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12/7/2015

IntroductionandImplementationofTotalQualityManagement(TQM)

IntroductionandImplementationofTotalQuality
Management(TQM)
KhurramHashmi 7
TotalQualityManagementisamanagementapproachthatoriginatedinthe1950sandhassteadilybecomemorepopularsincetheearly1980s.TotalQuality
isadescriptionoftheculture,attitudeandorganizationofacompanythatstrivestoprovidecustomerswithproductsandservicesthatsatisfytheirneeds.The
culturerequiresqualityinallaspectsofthecompanysoperations,withprocessesbeingdonerightthefirsttimeanddefectsandwasteeradicatedfrom
operations.
TotalQualityManagement,TQM,isamethodbywhichmanagementandemployeescanbecomeinvolvedinthecontinuousimprovementoftheproductionof
goodsandservices.Itisacombinationofqualityandmanagementtoolsaimedatincreasingbusinessandreducinglossesduetowastefulpractices.
SomeofthecompanieswhohaveimplementedTQMincludeFordMotorCompany,PhillipsSemiconductor,SGLCarbon,MotorolaandToyotaMotor
Company.1

TQMDefined
TQMisamanagementphilosophythatseekstointegrateallorganizationalfunctions(marketing,finance,design,engineering,andproduction,customer
service,etc.)tofocusonmeetingcustomerneedsandorganizationalobjectives.
TQMviewsanorganizationasacollectionofprocesses.Itmaintainsthatorganizationsmuststrivetocontinuouslyimprovetheseprocessesbyincorporating
theknowledgeandexperiencesofworkers.ThesimpleobjectiveofTQMisDotherightthings,rightthefirsttime,everytime.TQMisinfinitelyvariableand
adaptable.Althoughoriginallyappliedtomanufacturingoperations,andforanumberofyearsonlyusedinthatarea,TQMisnowbecomingrecognizedasa
genericmanagementtool,justasapplicableinserviceandpublicsectororganizations.Thereareanumberofevolutionarystrands,withdifferentsectors
creatingtheirownversionsfromthecommonancestor.TQMisthefoundationforactivities,whichinclude:
Commitmentbyseniormanagementandallemployees
Meetingcustomerrequirements
Reducingdevelopmentcycletimes
Justintime/demandflowmanufacturing
Improvementteams
Reducingproductandservicecosts
Systemstofacilitateimprovement
Linemanagementownership
Employeeinvolvementandempowerment
Recognitionandcelebration
Challengingquantifiedgoalsandbenchmarking
Focusonprocesses/improvementplans
Specificincorporationinstrategicplanning
ThisshowsthatTQMmustbepracticedinallactivities,byallpersonnel,inmanufacturing,marketing,engineering,R&D,sales,purchasing,HR,etc.2

PrinciplesofTQM
ThekeyprinciplesofTQMareasfollowing:3
ManagementCommitment
Plan(drive,direct)
Do(deploy,support,participate)
Check(review)
Act(recognize,communicate,revise)
EmployeeEmpowerment
Training
Suggestionscheme
Measurementandrecognition
Excellenceteams

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IntroductionandImplementationofTotalQualityManagement(TQM)

FactBasedDecisionMaking
SPC(statisticalprocesscontrol)
DOE,FMEA
The7statisticaltools
TOPS(Ford8Dteamorientedproblemsolving)
ContinuousImprovement
SystematicmeasurementandfocusonCONQ
Excellenceteams
Crossfunctionalprocessmanagement
Attain,maintain,improvestandards
CustomerFocus
Supplierpartnership
Servicerelationshipwithinternalcustomers
Nevercompromisequality
Customerdrivenstandards

TheConceptofContinuousImprovementbyTQM
TQMismainlyconcernedwithcontinuousimprovementinallwork,fromhighlevelstrategicplanninganddecisionmaking,todetailedexecutionofwork
elementsontheshopfloor.Itstemsfromthebeliefthatmistakescanbeavoidedanddefectscanbeprevented.Itleadstocontinuouslyimprovingresults,inall
aspectsofwork,asaresultofcontinuouslyimprovingcapabilities,people,processes,technologyandmachinecapabilities.
Continuousimprovementmustdealnotonlywithimprovingresults,butmoreimportantlywithimprovingcapabilitiestoproducebetterresultsinthefuture.The
fivemajorareasoffocusforcapabilityimprovementaredemandgeneration,supplygeneration,technology,operationsandpeoplecapability.
AcentralprincipleofTQMisthatmistakesmaybemadebypeople,butmostofthemarecaused,oratleastpermitted,byfaultysystemsandprocesses.This
meansthattherootcauseofsuchmistakescanbeidentifiedandeliminated,andrepetitioncanbepreventedbychangingtheprocess.1
Therearethreemajormechanismsofprevention:
1. Preventingmistakes(defects)fromoccurring(mistakeproofingorpokayoke).
2. Wheremistakescantbeabsolutelyprevented,detectingthemearlytopreventthembeingpasseddownthevalueaddedchain(inspectionatsourceorby
thenextoperation).
3. Wheremistakesrecur,stoppingproductionuntiltheprocesscanbecorrected,topreventtheproductionofmoredefects.(stopintime).

