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COMPLETE
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR

COMMON AND HIGH SCHOOLS


BY
E.

J.

HOENSHEL,

A.M.

LATE PRESIDENT OF KANSAS NORMAL COLLEGE, AND


AUTHOR OF "PRACTICAL LESSONS IN ENGLISH"

o>Hc

NEW YORK

CINCINNATI

CHICAGO

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

ftWXfSYCH
o,n)

j3C/3Ck

Copyright,

By

E.

1895, 1897, 1907,

HOENSHEL.

J.

HOBNSHEL ENG. GRAM.


E

[.

PREFACE
This text-book
revised

of

grammar has been thoroughly


in new type.
It forms a

and entirely reset

complete book, containing

one volume the work

in

usually found in books on language lessons

and English

grammar.

The book

is

a course by

same

divided into four parts, each of which

itself.

subjects, but

The

first

three parts treat of the

each gives a more comprehensive

treatment than the preceding.

nary school

is

completed

only with the most

is

in

The work

Part Three.

difficult topics

of the ordi-

Part Four deals

and those about which

authors do not agree.

The author has no sympathy with the notion that


technical terms in grammar should not be used until the
pupil has reached the upper grades.

reason

terms

why
7to?in

word and

He

can see no

children cannot learn and understand the

and

verd, for instance,

action-word.

as easily as

name-

Therefore, technical work will

be found in Part One, gradually becoming more

diffi-

cult as the pupil advances, until in Part Four will be

found about

all

the technical

work required

examination.
3

7297

for

any

PREFACE

It is believed that pupils

the beginning of the


four years, the

work

should begin this book about

During the

Fifth Grade.
in

language

with the work in other studies, or

first

may be combined
it may be given in

special oral lessons.

The distinguishing characteristics of the book are


1.
The division into four parts, or courses.
language
lessons
and
combination of
2. The
:

grammar.
3.

The

careful

development

of

definitions

and

statements.
4.

and
5.

6.

The

use of brief and terse language

in definitions

rules.

The
The

logical

models for analysis and parsing.

simplest and most comprehensive system of

diagram known.

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS
This book combines

To be

theoretical.

in

both

the

practical

harmony with

its

and the

spirit,

much

writing will be required of the pupil.

But few subjects and outlines for composition work


are given.
topics

It is believed that

each teacher can select

and surroundings

better suited to the capacity

of his pupils than the topics selected

should

Letter-writing

course, and should

be

by any author.

introduced early in the

be continued until the pupil can

write a neat and correct letter.


It will

be noticed that the pupil

sentences illustrating

should

These

ished.

pupils

It

if

required to write

and

prin-

be increased rather than diminsentences written

illustrative

may be used

parsing,

is

of the definitions

This part of the work should not be

ciples given.

omitted.

many

for additional

work

in

by

analysis

the

and

the teacher thinks those given in the book

are not sufficient.

The book
lessons

is

contain

divided into lessons, but


material

sufficient

for

many

of these

two or three

recitations.

The models

for

parsing should
5

not

be neglected.

SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS

Long experience

in schools of various

vinced the author that parsing pays

grades has con-

when

it

is

well

done, and that there cannot be good parsing unless a


definite

and logical order

Attention

is

is

used.

The system

called to the diagrams.

simple, yet comprehensive.

It

is

comes nearer indicating

the part of speech of every word than any other system

known to
gram the

the author.
sentence, but

The aim should be, not to diaThe diagram is


to analyze it.

only an aid to analysis.

The
this

pupil that has mastered the

book

Four

is

will

have a

fair

knowledge

first

of

three parts of

grammar.

intended only for advanced students.

Part

CONTENTS
PART ONE
PAGES

Suggestions to Teachers

II

Index

Nouns
Names and

Name and

21,22
22, 23

Initials

Address

24, 25

Are, Was, and


Nouns Meaning More than One

Statements with

Is,

Were

25,

27
28

Review
Have and Has
Review
Months and Days
Review
.

Dogs

29,

3^

33
34
35

Common

3^
37

Punctuation

Review

37> 3^

3^
39-41

The Cat (essay)


The Verb
The Command

4^

Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative


Sentences
Review, and Essay
Punctuation
.

The

30
3

32? 33

(essay)

Abbreviations
The Question
Nouns, Proper and

26

Adjective

Punctuation
Skating, and Riding a Bicycle (essay)

Review
Subject and Predicate

42
42

....

43

44
4^
46
46,47
48>49
45?

The Schoolroom (essay)


The Object
The Sentence (essay)

SO, s^

5^

52

The Verb
Review

53
7

CONTENTS
The Pronoun
The Adverb
Review

55.

5^

The Phrase
Review

........
.........

57
5^

The Preposition
The Conjunction
The Interjection

Quotation
Essay (The
Review.

Cow)

Diagrams
City or Country (essay)

59

60
61

62
63-65
65,66
67

PART TWO
Nouns

Classes of
Capitals

Gender

68,

and Punctuation
.

Person

Number

Review
The Nominative and Objective Case
The Possessive Case
Review
.

Classes of Phrases

Parsing

The Noun

(essay)

Classes of Pronouns
Correct Forms of Pronouns

Parsing

Review
The Pronoun (essay)
Capitals and Punctuation
.

Classes of Adjectives

Rules for Comparison

Review
Classes of Verbs

Voice

Mode
Review
Tense

Person and Number of Verbs

The

Infinitive

54
56

CONTENTS

9
PAGES

Parsing
Verbs
Review
The Verb (essay)
Corn (essay)
Classes and Comparison of Adverbs

The

Preposition

Review

The Conjunction and


Review.

the Interjection

114^115
11 5-1 18

"8

....
....

Analysis and Parsing. Diagraming

Grammar

1^8
19-122

122, 123
123, 124

125

126-129
129

(essay)

PART THREE

The Pronoun
The Adjective

130-132
132-134
134-136
136
1 37-139
14
141,142
143-^45
146-148
148-151
15^-^54
154-^57
157-167
168-174

Review
The Verb
Voice

i75-i79
179-181

Classes of Sentences
The Adjective Clause

The Adverb

Clause

Analysis

The Noun Clause


The Compound Sentence
Classes of Phrases

The Noun
Person and Number
Case

Review
Apposition.
The Possessive Case

175

^Tense, Person,

and Number

Verb and Subject

Some

Special Verbs

Conjugation

Review

The
The

182, 183

Mode

Infinitive

Participle

Review
The Adverb

The Preposition
The Conjunction

183-185
185-188
188-191

191-198
^99

200-204
204-209
209-211
211-216
216-218

218,219

CONTENTS

10

PAGES

220-222
222
223-225
226, 227
227-229
229-231

Correlatives
Interjections

Review

Words

as DiiTerent Parts of

Speech

Punctuation

Review

PART FOUR
Compound Sentences

Varieties of

Complex Sentences
of Dependent Clauses

Varieties of
Varieties

Phrases Classified

Form
Form

as to

as to

....

235^ 236

Gender and Number


Intransitive and Passive Verbs

Cases after
Difficult Case Constructions

240, 241

....
....
......
Objects

Outline of Noun
Sixteen Different Constructions of the

Noun

Possessive Pronouns
Restrictive Clauses

Use of That

As and But as Relative Pronouns


Compound Relatives

Agreement of Pronouns with Antecedent


Analysis and Parsing
Adjectives

Correcting and Parsing

....
....

Shall, Will', Should,

Mode

Woidd

Agreement of Verb with Subject


Infinitives and Participles
Outline of Verb
Modal Adverbs Classified
Conjunctive Adverbs
Improper Omission of Prepositions
Uses of As, Than, and Or
Difficult Sentences Analyzed and Parsed
Analysis and Parsing
.

Composition

242-244
245

246
248

249
249
250,251
251,252
253, 254
255-257
258-260
261

Verbs
Subjunctive

236-239
239, 240
241, 242

Peculiar Possessives

Two

233
234, 235

Peculiarities of

Verbs with

232

262-276
265-267
267, 268
269-271
272-274
274, 275

276
276, 277

279
279-281
282, 283

283-288
289-291

INDEX
PAGES

242, 280

Aj as a preposition
Abbreviations
Abstract nouns
Active voice
Adjective clauses
Phrases

34,

06,

Pronouns

84,

44, 45

180

133'

134

141, 281

96,

168

97-99, 169, 170


96, 168

96,

Descriptive

168

164
258

Interrogative

Modifying another

158

96 lOI, 168- 175, 258-260

Comparison of
Definitive

22,

107,

88, 89,

Adjectives
Classes of

70

68, 144

adjecti

168

Numeral
Parsing of

Predicate

45,

66
158
96, 168

Pronominal
Proper
Adverb clauses
Phrases

Adverbs

55

Classes of

100

211

119

134

36,

234

84,

22,

141

19,

Comparison of

277
211, 212
120, 212

15, 276,

19,

211, 276

Conjunctive

211

Interrogative

212, 276

Modal

121

Parsing of
Phrase

213

Relative

277

Simple

211

Pronoun with antecedent


Agreement
113,
Verb with subject
Among and between

91,
114,

148,

158, 253

85, 269,

270
217

12

INDEX
PAGES

Analysis

126, 136

INDEX
Common
Common

gender
nouns
Comparative degree of adjectives
Of adverbs
.

Comparison of adjectives

Of adverbs
Complements of incomplete verbs

Of passive verbs
Of transitive verbs

(active)

Complete verbs

Complex phrases
Sentences
Composition

Compound

personal pronouns

Phrases
Predicates

Propositions
Relative pronouns

Sentences

Subjects

Verbs
Concessive clauses
Conditional clauses
Conjugation
.

Oibe
Of love
Emphatic form of
Progressive form of
Conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctions
Classes of
Coordinate
Subordinate
Copulative verbs
Correlatives, uses of
Declarative sentences
.

Declension of pronouns
Defective verbs
Definitive adjectives

Demonstrative pronouns

Dependent clauses
Descriptive adjectives

INDEX

14

PAGES

Diagrams

65, 66, 83, 86,

128,

134,

135,

136,

138,

139

140, 142, 150, 151, 152, 159, 174, 203, 207, 208

210,
Difficult

221,

225,

230,

233,

247,

255, 275, 278

sentences analyzed and parsed

282-285

Diminutive nouns

144

Double relative
Each other
Emphatic form of verb
Exclamation
Exclamation point
Exclamatory sentences

157

284
198
125, 222

61,

222, 223

130

Expletive

124

Factitive object

243

Feminine gender

Fewer and

7h H4,

Finite verb

145

260

less

176, 263

Future-perfect tense

112.

184

Future tense

103

183

Gender

71

Common

Feminine
Masculine
Neuter

Gerunds

Homonyms

....

mode

Imperative

32, 34, 46,

237
72; 144
71 144
71 144
72, 144; 236; 237
273
49? 50, 60, 74. 77, 78

72,

44.

145' 236:

09, 182

In first and third persons


Sentences
Imperfect tense
Impersonal verbs
Improper omission of prepositions

263
42, 130

263
176

/;/

and

into

279
217

Incomplete verbs
Indefinite pronouns

262,

Indicative

mode

Infinitives

114,

As adjective
As adverb
As noun
.

Parsing of
Subject of
Initials

08,

158
182

-204, 272

200 -201
201, 202

201
200, 202
150, 272

23

INDEX
Inseparable phrases

15

INDEX

i6

PAGES

Non-restrictive clauses

Noun clauses
Noun phrases
Nouns
Abstract

133.
22, 68

Collective

Common

Parsing of

Number

68,

68, 143

144

of nouns and pronouns

27,

75-78

Of verbs
Numeral adjectives
.

Classes of
Object, factitive

144
144
86
85,
144
36, 68, 143
144
146-148, 237-238
84, 185, 269, 270
168
168
.

Participial

Proper
Verbal

141
143 157, 236-248

36, 68, 143

Diminutive
Material

249
137-139

133'

Of passive verb
Of preposition
Of verb

59:

Objective attribute

Objective case

79;

149:

243
243
79. 122, 149, 216
50, 79, 149
150, 243
150, 239, 242-244

After interjections
After intransitive verbs

Subject of infinitive

150,

150

Without a governing word


Or^ sometimes not a connective

149, 242

....

280, 281

168

Ordinals
Ought, not used with auxiliaries

190
100

Parsing of adjectives
Of adverbs

Of infinitives
Of nouns
Of participles
Of pronouns
Of verbs

121

200, 201

85,

92, 93

114,

As adjectives
As adverbs
As nouns

103
.

In passive voice of verb

86
205

Participles

244
239

104,

115

204-210, 272, 273


205, 206, 273
272, 273

206, 273

180

INDEX
Participles

17

In progressive form of verb


Parsing of
Passive voice
Formation of
.

Past tense
Past-perfect tense

23

Period, use of

24, 26, 34

Person of nouns and pronouns

Of verbs
Personal pronouns

Compound
Declension of
Personification

Phrase adverbs
Phrases
Adjective

57:

84,

41,
84,

Adverb
Complex

Compound
Infinitive

Inseparable

Noun
Participial

Prepositional

Separable
Simple

Pleonasm
Plural number

27. 75 -78

146-

Plurals of letters, figures, etc

Of titles
Of words ending in/and/^
Of words ending in o
Of words ending vay
Positive degree of adjectives

80

Possessive case
In joint ownership
Of appositives
.

Of compounds
Of compound terms
.

Possessive pronouns
Potential

mode
hoenshel's eng. gram,

81

54

INDEX
PAGES

Predicate

48

INDEX

19
PAGES

Rules for spelling

75^ 7^. 98, 99'

'46,

147

246
42, 130-140
131-130. 233-235
140, 232

Senator^ in different constructions

Sentences

Complex

Compound

42,

130

42,

^IP
13

Interrogative

42,

13

Simple
Separable phrase

126,

Declarative

Exclamatory
Imperative

.....

Series

Shall ^nd Will, Should Tind


Simple adverb
Simple sentence
Simple phrase
.

Specification, clause of

Spelling, rules for

Statement
Subject, complex

Would

37

117,193,265-267

211

126,

235
^3^

Logical
Subject of sentence

Of

infinitive

Subjunctive

mode

Subordinate conjunction
Subordinate proposition
Suffix

235
235
4^
150
182, 267, 268
219
13^

.....

Superlative degree

vSurnames

97

98
169-174
22
^9^

Synopsis of verb
Teach and learji

Tense

^ ^

183,

184

io3'

in,

112,

183
184

263

Imperfect

Past
Past-perfect

11,

Present
Present-perfect

103, iii-ii3>

Future
Future-perfect

Uses of

131

235
234
75^ 76, 9^, 99^ H6, I47
26

Compound
General

131

236

11,

I03'

183

112.

183

103^

183

112,

183

264

INDEX

20

PAGES

I74
280

Than, as a conjunctive adverb

As a preposition
With comparatives

221, 259
161, 162, 249

That, uses of
The, as a conjunctive adverb

278
124
277, 278
105, 176, 239
264
39, 40, lo, 52, 103-118, 175-210
106-108, 179-181
113-115, 269, 270
176
262
262
216, 262

expletive

There
To-day

Transitive verbs

Uses of Tenses
Verbs
Active and passive
Agreement with subject

....

Auxiliary

Complement of
Complete and incomplete

Compound

191-198
262
1 88-191

Conjugation of
Copulative
Correct forms of
Defective

176

176, 263

Finite

Impersonal

176

Infinitives

Intransitive

Mode

of

Neuter

105, 176, 239


108-110, 182, 183, 267, 268

...

Number and person

of

114, 200-204, 272

176
.

114? i84 185, 269-271

113,

Parsing of

114, 115

Participles

103,

104, 204-210, 272

Progressive form of

Redundant
Regular and
Tense of

198

176
irregular

177-179
103, 111-113, 183, 184
105, 176
104,

Transitive

Synopsis of
Voice of

What
Will

a,

2ind shall,

Words
Ves,

relative

parsed together

no

176,

198
106-108, 179-181
106-108, 1 79-1 81

Voice, active and passive

What, double

175,

.......

Would 2in6. should

as different parts of speech

....
.

157

260
117, 193, 265-267
226, 227
277

PART ONE
LESSON I
NOUNS
1.

Write your name.

2.

Write the names of three

3.

Write the name of the

of

your friends.

city or

town

in or near

which you Uve.


4.

Write the name of some other town

in

your

county.
5.

Write the name of some place you would

like to

Write the names of three things you see

in the

visit.

6.

schoolroom.
7.

Write the names of three things you have

at

home.
8.

Write the names of three animals.

9.

Write the names of three things you can

10.

eat.

Write the names of two things a boy carries

his pocket.
21

in

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

22

Some words
The name

Names

in the

of a

your

person or place should begin with a capital.

Write four nouns that are the names of persons

have read.

Write four nouns that are the names of things


city.

Write two nouns that are the names of towns

II

INITIALS

name.

1.

Write your

2.

Write the name of your father.

3.

Write the name of your brother or

Which

The

in

state.

NAMES AND

the

cities

United States.

LESSON

all

of

Europe.

seen in a
15.

some are the names

of things.

are called nouns.

whom you
14.

of persons,

Write three nouns that are the names of

12.

of

names

Write three nouns that are the names of coun-

11.

tries in

13.

are the

and some are the names

places,

part of the

members
last

full

names you have

sister.

just written is the

of the family?

name

is called

the family

name

or surname.

same

for

NAMES AND
The

first

person

name

is called

INITIALS

the given

name

may have more than one

23

or the Christian name.

Christian

name

as,

William

Henry Khig, Oliver Hazard Perry Fulton.


4.

Write the name of some one that has two Chris-

names.

tian

5.

Write the name again, using only the

of each part of the Christian


6.

letter

first

name.

Write the name of the most populous State

in

the United States.


7.

Write

it

again, using only the

first

letter of

each

part of the name.

The

first letter of

a word

are used instead of the

is called its initial

name

When

of a person or place,

initials

they should

be capitals, and a period should be placed after each.


8.

Write the name of the smallest State

in the

United

States.
9.

Write

it

again, using only the

first letter

of each

part of the name.


10.

Write the

initials of

your name.

11.

Write the

initials of

the Governor of this State.

12.

Write the

initials of

the President of the United

13.

Write the

initials of

some

14.

Write the name of some

States.

railroad near you.


city,

state,

or county

that has two words in the name.


15.

Write the

written.

initials

of the

name you have

just

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

24

LESSON

III

NAME AND ADDRESS


Write your name and address

I.

thus,

iSiA/rnA/ru^Jixvyvv,

i;ou>cu.

Notice the use of

the

period

and comma

in

writing

the

address.

Write the name and address of some one who

2.

does not Hve in your town.

Write the name of some one, and draw one hne

3.

under the Christian name and two Hues under the

sur-

name.
4.

Write the

5.

Write the names of

6.

Name

your father's name.


five

schoolmates, and point

name and surname

out the given

jects are

initials of

of each.

the materials of which the following ob-

made

a shoe, a

bottle,

a coat, a hat.

NAME AND ADDRESS


Write the names of

7.

ing

is

25

five materials of

which cloth

made.*
Write the names of three materials of which

8.

money
9.

grow

is

made.

Write
in the

five

ground.

Write the

10.

nouns that are names of things that

initials of

these

names

John Henry Green, Richard Grant White, Henry Ward


Beecher, Robert Johnson.
11.

Write your name and address.

12.

Write your teacher's name and address.

LESSON IV
STATEMENTS WITH
1.

thus, "
2.

Name

IS,

ARE, WAS, AND

an animal, and

The dog

tell

WERE

something about

it

barks."

Tell something about

a cat, a horse, birds.


3.

State something about

a tree, a book, boys.

* In writing the

twice.
ble.

In

all

nouns asked

for,

pupils should not use the

written work, repetition should be avoided as

In trying to think of

new

same noun

much

as possi-

words, they will be learning to think,

be increasing their vocabulary, and

will

be learning to

spell.

will

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

26

group of words so arranged as to

tell

something

is

statement

A statement

should begin with a capital and close with a

period.

Write a statement about

4.

flowers, chalk, a fish, a squirrel, a river.

Write a statement about yourself.

5.

What word
The word

/,

did you use instead of your

used for your

own name,

own name

should be a capital

letter.

Use the word

6.

/,

and make a statement

Three things you saw on your way

2.

Two

things you like to do.

3.

One

thing you like to eat.

to school.

Write two statements, using the word

7.

telling

is in

each

statement.
8.

Write two statements, using the word are

in

each

in

each

statement.
9.

Write two statements, using the word was

statement.
10.

Write two statements, using the word

zuere

in

each statement.
11.
is

Write a statement about corn and wheat, using

or are.
12.

7(jas

Write a statement about Henry and James, using

or were.

Use

is

and was when speaking or writing of one.

Use are and were when speaking


one.

or writing of

more than

NOUNS MEANING MORE THAN ONE

2^

LESSON V
NOUNS MEANING MORE THAN ONE
1.

Write a statement about

Something that swims.


Something that lives in the air.
Something that burrows in the ground.
Something that a farmer raises.
Something for which your state is noted.
Something seen in the sky.
Something found in the mountains.
Something found in the forest.
Some animal that has different homes

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

for winter

and

summer.

10.

2.

Change these nouns


boy,

What
3.

useful metal.

girl, bird,

letter did

to

mean more than one

flower, apple.

you add to make them mean more than one

Copy the following


one box
two boxes

What was added

to

a dress

one inch

several dresses

many

the above nouns to

inches

make them mean more

than one?

To nouns ending
mean more than one.
4.

in

s,

sh, ch, or

Change these nouns

than one

to

x we add

es to

make them

make them mean more

fox

match

dish

church

bench
watch

glass

bush

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

28

LESSON

VI

REVIEW
1.

Fill these
1.

2.

is

too short.

This pencil

4.
5.

The

good boys.
in the house.

singing.

birds

6.

the birds singing

7.

the apples ripe

8.

9.

The book
The trees

Write the

or are:

not ripe.

John and Robert


The dog or the cat

3.

2.

blanks with

These peaches

lost.
tall.

above

statements

again,

filling

the

blanks with was or were.


3.

Change

is to

are,

and are

to

is,

and write these

statements correctly

4.

The apple is sour.


The benches are long.
These men are sick.
The gate is made of iron.

5.

Those oxen

1.

2.

3.

6.
7.
8.

4.

are black.

The man is rich.


The bunches are too large.
The stove is made of iron.

Change was

to ivere,

and were

to was,

these statements correctly


1.

2.
3.

4.

