on
experience
Hammer efficiencies cover all losses
which cannot be calculated
Diesel hammer energy loss due to
precompression
i or cushioning
hi i can be
b
calculated and, therefore, is not covered
by hammer efficiency

## GRLWEAP diesel hammer efficiencies

Open end diesel hammers:

0.80

0.80

alignment)

## GRLWEAP hydraulic hammer

efficiencies
Hammers with internal monitor:

0.95

## Hydraulic drop hammers:

Power assisted hydraulic hammers:

0.80
0.80

## Other ECH efficiency recommendations

Single acting Air/Steam hammers:

0.67

## (fall height, preadmission, friction, alignment)

D bl acting
Double
ti Air/Steam/Hydraulic:
Ai /St
/H d
li

0 50
0.50

0.50

## Free released drop hammers:

(covers uncertainty of fall height)

VIBRATORY
HAMMER MODEL

0.67

## VIBRATORY HAMMER MODEL

FL
Bias Mass with Line Force

m1

Connecting Pads
Oscillator with eccentric
masses, me, radii, re and
clamp

m2

FV

FV = me [2resin
sin
t - 2(t)]

## Driving System Modeling

Driving Systems Consists of
Helmet including inserts to align hammer and pile
Hammer Cushion to p
protect hammer
Pile Cushion to protect concrete piles

## GRLWEAP Pile Model

To make realistic calculations possible
The pile is divided into N segments
of approximate length L = 1 m (3.3 ft)
with mass
m = A L
and stiffness
k = E A / L
there are
N = L / L pile segments

## Divide time into intervals

(typically 0.1 ms)

## Computational Time Increment, t

t is a fraction (e.g. ) of the critical time, which is L/c
Time

ttcr
L
L
t
L/c
Length

Time Increment
Time Increment must be a fraction of the critical time
increment for numerical stability
Typically, the time increment is of the critical value
Soil resistance has to be considered when
calculating the critical time increment
Hammer segments are often critical

Hammer--Driving System
Hammer
System--Pile
Pile--Soil Model
Hammer:
(Masses and
Springs)

## Driving System: Cushions

(Springs)
Helmet (Mass)

Pile:

Soil:

Masses and
Springs

Elasto-Plastic
ElastoSprings and
Dashpots

Driving system
model (Concrete
piles)
p
)

## Hammer Cushion: Spring

plus Dashpot
Helmet + Inserts
Pile Cushion + Pile Top:
Spring + Dashpot

Non--linear springs
Non
Springs at material interfaces

## Hammer interface springs

Cushions
H l t/Pil
Helmet/Pile
Splices with slacks

## Non--linear (cushion) springs

Non
Parameters

Compressive
Force

Stiffness, k = EA/t
Coefficient of Restitution, COR
Round
Round--out deformation,
deformation,
r , or
compressive slack
Tension slack, s

k /COR2

Compressive
Deformation

## The Pile and Soil Model

Mass density,
Modulus, E
X-Area,
Area A

Mass mi Stiffness ki

L= L/N 1m

## Spring (static resistance)

Dashpot (dynamic resist)

Soil Resistance
Soil resistance slows pile movement and
causes pile rebound
A very slowly moving pile only encounters
static resistance
A rapidly moving pile also encounters dynamic
resistance
The static resistance to driving differs from the
soil resistance under static loads

Segment
i-1

RIGID SOIL
SURROUNDING
SOIL/PILE
INTERFACE

Ki-1,Rui
ui--1
Ji-1
ki,Rui

Segment

Ji

ki+1,Rui+1
Segment
i+1

Ji+1

## Smiths Soil Model

Total Soil Resistance
Rtotal = Rsi +Rdi

Segment
i
Fixed

ui
vi

## Shaft Resistance and Quake

-Ruii

Ruii

qi

Rsi

qi
Recommended Shaft Quake:
2.5 mm; 0.1 inches

ui

## Recommended Toe Quakes, qt

Non-displacement
Nonpiles

Displacement piles

0.1 or 2.5 mm

soils
il

0.04 or 1 mm on
hard rock

qt

Rut R

qt

Rd = RsJs v
Pile
Segment

Fixed
reference
(soil around
pile)

## Smith damping factor,

Js [s/m or s/ft]

Rd = RuJs v
Smith-viscous damping
Smithfactor Jsvi [s/m or s/ft]

velocity v
dashpot

## Alternative Soil Models

Coyle-Gibson Results (1968)
Clay

Sand

## Recommended damping factors

after Smith
Shaft
Cl
Clay:
Sand:
Silts:
Layered soils:

0 65 s/m
0.65
/ or 0.20
0 20 s/ft
/ft
0.16 s/m or 0.05 s/ft
use an intermediate value
use a weighted average

Toe
All soils:

## 0.50 s/m or 0.15 s/ft

Numerical treatment
Force from upper spring, Fi

Resistance force, Ri

Mass mi

Weight, Wi

## Acceleration: ai = (Fi + Wi Ri Fi+1) / mi

Velocity, vi, and Displacement, ui, from Integration

## Set or Blow Count Calculation from

Extrapolated toe displacement

M i
Maximum
Set
S t

Calculated

Ru

Extrapolated

Set
Final Set

Quake

## Alternative Blow Count Calculation

by RSA
Residual Stress Analysis is also called
Multiple Blow Analysis
Analyzes several blows consecutively with
initial stresses, displacements from static
state at end of previous blow
Yields residual stresses in pile at end of
blow; generally lower blow counts

## RESIDUAL STRESS OPTION

BETWEEN HAMMER BLOWS PILE AND SOIL STORE ENERGY

## Set for 2 Blows

Convergence:
C
Consecutive
ti Blows
Bl
have same
pile compression/sets

SI--Units
SI

Inspectors Chart

## Question for Driveability:

Driveability:
WHAT IS RU DURING DRIVING?
We call it Static Resistance to Driving (SRD),
because we lose shaft resistance during driving.
Will we regain resistance by Soil Setup primarily along shaft (may be 10 x in clay)
Driveability requires analyze with full loss of
setup (or with partial loss of setup for a short
driving interruption)

Setup factors
Soil Type

Setup Factor

Clay

Silt Clay

Silt

1.5

Sand Clay

1.2

Fine Sand

Sand - Gravel

## For Driveability with variable setup time

Setup factor, SF
Setup time

Remolding
energy

Ru

Setup Time

Ru/SF
Time

R
Ru
Ru/SF
Remolding
Energy

Energy

Driveability

Summary
There are 3 distinctly different hammer models
External Combustion Hammer models
Diesel hammer and pressure models
Vibratory hammer model

## There are 3 components in the driving system

model
Hammer Cushion
Helmet and Inserts
Pile Cushion

## Model Parameters can be found in GRLWEAP

Help Section or Hammer data file.

SUMMARY continued
The wave equation analysis works with Static
Resistance to Driving (SRD) plus a Damping or
D
Dynamic
i R
Resistance
i t
Important analysis options include Driveability
and Inspectors Chart
The whole package is geared towards standard
analyses;
y
; some research options
p
exist