ImplementationPrinciplesandProcesses
ApreliminarystepinTQMimplementationistoassesstheorganizationscurrentreality.Relevantpreconditionshavetodowiththeorganizationshistory,its
currentneeds,precipitatingeventsleadingtoTQM,andtheexistingemployeequalityofworkinglife.Ifthecurrentrealitydoesnotincludeimportant
preconditions,TQMimplementationshouldbedelayeduntiltheorganizationisinastateinwhichTQMislikelytosucceed.
Ifanorganizationhasatrackrecordofeffectiveresponsivenesstotheenvironment,andifithasbeenabletosuccessfullychangethewayitoperateswhen
needed,TQMwillbeeasiertoimplement.Ifanorganizationhasbeenhistoricallyreactiveandhasnoskillatimprovingitsoperatingsystems,therewillbeboth
employeeskepticismandalackofskilledchangeagents.Ifthisconditionprevails,acomprehensiveprogramofmanagementandleadershipdevelopmentmay
beinstituted.Amanagementauditisagoodassessmenttooltoidentifycurrentlevelsoforganizationalfunctioningandareasinneedofchange.An
organizationshouldbebasicallyhealthybeforebeginningTQM.Ifithassignificantproblemssuchasaveryunstablefundingbase,weakadministrative
systems,lackofmanagerialskill,orpooremployeemorale,TQMwouldnotbeappropriate.5
However,acertainlevelofstressisprobablydesirabletoinitiateTQM.Peopleneedtofeelaneedforachange.Kanter(1983)addressesthisphenomenonbe
describingbuildingblockswhicharepresentineffectiveorganizationalchange.Theseforcesincludedeparturesfromtradition,acrisisorgalvanizingevent,
strategicdecisions,individualprimemovers,andactionvehicles.Departuresfromtraditionareactivities,usuallyatlowerlevelsoftheorganization,which
occurwhenentrepreneursmoveoutsidethenormalwaysofoperatingtosolveaproblem.Acrisis,ifitisnottoodisabling,canalsohelpcreateasenseof
urgencywhichcanmobilizepeopletoact.InthecaseofTQM,thismaybeafundingcutorthreat,ordemandsfromconsumersorotherstakeholdersfor
improvedqualityofservice.Afteracrisis,aleadermayintervenestrategicallybyarticulatinganewvisionofthefuturetohelptheorganizationdealwithit.A
plantoimplementTQMmaybesuchastrategicdecision.Suchaleadermaythenbecomeaprimemover,whotakeschargeinchampioningthenewideaand
showingothershowitwillhelpthemgetwheretheywanttogo.Finally,actionvehiclesareneededandmechanismsorstructurestoenablethechangetooccur
andbecomeinstitutionalized.8

StepsinManagingtheTransition
BeckhardandPritchard(1992)haveoutlinedthebasicstepsinmanagingatransitiontoanewsystemsuchasTQM:identifyingtaskstobedone,creating
necessarymanagementstructures,developingstrategiesforbuildingcommitment,designingmechanismstocommunicatethechange,andassigning
resources.
Taskidentificationwouldincludeastudyofpresentconditions(assessingcurrentreality,asdescribedabove)assessingreadiness,suchasthroughaforce
fieldanalysiscreatingamodelofthedesiredstate,inthiscase,implementationofTQMannouncingthechangegoalstotheorganizationandassigning
responsibilitiesandresources.Thisfinalstepwouldincludesecuringoutsideconsultationandtrainingandassigningsomeonewithintheorganizationto
overseetheeffort.Thisshouldbearesponsibilityoftopmanagement.Infact,thenextstep,designingtransitionmanagementstructures,isalsoaresponsibility