The
The
The
The

boys were

sick.

mouse was

afraid of the cat.

ducks were swimming

man was

a soldier.

in the

pond.

and write

HAVE AND HAS


6.

The egg was in the nest.


The bridges were old.

7.

Was

8.

Were

5.

the stone in the water


the geese white

29

LESSON

VII

HAVE AND HAS


1.

Copy

these

statements, and notice carefully the

use of have and has


1.

The

2.

Girls have dolls.

girl

has a doll.

3.

He

4.

They have

5.

has torn his book.


torn their books.

have a knife.

Use has when speaking

or writing about one.

Use have when speaking or writing about more than

one, or

about yourself.
2.

Use have

or has^

and make a statement about

children, men, coach, sled.


3.

Write three statements, using the word has

in

Write three statements, using the word have

in

each,
4.

each.
5.

Fill these
1.

Birds

2.

The

3.

blanks with have or has:


claws.

little girls

three books.

gone

to school.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

30

gone home.
The boy
come back.
Lucy or Mary
come back,
Lucy and Mary

4.
5.

6.

6.

7.

the doors hinges

8.

the lion a

Change have

mane

to has^

?
?

and has

to have^

and write

these sentences correctly

The book has leaves.


The ships have sails.
The child has been crying.
The boys have gone.
The chicken has feathers.
Has the boat arrived ?
Have the mice been caught

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

LESSON

VIII

REVIEW
1.

Use

is

or are, and write a statement beginning

with
we, she, he, they, you,

it.

2.

Write the statements again, using zvas or

3.

Use have

with

and make a statement beginning

I,

4.

or has,

zvere.

Fill

you, we, they, apples.

each of these blanks with three of the follow-

ing words (one at a time):

is,

are, has, have,

was, were.

Complete the statements by adding other words.


1.

2.

Many

tall

tree

beautiful flowers

MONTHS AND DAYS


3.
4.
5.

6.

31

A dog and a cat My mother and I


The
The

bicycle

street cars

LESSON IX
MONTHS AND DAYS
1.

Write the names of


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

The days of the week.


The four seasons.
The three winter months.
The three spring months.
The three summer months.
The three fall months.

The names

of the

months and the days

of the

week should

begin with capitals, but the names of the seasons should not.
2.

Write a statement about


1.

This month.

2.

This season of the year.

3.

4.
5.

6.

3.

The
The
The
The

first

last

month of the year.


month of the year.

shortest month.
hottest

month.

Write a statement naming the different parts of

penknife.
4.

Write statements

5.

Write a statement

6.

Combine your statements

telling the use of

each

part.

telling the use of a knife.

story or essay about a knife.

so that they will

form a

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

32

LESSON

REVIEW
1.

Write a statement, using a noun that

the

is

name

of
a flower, a bird, a

fish,

an

insect, a tree, a vegetable, a fruit,

a mineral.
2.

Write a statement about something that

is

made

of
iron, leather, wool, cotton, bone, gold.

3.

Use each

Use

a different

of the following

words

in a statement.

noun for each statement.

high, low, green, white, black, blue, yellow, red, brown,


long, short, slow, swift, straight, crooked, useful, hot,
cold, beautiful, sharp, square, gentle, sweet, bitter, sour.

LESSON XI
REVIEW
1.

Use

these words correctly in statements

ate, eight

do,

beech, beach
2.

Try

statement

to use
;

as,

*'

new, knew blue, blew


knows, nose pane, pain.

dew
;

lore, four

each pair of the above words in one

The boy

ate eight walnuts."

jL^Crty^

ESSAY

33

3.

Give four rules for the use of capitals.

4.

When

should you use

is ?

arc ?

was

were

has

have ?
5.

Write a

something that

statement telling

you

learn

by seeing, by hearing, by
6.

Use each

what each

is,

words

of these

or to

what

tasting,

it

by

feeling.

in a statement, telling

belongs

claws

sole

fur

wrist

gable

fleece

mane

horns

paws

bill

spur

belfry

LESSON

XII

DOGS
1.

about

Write one or more statements telling something

1.

2.

3.

4.

2.

The
The
The
The

size.

color.
different kinds.

covering of the body.

5.

How

6.

Their use.

7.

they defend themselves.

dog you have seen

Arrange and combine

or heard of.
all

your statements so that

they will form a story or essay about dogs.


3.

After you have combined your statements, rewrite

your story as plainly and as neatly as you can, paying


particular attention to your spelling.
hoenshel's eng. gram.

iM

-x

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

34

LESSON

XIII

ABBREVIATIONS
1.

Use

these words correctly in statements

bow, bough

sow
2.

3.

4.

Fill

die,

stake, steak

dye

here, hear

He went

2.

The

3.

This lesson

4.

The man was

hymn

so,

sew

to, too,

or two

sick

go.

long.

is

walk

old

miles.

blanks with here or hear :

1.

My

2.

Did you

3.

father

will

him,
two.

the door.

girl is

Fill these

to, too,

each of these blanks with

was

to-day.

the organ

and

stand

what you say.

Sometimes we use more than one

instead of using only the


is

some, sum

initial.

letter of a

name,

This shortened form

called an abbreviation.
5.

6.

Learn these abbreviations

Note.
7.

period should be used after each abbreviation.


:

Oct.

Jan.

Apr.

Feb.

Aug.

Nov.

Mar.

Sept.

Dec.

May,

June, and July should not be abbreviated.

The following
week

of the

are the abbreviations for the days

Sun.

Tues.

Thurs.

Man.

Wed.

Fri.

Sat.

::

THE QUESTION

35

LESSON XIV
THE QUESTION
Copy

1.

Was Mary

2.

Can Henry read?

here

question should begin with a capital and close with a ques-

A
tion

and examine them closely

tliese questions,

mark

2.

bell,

a tiger, the sun, glass, school.

Write a question using the word


is,

4.

Write a question about


a

3.

(interrogation point)

are, have, was, were,

I,

he, they, you.

Change these statements

to questions using the

same words
2.

This little boy is asleep.


His name is Victor.

3.

He

1.

5.

will

not sleep long.

Change these questions

to

statements, using the

same words

6.

1.

Is the

man

2.

Has a

bird wings?

3.

Are China and Japan

at

home?
at

war?

Write a question (make a problem) asking

the cost of
1.

2.
3.

Three pencils at five cents each.


Four bushels of wheat at $1.25 a bushel.
Seven primers at twenty cents each.

for

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

36

LESSON XV
NOUNS, PROPER AND COMMON
1.

Copy
1.

2.

these statements

dog can run.


Towser can run.

Are dog and Towser both nouns


tween them ? *

A
as,

noun that belongs

to

What

is

the diiference be-

some particular one is

di

proper noun;

Towser, Robert, Chicago.

A name

that belongs to

any one

of a class is a

common noun ;

as, dog, boy, city.

A
2.

proper noun should begin with a capital letter.

Copy

these names, placing the proper nouns in

one column and the


London

3-

common nouns
dog

in

another

PUNCTUATION
The
The

3.
4.

37

farmer raises wheat and corn.


farmer raises wheat, corn, and oats.

You will notice that in the first and the third sentence there are
two words used alike, while in the second and the fourth there are
three words used alike.
Three or more words used in this way
are called a

se?'ies.

More than two words

of the

same kind following one

after

another are called a series.

A comma

should be placed after each word of a series, ex-

cept the last.

The word and should be used only between the

last

two words

of a series.

5.

Write a statement about

1.

Five things used in a kitchen.

2.

3.

Four kinds of trees.


Three things that are

4.

Two

black.

things a farmer raises.

LESSON XVI
REVIEW
1.

2.

Write a question about

Three winter amusements.

2.

Five domestic animals.

3.

Five wild animals.

Write a statement about

five

things that are kept

in a grocery.
3.

Write a statement about

as playthings.

five things that are

used

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

38

Write a statement about

4.

in a

hardware

5.

five

things that are kept

store.

Write a statement about

six

quadrupeds (four-

footed animals).
6.

Write a statement about

six

kinds of trees.

7.

Write a statement about

six

kinds of birds.

8.

Write a statement about four kinds of materials

used

in building houses.

9.

Write a question about

six things that are

used

for food.
10.

Write a statement about four kinds of meat.

11.

Write a question about two things that are kept

in a

drug

12.

store.

Write a question about two things that are used

for drink.

LESSON XVII
THE CAT
Write an essay about the

cat,

using the following

outline
1.

2.
3.

4.

The
The
The
The

size.

5.

color.

6.

The claws.
The covering

eyes.

7.

How

8.

Their use.

ears.
9.

How they

watch

of the body.

they defend themselves.

for their prey.

THE VERB

LESSON

39

XVIII

THE VERB
1.

Copy

these statements

1.

Birds sing.

2.

The wind

3.

Frogs jump.

Which

blows.

of the above words are nouns

Which words

express

action?

Words
2.

that express action are called verbs.

Supply verbs for these nouns

1.

Monkeys

2.

Fire

3.

Snow
'

3.

Supply nouns

1.

bloom.

2.

leap.

3.

4.

4.

Water

5.

Indians

6.

The

cars

for these verbs

7.

Wasps

8.

Lions

9.

Kites

cackles.

5.

crawl.

9.

6.

roars.

10.

neighs.

chirp.

7.

purs.

11.

laughs.

climb.

8.

hisses.

12.

dives.

Select the verbs and nouns in these statements

5.

The spider soon caught the fly.


The sun shone brightly on the lake.
The sailors sang joyfully.
Heavy masses of fog floated across the mountains.
The visitor passed through the gate.

6.

Swallows build nests under the eaves of houses.

2.

3.

4.

7.
8.

^.
10.

walked to the church.

The
The
The

river flows

down

the valley.

child

met me on the road.

blind

man

fell

into the river.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

40

LESSON XIX
CORRECT FORMS OF THE VERB
1.

Copy

carefully

these

statements, and examine the verbs

read.

1.

Birds sing.

5.

2.

The

6.

You

7.

He

8.

They

3.
4.

birds sing.

John and Mary go.


John goes.

Verbs add

s or es in

read.

reads.
read.

statements and questions about one.

Verbs do not add s or es when used with / or you in state-

ments and questions about

in

one.

2.

Write three statements about more than one.

3.

Write three statements, using a verb that ends

s.

4.

Write two statements, using a verb that ends

5.

Are any
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

of these statements incorrect

Judith and Lucy goes to school.


I

see you.

The children play ball.


The boys does not study.
The horse trots slowly.

Change these statements and questions


they shall speak of more than one

so that

6.

2.

The man walks fast.


The child goes to school.

3.

Does the boy study?

1.

in es.

THE COM iM AND

7.

4.

The lamb

5.

Does the

plays.

eagle fly?

Change these statements and questions

so

that

they shall speak of only one


1.

Do

2.

Indians hunt.

the

Germans

3.

Monkeys

4.

Do

5.

The mice go

music?

like

chatter.

geese live in the water?


into the trap.

06

7Kri?c4^

LESSON XX
THE COMMAND
1.

Copy

these groups of words

1.

Bring

2.

Do

me

your knife.

not swear, boys.

Do these groups state


Do they order or request

A
done

something

something

Do

they ask a question

be done?

to

group of words that orders or requests something to be


is

a command.

command should

begin with a capital and end with a

period.
2.

Copy

these

commands and

carefully the use of the

comma

Stella, close the door.

2.

Obey your

questions,
:

parents, children.

4.

Come and see me, Samuel, whenever you


Mother, may I go with you?

5.

Who

6.

Can

3.

and notice

wrote to you, Alice?


you, Jennie, solve this problem?

can.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

42

Write two commands and two questions using a

3.

proper noun for the

first

word

of each.

Write two commands and two questions using

4.

name

the

of

the person addressed for the last

word

of each.

Write two commands and two questions placing

5.

the

name

of the person addressed in the middle.

Statements, questions, and commands are all called sentences-

A statement is a declarative sentence.


A question is an interrogative sentence.
A command is an imperative sentence.

LESSON XXI
REVIEW
1.

Write a

sentence,

and

declarative

sentence,

an imperative

an

interrogative

sentence, with

these words
books

Albert

truth

children

mother

ink

APPLES
2.

Write sentences about apples,


1.

2.

3.

Where they grow.


What is outside.
What is inside.

telling

4-

Their colors.

5.

Their

6.

Their use.

size.

each of

:.

PUNCTUATION

43

LESSON XXII
PUNCTUATION
1.

2.

Notice the punctuation of these addresses


1.

1235 Vine St., Lincoln, Lancaster Co., Neb.

2.

Henry Long,

1.

3.

Burr Block. No. 356

called on Prof R P Brown


Mendon Westmoreland Co Pa
No 14 La Fayette Ave Charleston 111

Rev Mr Smith

Covington
Longwell Bridgeport N Y

4.

Office of Supt City Schools

5.

Mr James P

6.

5,

the following, and punctuate correctly

Copy
2.

3.

Esq., Room No.


Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kans.

James L Murdock
Mass

Copy

the

Room

following

Ky

21 Portland Building Boston

sentences,

and

punctuate

correctly
1.

Mr

2.

Children are you always obedient to your teacher

may John be excused from

3.

Charles can see hear

4.

The

5.

March

little girl

feel

and

the

room

taste

loves her father mother brothers sisters

May

12.

are the three spring months


and they are small words
Where are you going my little friend
Sing your best song little bird before I go
Tell me boys where you have been
Wait for me uncle
Boys always speak the truth without fear
Have you seen Charles Samuel and Robert lately

13.

Girls have you learned

6.
7.

8.

9.

10.
1 1

4.

Jones

He

Name

she

April

it hifjt

when

to use the question

mark

the nouns in the preceding thirteen sen-

tences, except the 6th.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

44

LESSON

XXIII

THE ADJECTIVE
Copy

1.

1.

2.

these sentences

The
The

What word

tree

was

apple

tells

tall.

sweet.

is

what kind of

tree

is

meant

What word

tells

the kind or quality of the apple?

A word

that tells the kind or quality of an object is called an

adjective.

The
2.

adjective often precedes the

Name
1

noun

as, a

sweet apple.

the adjectives in these sentences

Pretty girls and brave boys are found in

many coun-

tries.

3.

2.

large, tall,

green tree

standing in the beautiful

3.
4.

Fresh water

5.

Dear, patient, gentle Nell was gone.

is

eyes, red cheeks,

and curly

hair.

a pleasant drink.

Write eight sentences, using a different adjective

with each of these nouns

4.

is

meadow.
The baby has blue

snow

grass

sky

ball

paper

knife

wood

ice

Copy

nouns, the

following words,

the

common

tives in separate

placing the

proper

nouns, the verbs, and the adjec-

columns

pretty

garden

girl

weeps

cat

Tom

beautiful

hears

Carlo

sour

long

Springfield

soft

sweet

goes

hard

Rover

blue

chews

cow

PUNCTUATION
Write

5.

common
-^

45

sentence containing a proper noun, a

noun, an adjective, and a verb.

7 /

LESSON XXIV
PUNCTUATION
Copy these sentences, and
comma and the word a7id
1.

I.

2.

The path

"

notice the use of the


^

long, crooked path leads to the woods.

long and crooked,

is

Write sentences, placing two adjectives (using no

2.

adjective twice) * before each of these nouns


chair

peach

apple

stove

Write your sentences again, placing the adjectives

3.

after the nouns.

Write sentences, placing three adjectives before

4.

each of the nouns

5.

lions

bees

mountains

a ball

Write the sentences again, placing the adjectives

after the nouns.


*

When

the pupil

part of speech,

it is

is

required to select and use a

list

not expected that he will use the same

teachers will insist on

this,

vocabulary of their pupils.

of words of any

word

twice.

If

they will soon see a large increase in the

;;

; ;;

; ;

;:

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
6.

Combine each group

Gold
Gold
Gold

fish

A
A

bird

I
1

is

heavy.

is

yellow.

is

solid.

pig squeals.

duck quacks.
hen cackles,
sheep bleats.

U
i

swims.
flies.

A
A
^

frog jumps.

one

of statements into

5.

-!

The dog barks.


The cat mews.

book

is

on the

table.

bell is

on the

table.

^^^

^ ^^^

^^^^^-

''

LESS0N XXV
SKATING, AND RISING A BICYCLE
Write afeeut these tw sprts,

what each

telling fully

when

practiced, the pleasures f each, the bjectins

t each.

Close by telling which you prefer, and give

is,

the reasons fr yur choice.

LESSON XXVI
REVIEW
Use each

pair of these

through, threw

be, bee

hear, here

know, no

words

week, weak

in a

sentence

meat, meet

wood, would

deer, dear

son, sun

right, write

hour, our

flour, flower

buy, by

heal, heel

beat, beet.

REVIEW
2.

Here are two

one from each

list,

lists

and use them

first list

is

Select two words,

of nouns.

the word from the second


object in the

47

will

list

made

in a sentence so that

of

tell

thus,

what some

Flour

**

is

of wheat."
(I)

(2)

calico

wheati

a saw

cotton

linen

horn

shoes

wool

flour

leather!

flannel

flaxi

combs

flour'

bread

steel/

LESSON XX vn
REVIEW
1.

Write a declarative sentence about


1.

2.

3.
4.

2.

things that are sour.


things that are sweet.
things that are hard.
things that are soft.

Write an interrogative sentence about


1

2.

3.

4.

3.

Three
Three
Three
Three

Use

Three things that are heavy.


Three things that are light.

Three things that are beautiful.


Three things that are dangerous.

three adjectives to describe

a boy

glass

a doll

snow

a cat

the horse

ice

the sea

made

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

48

Name

4.

the nouns, verbs, and adjectives in these

sentences
1.

2.

A fairy workman hides in every dimpled finger.


The wealthy merchant bought many nice present*

for

his daughter.

The tall elm bends.


The turbid torrent roared.
The vivid lightning flashes.
The brave leader fell.
The great Napoleon was conquered.
The victorious army of Alexander marched

long

distance.

LESSON XX vm
SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

Copy

1.

these sentences
burns.

1.

Fire

2.

The dog

3.

My

is

old cat

black.

ran into the house.

The first part


will see that each sentence has two parts.
what we are speaking about, and the second part tells what we

You
*.ells

say about the

The part
about

first part.

what we

are speaking

the subject, and the part that tells

what we say

of the

is called

about the subject


2.

Use each

sentence that tells

is called

the predicate.

of these

words

in a sentence,

and draw

a vertical line between the subject and the predicate


Chicago, town, marble, mountain.

:;

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE


3.

4.

5.

thus,

6.

Supply subjects for these predicates


I.

climbs mountains.

2.

is

will

come.

gray.

6.

was

here.

3.

are white.

7.

were here.

4.

are rough.

8.

has

Supply predicates for these subjects


1.

The

2.

An

3.

The

train

4.

man

old

5.

soldiers

6.

left.

Greenland and Iceland


George Washington
Asia and Africa

Supply two predicates for each of these subjects;

"The dog

bites

1.

Foxes

2.

Bears

3.

Teachers

and barks

"

4.

Kittens

5.

Apples

6.

Pupils

Supply three predicates for each


I

Washington

The
The

3.

A
A

4.
5.

of these subjects:

clerk

man

wise

.'^'^

studious pupil

good

watchful dog

Supply three subjects for each of these predicates

broke the windows.

2.

8.

5.

2.

7.

49

3.

received prizes.

4.

howl.

Use each

of these words in a sentence,

and draw

a vertical line between the subject and the predicate


ball,

bawl

bell, belle

bare, bear

flea, flee

knot, not

grown, groan

male, mail

hare, hair

ore, oar.

hoenshel's eng. gram.

: ;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

50

LESSON XXIX
THE SCHOOLROOM
1.

Write an essay on the schoolroom, using the

fol-

lowing outline
the size, the doors, the windows, the table, the desks, any

other furniture there

may be

in the

room, the appearance

of the walls, the appearance of the floor.


2.

pair of these words in one sentence

Use each
done, dun

hole,

one,

pale, pail

whole

won

tale, tail

LESSON XXX
THE OBJECT
1.

Are these sentences complete


1.

Henry

2.

The

3.

We

Some verbs

cat caught

wear

that express action require a

their meaning.
2.

struck

This word

is called

word

to

Write the words that are used as objects

sentences

1.

We

2.

Henry

3.

The

wear clothing.
struck Charles.

cat caught a

mouse.

complete

the object of the verb.


in these

THE OBJECT

5.

The
The

6.

Washington gained

7.

The Romans captured

4.

3.

saw me.

eagle

orator

Use each

made

of these

a speech.

verb

shall

hills,

chops, choo?

me, stockings, them, basket.

or

more objects;

as,

*'We

and valleys."

Write sentences

have two obj^-

Carthage.

cat,

may have two

saw mountains,
5.

victories.

words as the object of a verb

honey, copper, us, her,


4.

$1

in

ts
ts,

which each

of

these verbs

drink, sells, study, drives.

LESSON
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Name

With what should

the three different kinds of sentences.

What should be placed after a declarative


and an imperative sentence? What should be placed after an interHow many parts has a sentence? What is the
rogative sentence?
What is the predicate
subject?
every sentence begin?

THE SENTENCE
1.

Write the definition


a sentence
sentence

of

declarative

sentence

an imperative sentence

an interrogative

the subject

the

predicate.
2.

Combine your

definitions

nected essay on The Sentence,

so as

to

form a con-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

52

LESSON XXXII
THE VERB
1.

Examine
The

this

sentence:

field is large.

In this sentence the word


action.

It

A word that expresses


2.

word

as
1.

3.

it

does not express

action or being

is

a verb.

of

more

than one

Mary can read.


The train has gone.
The letter should have been

Name

written.

the verbs in these sentences

Leaves

fall

to the ground.

3.

know it.
Where is he?

4.

We

5.

The

2.

4.

a verb, but

Sometimes a verb consists


;

2.

3.

is is

simply asserts existence or being.

are reading about the lion.


colt

Use each
has been,

has been running through the meadow.

of these verbs in a sentence


is

running, should learn, can be seen, will choose,

shall be chosen.

5.

Write three sentences, each having a verb com-

posed of two words.


6.

Write three sentences, each having a verb com-

posed of three words.


7.

Try

to write a

verb composed of four words.

-<

crw ^^^^^a.^

y^-otrr^

u?

REVIEW

53

LESSON XXXIII
REVIEW
Name
*

these

the subject, predicate, and object of each of

sentences, and

pick out the nouns, verbs, and

adjectives
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

8.

Animals and plants live and grow.


A band of robbers plundered the caravan.
Crusoe's companions were all drowned.

9.

The brave

6.
7.

10.

An
.

He sang the songs of his boyhood.


The fire burns cheerily.
You will lose your place.
The orator received great applause.
The lofty Andes rise above the clouds.

sailor

Did you see

managed

his boat skillfially.

that beautiful bird?

changed to a declarative beand object are picked out. This sentence

interrogative sentence should be

fore the subject, predicate,

y will become " You did see that beautiful bird."


"^

II.

12.

13.

Did he hear the song of the skylark?


The crowd cheered heartily.
The crowd cheered the speaker.

16.

Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.


Josephus wrote a history of the Jews.
The Swiss scenery is beautiful.

14.
15.

17.

The wind

18.

Palm

19.

Lakes are supplied with water by

never weary.

is

trees

grow

in Asia, Africa,

and South America.


rivers,

brooks, or

springs.
20.

Eagles do not catch

21.

22.

The meadow^

good

girl

23.

Mabel has a

24.

The

flies.

wrote a long
is

letter.

covered with grass and flowers.

beautifiil pet squirrel.

vessel struck a hidden rock.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

54

LESSON XXXIV
THE PRONOUN
Examine

1.

In the

Who

1.

John

2.

go

first

studies

these sentences

learns because he studies.


to school.

sentence,

is

is

name

of anything

used instead oijohi

he the

What word

who goes
The word / is used instead
of the name of the speaker.)

In the second sentence,

noun

instead

The words / and

A word
2.

of what

3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

Fill

is

used

is

a pronoun.
:

lessons.

my friends.
my friend.

are
is

went

3.

6.

word / a

(It

each of these blanks with a pronoun

5.

She scolded him.


Can you see us ?
Here is the boy who was hurt.
He is the man whom you saw.

2.

4.

a noun

it

Is the

word

in these sentences

They are good boys.


Henry has his book.
The children study their

1.

Is

he are pronoims.

Copy the pronouns

to school

used for or instead of a noun

2.

3.

The
The

to

teacher told

have lost
must go with

pupils

to go.

books.

and

Write three declarative, three interrogative, and


three imperative sentences, using a different pronoun
4.

in

each sentence.

THE ADVERB

55

LESSON XXXV
THE ADVERB
Copy these sentences

1.

1.

2.

What word
pitcher

He writes well.
The pitcher is here.
tells

how he

writes

What word

tells

where the

is ?

Well and here are adverbs, modifying the verbs writes and
3.

4.

The apple
You came

What part of
What does soon
word

tells

is

very sweet.

too soon.

speech
tell ?

how soon

is.

is

sweet

What

What word

part

of

speech

tells
is

how sweet

soofi ?

What

In these sentences very and too are adverbs.

word used

to

modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb,

adverb.
2.

Write a sentence with each of these adverbs


early

is

an

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

56
6.

Copy

Adjectives

Adverbs

quick,

quickly;

bright,

bold,

boldly;

bad,

badly;

nice,

nicely

sweet,

sweetly

rapid,

rapidly;

careless,

carelessly.

How
7.

these adjectives and adverbs

Adverbs

Adjectives

are the adverbs in the above

list

brightly;

made

Write a sentence containing two adjectives and

two adverbs.

LESSON XXX vr
REVIEW
Name
jectives,

si;^ct, predicate, and object of these

the

Pick out the nouns, pronouns, verbs, ad-

sentences.

and adverbs

6.

Frank and I were laughing heartily.


She and I sat at the window.
The task was soon accomplished.
A man is easily known by the company he keeps.
Pronounce your words distinctly and correctly.
The men worked hard and fast, and the rocks were soon

f.

How

long did you remain in the city

%.

The

traveler walked slowly because

9.

This topic

V.

s.
jg.

4.
j.

removed.

i*-^ I

18.

We

14.

be

fully

discussed

later.

ate dinner hurriedly yesterday.

w.
If.

will

he was very

winter so cold has never been

The
The

all

laughed very heartily.

birds chirp merrily.

boat glides very gracefully.

known

before.

tired.

THE PHRASE

{x.*.vt

^7

57

A^-^

n
?

LESSON XXX vn
THE PHRASE
Examine these groups

I.

1.

Ripe apples.

2.

In the house.

of words
'

3.

4.

Under the

truthful child.

Are the above words properly put together


express a complete thought

group of words properly combined but not expressing a

thought

is

a phrase.

All the examples given above

do not
i.

tree.

Does each group

.?

call

the

first

and the

are phrases,

third phrases in

Copy the following groups

but

many

authors

grammar.

of words.

Write the

sentences in one column, the phrases in another, and

those which are neither sentences

nor phrases in a

third

|.

1.

Fell heavily.

7.

There was a heavy

2.

Covered with snow.

8.

To

9.

10.

Speak the truth.


The ground was covered with
snow.

11.

Grass

3.

The

4.

City to the.

5.

Over the barn.


Careful thinking.

The

2.

Axes are made

4.
5.

tall.

phrases to these sentences

I.

3.

4.

is tall.

6.

Add
.

grass

rain.

the city.

birds fly

The house stands


The largest city
The lambs play

Write

five sentences,

is

each containing a phrase.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

58

LESSON XXX VIIT


REVIEW
1.

tive,

Add

to

each of these sentences

one adverb, and one phrase


1

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

ID.

2.

at least

Boys study.

Waves dashed.
The soldiers wore uniforms.
The speaker was applauded.
Houses are built.
Books should be

read.

The sun is shining.


Snow falls.
The visitors will be
The deer fled.

here.

Enlarge these sentences by adding several modieach.

fiers to

proach of cold

Example: "Birds
vi^eather,

many

liy."

birds

south in search of a v^armer climate."


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

The horse drinks.


The boy was punished.
The whole earth smiles.
That dog growls.
Those books have been read.
Locomotives whistle.

7.

The

8.

Columbus discovered America.

9.

Stars shine.

boat glides.

10.

Lions roar.

11.

The tree was struck.


The boy wrote a letter.
The rain fell.
The wind blew.

one adjec

13.
14.

"At
fly

the

ap-

toward the

THE PREPOSITION

59

LESSON XXXIX
THE PREPOSITION
1.

Copy

these sentences

2.

3.

The
The
The

cat

is

in the house.

cat

is

cat

is

on the house.
under the house.

In these sentei ces the words

/;/, 07t^

of the cat in rela.ion to the house.


before,

beside,

or behind,

before, etc., are relation

and under ?,\\ovj the

situation

We

the house.

might say the cat is by


The words in, under, on,

words, ox prepositions.

2.

Write

3.

Write a sentence containing the preposition


at,

six sentences,

each containing a preposition.


:

through, across, toward, upon, during, by, over, among,

between.

You

a preposition is nearly always followed by a


noun or pronoun. The noun or pronoun is called the object of the
preposition, and may be modified by one or more adjectives
as,
" He went to a good school."
Here school is the object of the preposition to, and has two modifiers, a and good.
will notice that

4.

shall

Write sentences

them
pond
5.

in

which each of these words

be used as the object of a preposition

Name

keg

neighbor

him

coachman

her

piano

ice

it

the prepositions in these sentences

2.

The stranger came from a large city.


The farmer came to town with a load

3.

It

4.

1.

was early

in the

morning.

place of safety was found for him.

of corn.

; ; ;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

60

LESSON XL
THE CONJUNCTION
1.

Examine these sentences.


Mary and Lucy

1.

What word

connects

read.

Mary and Lncy ?

Mary reads and Lucy

2.

writes.

How many

thoughts or assertions in this sentence?

What word

connects the assertions?

Mary

3.

What word
2.

Name

studies

and Lucy

recites.

connects the two thoughts?

the connecting words in these sentences

1.

Mary

2.

Walter writes well but slowly.

learns because she studies.

3.

She or

4.

The

will

go.

laborer worked, although he was sick.

Connecting words are called conjunctions.


3.

Fill these

2.

He
He

3.

1.

go

works hard

send anybody.
he

is

old.

go
you will.
The merchant became rich

4.

will

4.

Write

5.

Use each

tence.

blanks with conjunctions

will neither

five sentences,

Name

he was careful.

each having a conjunction.

pair of the following

the conjunctions in

words

in

a sen-

the sentences you

write
all,

awl

reed, read
toe,

tow

bow, beau

flew, flue

sole, soul

steel, steal

weigh,

way

seem, seam.

THE INTERJECTION

6l

itaxSi

LESSON XLI
THE INTERJECTION
1.

Examine these sentences:


1.

Hurrah!

2.

Ah What
!

It

Alas!

O, look at the sun!

What words

^*^

cannot go.

3.
4.

>

snows.
a disaster that was.

in these sentences are

used to express feeling or

emotion?

word used

to express strong feeling or

emotion

is called

an interjection.

Notice the punctuation in the above sentences.


2.

An

exclamation

point

(!)

should be used after

every interjection, except O.


3.

Write

five sentences,

each containing an interjec-

tion.
4.

tion
5.

Write three sentences, each containing a preposi-

and a conjunction.

Try

to write a sentence containing a

noun, a pro-

noun, an adjective, a verb, an adverb, a preposition, and


a conjunction.
6.

Write sentences

of the
7.

illustrating

two rules for the use

comma.

Write sentences illustrating three rules for the use

of the period.
8.

Write sentences

of capital^,

illustrating three rules for the use

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

62

LESSON XLII
QUOTATIONS

Copy

1.

Who
third

these sentences

The man

2.

"

3.

"

Come, Fannie," said

wish

said,

'-'

had a

said part of the

You must not


kite/' said

first

Julia,

sentence

take

my

apples."

Clarence Reed.

'

and go with me."

Of the second

Of

the

Words and

sentences

borrowed from

another

are

called

quotations
2.

In the quotations just used, observe


1.

The marks

2.

That

that inclose the quotations.

in the third sentence the quotation

is

broken

in

two, and the quotation marks inclose each part.


3.

4.

That the quotation is separated from the rest of the


sentence by a comma.
That when a quotation expresses a complete thought, it
should begin with a capital.*

3.

Copy

these sentences, and place quotation marks

where necessary
1.

Watch my

horse,

and

Pll give

you a dime, said the

soldier.
2.

The

3.

4.

4.

Write

* It is not

place.

cat said, I'll catch you, little mouse.


know, said Charles, what you want.
The boy said, Come here, Towser.

five sentences,

using quotations.

thought best to speak of direct or indirect quotations in this


J

REVIEW
5.

63

Imagine two boys, Ralph and Arthur, talking

about the Fourth of July.

Write what they might say to

each other, using quotation marks where necessary.

LESSON

XLIII

REVIEW
Point

the

out

nouns,

adverbs, prepositions,
tences.

Name

pronouns,

verbs,

and conjunctions

adjectives,

these

in

sen-

whether the nouns are proper or common.

Tell

the subject, predicate, and object.

2.

Roses delight us with their color and fragrance.


The music of the organ resembles the roar of the

3.

Charles Dickens was buried in Westminster Abbey.

1.

thunder.

4.

Swallows sometimes build their nests

5.

Dates grow on palm

6.

Ciiesar

7.

8.

People often make mistakes.

\ 9.
10.
^

J<.
12.

gained very

large basket

The

He

many
filled

victories.

with ripe peaches.

an exceedingly

careful

workman.

The careless boy lost his coat and his cap.


The wind and the rain delayed our journey.
Sooner or

14.

15.

The weary

17.

chimneys.

inhabitants of Switzerland are very industrious.

is

13.

16.

was

in

trees.

later

we must pass away.

>

never before saw a more beautiful sight.


father gently kissed his sick child.

A terrible storm passed over the city.


A man of good habits generally has health.

18.

Silvery clouds fringed the horizon.

19.

.'

beautiful lake lay in front of the iguse.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

64

LESSON XLIV
THE COW
1.

about

Write one or more sentences

something

3.

The size.
The color.
The covering

4.

How they

1.

2.

2.

telling

5.

The

6.

Their use.

of the body.

defend themselves.

different kinds.

Arrange and combine

all

your sentences so that

they will form a story or essay about the cow.

LESSON XL V
REVIEW
I,

Name
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

the nouns, pronouns,

etc.,

as in Lesson 43

Some very large diamonds were bought.


The birds and flowers have now appeared again.
Bad habits are seldom overcome.
Good mei> are very frequently abused by bad men.
Some mountains are high and grand.
Every man should carefully think for himself.
We saw many beautiful works of art.

DIAGRAMS
2.

Insert

commas,

capitals,

necessary, in these sentences


I.

6S

and quotation marks, when


:

Longfellow says learn to labor and to wait.


He also says art is long and time is fleeting.

Hard work
Night

The

is

said he

is

the key to success.

the time for rest says the poet.

child

is

father of the

man

How many are you then said I


'Tis only noble to

He

writes
if

be good says Tennyson.

said to the wild sea be

still.

LESSON XL VI
DIAGRAMING
I.

2.

farmer

Wordsworth.

they two are in heaven

plants

66
5-

ESSAY
5.

Man

6.

Pupils should always obey cheerfully.

7.

Quite long lessons are sometimes given.

8.

The

9.

An

10.

suffers for every

birds have

education

is

wrong deed.

come back

large tree stands

CITY OR
Write an essay,

rather early.

not acquired in a short time.

on the top of the

LE^SSQN ^L

live in

67

telling

hill.

VIII

COUNTRY
whether you would rather

the city or in the country, and give reasons for

your choice.
tuation.

Be

careful about your spelling

and punc-

PART TWO
LESSON

/j

CLASSES OF NOUNS
1.

city,
2.

Noun

man,

is

anything;

of

as,

London,

hope.

Proper

Noun

son, place, or thing


3.

name

the

A Common

name

the

is

Noun

a general name, and can be

is

applied to any one of a class

Some nouns

of a particular per-

London, Towser.

as, Charles,

as, boy, city, dog.

names of groups of persons

are the

or things

as.

audience, fleet.

Such nouns are


4.

Collective

of objects;

2,^,

Some nouns
or things
cold,

and

as,

are applied

An

these

name

applied to a group

qualities or conditions of persons

to

cold,

We

heigJit.

reference

to

can think of wisdojn,


any particular person or

or conditions.

qualities

Such nouns are

Noims.

Abstract

of a substance
Collective

is

swarm, compa7iy.

height without

called Abstract
5.

Noun

flock,

wisdom,

thing as having

Nouns.

called Collective

Noun

is

the

name

of a quality, not

* as, beauty, virtue, wJiite^iess.

and abstract nouns are common nouns.


*

A ?ubst^nce

is

anything that has weight.

68

CAPITALS AND PUNCTUATION

Name

6.

69

the subject, predicate, and object of these

Copy
common, the

the

nouns, placing the proper,

sentences.

all

the

collective,

and the abstract nouns

in

separate groups.

The
they

collective

will

and the abstract nouns will be written twice


common nouns and also in groups

be written with the

of their own.

The
The

1.

2.

Legislature adjourned at ten o^clock.


Mississippi

river

has a length of four thousand

miles.

4.

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea.


Honor and shame from no condition rise.

5.

Who

3.

wrote Paradise Lost f

Time had worn deep furrows in his face.


The lilac bears long clusters of flowers.

6.
7.

8.

9.

The bravery

gang of thieves was captured by the police.


of the soldier was remarkable.

Diagram the sentences

7.

in

LESSON

paragraph

6.

II

CAPITALS AND PUNCTUATION

A capital letter should be used

I.

Ji^ For the

N^^
3.

A<;^1

4.

^l

5.

'^<4>'

p^^
^""^

7;

)^
\
,

i^

first letter

of every sentence.

For the first letter of every proper noun.


For the first letter of every line of poetry.
For the first letter of every direct quotation.
For initials that represent proper nouns.
For the words / and O.
For the first letter of all names applied to the Deity.
For the first letter of the days of the week and the
months of the year
but the names of the seasons
;

should not begin with a capital.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

70
2.

letter or letters are often

which they are a part

3.

as,

Gen. for General, dos, for

These shortened forms are

dozen.

At the close of each

called Abbreviations.

period should be used


1.

used for a word of

declarative

and imperative sen-

tence.

4.

2.

After each

3.

After every abbreviation.

A comma
1.

To

initial.

should be used

separate the

name

of the person addressed from

the remainder of the sentence.


If the

name

is

not at the beginning or end of the sentence,

two commas must be used.


2.

To

separate the words of a series.

The word and is seldom used except between the last two of
but if and is used between every two, no comma should
The farmer raises wheat, corn, and oats.
be used. Examples
The farmer raises wheat and corn and oats.
a

series,

5.

The

interrogation

point

should be used at the

close of every interrogative sentence.


6.

Write a sentence containing a noun that

name of
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

A class of animals.
A class of trees.
A class of buildings.
A class of flowers.
A special animal.
A special building.
A special book.
A class of books.
/

is

the

GENDER

71

Write a sentence containing a noun that names a


collection of ^^ri[\
7.

8.

-^'^^'^V^^^

1.

Bees.

2.

Soldiers. -loa^^r-^-^S--^

3.

Sailors.

4.

Buffaloes.

Write

5.

Fish.

6.

Wolves.

7-

Chickens.

8.

Thieves.

'\JkX'^

^^ -O

-'

>.

sentence containing an abstract noun

meaning nearly the same

as

I.

Beautiful.

6.

Strong.

2.

Cheerful.

7-

High.

3.

Sweet.

8.
o-

Wide.
vvme.

4-

Proud.

9.

Hard.

5.
J.

Deceive.

lo-

Wise.

//VlAAiL

u^^
%,

LESSON
^

III

y;

GENDER

Several parts of speech are subject to changes in form and


meaning; as, boy, boy's; girl, girls; large, larger; read, reads.
Such changes of form or meaning are called Pr(j^erties or Modi\

fications.
1.

Gender

'.

is

a distinction of nouns and pronouns in

regard to sex.
2.

Nouns and pronouns

Masculine Gender ;
3.

that refer to males are of the

as, father, he,

Nouns and pronouns

the Feminine Gender ;

Henry,

ki?ig.

that refer to females are of

as, sister, she,

Mary,

qtieejt.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

72

Nouns and pronouns

4.

that refer to objects neither

male nor female are of the Neuter Gender ;

as, tree^ city^

it, JioiLse.

Nouns and pronouns

5.

or females, or both, are of

refer to either males

that

Commoji Gender ;

the

as,

parent, bird, they, children.

Notice these nouns

6.

brother,

You
yy.

w^ill

sister

lion,

lioness

notice that the gender

The gender

of

nouns

is

is

manservant,

shown

maidservant.

in different v^fays.

shown

in three

ways

by

using different words, by using different endings, and

by placing different words before a noun

mon
8.

of the

com-

gender.

Copy

these masculine nouns, and opposite each

write the corresponding feminine form


bachelor

boy

husband

uncle

emperor

PERSON
11.

Write two sentences having feminine subjects

and neuter
12.

73

objects.

Write two sentences having nouns of the com-

mon gender

for subjects.

The tendency of modern writers is to omit the feminine ending


many words to which it was formerly attached. This tendency

from

should be encouraged, for we have no need of such words as author-

and

ess^ editress.,

itistructress.

LESSON IV
PERSON
1.

Examine these sentences


2-

John, am sixteen years old.


Henry, you are sixteen years old.

3.

William says he

I.

You

will

I.

is

sixteen years old.

observe that / 3.\idJohn in the

Henry and you

first

sentence refer to the

second sentence refer to the


person spoken to, and that VVilliajn and he in the third sentence
This change in the use of nouns and
refer to the person spoken of.
speaker, that

pronouns
2.

is

in the

called Person.

Person

is

that property of

a noun or

which denotes the speaker, the person spoken


person spoken
3.

Pauly

The

or the

of.

First Person denotes the

am an

pronoun
to,

apostle."

^"^

speaker

as,

"

/,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

74

The Second Person denotes the person spoken to


''Mr. President, I second that
''Jajnes, come here."

4.

as,

motion."
5.

The Third Person denotes

spoken of

**

as,

Ccesar

person or thing

the

was a general!'

''

heard the

thunder roar."
6.

Name

pronouns

in these sentences

am

glad to see you.

1.

Friends,

2.
3.

Are these trees old ?


Are you here too, Brutus

4.

The

5.

the gender and person of the nouns and

6.

citizens believe that they are not in the

Queen Victoria was Queen of England.


When Lucy had solved the problem, she

wrong.

said,

"

have

it."

7.

Write a sentence having for


1

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

%.

2.
3.

4.
5.

9.

its

object

A noun, masculine, third person.


A pronoun, second person.
A pronoun, first person.
A noun, feminine, third person.
A pronoun, neuter, third person.

Use each
fir,

subject

A proper noun, masculine, third person.


A pronoun, masculine, second person.
A pronoun, feminine, second person.
A pronoun, neuter, third person.
A pronoun, masculine, first person.
A common noun, feminine, third person.
A common noun, common gender, third person.

Write a sentence having for


1.

its

fur

of these
hose, hoes

rode, road, rowed.

words
;

in

sentences

pray, prey

in,

inn

peace, piece

NUMBER

75

LESSON V
NUMBER
Examine these nouns and pronouns

1.

book, books

You

more than one.


2.

This change

Number

by which

box, boxes

I,

we

observe that some of them

will

is

in

he, they.

mean

meaning

is

some mean

one, and

called Nutnber.

that modification of a

noun or pronoun

denotes one or more than one.

it

3.

The Singular Ntimber dQnotQs but

4.

The Plural Number denotes more than

5.

Most nouns form the plural by adding

singular
6.

as, tree^ trees

bench, benches

fox, foxes

you add
pronounce them without making an additional
of such nouns is formed by adding es.
s to these singular

If

Nouns ending

by adding
8.

in

9.

the

dish, dishes.

s, ^,

x,

s/i,

and

syllable.

c/i

The

plural

form the plural

es.

boy, boys

plural

s to

nouns, you will find that you cannot

Examine these singular and

What
What

one.

eagle^ eagles.

Notice these singular and plural nouns


dress, dresses

7.

one.

plural nouns

lady, ladies.

letter

precedes

letter

precedes

Nouns ending
by adding

s.

/ in 6oy ? Is it a vowel or a consonant


/ in lady ? Is it a vowel or a consonant
in

y preceded by
Nouns ending

a vowel
in

?
?

form the

preceded by

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

'je

a consonant form the plural by changing

adding
10.

to i

Most nouns ending in/ and /^ form the

by adding
add

and

es.

s.

The

following change

/ and fe

to

plural

v and

es.

beef, calf, half, knife, leaf,

11.

life,

shelf, self, thief, wife, wolf.

Write the plural of each of the following nouns,

and give the


latch

rule.

NUMBER
4.