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oftopmanagement.Infact,CohenandBrand(1993)andHyde(1992)assertthatmanagementmustbeheavilyinvolvedasleadersratherthanrelyingona
separatestaffpersonorfunctiontoshepherdtheeffort.Anorganizationwidesteeringcommitteetooverseetheeffortmaybeappropriate.Developing
commitmentstrategieswasdiscussedaboveinthesectionsonresistanceandonvisionaryleadership.6
Tocommunicatethechange,mechanismsbeyondexistingprocesseswillneedtobedeveloped.Specialallstaffmeetingsattendedbyexecutives,sometimes
designedasinputordialogsessions,maybeusedtokickofftheprocess,andTQMnewslettersmaybeaneffectiveongoingcommunicationtooltokeep
employeesawareofactivitiesandaccomplishments.
ManagementofresourcesforthechangeeffortisimportantwithTQMbecauseoutsideconsultantswillalmostalwaysberequired.Chooseconsultantsbased
ontheirpriorrelevantexperienceandtheircommitmenttoadaptingtheprocesstofituniqueorganizationalneeds.Whileconsultantswillbeinvaluablewith
initialtrainingofstaffandTQMsystemdesign,employees(managementandothers)shouldbeactivelyinvolvedinTQMimplementation,perhapsafter
receivingtraininginchangemanagementwhichtheycanthenpassontootheremployees.Acollaborativerelationshipwithconsultantsandclearrole
definitionsandspecificationofactivitiesmustbeestablished.
Insummary,firstassesspreconditionsandthecurrentstateoftheorganizationtomakesuretheneedforchangeisclearandthatTQMisanappropriate
strategy.LeadershipstylesandorganizationalculturemustbecongruentwithTQM.Iftheyarenot,thisshouldbeworkedonorTQMimplementationshouldbe
avoidedordelayeduntilfavorableconditionsexist.
Rememberthatthiswillbeadifficult,comprehensive,andlongtermprocess.Leaderswillneedtomaintaintheircommitment,keeptheprocessvisible,provide
necessarysupport,andholdpeopleaccountableforresults.Useinputfromstakeholder(clients,referringagencies,fundingsources,etc.)aspossibleand,of
course,maximizeemployeeinvolvementindesignofthesystem.7
AlwayskeepinmindthatTQMshouldbepurposedriven.Beclearontheorganizationsvisionforthefutureandstayfocusedonit.TQMcanbeapowerful
techniqueforunleashingemployeecreativityandpotential,reducingbureaucracyandcosts,andimprovingservicetoclientsandthecommunity.

Conclusion
TQMencouregesparticipationamongstshopfloorworkersandmanagers.Thereisnosingletheoreticalformalizationoftotalquality,butDeming,Juranand
Ishikawaprovidethecoreassumptions,asadisciplineandphilosophyofmanagementwhichinstitutionalizesplannedandcontinuousimprovement
andassumesthatqualityistheoutcomeofallactivitiesthattakeplacewithinanorganizationthatallfunctionsandallemployeeshavetoparticipateinthe
improvementprocessthatorganizationsneedbothqualitysystemsandaqualityculture.

FootnotesandReferences
1.Gilbert,G.(1992).QualityImprovementinaDefenseOrganization.PublicProductivityandManagementReview,16(1),6575.
2.Hyde,A.(1992).TheProverbsofTotalQualityManagement:RechartingthePathtoQualityImprovementinthePublicSector.PublicProductivityand
ManagementReview,16(1),2537.
3.Martin,L.(1993).TotalQualityManagementinthePublicSector,NationalProductivityReview,10,195213.
4.Swiss,J.(1992).AdaptingTQMtoGovernment.PublicAdministrationReview,52,356362.
5.Tichey,N.(1983).ManagingStrategicChange.NewYork:JohnWiley&Sons.
6.HillStephen,1991.WhyQualityCirclesFailedbutTotalQualityManagementMightSucceed.BritishJournalofIndustrialRelations,29(4),541568.
7.Ishikawa,K,1985.WhatIsTotalQualityControl?TheJapaneseWay.EnglewoodCliffs,NewJersey,PrenticeHall.
8.Smith,AK,1993.TotalQualityManagementinthePublicSector.QualityProgress,June1993,4548.

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Tags:continuousImprovement,TQM,transition

Comments
SATYA
excellentarticle
Reply

Md.ShahriarHussain
Theabovearticleisexcellent.Ilikeditmuch.
Thanksandbestregards
M.Shahriar
.
Reply

ARYAN
Asimpleandveryconstructivearticleforbeginners

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