Change the nouns

yy

of these sentences

from the

sin-

gular to the plural, and write the sentences correctly

4.

The alley is narrow.


The branch is long.
The army has marched a long distance.
The monkey is a cunning animal.

5.

1.

2.

3.

on the plate.
pony is black and my ox is brown.
The thief stole a muff and a calf.

7.

5.

Examine these sentences


This man

1.

4.

6.

7.

is

and

TJiis

and

tJiat

and

are used with singular nouns,

those with plural nouns.

Use

these instead of this,

and rewrite these sentences

and

those instead of that,

1.

This lady has a bonnet.

2.

3.

That ox is
That tooth

4.

This knife has two blades.

large.
is

decayed.

Was this penny made in 1894?


That wild goose is going south.

5.

6.

8.

old.

That boy is skating.


These men are old.
Those boys are skating.

2.

3.

these

fly is

My

6.

Fill these

blanks with

this, that, these,

and

those,

and write the sentences correctly

in turn,

do not

like

kind of apples.

sort of berries

2.

The

3.

is

not sweet.

teacher likes to have

kind of boys in his

school.

^)^Use

each of these words in a sentence having a

singular subject
fair, fare

seller, cellar

read; sees, seas, seize.

sent, cent, scent

gate, gait

red,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

78
10.

Use each

of these

words

in a sentence

having a

plural subject
lye

lie,

tax, tacks

pare, pair, pear

sell, cell

ware, wear

two, too.

to,

LESSON

VII

REVIEW
1.

2.

3.

Write the plural of each of these words:


body

gallery

copy

dairy

lily

kidney

journey

donkey

pulley

poppy

child

truth

gulf

valley

chimney

trout

Write the singular of these nouns

oxen

mice

wages

salmon

series

measles

mumps

shears

feet

swine

juries

thanks

Change the nouns

of these sentences

from the

singular to the plural, and rewrite the sentences

4.

noun

1.

The

2.

My

lady sang a song.

3.

pony has white feet.


The leaf of the palm tree

4.

One

5.

large

2.

The
The

3.

My

4.

I,

6.

large.

salmon was caught in the

river.

the gender, person, and

in these

5.

is

family lives in that old house.

Name
1.

sentences
topaz

is

John, saw

5.

of eacli

a beautiful gem.

traveler delighted us

friends,

number

why do you
all

by singing a

return so soon

solo.
?

these things.

The deer were admiring themselves in the brook.


The farmer was breaking prairie with three yoke
oxen.

7.

Mr. President,

rise to

Diagram the sentences

ask a question.

in

paragraph

3.

of

NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE CASE

LESSON

79

VIII

THE NOMINATIVE AND THE OBJECTIVE CASE


Examine these sentences:

1.

3.

The man is sick.


know the man.
The book belongs

4.

1.

2.

You

will

have the man's

to the

man.

hat.

observe that a noun (or a pronoun)

ent offices in a sentence.

may have
may be the subject, it may be the
it may denote possession.
These

It

of a verb or preposition, or

differ-

object
differ-

ent offices of nouns and pronouns are called Cases.


2.

tence
3.

noun

or

is

in the

Nominative Case.

noun or pronoun used as the object

or preposition
4.

is

pronoun used as the subject

2.

3.

of a verb

in the Objective Case.

Give the case of


1.

of a sen-

all

the nouns in these sentences

The dog caught the pet kitten.


Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga.
The Second Continental Congress convened

at Phila-

delphia.

7.

The temple of Jupiter was in Rome.


The dog ran under the house.
Can the deer run ?
Have the men returned from the city

8.

Education gives power.

4.
5.

6.

9.

10.

5.

Necessity never

No man

made a good

bargain.

can hide his shame from heaven.

Write two sentences, each having a noun in the

objective case, object of a verb, and a


jective case, object of a preposition.

noun

in the ob-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

80

Examine

6.

this

sentence

Milton was a poet.

Does it mean the same person as


Does the verb was express action?
Can poet be the
object of was /
Ispoe^part of the predicate?

Milton?

When a noun

7.

forms part of the predicate and de-

notes the same person or thing as the subject,

it is

called

a Predicate Noun, or Predicate Nominative^ and

is in

the same case as the subject.

The
The

predicate nominative

a pronoun as, '^ I am he."


sometimes called Attribute Com-

may be

predicate nominative

is

plement.
8.

Name

tences

the predicate noun in each of these sen-

1.

Caesar was the conqueror of Gaul.

2.

Harvey was the discoverer of the

circulation

of the

blood.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Grant was the leader of the army.


Defoe was the author of " Robinson Crusoe."
They had been friends in youth.
Washington has been called the Father of his Country.

LESSON IX

THE POSSESSIVE CASE


1.

A noun

or pronoun used to denote possession

is in

the Possessive Case.


2.

In these sentences examine the nouns that are in

the possessive case


1.

2.
3.

4.

The
The
The
The

boy's hat

is

torn

boys' hats are torn.


child's

books are new.

children's books are new.

THE POSSESSIVE CASE


3.

Si

Singular nouns, and plural nouns not ending in

s,

and

s.

form the possessive by adding the apostrophe


Plural nouns ending in s form the possessive

(')

by adding

the apostrophe only.

When

you wish to write the possessive plural of a noun, write the


then examine it before you decide whether to add the
apostrophe only or the apostrophe and s.
plural

4.

first,

Write the possessive singular, the

possessive plural of these

5.

child, dog, lady,

boys'

woman, box,

Change these expressions

sessive case; thus

The

to the

hat of the lady

and the

Pos. Plural

boys

boy's

man,

Plural

Pos. Sing.

bird,

nouns

plural,

thus

The lady's

hat.

horse.

form of the pos-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

82

LESSON X
REVIEW
I.

Name
1

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

the case of each noun in these sentences

The teacher and pupils heard the girl's song.


December's cold and dreary days are here.
Caesar conquered Gaul.
Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood.
Grant led the army.
Defoe wrote " Robinson Crusoe."
The Romans conquered the civilized world.
The grim sexton now made a gesture with his
The waves rush in on every hand.

r^ Grandfather's

chair stood

by the

staff.

fireside.

11.

The

12.

Franklin invented the lightning rod.

laws of nature are the thoughts of God.

13.

Fulton was the inventor of the steamboat.

14.

The

people of Denmark, Norway, and

Sweden

are called

Scandinavians.
15.
16.

"^.^Use

Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island.


Lee surrendered his army to Grant.

each

First, in the

of

nominative case, predicate


object of a verb

a preposition

nouns

these

in

six

sentences:

nominative case, subject; second, in the

third, in the

objective case,

fourth, in the objective case, object of

fifth, in

the possessive singular

sixth, in

the possessive plural.


squirrel,

3.

We

now

coward, pony.

see that the modifications of nouns are

gender, person, number, and case.

DIAGRAMS

83

LESSON XI
DIAGRAMS
I.

Notice this diagram

My

brother's friend

is

an author.

friend

is
[

author.

brother's

My
EXPLANATION

noun or pronoun in the possessive case is placed as a modifier


of the word denoting the thing possessed.
A noun or pronoun in the predicate is separated from the verb
by two dashes.

Diagram the sentences in paragraphs 4 and


Lesson 8; and paragraph i, Lesson 10.
2.

LESSON

8,

XII

REVIEW

""y^

Mention two or more nouns that denote smaller


by each of these nouns
thus: books
readers, grammars; flowers
roses, lilies.
1.

classes of the objects denoted

books

mechanic

building

grass

flower

mineral

insect

quadruped

fruit

vegetable

bird

tree

2.

Name

the gender, person, number, and case of

each noun in these sentences


1.

On

Christmas,

Robert received a beautiful

present

from his uncle.


2.

The Esquimaux endure

severe cold in winter.

..

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

84
3.

friend's horse

was

killed

by hard work.

men sometimes make

5.

6.

Spring's pleasant days are here.

7.

wisest

eagle can carry a lamb in

The hero
The visit

10.
1 1

The eye

9.

its

mistakes.
talons.

of the story should be a brave man.

was a
Temperance is a virtue.
Tadpoles become frogs.

8.

3.

My
The
The

4.

to the park

is

delightful event.

the organ of sight.

-^iagram the preceding sentences.

LESSON

XIII

CLASSES OF PHRASES
1.

modifier
1.

2.

The
The

may be

a phrase

as

strength of the lion is great.


President lives
Washijigton.

You
in

will notice that of the lion modifies the noun strength, and
Washington modifies the verb lives.

2.

phrase modifying a noun or pronoun

is

an

Adjective Phrase^ and a phrase modifying a verb, an


adjective, or
3.

Copy

an adverb,

is

an Adverb Phrase.

the phrases in these sentences.

adjective phrases in one coUimn,

Place the

and the adverb phrases

in another
1

2.

The sun sets in the west.


The house on the hill is large.

3.

Hannibal was a general of great renown.

4.

The train of emigrants went slowly over


The university stands on a hill.
The water of the ocean is salt.

5.

6.

the prairie.

PARSING

7.

number

large

train of

The

8.

85

of bushels of wheat was carried on a

twenty

cars.

city of Philadelphia

is

on the Delaware River.

4.

Write three sentences containing adjective phrases.

5.

Write three sentences containing adverb phrases.

LESSON XIV
PARSING
Parsing a word

1.

tions,

and

The

2.

noun,

its

syntax

is

which

it

of speech, the

belongs, all

its

modifica-

relations to other words.*

following

class,

naming the part

is

class or subdivision to

the order for parsing nouns

is

gender, person, number, case, syntax.

meant the

office of the

noun

(By

in the sentence.)

EXAMPLES
Columbus was a sailor, and had three ships in his fleet.
Columbus is a noun, proper masculine gender, third person, singular number, nominative case, subject of the verbs was and had.
;

Sailor

is

common

a noun,

masculine gender, third person, sin-

gular number, nominative case, in predicate with the verb was.

Ships

is

Fleet

is

son, singular

may

At

neuter gender, third person, plural

case, object of the verb had.

a noun,

number, objective

Remark.

common

a noun,

number, objective

common

neuter gender, third person, singular

case, object of the preposition

number,"

i7i.

pupils should say, "masculine gender, third per-

first

etc.,

but after they are familiar with the order they

say " masculine, third, singular," etc.

* It is essential, in

order,

and

to follow the

good parsing, to have a regular and systematic


same order all the time.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

86
3.

noun:

The following

is

a model for written parsing of the

THE NOUN

8;

LESSON XV
THE NOUN
Write an essay on the noun,
its

and properties, and giving

classes

you can about

telling all

at least

one exam-

ple after each definition.

LESSON XVI
CLASSES F PRONOUNS
<
1.

2.

The

which

Pr^nsun

ward used instead

Antecedent f

prnun

fr^nouns, as

/,

ymi^ and he, shw

they stand far the speaker, the person

They

spoken ^.
3.

son by
4.

of a n^un.

the

is

wrd

fr

stands.

it

Sme

is

its

t,

whether

r the person

are called Personal Pratimins.

Personal Pronoun

The

their i%xm.

liy

spoken

is

one that indicates

its

per-

form.

following are the personal pronouns:


SINGULAR

Nominative

thou

Possessive

my

thy

OBjECxrvE

me

thee

Nominative

PLURAL
we

you
your
you

ye,

you

he

she

his

her

its

him

her

it

it

they

Possessive

our

your

their

Objective

us

you

them

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

88

The possessive forms given above are used with nouns, but the
forms mitie, thine, hers, ours, yours, and theirs are used v^^hen no
noun follows the possessive
That
That

is

my

is

mine.

as

pencil.

The nominative forms should

not be used as the object, nor the

objective forms as the subject or predicate nominative.


5.

Sometimes

self or selves

They

pronouns.

added

is

to the personal

then called Compoimd Personal

are

Pr07lOH7lS.

The Compound Personal Pronouns


hersef and itsef,
yourselves, and the?nselves.
hijnself

6.

are myself, thyself,

in the singular,

yoursef

plurals ourselves,

Examine these sentences:


1. Who has my book ?
2.

Which

3.

What

is

right

have you

what stand

In these sentences who, which, and

represent the answers to the questions

nouns.

and the

They

are used to ask questions

names

for the

that

therefore, they are protherefore, they are called

Interrogative Pro7iou7is.
7.

An

Interrogative Pronoun

one used

is

in

asking

questions.

The

interrogative pronouns are who, which,

who and

the possessive form of

and what.

whom

which, and

is

Whose

is

the objective

form oiwho.
8.

Examine these sentences:


1.

Some (men)

2.

Each

3.

This book

are rich.

(pupil)

In these sentences,

is
if

must study

we use

the words some,

them.

each.,

is

mine.

the words in parentheses, the words

some, each, and that are adjectives.


ses,

for himself.

yours, that (book)

If

we omit

and that take

the words in parenthe-

their place, or stand for

Therefore, they are called Adjective Frojiouns.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

An

9.

Point out

10.

tell

adjective

whether they are personal, interrogative, or


:

1.

Who

Many do

3.

Who

5.

6.

the pronouns in these sentences,

all

2.

4.

one that performs the

is

an adjective and a noun.

offices of

and

Adjective Pronoun

89

defeated Napoleon?

is

not obtain their wishes.

he ?

heard her request.

These are white, but those are black.


I saw them when they did it.

Write two sentences, each containing

11.

1.

2.
3.

4.

A
A

personal pronoun.

compound personal pronoun.

An
An

interrogative pronoun.
adjective pronoun.

^^
LESSON XVII
RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Many

T.

as

you

sentences contain more than one statement,

will see
1.

by examining the following

The owner

New

of the house,

2.

This animal, which

3.

The book

In these

who

is

a rich man,

sentences

is

a lion, was captured in Africa.

that lies on the table

is

a reader.

the words luho, which, and that are

instead of the nouns owner, animal, and book

pronouns.
which

is

lives in

York.

The antecedent

of

who

is

used

therefore they are

owner, the antecedent of

animal, and the antecedent of that

is

book.

V.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

90

You ^will observe that each of these pronouns


connecting the two statements in each sentence.
are called Relative Pronouns.
2.

used
3.

The pronouns

which, and

a connective,

Such pronouns

that,

when

not

asking questions, are Relative Pronouns.

in

Name

the relative pronouns in these sentences

7.

I know the man who built this boat.


The figs which we ate came in a neat box.
The storm that came so suddenly did much damage.
The evil that men do lives after them.
None knew the sorrow that she felt.
The eye, which sees all other things, cannot see itself.
He who cannot read needs a teacher.

8.

He

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

4.

ivho,

is

that has bad luck usually gets bad treatment.

Write three sentences, each containing a relative

pronoun.

"Y'-Name
tell

all the pronouns in these sentences, and


whether they are personal, interrogative, adjective,

or relative
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

built the first

house in

this city?

These books are large, those are small.


The little girl went with her mother.
Boys often injure themselves while they are playing.
The boy who threw the stone has not been caught.

6.

What

7.

That

8.

He

did he say?
is

the

same

will fulfill his

10.

We respect those
We ourselves are

11.

This

9.

6.

Who

is

story that you read yesterday.

promise.
v^^ho

respect themselves.

to blame.

wrong.

Since pronouns

take

the

place of nouns, they

have the same modifications as nouns.

FORMS OF PRONOUNS

LESSON

91

XVIII

CORRECT FORMS OF PRONOUNS


1.

Examine these sentences

1.

John learns because he

2.

The lady supported herself hy


All men must do their duty.

3.

You will

studies.

sewing.

notice that he agrees with /<?//;/ (its antecedent) in gender,

person, and number; that herself 2.gYets with lady, and their agrees

You

with men.

will also notice that these

pronouns do not

all

have

the same case as their antecedents.


2.

pronoun must have the same gender, person,

and number

its

antecedent, but

its

case depends on

in the sentence.

its office

3.

as

Give the gender, person, and number of these

pronouns
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

4.

in the sentences given in

and

5.

He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty.


Do you know that girl who recently joined our class.-*

Give the gender, person, and number of the

nouns
16,

The rich man left all his money to his children.


The little animal ran to its hiding place.
The queen dismissed her waiting maid.
Hail to the chief who in triumph advances.

in

paragraphs

and

5,

paragraph

Lesson

10,

17.

Notice the case forms of these pronouns:


1.

It is

I.

2.

It is

he.

3.

It

was

she.

pro-

Lesson

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

92
4.

It

5.

It

was they.
was James and

I.

Observe that the nominative form should be used when a pro-

noun

in predicate with a verb.

is

Fill

6.

1.

each of these blanks with a personal pronoun

Who

2.

Was

3.

Who

4.

Have

did that
or

it

7.

It

8.

Lucy

It is

and

thought

are these?

and

5.

6.

was

It

Jennie and

been

to the city?

arrived last week.


it

was

could not have been

and

are in the

same

class.

LESSON XIX
PARSING

The

I.

Class
ent)

following

is

the order for parsing pronouns

number

gender, person,

(to

agree with

its

anteced-

case, syntax.

EXAMPLES

The boy

He
with

a pronoun, personal masculine, third, singular, to agree


antecedent, boy, nominative, subject of the verb studies.

is

its

/ is
with

learns because he studies.

have her book.

a pronoun, personal

its

common

antecedent, the speaker;

gender,

first,

singular, to agree

nominative, subject of the verb

have.

Her
with

its

a pronoun, personal feminine, third, singular, to agree


antecedent, the person spoken of; possessive, possessor of

is

book.

Who are
You
*

is

you?

(You

a pronoun, personal

Yon should always be parsed

plural verb.

are
;

who?)

common, second,
as plural, because

it

plural,* to agree

always requires a

^^9-^9^

m^fx^DuC^

PARSING
with

Its

93

antecedent, the person or persons addressed

nominative,

subject of the verb are.

Who
IV^o

is

going

a pronoun, interrogative common, third, singular, to


antecedent, the person spoken of; nominative, subject
;

agree with

its

of the verb

z's

2.

is

going.

Model
She

for written parsing.

studies her lessons.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

94
6.
7.

8.
9.

common,

personal pronoun,

An
An
An

third, plural.

interrogative pronoun.
adjective pronoun, singular.

adjective pronoun, plural.

2^ Write a sentence having for

its

predicate nomina-

tive
1.

2.

3.

4.

3.

A personal pronoun, third, singular.


A personal pronoun, common, third, plural.
A personal pronoun, common, first, plural.
A personal pronoun, common, first, singular.

Write a sentence having for


1

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

An adjective
An adjective

its

object

pronoun, singular.
pronoun, plural.

A personal pronoun, masculine, third, singular.


A personal pronoun, third, plural.
A personal pronoun, feminine, third, singular.
A personal pronoun, neuter, third, plural.

<

LESSON XXI
1.

Write

sentences,

using nine different

personal

pronouns as predicate nominatives.


2.

Write an essay on the pronoun, defining the

ferent

classes

definition

and modifications, and

illustrate

will aid

you

Personal

Relative
Classes

each

by examples.

This outline

Interrogative

Adjective

Modifications
j
I

Gender
Person

Number
Case

dif-

CAPITALS AND PUNCTUATION

95

LESSON XXIT
CAPITALS AND PUNCTUATION
Review the

1.

2.

rules for punctuation

Lesson

capitals given in

2.

Insert the proper capitals and punctuation

marks

Use quotation marks where

neces-

in these sentences.

sary

and the use of

1.

What

2.

with fingers weary and worn,

so rare as a day in June, asks Lowell

is

with eyelids heavy and red,

woman

sat in

unwomanly

rags,

plying her needle and thread.


3.

My

friend's

name

is

henry

smith, and he lives in

boston, mass.
4.

how manifold

5.

School

will

are thy works o lord.

begin next Wednesday, and will close in

may.
6.
7.

Have you read the


Rover come here

life

of

Gen Grant

16.

Are your lessons prepared girls


tell me mother where the birds are going
Coal gold silver and copper are found in Colorado.
The desert of Sahara is large sandy and sterile.
Where are you going my little man said the gentleman.
Days months and ages shall circle away
It was a dark desolate region.
Adieu adieu my native land said Byron.
Dr Samuel Johnson was born in Lichfield England in

17.

The

8.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

Will you

1709.

3.

settlement was

Write sentences

made

at

Jamestown Va

illustrating all the rules

you have

learned for the use of capitals and punctuation marks.

v^

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

96

LESSON

XXIII

CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES

An

1.

Adjective

is

word used

modify a noun or

to

pronoun.

Examine these phrases

2.

ripe apples, large apples, three apples, this apple.

You

observe that ripe and large

will

the apples, but three and this do not

3.

Descriptive Adjective

tell

is

tell

the kind or quality of

the kind or quality.

one that describes a

noun or pronoun by expressing some quahty belonging


to

it

4.

trees.

Definitive Adjective

a quality
5.

good boys, small

as,

is

one that does not express

several boys, those trees.

as,

Separate these adjectives into two

lists,

one con-

taining the descriptive and the other the definitive


high, low, green, long, one, hot,
first,

last,

sweet, hard,

that,

full,

the,

deep, beautiful, short,

heavy,

a,

an, sharp,

those.
6.

as,

Some

adjectives are derived from proper nouns

American from A^n erica, Spanish from Spain,

These are

called

etc.

Proper Adjectives, and each should

begin with a capital.


7.

Write a proper adjective derived from

England, France, Ireland, Mexico.


8.

Use

you wrote

in a sentence
in

paragraph

each of the proper adjectives


7.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
9.

Examine these sentences

The

1.

Jane's apple

2.

Lucy's apple

3.

Stella's apple is the sweetest of all.

is

is

97

sweet.

sweeter than Jane's.

apples referred to have the quality of sweetness, but they do

not have the same degree of sweetness.


different

degrees

Adjectives express three


degrees of quality, and as they express these different

when two

or more objects are compared, these degrees are


of Comparison.

called Degrees

10.

have three degrees of

Descriptive Adjectives

comparison

the Positive^ the Comparative, and

the

Superlative.
Giving the different degrees of an adjective
it,

or giving

its

Comparison
11.

is

called

Comparing

Comparison.
is

the only modification belonging to adjectives.

Compare

these adjectives

slow, quick, rough, large.

12.

Adjectives of one syllable form the comparative

by adding er
adding

to

the

positive,

and the superlative by

est to the positive.

If you should compare ignorant according to the above rule, you


would have ignorant^ ignoranter, ignorantest. This does not sound
well
therefore, such words are compared by using more and most
thus, ignorant, more ignorant, most ignorant.
;

13.

Adjectives of more than two syllables are com-

pared by placing before the positive


parative,
14.

and most

Compare

77tore

for the

for the superlative.

these adjectives

beautiful, voracious, intelligent,

hoenshel's eng. gram.

comprehensive.

^^

com-

;;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

98

,1

LESSON XXIV
RULES FOR COMPARISON
1.

Notice the comparison of these adjectives:


Positive

Comparative

Superlative

pretty,

prettier,

prettiest

gentle,

gentler,

gentlest

truthful,

more truthful,
more splendid,

most truthful;
most splendid.

splendid,
2.

Adjectives of two syllables ending in

are compared by using er and


tives of

two

or silent e
adjec-

compared with more and

are

syllables

Most other

est.

most.

Many words

are

made from

letters before or after

3.

One

or

them

more

letters

are called a suffix, but

word, they are called


4.

other words by placing one or more

thus, old^ older

2.

added

5.

Words ending
to i when

with
6.

i.

end of a word

to the

when they

are placed before a

pretty, prettier, prettiest

kind, inikind.

prefix.

Notice these words

change y

in

try, tries, tried, trying.

y preceded by

a suffix

is

consonant,

added not beginning

(Adjectives of one syllable are exceptions.)

Notice these words


thin,

thinner,

planned

thinnest

sit,

sitting

occur, occurred, occurring.

plan,

planning,

; ;; ;

(t-<

COMPARISON QY ADJECTIVES
Words

7.

of one syllable,

and words

one syllable accented on the

last,

of

99

more than

ending in a single

consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the


consonant before a
If

you add er or

notice

that the

suffix is

8.

suffix

final

beginning with a vowel.

^'vs

and ed or ing to love, you will


of wise and love is dropped before the

est to wise,

final e

added.

Words ending

in silent e

drop the

e before a suffix

beginning with a vowel.*


9.

Compare these words.

(Pay particular attention

to the spelling.)
hot, happy, sad, noble, big, lazy, treacherous, jolly, able,

white, peaceful, thin, red, thick.

10.

Some very common

their comparisons

11.

adjectives are irregular in

as

Positive

Comparative

good,

better,

best

bad,

worse,

worst
worst

Superlative

ill,

worse,

little,

less,

least

much,
many,

more,

most

more,

most.

A few descriptive

cannot be compared

as

adjectives,

from

perfect, square, round, perpendicular.


fect, it

These

three

(If

anything

is

per-

cannot be made more perfect.)

important rules of spelling should not be neglected.

Pupils should be drilled on

making mistakes.

their meaning,

them

until

they can apply them without

100

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

LESSON XXV

REVIEW
10.
11.

The day was cloudy and the sea was very rough.
The noblest mind the best contentment has.

Diagram sentences

5.

above

lOI

i,

2,

4,

and

6, 7, 8,

11 of the

list.

LESSON XXVI
WRITTEN REVIEW
1.

Write answers

What

is

an

adjective.?

to the following questions

How many

Name

classes of adjectives?

and define each. Which class is compared? How many degrees


of comparison do adjectives have?
Name them. How are adjectives of one syllable compared?
Of three syllables? What adjectives of two syllables are compared like adjectives of one syllable?
What adjectives cannot be compared?

What

three rules of spelling have you learned?

Give examples

of each.

When

should a be used?

When

should

aji

be used?

Are adjectives always placed before the words they modify?


they ever used in the predicate with a verb?

If so, give

Are

an ex-

ample.
2.

Arrange your answers

so as to

make

to the

preceding questions

a connected essay.

LESSON XXVII
REVIEW
I.

Fill these
1.

It is

2.

It is

3.

It is

blanks with personal pronouns

who is standing by the gate.


who are coming to work.
who wants to go, not

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

102

2.

4.

Who

5.

Is

it

6.

Is

it

7.

Halt!

8.

Are you

there?

It is

who was expected?

men = men

1.

Sensible

2.

This

is

adjectives printed in italic to phrases

men sometimes

Courageous

6.

Wooden spoons were once

men

are needed.

shall

We

go

to school

5.

is grown
Tea is brought
Columbus sailed

6.

Houses are built

have a holiday

Cotton

4.

used.

phrases to these sentences

1.

differ.

2.

a inathe7natical problem.

The snake was lying in \\s> grassy bed.


The Spanish gentleman has departed.

Add

into a phrase

of honesty.

4.

3.

5.

it

Who comes

Change the

3.

4.

Is

who am expected to teach this class?


who is expected to arrive soon?

Sometimes a word may be expanded

as, Jionest

3.

there?

is

Parse the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in these

sentences

The

4.

knife was sharp and keen.


To-morrow we shall be gay and happy.
The day is long and dark and dreary.
Frank will sometime be a famous man.

5.

The audience

1.

2.

3.

at

the concert

was respectful and atten-

tive.

Why
6.

is

no

comma

required in the third sentence?

Diagram the sentences

in

paragraph

5.

THE VERB

LESSON

103

XXVIII

CLASSES OF VERBS
1.

2.

Examine these sentences

Verb

1.

2.
3.

What
By

is

a word that denotes action or being.


:

The boys walk.


The boys walked.
The boys will walk.

time

the third

is

expressed by the

first

word time. We say a verb


Past Tense, or Future Tense.

3.

Examine these sentences


1.

3.

4.

The
The
The
The

In what tense

Of

is

in the

Past time?

tense denotes present time.?

2.

the second.''

we use the word

In speaking of the time expressed by verbs,

instead of the

Which

By

sentence?

tense

Present Tense,

Future time?

boys walk.
boys are walking.
boys walked.

boys have walked.


is

the verb of the

first

Of

sentence?

the second?

the third?

What is the past tense of walk ? How is it formed from walk ?


What form oiwalk is used with are in the second sentence? With
have
4.

in the fourth

The form

sentence ?

of the verb

ending

in

used with have are called Participles.


present participle and walked

\s \.\iQ

mg

and the form

Walking

is

the

past participle of the

verb walk.
5.

Write opposite each of these verbs (i)

its

present

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I04

and

participle, (2) its past tense,

(3)

its

past participle.

Watci your spelling


chop, play, hop, cry, study.

You

observe that the past tense and the past participle of

will

the above verbs end in ed.


6.

Such are

called

Write opposite each of these verbs

and

participle, its past tense,

its

all

Regular Verbs.

present

its

past participle

write, see, do, go, catch.

You

7.

and past participle of these


Such are called Irregular Verbs.

notice that the past tense

will

verbs do not end in ed.

Regular Verb

and past

participle

is

one that forms

by adding ed

its

past tense

to the present, in ac-

cordance with the rules of spelling.*


8.

An

Irregular

past tense

Verb

and past

is

one that does not form

participle

by adding ed

to

its

the

present.
9.
list,

Copy

these verbs, placing the regular ones in one

and the irregular


blow

in

another

CLASSES OF VERBS

105

LESSON XXIX
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
1.

You have

already learned that some verbs require

an object to complete their meaning, and some do not


as

2.

The dog caught


The dog barks.

The meaning of the first sentence is not complete we need a


to name the object that the dog caught.
The meaning of the second sentence is complete without adding
;

word

another word.
2.

to

Transitive Verb

complete
3.

An

its

hitransitive Verb

an object to complete
4.

is

one that requires an object

meaning.

its

is

one that does not require

meaning.

Pick out the verbs in these sentences, and

whether they are regular or


intransitive
1.

2.
3.

transitive

The boy threw

the ball.

A poor man wants some things.


A covetous man wants all things.

5.

Some roses bloom early.


The rain moistened the ground.

6.

This industrious boy received a suitable reward.

7.

Many

wild beasts inhabit Africa.

8.

A soft

answer turneth away wrath.

9.

Industry leads to wealth.

4.

5.

irregular,

Diagram the preceding sentences.

tell

or

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I06
6.

7.

Write three sentences, each containing


1.

2.

An

3.

4.

An

We

regular, transitive verb.


irregular, transitive verb.

regular, intransitive verb.


irregular, intransitive verb.

have now learned that verbs are divided into

classes, as follows
I.

2.

According to form

Regular.

Irregular.

(Transitive.

According
*
* to Meaning

Intransitive.

LESSON XXX
VOICE

Examine these sentences

1.

1.

2.

In the

Columbus discovered America.


America was discovered by Columbus.

first

sentence, does the subject denote the actor?

What

denotes the actor in the second?


Notice that the form of the verb in the second sentence is not the
same as in the first. This change of the form of the verb to indicate

virord

whether the subject denotes the actor or the receiver of the

act, is

When

the subject denotes the actor (as in the first


sentence), the verb is in the Active Voice. When the subject denotes the receiver of the action (as in the second sentence), the

called Voice.

verb

is

in the Passive Voice.

2. Voice is that modification of a verb which shows


whether the subject denotes the actor or the receiver of

the action.
3.

The Active Voice

is

that form of the verb which

shows that the subject denotes the

actor.

VOICE
4.

The

Passive Voice

is

107

that form of a transitive verb

which shows that the subject denotes the receiver

of

the action.
you examine the two sentences given at the beginning of this
you will see that the object of the first sentence is the subject
of the second.
Now, as only transitive verbs can have an object,
it follows that only transitive verbs can have the passive voice.
If

lesson,

5.

Name

the voice of the verbs in these sentences

1.

John reads the

2.

lesson.

3.

The lesson
Mary loves

4.

Lulu

is

esteemed by

5.

Corn

is

planted in the spring.

is

read by John.

Ina.
all

the girls.

6.

Ships carry heavy burdens.

7.

Wendell

8.

9.

is

loved by his mother.

Mary writes carefully.


The letter was written with

care.

10.

Galileo invented the telescope.

11.

The hurricane destroyed a large barn.


The little porch was covered by thrifty vines.
The burglars were driven from the house by

12.
13.

a police-

man.
14.

6.

The

fox ran toward the south.

Change these sentences

active voice shall be passive,

voice shall be active.

the sentences
1

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

Do

so that the verbs in the

and those

in the passive

not change the meaning of

Washington gained the victory.


The boy plowed the field.
The shoe was repaired by the shoemaker.

The carpenter built the house.


The tinner made the bucket.
The letter was written by him.
The tailor made the coat.
The lesson was recited by Lloyd.

..

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I08
7.

Write three sentences, each having


1

verb in the active voice.

2.

verb in the passive voice.

3.

An

intransitive verb.

LESSON XXXI
MODE
1.

Notice these sentences

2.

Henry studies.
Henry can study.

3.

Henry, study.

1.

In the

sentence, the statement

first

In the second sentence,

it

is

You
or

commanded

will notice

meaning

modes.
2.

Mode

is

called

form or use of the verb which shows

that

which the action or being

Mode

Indicative
;

as

is

General Grant went to Europe.

1.

2.

Indicative
as

expressed.

Oliver Wendell

is

used to assert a fact or an

question

Mode.

in

2.

The

is

from the above that verbs change their form


action or being in different manners, or

is

actual existence

4.

studies.

to study.

This modification of the verb

The

Henry

to express

the manner
3.

that

In the third sentence, he

can study, or has the ability to study.


ordered or

made

is

not said that he studies, but that he

Holmes

Mode

is

is

dead.

also

Did he go to Europe?
Has the letter been written?

used in asking a

MODE
5.

The

Potential

Mode

109

asserts the power, necessity,

Uberty, or possibility of action or being

as

He can read.
He must read.
He may read.
He might read.

1.

2.

3.

4.

The

sign of the potential

mode

may^ can, must, might,

is

could,

would, or should.
6.

The

questions
1.

Potential

as

May

Mode

used

also

is

in

asking

go?

Must the lessons be learned?


This mode is so called because the word potential means
having power.
2.

7.

Tell whether the verbs in these sentences are in

the indicative or the potential


Must

1.

mode

all

3.

4.

All hail,

5.

Macbeth that shall be king


Romulus founded Rome.

6.

There must have been a heavy rain


creek

7.
8.

is

1.

3.

is

9.

the

used to express a com;

as

Men, lay down your arms.

Come and see me.


Do not leave me alone.

subject of the verb in the imperative

the pronoun

last night, for

An old man was walking slowly down the lane.


Many wise proverbs were written by Solomon.

mand, a request, or an entreaty


2.

hereafter.

very high.

The Imperative Mode

The

the sailors perish?

He should have departed long ago.


Some authors have written many books.

2.

8.

able,

_y<??^

mode

is

nearly always

understood.

Write three sentences, each having a verb

imperative mode.

in the

no

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

LESSON XXXII
REVIEW
1.

Name
1.

2.

4.
5.

mode

of each verb in these sentences

7.

Passionate men are easily irritated.


Do not walk so fast.

8.

The

9.

10.

Idleness often leads to vice.


Live for something.

11.

In

12.

would have gone if I had known that I was needed.


If we would seem true, we must be true.

6.

13.

2.

the

Bring me some flowers.


I must not be careless.
Who is the King of Glory ?
Can that be the man?
The pupils have recited well.

prize cannot be obtained without labor.

all

climates, spring

is

beautiful.

Classify these verbs according to form (regular or

irregular) and, according to

meaning

(transitive or in-

Also, give the voice and

transitive).

mode

of

each

verb.
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

9.

10.

3.

Nothing can supply the place of books.


What exile can flee from himself
Make hay while the sun shines.
The Union must be preserved.
.''

Spare me, dread angel of reproof.


jury could not agree in their verdict.
A verdict of guilty was reported by the jury.
They took my umbrella.
You should have been more careful.
A railroad has been constructed in Siberia.

The

Write three sentences, each having a verb in


1.
The indicative mode.
2. The potential mode.
(Use a different sign-word
each sentence.)
3.

The

imperative mode.

for

TENSE
4.

1 1

Write three sentences, each containing


1.

2.

An

3.

4.

An

regular verb.
irregular verb.

transitive verb.

intransitive verb.

LESSON XXXIII
TENSE
1.

Tense

is

that

form or use

of the verb

which shows

the time of an action or being.


2.

The Present Tense denotes


I

3.

The
I

4.

write;

ain writing;

Past Tense denotes past time

as

as

wrote.

shall write or

The word perfect


it

do write.

The Future Tense denotes


I

present time

as

will write.

naming

often used in

is

future time

means finished or completed.


Each tense (present, past, and

tenses.

When so

used,

future) has a perfect tense

finished tense.

In this sentence, "

Boston

is

finished

have been

now

at

in

Boston a month,'' the being in


This is called the Present-

present.

Perfect Tense.

In this sentence, "I had been in Boston before you saw me,"
the being in Boston was completed

This

is

when you saw me

past time.

called the Past-Perfect Tense.

In this sentence, "

mas," the being

Christmas

in

future

shall

Boston
time.

is

have been in Boston before next Christnot finished yet, but will be before next

This

is

called the Future- Perfect Tettse.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

112

Present-Perfect Tense

The

5.

expresses action or

being as completed at the present time.

The

sign of the present-perfect tense

The

6.

have or has.

Past-Perfect Tense expresses action or being

as completed at

The

is

some past

sign of this tense

time.

had.

is

The Future-Perfect Tense expresses

7.

ing as completed at

The sign
You now
present,

of this tense

and

future),

action or be-

time.

shall have or will have.

is

see that there are six tenses

Name

8.

some future

and three

three simple tenses (past,

perfect tenses.

the tense of each of these verbs

walks, has walked, walked, had walked, shall walk, shall

have walked is torn, shall be torn, have been torn,


has been torn, had been torn, shall have been torn
shall write, will write, has written, have written, had
;

written

he sees, he shall have seen, he has seen.

LESSON XXXIV
REVIEW
All the verbs given in the last lesson are in the indicative mode,

which

As

the only

is

mode that has the six tenses.


mode is used in expressing

the imperative

and as

entreaty,

present,

it

either

of these can be

follows that the imperative

command

or

expressed only in the

mode

has but one tense

the present.

The
and
of

mode has only the present, present-perfect, past,


The sign of the present is inay^ candor fniist;
present-perfect, may have., can have., or must have ; of

potential

past-perfect.

the

the past,
have.,

mi'irhl,

could^ wojdd^ or should; of the past-perfect, might

could have., would have, or should have.

In the potential

mode

Thus,
of the tense does not always indicate the time.
might go is called past tense, but the time is either present or future.
the

name

REVIEW
1.

All of the following verbs are in the potential

Name

mode.

may

the tense of each one

walk, can walk, must walk,

may have walked, must

have walked, might walk, could walk, would walk, should


walk, might have walked, could have walked, would have
walked, should have walked might be struck, may strike,
;

should have struck

can

must have seen, would


2.

could be seen, could see,

see,

see.

Write two sentences having the verb


1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

in

indicative present.
indicative present-perfect.
indicative past.

indicative past-perfect.
indicative future.

indicative future-perfect.

imperative present.
potential present.
potential present-perfect.

potential past.
potential past-perfect.

LESSON XXXV
PERSON AND NUMBER OF VERBS.
1.

verb

may

vary

of its subject; as,

number

of

its

its

go,

subject;

THE INFINITIVE

form according

lie

goes

to the persoti

or according

as, Jie writes,

to the

they write.

Since verbs change their form according to the person and


number of the subject, they are said to have the same person and

number
2.

as the subject.

verb must agree with

number,
hoenshel's

e:ng.

gram.

its

subject in person and

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

114
3.

Notice these sentences


1.

2.

The boy runs.


The boys run.

The verb runs is singular, because its subject is singular.


The verb 7'im is plural, because its subject is plural.
You will notice that while nouns ending in s are generally

plural

verbs ending in s are singular.


4.

The

modifications of the verb are voice, mode,

tense, person,

Notice these phrases

5.

1.

2.

What
6.

and number.

To
To

Boston.
write.

part of speech

The form

is

Boston f

What

part of speech

of the verb used with to

is

is

write

called the

Infinitive.

Each of the following phrases

is

an

infinitive

have

to write, to

written, to be written, to have been written.

each containing an

7.

Write

8.

Write two sentences, each containing a verb in

six sentences,

infinitive.

the
1.

First person, singular.

2.

Third person, singular.

3.

First person, plural.

4.
5.

9.

10.

Second person, plural.


Third person, plural.

Write four different

The

following

Class according to

is

infinitives of the

verb

love.

the order for parsing a verb

form (regular or

irregular),

according to meaning (transitive or intransitive)

class

voice

PARSING
mode, tense

IIS

person and number to agree with

its

subject.

EXAMPLES
Franklin invented the lightning rod.
Invejited

a verb

is

regular,

transitive

active voice, indicative

mode, past tense third person, singular number,


subject, Franklin.
;

The

Has

fox has not been seen.

been seen

indicative

is

a verb

irregular,

mode, present-perfect tense

ber, to agree with its subject,

11.

to agree with its

Remember

transitive

passive

third person, singular

voice,

num-

/27.i'.

that all verbs in the passive voice are

transitive.
12.

The

following

Class

as to
fortn

invented
has been
seen

is

model

for written parsing:

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Il6

10.

Bunyan wrote the " Pilgrim's Progress."


The pitcher has been broken.
The architect has built an iron bridge.

1 1

The

12.

When

13.

Have you been

8.

9.

was recovered.
you go?

stolen watch
will

waiting Ion

r?

14.

Does the earth revolve round the sun

15.

The

16.

sailor has visited nearly all the principal cities of

the world.

2.

shall

have visited London by next Fourth of July.

Diagram the preceding sentences.

LESSON XXXVII
REVIEW

Name

the

subject,

predicate,

and object

of

these

sentences, and parse the verbs


1.

2.
3.

5.

Our guide had never visited the cave.


The guest was admitted into the parlor.

6.

He

4.
.

The people of England speak the English language.


Come to the violet's shady nook.
The frightened animal sought the open country.

shrugged his shoulders, shook his head, but said

nothing.
7.

Rainy weather and muddy roads prevented further


progress.

8.

9.

The warm sun will soon melt the ice and snow.
The messenger might have come sooner.

10.

We

11.

should seek the truth.

12.

may have seen him once before.


Many can bear adversity, but few can bear contempt.

13.

Numbers

14.

"

15.

Sorrow cannot continue always.


Many excellent opportunities were

16.

are expressed

by ten Arabic characters.

can't get out," said the starling.

lost.

SHALL, WILL, MAY, CAN, TEACH, LEARN

117

LESSON XXXVIII
SHALL, WILL, MAY, CAN, TEACH,
1.

LEARN

Notice the use of shall, will, can, may, teach, and

learn, in these sentences


1.

Are you going

to

picnic

the

shall

go

if

it

does

not rain.
2.

think you ought not to go.

will

go

you

shall not

prevent me.

Can

May

5.

Remark.

2.

and

Many
Think

correctly.

make

go ? You probably have the power.


go ? You may.
Will you teach me how to solve this problem
you will try to learn.

3.

4.

Yes,

if

persons habitually use the above words inmeaning, and you will not often

carefully of their

a mistake in their use.

Use each

of the

leant, correctly in

You have

words

shall, will, can,

already learned that a verb agrees with

person and number.

may,

teach,

two sentences.
its

subject in

make mistakes

Careless persons often

use of the verb because they do not think of the right

word

in the

as the

subject.
3.

You

Examine these sentences.

will find that the

verbs agree with their subjects, although at

they

may seem

to disagree

1.

On

2.

One

3.

Down come

4.

Every one of the

what

tree

do these apples grow

of the boys

is

playing

rock-a-by baby and


girls

5.

Neither of the sick

6.

On

7.

ball.
all.

has her lesson.

men

is

better.

the table are a peach and an apple.

sack of large red apples

is

in the cellar.

first

sight

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Il8
4.

Write seven sentences somewhat similar to the

seven just given, and be sure that the verb agrees with
its

subject.

LESSON XXXIX
WRITTEN REVIEW
Write answers to the following questions, and arrange
your answers so as to form an essay on The Verb

What
What
What
perative

a verb?

is

sitive verb

An

is

voice?

mode?

is

An

regular verb?

irregular verb?

tran-

intransitive verb?

The active voice? The passive voice?


The indicative? The potential? The

im-

What

is

Define the present tense

tense?

the present-perfect

the past-perfect

the past

the future

Give an

the future-perfect.

example of each tense.


What person and number do verbs have?
Hov^r many and what participles have you learned to give to each
verb ? How is the present participle formed ?

What

is

an

infinitive?

LESSON XL
ESSAY
Write an essay,
scribe
it

its

copy

it

words,
in

it

De-

you can about corn.

cultivation, uses, etc.

once, go over

better

telling all

After you have written

carefully, correcting errors, selecting

and improving

your sentences.

your best penmanship.

Remember

Then

that

you

THE ADVERB

II9

cannot learn to use good English except by always

doing your best.

To

the teacher:

Wheat,

and other products may be

cotton,

described in the same way.

LESSON XLI
CLASSES AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
1.

An Adverb

is

word used

to

modify a verb, an

adjective, or an adverb.

Some adverbs answer

the question, where ? as, here, there, yonder.


Adverbs of Place.
Some adverbs answer the question, when ? as, now, yesterday.
These are called Adverbs of Time.
Some adverbs answer the question, how ? or, in what manner ?
as, well, badly.
These are called Adverbs of Manner.
Some adverbs answer the question, how much ? or, to what
degree? as, almost., very, too. These are called Adverbs of Degree.

Such adverbs are

2.

The

called

adverbs,

principal classes of

their meaning, are

Adverbs

of Place,

according

Adverbs

to

of Time,

Adverbs of Manner, and Adverbs of Degree.


3.

Examine these sentences


1.

2.

3.

4.

Henry came soon.


John came sooner than Henry.
Robert came soonest of all.

Some

adverbs, like adjectives, have three degrees

of comparison.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I20
5.

Compare

these adverbs

continually,

wisely,

mostly, calmly,

so,

rapidly,

partly,

always, very, too, perfectly, never, surely.

6.

An adverb of the positive degree.


An adverb of the comparative degree.
An adverb of the superlative degree.

1.

2.
3.

7.

Use each

what word
that

Write two sentences, each containing

of these adverbs in a sentence,

modifies and what meaning

it

it

and
adds

tell

to

word
occasionally,

continually, where,

hither,

ashore, yonder,

whither.

LESSON XLII
REVIEW
1.

Write two sentences, each containing


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

2.

An adverb of place.
An adverb of time.
An adverb of manner.
An adverb of degree.
An adverb modifying a verb.
An adverb modifying an adjective.
An adverb modifying an adverb

Some words

adjectives
1.

are sometimes adverbs and sometimes

as

This train travels /^j/.

2.

It is

3.

He

2ifast train.

returned

late.

5.

have read the late paper.


This is a long lesson.

6.

Why

4.

did you remain so longi

PARSING
3.

Find two words (not given

are sometimes adjectives

121

paragraph 2) that

in

and sometimes adverbs.

Use

the words in sentences.


4.

Adjectives should not be used instead of adverbs.

Notice these sentences

3.

4.

men can be

Really (not real^ honest

1.

2.

found.

Did you sleep well {no\. good) ?


Almost (not tnosf) every boy was running.
The day was remarkably (not remarkable)

Really^

Remark.

almost,

well,

while real, good, most, and remarkable

LESSON

pleasant.

and remarkably are adverbs,

may be

adjectives.

XLIII

PARSING
1.

The

following

Class, degree
it

(if

is

the order of parsing an adverb:

compared), compare

it,

name

the word

modifies.

EXAMPLES

He
Here

is

lives here.

an adverb of

The
Well

is

place,

and modifies

lives.

clerk writes very well.

an adverb of manner, positive degree (compared 'tvell^


modifies writes.
Very is an adverb of degree, and

better, best),

modifies well.
2.

Parse the adverbs in these sentences


morning somewhere

1.

'Tis always

2.

3.

God
The

4.

Great scholars do not often become poets.

is

in the world.

everywhere.

inhabitants of

some

islands are very savagG.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

122

7.

The victory was fairly won.


The princess was extremely beautiful.
They were agreeably disappointed.

8.

Indolent pupils will not study hard.

5.

6.

9.

3.

How

well she can play

people are continually changing their minds.


very old house stands by the side of the road.

10.

Some

11.

12.

The

13.

How

train

came around the curve very


come

fast the flitting figures

Diagram the sentences

in

rapidly.

paragraph

2.

LESSON XLIV
THE PREPOSITION
1.

its

preposition

object to
2.

some

is

word that shows the

relation of

other word in the sentence.

preposition with

its

object

is

called a Preposi-

tional Phrase.
3.

When

a phrase modifies a noun or pronoun,

an Adjective Phrase;

but

adjective, or an adverb,
4.

Many

man

1.

He

The messenger came

a wealthy

Change these

tional phrases,

it

an Advei^b Phrase.

meaning

2.

is

is

and adverbs can be expanded

adjectives

into phrases of a similar

5.

when

it is

it

modifies a verb, an

(a

man

as,

of wealth).

speedily (with speed).

adjectives

and adverbs

and use each phrase

to preposi-

in a sentence

carefully

kindly

brave

courageously

talented

educated

strong

boldly

REVIEW

Sometimes two or more words are combined and

6.

used as one preposition


to,

may be

In parsing, these

Use each

7.

above

of the

as,

over against, by means

8.

123

out

of,

from

over, in regard

of.

Compound Prepositions.

called

compound

prepositions mentioned

in a sentence.

Write three sentences, each containing


1

2.

An
An

adjective phrase.

adverb phrase.

LESSON XLV
REVIEW
1.

Add

tences

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

The bird sang to its mate.


The water turned the wheel.
The bells began to ring.

A
A

nest was found in the

meadow.

deer was shot.

7.

The leader was


Corn grows.

8.

Cotton

6.

2.

one or more phrases to each of these sen-

is

killed.

produced.

Change each

of the

words printed

in itaHcs to a

phrase

2.

The daily tasks are ended.


joyous and
The lark sang

3.

All children like picture books.

1.

xX.'s,

4.

He

5.

Study

returned hastily.
diligently.

blissful songs.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

124

The word

3.

sometimes

it

there

is

not always an adverb of place

merely introduces a sentence and has no

connection with

it.

In such cases

it

may be

called an

expletive^ or an introductory word.

There is an end to all things.


There he stands. (Adverb.)

1.

2.

(Introductory.)

Do

not

4.

Write three sentences introduced by

5.

Write three sentences containing there an adverb

call there

the subject in such sentences.

there,

of place.
6.

Write a sentence containing

7.

Use

all in
8.

their.

there, introductory, tJiere,

an adverb, and their

one sentence.
Fill these

blanks with

There
There
There
There
There
There

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

is

or are

flowers in the garden.

many people

there.

an apple and a peach in the basket.


no one at home.
apples on the trees.

no signs of spring.

LESSON XLVI
THE CONJUNCTION AND THE INTERJECTION
You have
junctions.

already learned that connecting words are called con-

Nearly

all

the conjunctions used thus far in this book

have connected simple words


adjectives.

as,

two nouns, two verbs, or two

THE CONJUNCTION AND THE INTERJECTION


1.

Examine these sentences


1.

He

2.

The Dead Sea

sailed

125

on the sea and on the ocean.


is salt, but Lake Superior

is fresh.

In the first sentence the conjunction and connects the two phrases,
on the sea and on the ocean. In the second sentence there are two
A subject
assertions, or two subjects, each with its own predicate.
and predicate used as a part of a sentence are called a clause.

2.

Conjunction

is

word used

to

connect words,

phrases, and clauses.


3.

Write two sentences, each having a conjunction

connecting

Two words.
Two phrases.
Two clauses.

1.

2.
3.

4.

In Interjection

is

word used

to denote

strong

feeling or emotion.
Interjections are

5.

sometimes called Exclamations.

Write sentences, using the following words as

interjections

hush, alas, ah, hurrah, oh, well, hark, ha.

Be
6.

careful to use the proper punctuation

We

mark

after interjections.

have now learned that the words we use

in

speaking and writing are divided into Nouns, Pronouns,


Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions,

and
7.

Interjections.

Try

These are

called Parts of Speech.

to use all the parts of

speech in one sentence.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

126

LESSON XLVII
ANALYSIS AND PARSING

The

1.

tions

In

following

the method for parsing preposi-

is

and conjunctions
1.
He lives in Paris.
:

a preposition, showing the relation of Paris to lives.

is

We

2.

Ajid

went

to Paris

and

Berlin.

a conjunction, connecting Paris and Berlin.

is

2.

3.

Analyzing a sentence

simple sentence makes but one assertion.

ject, predicate,

and

object,

is

naming

its

class

and the modifiers

sub-

its

of each.

analysis,
It is important to have a systematic and logical form of
using no more words than necessary. Example: "The king of

England gave many

castles

to his faithful followers."

simple, declarative sentence, of which ki7ig

is

This

is

the subject, modified^

by the adjective the and the adjective phrase of England. Gave is


the predicate, modified by the adverb phrase to his faitJifid followers.
Castles is the object, modified by the adjective tnany.
will be observed that this method of analysis includes conIt
siderable parsing.

Notice that after naming the subject, you should

predicate,

you

will

4.

naming

before

modifiers

the

When

predicate.

name its modifiers before naming


much needless repetition.

name

all

you name

the object.

By

its

the

so doing,

avoid

Analyze these sentences, and parse

(These sentences are

all

all

the words.

simple.)

men do not keep their promises.


man spoke kindly to the little girl.

1.

Very

2.

4.

The tall
The careless girl plays her scales too rapidly.
The dark clouds came up very suddenly.

5.

She

6.

3.

often

is

will

painting the head of a

be there

in a

minute.

girl.

ANALYSIS AND PARSING

LESSON

127

XLVIII

ANALYSIS AND PARSING


1

beautiful vase

fell

with a crash to the floor.

2.

Behind the clouds the sun

3.

Under a spreading chestnut

is

shining.

the village smithy

tree

stands.
4.
5.
6.

large black dog stood on the steps of the house.


Longfellow wrote several beautiful poems for children.
People have come to America from many different
countries.

7.
8.

Tell was a skillful archer of Switzerland.


The largest body of fresh water in the

world

is

in

America.
9.

many

After

attempts

fruitless

he

abandoned

enterprise.
10.
1 1

A lady's society is a school of politeness.


Bacon's essays contain valuable information

Diagram the preceding eleven sentences.

LESSON XLIX
ANALYSIS AND PARSING
1.

It fell

2.

He

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

through the

air to

the ground.

crossed the plains in a wagon.

The
The

injured

man was

taken from under the ruins.

came from beyond the sea.


Carthage and Rome were rival powers.
The book on the desk is a dictionary.
Each of the workmen is in his place.
You should be polite to everybody.
traveler

Idleness

is

the key of beggary.

Out of the house and up the

street

he ran.

the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

128

He

PART THREE
LESSON

CLASSES OF SENTENCES
1.

A sentence is

2.

According

clarative,
3.

a thought expressed by words.

to use, sentences are divided into

De-

Interrogative, Imperative, and Exclamatory.

Declarative Sentence

is

one used

in

making a

statement.
4.

An

Interrogative Sentence

is

one used in asking

a question.
5.

An

Imperative Sentence

one used in making

is

command.
6.

An

Exclamatory Sentence

is

one used

in

an ex-

clamation, or in expressing strong feeling or emotion


as

What

2.

How

a piece of work
beautiful

is

is

man

the setting sun!

7.

Write three exclamatory sentences.

8.

subject combined v^ith

called a Proposition.
130

its

predicate

is

often

CLASSES OF SENTENCES
According

9.

fgrm^ sentences are divided

to their

Complex, and Compound.

into Simple,
10.

13

Simple Sentence contains but one proposition

as
1.

2.
3.

Mary reads.
Mary and Lucy read.
Mary reads and writes.

In the second sentence there

has two subjects.

only one proposition, but the verb

is

Such a subject

called a

is

Compound

Subject.

In the third sentence there

is

only one proposition, but the sub-

This

is

called a Co)npou7id Predicate.

ject has

Of

two predicates.
there

course

predicate, or

11.

subjects for the

for the

more than two predicates

same

1.

3.

A compound subject.
A compound predicate.
A compound subject and
proposition

compound

used as part of

same

subject.

Write two simple sentences, each having

2.

12.

may be more than two

predicate.

sentence

is

called a Clause.
13.

Examine
Henry

'

is,

this

sentence

learns, because he studies.

The first
In this sentence there are two propositions or clauses.
learns ; and the second is, because he studies. Because he

Henry

studies modifies learns

it tells

why he

learns.

Because

this clause

used as a modifier and depends on some other word {learns), it is


Henry learns is called
called a Dependent or Subordinate Clause.

is

the Independent or Principal Clause.


14.

An

Independent Clause

is

one not dependent on

any word, and contains the principal proposition.


15.

Dependent Clause

is

one that modifies some

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

132

word or words

independent clause, and contains

in the

the subordinate proposition.

i6.

Complex Sentence

one containing an inde-

is

pendent clause and one or more dependent clauses.


Write a complex sentence, connecting the two

17.

t^lauses

by

when, where, while,

Name

18.

if,

unless, although, after.

the independent and the dependent clause

of each sentence you have just written.

LESSON

IT

THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE


You have

1.

is

already learned that a relative pronoun

By examining

a connective.

these sentences you will

observe that the relative pronoun

is

found

in the de-

pendent clause of a complex sentence, and


cedent

is

found

in the

The boy who gained


This

3.

The house

The independent
This

is

the book,

the prize

the book that


in

which

clauses are,

and The house

is

praised by his teacher.

want.

live is built of stone.

The boy
is built

clauses are,

who f^ained the prize,

that

Relative Pronoun

is

2.

ante-

independent clause

2.

is

its

is

of

praised by his teacher,


The dependent

stojie.

I watit, and

in

which I

live.

one that relates to some

preceding word or words, and connects clauses.

CLAUSES
Remember

that a relative

pronoun

133
always in the dependent

is

clause of a complex sentence.

3.

dependent clause may modify a noun or pro-

noun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb, or

used as the subject or object of a sentence

According

4.

to use, a

An

therefore

dependent clause may be an

Noim

Adjective Clause, an Adverb Clause, or a


5.

may be

it

Adjective Clause

one used

is

to

Clause.

modify a

noun or pronoun.

Name

6.

tences,

the adjective clause in each of these sen-

and parse the

relative

pronouns

6.

The man who cannot govern himself is a slave.


The ship that left the harbor never returned.
The fur which warms a monarch once warmed a bear.
Beauty is the mark that God sets on virtue.
The fish that we caught was a trout.
The lady whose house we occupy gives much to the

7.

Whom

8.

Savages,

9.

He who

1.

2.

3.

4.
5

needy.

ye ignorantly worship,

who have no

Him

declare

settled abode,

unto you.

wander from place

to place.

governs himself

7.

Analyze each

8.

The

off

is

a hero.

of the preceding sentences.

adjective clause,

when not

restrictive,* is set

by a comma.

An

adjective

clause containing

the

relative

that

is

generally

restrictive.

9.

Write four complex sentences, each having an

adjective clause.
* Restrictive clauses will

be explained on page 249.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

134
10.

Notice these diagrams


The man who cannot govern himself is
I.
man
is = slave.
:

a slave.

The

who

can govern
I

not
2.

The

lady whose house


gives

lady
I

we occupy

himself
gives

money

to the poor,

THE ADVERB CLAUSE


If

5.

it

does not rain soon, the farmers

135
will

not raise

much

corn.

He

7.

lives where it never rains.


Napoleon was defeated because Grouchy was behind

8.

Webster died before the

9.

He

6.

time.

walks as

War

Civil

began.

do.

In the third sentence, the adverb clause denotes concession


the

fifth it

3.

in

denotes condition.

An

is

set off

word

it

modifies

closely follows the


1.

by a comma, unless

adverb clause

When Bunyan

as

it

wrote the "Pilgrim's Progress," he was

in prison.
2.

Bunyan was

in prison

when he wrote

the " Pilgrim's

Progress."
4.

Write two complex sentences, each containing

an adverb clause of time.


5.

Write one sentence containing an adverb clause

of manner.
6.

Write two sentences, each containing an adverb

clause of place.
7.

Write two sentences, each containing an adverb

clause of cause or reason.


8.

Write two sentences, one having an adverb clause

of condition
9.

and the other a clause of concession.

Notice these diagrams


farmers

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

136

In a complex sentence, the simple conjunction

is

placed on a

dotted line connecting the predicate of the subordinate clause and


the word in the principal clause modified by the subordinate clause.
2.

shall

go

time
the

being a connective, wJufi

Besides

adverb), modifying comes


is

therefore,

when

it

an

is
is

adverb

(conjunctive

written under cojnes, and

connected by a dotted line to the word modified by the subordi-

nate clause.

LESSON IV
ANALYSIS
Notice the analysis of the following sentence:

1.

The man

that

fell

overboard was drowned before the boat

reached him.

This
is

is

a complex, declarative sentence

man

the independent clause, of which

is

the 7nan

was drowned

the subject, modified by

an adjective, also by that fell overboard^ a dependent, adjective


which that is the subject,/^// is the predicate, modified by
overboard^ an adverb of place was drowfied is the predicate of the
independent clause, modified by before the boat reached him, a
dependent, adverb clause of time, of which boat is the subject, modi-

the^

clause, of

fied

by

object
2.

the,

an adjective, reached

is

him
was drowned.

the predicate, and

before connects the adverb clause to

Analyze these sentences according

is

the

to the preced-

ing model
1.

Men

that are old

and wise should be consulted by the

young.
2.

The

criminal fled from the country

broken.

whose laws he had

THE NOUN CLAUSE


Maize, which

3.

137

another name for Indian corn, grows in

is

America.

am

4.

not solitary while

though nobody

read,

is

with me.
will go.

5.

Whither thou

6.

Confidence cannot dwell where selfishness

goest,

porter at

is

the gate.

Measure your mind's height by the shadow it casts.


sentence the connective is a relative pronoun understood,

7.

In this

which

is

the object of casts.

One who

8.

is

contented with his present attainments

will

never become famous.


9.

10.

The house where we live is very old.


By the banks of "bonny Doon " stands

the cottage in

which Robert Burns was born.


3.

Diagram the sentences

in

paragraph

2.

LESSON V
THE NOUN CLAUSE
I.

Noun
1.

Clause

one used as a noun

is

That Columbus discovered America,

is

as

a historic

fact.

In this sentence, the dependent clause, That Columbus discovered


clause
Ajnerica, is the subject of the verb is. Therefore it is a noun
The entire sentence is the independent
in the nominative case.
when the dependent clause is the subject, object, or part of
clause

the predicate.
2.

The

Bible says that

God gave Moses

the

Ten Com-

mandments.
In this sentence, that
is

God gave Moses

the object of the verb says.

case.
3.

Here the

The

question

clause.

How

is,

"

How

can we go

the

Ten Commandme7its

a noun clause in the objective

It is

.
"
can we go?

is

used in predicate with the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

138
is,

fore

it is

2.

There-

and means the same thing as the subject question.


a noun clause in the nominative case.

verb

these sentences, pick

In each of

clause, and name

its

case

out the noun

1.

We learn

2.

men are created equal.


The general belief is, that

from the Declaration of Independence that


the

all

Northmen discovered

America.
3.
4.
5.

6.

That Hannibal was a brave general, is disputed by few.


A rolling stone gathers no moss,'' says an old proverb.
The Sadducees beHeved that there is no resurrection.
The prisoner's answer was, " I am not guilty."
"

noun clause used in the predicate (attribute


complement) is usually set off by a comma as
3.

Our
4.

3.

5.

6.

is,

that the prisoner

is

not guilty.

Write three complex sentences, each having

2.

name

decision

A
A
A

noun clause
noun clause
noun clause

for the subject.


in the predicate.

for the object.

Analyze the sentences you have


the case of each noun clause.
Notice these diagrams
I.

just written,

and

That the earth was once a molten mass,

is

taught by

scientists.

That
earth

the

was

":

m ass
molten

once
is

taught
cr
"^

scientists.

That is a conjunction, used as an introductory word, and is


a dotted
placed above the predicate, with which it is connected by
line.

"

ANALYSIS
Where am

His cry was, "

2.

I ?

39
"

am

I
I

where
cry

His

The speaker said, "The Cubans

3.

are fighting the Span-

iards."

Cubans

are fighting

^l^g

speaker

Spaniard^
the

said

The

LESSON

VI

ANALYSIS
I.

Analyze these sentences


He asked, " What will the
:

next lesson be?

understanding,"
that borrows the aid of an equal
is an adjec{Oivn
"
own."
his
doubles
said Burke,

2.

"He

3.

tive.)

4.

"

knew that it was he.


Where are all the good buried?

"

inquired Lamb.
correct.

6.

Our conclusion is, that the statement is not


That the world moves, was believed by Galileo.

7.

The

5.

glitters
sentence for correction was, "All that

gold."

9.
is

an adverb of reason, modifying inverted.

give the reason, but asks for


10.

2.

not

would write
His statement was, "I wish that my friend
a book."
The teacher asked why I inverted the divisor.

8.

Why

is

" Here," said

It

it.

Tom,

"

Diagram the preceding

found them yesterday."

ten sentences.

does not

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

140

LESSON

VII

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE


Examine

1.

Mary

sentence

this

reads and Lucy recites.

In this sentence there are two clauses, but neither one


fier

is

a modi-

both are independent.

2.

Compound Sentence

more independent
The

is

one that contains two or

clauses.

connective between the clauses of a

compound sentence

is

usually a7id^ but, or, nor, etc.


3.

Write a compound sentence, connecting the two

clauses

by

and,

or, but, nor.

Write a simple, a complex, and a compound sentence with each of these words
4.

engine, soldier, farmer, rain, clouds.


5.

Notice this diagram

Lincoln was President and Hamlin was Vice-President.

Lincoln

Hamlin

was

President

was

Vice-President.

The conjunction (coordinate conjunction) connecting the


compound sentence is written on a double-dotted line.

clauses

of a

6.

Analyze these sentences, then diagram them


1.

The army must

gain a victory, or our cause

will

be

ruined.
2.

3.

was administered under the shade of a forest


and the jury sat upon a log.
Prosperity makes friends, but adversity tries them.

Justice

tree,

PHRASES

LESSON

141

VIII

CLASSES OF PHRASES

1.

phrase

is

a group of words properly combined,

but not having a subject and predicate.

With respect

2.

and

Infinitive,

3.

to form, phrases are Prepositional,

Participial.

Prepositional Phrase

is

one whose

first

word

is

a preposition.

4.

Participial Phrase is

one whose

first

word

is

participle.
In poetry, the preposition or the participle may not be the first
of the phrase, but it will be the first when the words are arranged

word

in their natural order.

An

5.

Infinitive

Phrase

is

one introduced by an

in-

finitive.

With respect

6.

to use, phrases are Adjective,

Ad-

verb, and Noun.


7.

An

8.

An Adverb

9.

A Noun

Adjective Phrase

Phrase

Phrase

is

is

is

one used as an adjective.

one used as an adverb.

one used as a noun.

Usually only phrases introduced by a preposition,

an

infinitive,

mar, but
trees

or a participle, are called phrases in gram-

many

other expressions are phrases;

an old man, must

go.

as, tall

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

142
10.

Classify the phrases in these sentences with re-

spect to form and use


1.

been conquered, was sent

having

Napoleon,

to

St.

Helena.
2.

stack of wheat standing on the

hill

was struck by

lightning,
3.

11.

5.

6.

To meet

7.

The

prize

lady wished to learn to sing.


truth

is

our duty.

difficulties

bravely

was given

is

to

conquer them.
boy in the room.

to the smallest

Write two sentences, each having


1.

2.

5.

6.

infinitive phrase.

adjective phrase.

adverb phrase.

noun phrase.

Notice these diagrams


I.

A prepositional phrase.
A participial phrase.
An
An
An

3.

4.

12.

Franklin was sent to France to ask aid for the colonies.

The young
To tell the

4.

That lady wished

to learn to sing.
I

to sing.

THE NOUN

143

LESSON IX
ANALYSIS
Analyze these sentences, then diagram them
If
I

3.

spring has no blossoms, autumn will have no

1.

2.

fruit.

love to lose myself in other men's minds.

pronoun
it

sometimes followed by the noun

is

to

which

refers.

4.

When

5.

We

anger

rises,

think of the consequences.

should endeavor to secure the friendship of that

Being who holds

his

in

hands the

reins

of the

universe.
6.

He was

7.

We
The
The

8.
9.

anxious to go, but his friends restrained him.

know

not

when he

general opinion

is,

departed.
that exercise promotes health.

time, so long expected, finally arrived.

10.

Having

11.

Plants

12.

We go

carefully read the letter,

live,

grow, and die

he

laid

it

away.

but they do not

feel.

to school to learn.

LESSON X
THE NOUN
1.

2.

A
A

Noun

the

is

Proper

name

Noun

of anything.

name

the

is

of a particular per-

son, place, or thing.


3.

A Common

Noun

is

a general name, and can be

applied to any one of a class.


4.

of objects

Collective
;

Noun

is

name

applied to a group

as, herd^fafnily^ school, etc.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

144

An

5.

of a substance

6.

Noun

Abstract
;

Material

A Verbal

of a quality, not

as, love, hate.forgetftilness, etc.

Noun

matter or substance;
7.

name

the

is

as,

Noun

the

is

name

of

some kind

of

bread, meat, metal, flour.

is

one derived from a verb

as,

reading, ivalking, etc.


Verbal nouns are sometimes called Participial Nouns.

8.

Diminutive

Noun

is

one derived from another

noun, and expresses an object of the same kind but


smaller

as, leaflet,

Collective, abstract,
all

common

Jiillock.

material, verbal,

and diminutive nouns are

nouns.

The

9.

duckling,

modifications

of

nouns and pronouns are

Gender, Person, Number, and Case.

Gender

10.

is

a distinction of nouns and pronouns in

regard to sex.
11.

The Masculine Gender denotes

the

names

of

The Feminine Gender denotes

the

names

of

males.
12.

females.

The Common Gender denotes

13.

the

names

of either

males or females, or both.

The Neuter Gender

14.

denotes the names of neither

males nor females.


By

a figure of speech called Personification, neuter objects are

sometimes regarded as either masculine or feminine. Thus, the


sun, ti?jzey death, war, etc., are usually considered as masculine;

and the

earth, the 7noon, virtue, a ship, night, etc., are generally

considered as feminine.

Names

of objects conveying the idea of

GENDER

145

grandeur zre in the masculine when personified;


and names of objects conveying the idea of beauty or weaktiess are
" The sun shines in his splendor, and the moon displays
feminine.

strength, Power, or

her silvery light."

Sometimes, when the personification is strongly marked,


name of the personified object should begin with a capital
"Come, O gentle Spring! with all thy beauty."
15.

The
1

2.

gender' of nouns

By
By

different

words

different

is

indicated in three

as, boy,

terminations

the
;

as,

ways

girl; kmg, queen.


;

as,

emperor,

empress

exeaitor, executrix.
3.

By

different

prefixes

or affixes;

as he-goat, she-goat;

landlord, landlady.

16.

Study the masculine and feminine forms

nouns, and notice the formation of each


Masculine

of these

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

146

LESSON XT
PERSON AND NUMBER
Person

1.

that

is

modification

of

nouns and

pro-

nouns which denotes the speaker, the person spoken


or the person spoken

to,

2.

The

3.

The Second Person denotes

4.

The Third Person denotes

I,

First Person denotes the speaker.

the person spoken

the person spoken

to.

of.

is not often found in the first person, and when it is, it is


connection with a pronoun that stands for the speaker as,
" We, the meanders, of the Crescent
John, saw the Holy City."

A
used
"

of.

noun

in

Literary Society.
5.

Number

by which

it

that modification of a

is

noun

or

pronoun

denotes one or more than one.

6.

The Singular Number denotes but

7.

The

Plural

8.

The

plural

Number
is

one.

denotes more than one.

usually formed by adding s to the

singular.
9.

Nouns ending

plural
10.

by adding

to

s,

s/i,

ch, x,

and ^ form the

es to the singular.

Nouns ending

change y

in

in

and add

preceded by a consonant

Nouns ending

es.

ceded by a vowel simply add

s.

in

pre-

NUMBER
The

11.

plural

following nouns ending in

by adding
brief,

147

chief,

or fe form the

s
fife,

grief,

gulf,

hoof, handkerchief, mischief,

proof, reef, reproof, roof, safe, scarf, strife, surf, turf;

and

those ending in ff.

Other nouns ending

12.

add

in

f ox fe change /to

es.

13.

Write the plural of these nouns


daisy

v and

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

148

Some nouns

18.

are always singular

gold, silver, wheat, corn, molasses, logic.

Some nouns may be used


meant
19.

The

singular in

when

different kinds are

following are plural in form, but are always

meaning
mathematics, ethics, politics

news, gallows,

words ending
20.

in the plural

as, suga?^Sy coffees, cottons.

Some nouns

in ics.

Athletics

are alike in both

and other

usually plural.

is

numbers

deer, pair, sheep, trout, cannon, swine, grouse, series, species, corps.

21.

Write the plural of these nouns


man, goose, inch,

treaty, pulley, quarto, pufF, ox, species,

deer, half, party, safe, bunch, toy.

22.

Write the singular of these nouns


mice, children, ladies, lunches, series, tomatoes, cattle.

LESSON

XII

CASE
1.

Case

which shows
2.

is

their relation to other words.

A noun or pronoun used as the

sition is in the
3.

that modification of nouns and pronouns

noun or pronoun used

intransitive verb
1

2.

subject of a propo-

Nominative Case.

is

in the

in the predicate

Nominative Case

Napoleon was emperor of France.


Washington became president.

as

with an

CASE

When

a noun

passive voice,

in the

verb

Nominative Case; as

Architecture has been called frozen music.

2.

He was

4.

in the predicate with a

is

it is

149

elected captain.

noun used

as the

name

of a person or thing

addressed, or used independently,*

is

Case; as

in the

1.

Carlo come here.

2.

Solomon, a wise

in the

Nominative

man was

he!

Notice the punctuation of the above sentences.

5.

noun or pronoun used as the object

preposition

A
ing a

word may be
7ioise, I

Here
6.

in the objective case after a participle

Nouns denoting

" Hear-

weight, measure, value, distance,

The mountain

2.

This

is

Case without a govern-

three miles high.

man weighs two hundred /^2^/aJf.

Good butter is worth thirty cents ?i pound.


This plant has grown two inches since yesterday.

3.

Tell

as

1.

4.

is

as,

the object of the participle hearing.

time, etc., are in the Objective


;

turned.'"

7ioise is

ing word

of a verb or

in the Objective Case.

is

why each

of the words in

italic in

the preceding sentences

in the objective case.


7.

Examine these sentences


1.

2.

Who
What
*

The

is

wish to go.

wish Henry to go.

to

is

go

in the first sentence?

the subject of the

different varieties of

on page 240.

first

In the second sentence?

sentence?

Of

the second?

independent constructions

will

be explained

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ISO
In the

first

sentence,

/,

the subject of the sentence,

the subject of the infinitive to go, and


8.

A noun

finitive

Henry

is

in the objective case.

or pronoun used as the subject of an in-

in the

is

is

also the

is

In the second sentence,

subject of the infinitive to go.

Objective Case,

unless

it

is

also the

subject of the proposition.*


9.

Name

the case of each of the subjects of these

infinitives.

The father wishes his son to study grammar.


The son does not wish to study grammar.
The traveler planned to go to Africa.
The showman wanted his lion to be tamed.

1.

2.

3.

4.

10.

When

subject,

him

to

it

an intransitive

may

has an objective

infinitive

have an Objective Attribute; as,

want

be a teacher.

Here teacher

is

the attribute complement, but

tive case to agree with

It

///;;/.

may

it

is

in the objec-

properly be called Objective

Attribute.

11.

Notice these diagrams


I

Mary, shut the door.

Mary
X

shut
door.

the

A word
2.

used independently is not connected with the sentence.


The mountain is three miles high,

mountain

The

is

- high.
miles
three

When

the subject of the infinitive is a predicate noun,


as, " He is the man to be blamed."

nominative case;

it

is

in the

..

APPOSITION

noun

gramed

as

151

in

the objective case without a governing word

if

it

is

dia-

were the object of a preposition, but nothing

As no preposition

written on the preposition Hne.

is

is

understood,

no cross should be used.


3.

wish Henry to be a merchant.

Henry
I

wish

\^

LESSON

to

be

merchant.

XIII

APPOSITION
1.

Write two sentences, each having a word

in the

nominative case

2.

noun

1.

In predicate with a passive verb.

2.

Used independently.

Write two sentences, each having a noun or proin the objective case

Object of a participle.

4.

Object of an infinitive.
Without a governing word.
Subject of an infinitive.

5.

Objective attribute.

2.

3.

3.

is

Examine these sentences

is an industrious boy.
saw Henry, the bootblack.

Henry, the bootblack,

2.

Does bootblack refer to the same person


word bootblack in these sentences?

as

Henry ?

Of what

use

the
4.

or

noun

pronoun

as the

is

or

pronoun used

said to be in the

word explained.

to explain

another noun

same case by apposition

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

152

In the first sentence given in paragraph 3, bootblack is in the


nominative case in apposition with Henry, and in the second
sentence it is in the objective case in apposition with Henry.

A noun in apposition is usually set off by a comma.


A noun clause may be in apposition with a word

5.

6.

as,

"

The

doctrine that

held by our fathers."


are created eqital,

is

men are created equal, was


The noun clause, that all men
all

in the nominative case in apposition

with doctrme.
7.

Notice these diagrams


that
I.

men

REVIEW

153

LESSON XIV
REVIEW
Name

the case of each

noun and each noun clause

in

these sentences, then diagram the sentences


1

Think that to-day

shall never

dawn

again.

4.

We remained a week at Saratoga.


We rode three hours through a beautiful
We walked four miles an hour.

5.

Some houses

2.

3.

in

valley.

Chicago are one hundred and

fifty feet

high.
6.

Franklin, the philosopher and statesman, was American

7.

Mr. Roberts, the teacher, gave his book, a grammar, to


Henry, his oldest pupil.
This man desires his son to be a lawyer.
Do you believe that old proverb, " Honesty is the best

minister to France.

8.
9.

policy

""

10.

It is

evident that

my

11.

The

order

is

this

friend

is

right.

" Follow your leader."

LESSON XV
REVIEW
Write two sentences, each having a noun

4.

Nominative
Nominative
Nominative
Nominative

5.

Objective case in apposition with the object.

6.

Objective case without a governing word.

1.

2.
3.

in the

case in predicate.
case in apposition with subject.
case in apposition with predicate noun.
case by direct address.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

154

Write a sentence having a noun clause

2.

with

Nominative case, subject.


Nominative case in apposition with the subject.

1.

2.

3.

in the

3.

Nominative case

4.

Objective case, object of a verb.

5.

Objective case in apposition with a noun.

in the predicate.

Write a sentence containing a word

in apposition

the

Hudson, London, Shakespeare, Europe, William Mc-

Kinley, Victoria.

LESSON XVI
THE POSSESSIVE CASE
1.

The

Case denotes

Possessive

possessor, or

the

owner.
2.

Singular nouns, and plurals not ending in

the possessive by adding the

apostrophe

Plurals ending in s add the apostrophe


3.

nouns

and s*

only.

dog

boy

man

lion

city

foot

fox

child

tooth

ox

pony

mouse

When

the

same thing belongs

common, the possessive


as

form

Write the possessive singular and the possessive

plural of these

4.

(')

(')

s,

sign

is

1.

2.

See

Parker and Wilson's store.


Lucy and Mary's books.

page 241.

to

two or more

added only

in

to the last

THE POSSESSIVE CASE

155

and Wilson's store means that each owns a store. Parand lVilso?i's stores means that each owns more than one store.
Parker and VVilsoiCs stores means that they own more than one
Parker's

ker's

store in partnership.
5.

sign

When
is

two nouns are

added only

object possessed

1.

King Henry's dominions.

2.

Henry, the king's, dominions.

In each of these sentences

the last

word
1.

2.

7.

is

Such complex nouns

lington, etc., use but


;

as

are both

Henry and king

sessive case, but only one sign


6.

one nearest the name of the

to the

as

in apposition, the possessive

in

the pos-

used.

Duke of

as son-in-laiv,

one possessive

sign,

Wel-

and add

it

to

His son-in-law's home.


The Duke of WelHngton's career.

The

following

sentences

are

correct.

all

Give

reasons for the use of the possessive sign


1.

These are neither Luther's nor Lucy's books.

2.

This occurred during neither Lincoln's nor Grant's

ad-

ministration.
3.

Smith, the captain's,

4.

5.

6.
7.

life

was

full

of adventure.

bought this book at Johnson, the bookseller's,


Brown and Green's factory is large.
Bowman's and Haddam's house are large.
Bowman's and Haddam's houses are large.

store.

word house is understood after the word


Bowman's. In the 7th sentence, the word houses is understood after
the word Bow?na7i's.
In the 6th sentence, the

8.

Correct where necessary.


1.

Howard's, the philanthropist's,

life

was spent

viating the sufferings of others.


2.

For the prisoner's sake, his brother's.

3.

He

did

it

at his

mother's request, a kind lady.

in alle-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

156
4.

The Bank

of

England was established

in William's

and

Mary's reign.
5.

This was neither the teacher nor the students'

6.

Whittier's,

the

poet's,

Snow-Bound "

"

is

desire.

much

ad-

mired.
7.

The Queen's

8.

Lewis

&

of England salary

is

large.

was made

Clark's expedition

in 1803.

LESSON XVII
REVIEW
1.

Write three sentences, each containing two or more

nouns denoting
2.

joint ownership.

Write three

sentences, each containing two

or

more nouns denoting separate ownership.


3.

Write a sentence containing the possessive singular

of
father-in-law, king of India,

4.
s

Change these expressions

essive case

The

Duke

thus

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

to the

form of the pos-

signature of the author


1.

of Wellington.

The author's signature.

The sting of the bee.


The stings of the bees.
The house of my friend George.
The domain of Alexander the Great.
The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots.
The home of Mary and Martha (sisters).
The homes of Mary and Martha (not sisters).
The poems of Bryant or Whittier.
The pianos of Root & Cady. (Joint possession.)
The pianos of Steinway and Chickering. (Separate
possession.)

THE PRONOUN
5.

A noun in the possessive

case

is

sometimes used

When

form a part of a complex or compound noun.


used,

should not be parsed separately

it

1.

Harper's Ferry

2.

Bunyan wrote

is

as

57
to

so

town on the Potomac.

" The Pilgrim's Progress:^

LESSON

XVIII

THE PRONOUN
1.

2.

The Antecedent

which
3.

it

son by
4.

Pronoun

5.

Personal Pronoun

is

one that indicates

is

stands.

per-

its

form.

Compound Personal Pronoun

Relative Pronoun

and
is

Compound

Relative

one that

is

of the personal pro-

some forms

to

is

selves for the plural.

one that relates

preceding word or words, and connects


6.

the word for

pronoun

self for the singular

of a noun.

word used instead


a

formed by adding
nouns

of

its

is

Pronoun

formed by adding ever or soever

to

some

clauses.
is

one that

to the relatives

is

who,

which, and what.


7.

What, when a

which,

or the

Relative,

relative, is equivalent to the thing

things

which, and

is

called

a Double

:: :

::

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

158
8.

An

Interrogative Pronoun

one used

is

in

asking

questions.
9.

An

offices of

Adjective Pronoun

one that performs the

is

an adjective and a noun.

Adjective Pronouns are sometimes called Pronominal Adjectives.


10.

11.

may be

Adjective Pronouns

strative Pi'onouns

The Demonstrative Pronouns

Demon-

are

Plural

Singular

12.

divided into

and Indefinite Prononns.

this

these

that

those

The most common

Pronouns are

Indefinite

any, each, either, neither, feiv, many, none,

one,

all,

other,

another, some, several, such.


13.

pronoun must agree with

gender, person, and number, but

by

its office in

14.

To

its

antecedent in

its

case

is

determined

the sentence.

Decline a noun or pronoun

is

various forms to represent the different

to

give

its

numbers and

cases.

DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
^

^
i^

^
^
5;

Nominative

thou

you

Possessive

my, mine*

thy, thine*

your, yours* his, her, hers*

its

Objective

me

thee

you

him, her

it

Nominative

we,

ye

you

they

Possessive

our, ours

your, yours your, yours

us

you

[^

Objective

you

Most authors consider mine, thine, yours, and


For another view, see page 248.

case.

he, she

it

their, theirs

them

hers, in the possessive

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l6o

Parse the pronouns

2.

to the

1.

Where

2.

My

lies

3.

He

4.

It

5.

It

me

to the church,

which stood

at a

distance from the village.

that

is

not with

me

is

against me.

of the

first it

it.

the noun clause that he should

is

it.

was James that we saw.


they who must go.

6.

It

7.

It is

8.

You

9.

Whom

10.

yourself should go.

did you see

may

//

and 7th sentences.


noun of the masculine or

in the 5th, 6th,

refer to a phrase, a clause, or to a

feminine, singular or plural, for


3.

Take what you want.

Notice the idiomatic uses of


It

93.

was a dreary road.


is strange that he should do

The antecedent

according

the land to which the ship would go

ramble soon led

little

do

in these sentences,

model found on page

antecedent.

its

Diagram the sentences

in

paragraph

2.

LESSON XX
REVIEW
1.

Write a sentence having for


1.

2.

3.
4.

2.

A
A

An
An

personal pronoun,

1.

3.

subject

first,

masculine.

interrogative pronoun.
adjective pronoun.

Write a sentence containing


2.

its

personal pronoun, second, feminine.

A compound personal pronoun, first person.


A compound personal pronoun, second person.
A compound personal pronoun, masculine.

CHOICE OK PRONOUNS
4.

compound personal pronoun,

l6l
masculine,

singular,

nominative.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

A compound personal pronoun, plural, nominative.


A relative pronoun, nominative.
A relative pronoun, object of a verb.
A relative pronoun, object of a preposition.
A relative pronoun, possessive case.
A compound relative.
A double relative.

LESSON XXI
CHOICE OF PRONOUNS
1.

Of the

relative pronouns, zvJio

is

used for persons,

which for animals and things, and that for persons,


animals, and things.
It will

be seen that the only

in deciding
2.

when

That
1.

is

to

be preferred to zvho or wJiich

2.

3.

the
;

is

antecedent

as,

Give reasons for using that


1.

a relative

embraces both persons and


The soldiers and horses that J saw.
After the words all, very, and satne.
After an adjective in the superlative degree.*

When

things

3.

difficulty in the choice of

to use that.

The men and

cattle that

in these

sentences

were on the train were killed

in the wreck.
2.

3.

4.
5.

watched the boy and monkey that were entertaining


the crowd on the street.
This is the same book that my father used.
The thief lost all the money that he stole.
Solomon is said to have been the wisest man that ever

Hved.

For the use of that in restrictive clauses, see page 249.


1
hoenshel's eng. gram.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l62
4.

Fill

the blanks with wlio (or

whom\

which, or

that:

4.

he trusted.
He was deceived by the friend in
assisted us before.
These are the same persons
he heard did not change his opinion.
All
These Germans still remember the friends and the

5.

home
The train on

6.

He was

1.

2.

3.

may be

{First

5.

the

they

left in

Europe.

you came was two hours

late.

succeeded.

first

considered a superlative.)

Give the reason for the case of each pronoun in

these sentences
1

To whom

2.

Whom

did he go

did he tell? her or him?

8.

was intended for either you or him.


was she.
It might have been they.
Know well whom you admit to your friendship.
This is between you and me.
I thought it was he.

9.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

10.

It

It

thought

Whom
be

it

to be him.

did you take him to be?

14.

There are few better men than he


He mistook her for me.
Do you know whom he sent?
Do you know who went?

15.

Them

11.
12.
13.

(You did take him

16.

honor me I will honor.


honor me.)
He wants you and me to go.

17.

He

18.

She

is

20.

Her

that

21.

Let us worship God, him

22.

Whom

that

(is).

(I will

that

19.

to

whom?)

is

as old as

(am)

younger than he.


This is for you and me.
is idle

are

the teacher will reprove.

who

you speaking to?

created us.

honor them

DRILL ON PRONOUNS

163

LESSON XXII
CORRECT CASE FORMS
blanks with pronouns in the correct case.

Fill these

Give reasons for your choice


1.

This

is

5.

He knows
Was it
What were

6.

My

7.

Her mother and

3.

4.

and

a secret between

it

was.

you met ?
talking about?
you and

brother did fully as well as

1 1

you wish to see ?


do you take me to be?
Mother went with sister and

12.

We

13.

Can you

9.

Is

city.

it

did not

the letter was from.

her

tell

and

teach

15.

younger than
The teacher asked

16.

It is

17.

He

14.

have gone to the

that seek shall find.

8.

10.

did you see?

2.

to

is

draw?

and

and

to stay.

that are to blame.

19.

met us on the bridge.


is the same man
house was burned.
There goes the man
The gentleman
you spoke to is my uncle.

20.

This

21.

The men and

18.

24.
25.

26.

27.
28.

you sent

the tools

sit

for

have arrived.

with?

know

you love.
do you think that I am?
Did you see Robert and
?
in the city.
I saw you and
I do not know
they said went.
Father told James and
to go to school.
I

29.

He

30.

She married a man


I saw the man

31.

we ever had.

the longest lesson

do you

22.

23.

is

married a lady

they say
I
I

know

think

is

is

very wealthy.

to be worthless.

to speak.

"

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l64
32.

He

33.

All

addressed Lillian and


are

except^

it is

and

gone but

(When

but

means

a preposition.)

you said it was.


was
you said it to be.
was
go to school.
36. Lucy and
(This last blank can be filled by seven different personal pronouns. Find them.)
34.

It

35.

It

LESSON

XXIII

AGREEMENT OF PRONOUN WITH ANTECEDENT


Which and what often are interrogative adjectives

1.

as

Which book have you


he make?

1.

What answer did

2.

We

have now used what as an interrogative pronoun, a double


and an adjective. It is sometimes an adverb, meaning

relative,

partly

as, "

What by economy and what by

industry he amassed a

fortune."

IVkat
2.

is

also

an interjection

as,

"

What! did he go?

In these sentences each pronoun agrees with

antecedent in gender, person, and number.


carefully

its

Examine

1.

Each one of us must prepare

2.

Boys, every one of you

is

A/s

own

lesson.

responsible for

/its

own

conduct.

problems?

3.

Has everybody solved

4.

All the girls have t/iezr hats.

5.

6.
7.

8.

h's

Each girl has /ler hat.


Each person in the world should do /tis best.
Not an elk nor a deer made its appearance.
Many a man looks back on the days of /lis youth with
regret.

DRILL ON PRONOUNS
9.
10.

11.

165

Neither Mary nor Susan offered her assistance.


Mary and Susan offered their assistance.
If any one thinks it is easy to recite a poem in

public,

let hi7n try.

my

12.

The

13.

bosom.
Every governor and

earth

is

mother, and

upon her

will recline

magistrate does as he thinks

best.
14.

No man

or

woman

is

able to get rid of -^w vices without

a struggle.

Each man and woman must do

15.

The

his duty.

two sentences are grammatically correct, but different


wording would be better " each one must do his duty, " or " all
must do their duty."
last

Write eight sentences, each having a personal pronoun, or a compound personal pronoun, and be sure
Have
that each pronoun agrees with its antecedent.
such sentences as will show that you understand the
3.

subject.

LESSON XXIV
SELECTION OF CORRECT PRONOUN
Fill

each of these blanks with the proper personal

pronoun

to agree with its antecedent


1.

Every person should

try to

improve

mind and

heart.
2.

Each of our party

3.

4.

5.

work first.
Every soldier and every

carried a knapsack with

tion

all

officer

remained

Mary and Lucy will favor us with


Mary or Lucy will favor us with

8.

Notice

is

taxes.

at

night.

7.

6.

person who is resolute and energetic will be apt to


undertakings.
succeed in
did not notice which one of the men finished

company.
company.
hereby given to every person to pay

sta-

..:

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

I66
9.

All persons are required to pay

taxes.

10.

You borrow one

1 1

to the upper number.


Every herb, every flower, and every animal shows the

foot, or

twelve inches, and add

wisdom of Him who made

12.

Coffee and sugar are luxuries, but great quantities of


are consumed annually.

13.

If

any one wishes to join the church,

come

let

forward.
14.

It is difficult

15.

for

any judge or juror

to

be unprejudiced

opinion.

in

Every

city,

village,

and farm furnishes

quota of

soldiers.
16.
17.
18.

19.

This is such bad news that I cannot believe


If you find ' Longfellow's Poems," send
to me.
The audience kept
seats until the close.
If you have any molasses, please send me a gallon
.

of
20.

The government

will

be compelled to change

orders.

21

If

any boy or

girl

be absent,

must go

to the foot of

the class.
22.

Do you know which one

23.

essay first?
Lincoln, the President, the Emancipator,
Martyr, will always live in the hearts of

of the students wrote

and

the

coun-

trymen.

LESSON XXV
PARSING
Analyze these sentences, and parse the nouns and
pronouns

2.

was born an American, I live an American, and


shall die an American
He that would have the kernel must crack the shell.

3.

The

truly great

heart.

man

is

he who does not lose his child-

REVIEW

167

him who wrote " Paradise Lost.""


was Hadley, he who wrote a Greek grammar.
Reputation is what we are thought to be character
what we are.

4.

refer to Milton,

It

5.

6.

The tongue

7.

that
8.

it

is

the only

weapon

is

wounds

that can heal the

makes.

have heard of Byron, the poefs, dissipation.

was Joseph, he whom Pharaoh promoted.


is the book that we are to study.
I believe in a religion whose origin is divine.
Whoever comes shall be admitted. Whoever = he
who.
I remember what was said.
Conscience makes the bitter memory of what he was.
Whosoever will may come.
It

9.

This

10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

15.

LESSON XXVI
WRITTEN REVIEW
1.

Write two sentences each containing a noun


1.

In the nominative, attribute complement.

2.

In the nominative, apposition with subject.

3.

In the nominative, apposition with

attribute

comple-

ment.

2.

the

4.

In the objective, apposition with object of verb.

5.

In the objective, subject of infinitive.

6.

In the objective, objective attribute.

by apposition.

7.

In the possessive

8.

In the nominative, independent.

Write one sentence


first six

in

accordance with each of

of the preceding directions, using

instead of nouns.

pronouns

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l68

XX vn

LESSON-

THE ADJECTIVE

An

1.

Adjective

is

a word used to modify a

noun or

a pronoun.

2.

Descriptive Adjective

is

one that describes a

noun or pronoun by expressing some quality belonging


to

it.

3.

Definitive Adjective

is

one that does not ex-

press a quality.

The

4.

times called Articles.

or

A
an

is

<3:;2

and the are some-

definitive adjectives a, an,

The

the Definite Article, and

is

the Indefinite Article.

used before words beginning with a consonant sound, and


Exbefore words beginning with a vowel sound.

is

used

is

amples

a horse, a

nest,

a union, an apple, an orange, an honest

fnan.
5.

Definite Adjectives that express

definitely are called

Numeral

number and order

Adjectives.

Cardinals denote simply the number of objects;

as, three, forty.

Ordiiials denote the position of an object in a series

as, third,

fortieth.

Mtdtipticatives denote
6.

how many

Proper Adjective

is

fold

as, threefold,

fortyfold.

one derived from a proper

noun

tives

should begin with a capital

as,

American, English, French.


letter.

Proper adjec-

COMPARISON
Comparison

7.

is

169

a variation of descriptive adjectives

to express the quality in different degrees.

are three Degrees

There

8.

Positive, the

The

9.

Comparative, and

Positive

of

Comparison

the

the Superlative.

Degree expresses the simple quality

as, large, luise.

expresses the quality

The Comparative Degree

10.

in a higher or lower degree

less wise.

as, larger,

The Comparative is used in comparing two objects or classes of


These two apples are
2^%, James is taller than his brother.

objects

larger than those three.

The

1 1

Superlative Degree expresses the quality in

the highest or lowest degree

The
Jupiter

Superlative
is

is

the la?'gest

as, largest,

least wise.

used in comparing three or more things

of the planets.

Samuel

is

as,

the oldest of the

three boys.

12.

Adjectives of

one

syllable

are

compared by

adding to the positive er for the comparative, and

est

for the superlative.

Review
13.

rules of spelling given in

Part Two.

Adjectives of more than two syllables are com-

pared by prefixing 7nore and most.


14.

are

Adjectives of two syllables ending in

compared by adding

Some
are

er and

or silent e

est.

adjectives of two syllables accented on the last

compared by adding er and

politest.

j/

est; as, polite, politer,

: ;;; ;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

170

Some

adjectives ending in

ing er and est

ow

are

compared by add-

as, 7tarrow, narrowe}', narrowest.

Other adjectives of two syllables are compared by


prefixing more and most.
15.

Some

adjectives are irregular in comparison

bad,

worst

evil,
ill,

good,
better,

best;

little,

less,

least

many,
much,

more.

most

well,

nearest

next
old,

I
i

dim

older,

oldest

elder,

eldest.

COMPARISON

17]

LESSON XXVIII
CORRECT USE OF THE COMPARATIVE AND
SUPERLATIVE
1.

The comparative

considers the objects compared

as belonging to different classes.

The mother was fairer than any of her daughters.


Texas is larger than any other state in the Union.

2.

in paragraph i is sometimes expressed by saying,


comparative is used, the latter term of comparison
must exclude the former." In the second sentence just given,
the latter term of comparison is any other state, which does not
\i other is omitted,
include Texas, the former term of comparison.
the latter term will be a7iy state, which will, of course, include

"

The

rule

When

the

Texas.
2.

to

The

one

superlative considers the objects as belonging

class.

The

1.

The mother was

2.

Texas

rule

in

is

the fairest of

women.

the largest state in the Union.

paragraph

is

sometimes expressed by saying,

"When

the superlative is used, the latter term of comparison


In the second sentence just given,
must include the former."
the latter term of comparison is state in the Union, which will
include Texas.

Sometimes the use or the omission of a, an, or tJie


3.
makes considerable change in the meaning of the sentence.

The black and the white horse means two horses. The black and
white horse means one horse with two colors. A house and a lot
the house is not on the lot.
means two separate pieces of property
A house and lot means that the house is on the lot. He was
7narried to an amiable and an estimable woman means that he had
He was married to an amiable and estimable woman
two wives.
.

means

that he

had one

wife.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

172
4.

You have

already learned that adjectives

placed before the words they modify, or they

used

They may

in the predicate.

may be
may be

also be used Apposi-

as

tively ;

1.

2.

The snow, white and pure, covered the landscape.


The rose, beatUiful and fragrant^ is the fairest

of

flowers.

5.

them

The

sentences

following

are

Examine

correct.

carefully:
1.

2.

What

He
He

has another and better reason.


has another and a better reason.

difference in the
3.

He

4.

The

meaning of these two sentences

does not deserve the

name

of gentleman.
of the Euro-

whites of America are descendants

peans.

Why

not the descendants


5.

The

north and the south line of the field extend east

and west.
6.

7.

The north and south lines on


They extend north and south.

cattle are not

in Asia.

In some of these sentences the adjectives are used

incorrectly.
1.

2.

The
The
I

The

5.

7.
8.

Correct where necessary


right

and

left

hand were both diseased.

Latin and the Greek words in English are many.

do not admire those kind of people.


fourth and the fifth verse are short.
My uncle owns a large and small house.
One who rules is often known by the name of a king.
The sick and wounded were left in the camp.
I have not heard from home for this two weeks.

3.

4.

6.

7.

are meridians.

This kind of horses and these kinds of


found

6.

map

Observe that when the

article is repeated, the

verb

REVIEW
will

often be

may be

plural

173

although the subject expressed

singular.
1.

The

east

and the west end (not ends) of the house

are white.
2.

An

old

and a new book are on the

readily be seen that in the

It will

table.

above sentences one subject

is

understood.
8.

In the following sentences the comparative and

Study carefully

the superlative are used correctly.


1.

My

2.

Which

3.

4.
5.

6.

mother
is

is

the eldest of five sisters.

the better of the two

more useful than any other metal.


Iron is the most useful of metals.
This picture is, of all paintings, most fascinating to me.
China has a greater population than any other country
on the globe.
Iron

is

It will be observed that the comparative degree is generally followed by than, and that when than is used, we always have a complex sentence. When we say He is younger than /, the full sentence
is,

He

is

younger than I am young.

LESSON XXIX
REVIEW
1.

tives

Write two sentences, each containing three adjec-

1.

Placed before the noun.

2.

Used
Used

3.

2.

Make

Some

of

in the predicate.

appositively.

the following sentences

the proper changes


I.

The youngest

are

incorrect.

of the two sisters

is

the handsomest.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

174
2.

He

3.

The boy

4.

Gold

the boys in school.


all his classmates.
more valuable than any other metal found in

the strongest of

is

is

is

all

the brightest of

the United States.


5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.

3.

Natural scenery pleases me the best of anything else.


That tree overtops all the trees in the forest.
Our present teacher is better than any teacher we ever
had.
Our present teacher is the best we ever had before.

Nothing pleases me as much as beautiful scenery.


(Say nothing else. Why ?)
This man, of all others, deserves promotion.

Parse the adjectives in these sentences:


1.

2.

Wisdom

guilty conscience needs


is

no accuser.

better than rubies.

When the comparative degree is followed by than., there will


always be a complex sentence, and the positive degree of the same
word (often not expressed) will be found in the subordinate clause.
In such sentences than is a conjunctive adverb, modifying the word
in the positive degree and connecting the subordinate clause to the
word in the comparative degree.
Wisdom

is

better
rubies

(are

good)
I

than

8.

Every cloud has a silver lining.


Sugar is sweeter than honey.
New York is larger than Massachusetts.
Much money and abundant food were sent to the
needy sufferers of the lower Mississippi valley.
He wandered over the earth, sad and weary.
Large violets, blue and fragrant, nestled in the young

9.

The

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

grass.
visit

was a surprise

to me,

and

it

became very

interesting.

4.

Diagram the sentences

graph.

in

the

preceding para-

ANALYSIS AND PARSING

175

LESSON XXX
ANALYSIS AND PARSING
1.

Analyse these sentences, and parse the nouns,

pronouns, and adjectives

2.

The end must


Fame is the last

3.

4.

justify the

means.

infirmity of noble minds.

friend should bear his friend's infirmities.

Of all sad words of tongue or pen,


The saddest are these " It might have been."
Did you find the book you wanted ? (Relative
:

5.

pro-

noun omitted.)
6.
7.

8.

This is the answer I expected.


Raphael painted some very wonderful pictures.
The weathercock on the steeple told, in all kinds of

weather, the direction of the wind.


Harold, the last Saxon king, was conquered by
William, Duke of Normandy.
10. Every one can master a grief, but him that hath it.
11. Grief is best pleased with grief's society.
12. Bees gather honey for themselves, and men rob them
9.

of
13.

2.

it.

Napoleon, the man Wellington defeated


died at St. Helena.

at

Waterioo,

Diagram the preceding sentences.

LESSON XXXI
THE VERB
1.

2.

A verb is a word
A regular verb

and past

participle

that denotes action or being.


is

one that forms

by adding ed

its

past tense

to the present, in ac-

cordance with the rules of spelling.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

176

An

3.

Irregular

and

past tense

Verb

past

one that does not form

is

by adding ed

participle

to

its

the

present.

4.

to

Transitive

complete

An

5.

its

Verb

meaning.

Intransitive

an object

to

one that requires an object

is

complete

Verb

is

one that does not require

meaning.

its

as, '' I
intransitive has an object
Sometimes a verb
''He ran a race.'' In such sentences, the
dreamed a dream"

usually

verb

transitive.

is

An

Intransitive

called a

"

Freedom
6.

Defective Verb

its

An

as, m?tst, ought,

9.

in all the

modes

quoth, etc.

is

one having more than one

past tense or past participle.

Impersonal Verb

person singular

The

one not used

is

Redundant Verb

form for
8.

exists.''''

and tenses
7.

Verb that does not imply action is sometimes


" The book lies on the shelf."
Examples

Neuter Verb.

is

one used only

as, " It rains "

subject of an impersonal verb

is

in the third

" It snows.''

always

//.

Auxiliary verbs are those used in the conjugation

of other verbs.

They

are do,

be,

have, shall, will, may,

can, must.

Do,
10.

be,

and have are often used as principal verbs.

Finite

Verb

is

any mode or tense of the verb

except the infinitive and the participle.


11.

The

following

list

of

irregular verbs should be

studied until pupils are able to give the principal parts

IRREGULAR VERBS
of all in general use.

Forms
Pres.

little

177

Those marked r are

used are printed in italics

also regular,

1/8
Pres.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

VOICE
Pres.

179

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l8o
This

is

the definition usually given, and

is

probably correct, but

only transitive verbs can have a passive voice.

Intransitive verbs

have only the active voice.

The Active Voice

3.

shows that the subject denotes the

The

4.

Passive Voice

which

that form of the verb

is

is

actor.

form of a transitive

that

verb which shows that the subject denotes the receive/


of the action.

Many grammarians say that intransitive verbs have no voice,


many others say that they have only the active voice. In
such sentences as " Birds fly,'' and " The boy runs," the subject of
while

the

intransitive

the actor.

verb surely represents

Besides,

For these reasons,

intransitive verbs are active in form.

all

believe

that intransitive verbs have the active voice.

The

5.

Passive Voice of any verb will always con-

of the past participle of

sist

some form
From

this

that verb, preceded

it

follows that the passive of

of any verb will always end with the

all

the

modes and tenses

The past participle


every mode and tense

same word.

is written., and the passive oi write


end with the word written.

oi write
will

by

of the verb be.

in

The form of the verb to be that should be used is the form found
mode and tense called for in the passive verb. Example
The indicative, present-perfect, third, singular of to be is has been ;

in the

therefore, the indicative, present-perfect, third singular, passive of

the verb write

is /las

been written

Sometimes the form of the verb


found the water (to be) frozen."

to be is

"

The

not expressed

as, "

We

knife (that was) found in

the yard belonged to the teacher."

There are two or three exceptions


formation of the passive

hour

is

to

the above rule

thus, the verbs in

He

is

gone,

for

the

and The

come, are in the active voice, although passive in form.

VOICE
6.

Classify these verbs, and


1.

The

bridge has been

verb
2.

is

many

In

i8l

name

built.

the voice of each

(Remember

that a passive

always transitive.)
places,

has

Mississippi

the

overflowed

its

banks.
3.

4.
5.

6.

The greyhound

fifth
7.

8.

7.

can run very rapidly.

Our neighbors are moving into their new house.


Heated air rises.
The Saxons came into England about the middle

of the

century.

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea.


Knowledge must be obtained by hard work.

Diagram the sentences

preceding para~

the

in

graph.
8.

Name

the voice of these verbs

may have seen, may have been


had seen, had been seen, might have
can choose, could choose, shall have been chosen,

shall see,

shall

be seen,

seen, has seen,

seen

choosing, may be choosing, may be


chosen; to have stolen, to have been stolen, having
stolen, having been stolen, stole, is stolen.
to be chosen, are

9.

Change

the voice of

all

the verbs in

tences without changing the meaning


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

these sen-

The
The heavens declare the glory of God.
The address of welcome to the Grand Army of the Republic was given by Henry Watterson.
Such examples incite young men to noble careers.
The philosopher sat in his chair. (Why cannot this be
made passive?)
traveler

was astonished

at the sight.

Health and plenty cheered the laborer.


horse trod on the child's foot.

The sun rose at six.


The book lies on the table.
The commander must attend

to this matter.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

82

LESSON XXXIII
MODE
Mode

1.

the
2.

The

that form or use of the verb which

is

manner

which the action or being

in

3.

The

Mode

used

is

It is also

Potential

liberty, or

used

shows

expressed.

to assert a fact or

in

an

asking questions.

asserts the power, necessity,

possibility of action

may be used
The

Mode

Indicative

actual existence.

is

or being.

This mode

asking questions.

in

sign of the potential

mode

may^ can,

is

?nust, might, could,

wotdd, should.
4.

The Subjunctive Mode

wish, or a supposition; as

As

1.

If

my

2.

If

he be industrious, he

this

mode

asserts an uncertainty, a

brother were here, he would assist me.

is

considered quite

will succeed.
difficult, its

further study will be

found on page 267.


5.

The Imperative Mode

is

used to express a com-

mand, a request, or an entreaty.


6.

Write two sentences


1.

2.
3.

7.

The
The
The

Name
1.

2.

in

which the verb

in

indicative.
potential.

imperative.

the

mode

of

each verb

home.
Can you solve the problem
I

is

wish

were

at

in

these sentences

TENSE
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

"Evangeline" was written by Longfellow.


The czar of Russia was assassinated by Nihilists.
The city could have been captured by a brave army.
Try to learn something new every day.
The laws must be obeyed.

Name

8.

183

all

the passive verbs in the preceding sen-

tences.
9.

10.

Diagram the sentences

Name

the

mode

in

paragraph

7.

of each of these verbs

might throw, was throwing, has thrown, can throw, should


throw, is thrown, have been thrown, had thrown, might
the javelin
if it be thrown
throw the stone
throw
;

had been thrown.

LESSON XXXIV
TENSE, PERSON, AND
1.

Tense

is

NUMBER

that form or use of the verb that

shows

the time of an action or being.


2.

The

Present Tense denotes present time.

3.

The

Present-Perfect Tense expresses

action

or

being as completed at the present time.


4.

The

Past Tense denotes past time.

5.

The

Past-Perfect Tense expresses action or being

as completed at
6.

some past

time.

The Future Tense denotes

future time.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

84

The Future-Perfect Tense

7.

expresses action or be-

ing as completed at some future time.

The
The

indicative

the only

is

mode

that has the six tenses.

potential has only the present, present-perfect, past, and


past-perfect.
The sign of the present is may, can, or must-, of

may

the present-perfect,

have, can have, or must have ; of the past,

might, conld, would, or should; of the past-perfect,


could have, would have, or should have.

The
8.

imperative

Name
is

is

used only in the present.

mode and

the

have,

tnight

tense of these verbs

was written, have written, write, shall have


written, has been written, has written, might write,
can write go, went, might have gone, can have gone,
should go, could have gone, shall go, will go, had gone,
must go, must have gone.

written,

9.

Finite verbs have the

same person and number

as

their subjects.
1.

collective

noun

individuals

are

when

requires a plural verb

thought

when the collection


The committee were

"

is

of,

but

considered

invited,

and

all

singular
as

the

verb

unit; as,

''The

came.''

committee was large."


2.

Two

or

plural

more
verb

subjects
as,

connected

" Industry and

by a7id require a
perseverance are

required."
3.

Two

or

ally

verb

more singular subjects taken separately

connected by
;

as,

or, 7ior, etc.)

" Europe, Asia,

or

(usu-

require a singular

Africa has a greater

population than South America."


4.

Two

more singular subjects preceded by each, every,


as, " Each animal,
plant, and mineral has its use."
When one subject is affirmative and the other negaor

or no require a singular verb

5.

tive,

the verb agrees with the affirmative subject

"The

sailors,

not the captain, are to blame."

captain, not the sailors,

is

to

blame."

"

as,

The

AGREEMENT OF VERB
When

two subjects, taken

there are

differing in

number or person,

nearest subject

as,

*<

daughters are pleased."


the mother

The

first

is

185
separately,

Neither the mother nor the


" Neither the daughters nor

pleased."

four of the preceding rules for the agreement

of the verb apply also to the agreement of the

with

and

the verb agrees with the

its

pronoun

antecedent *

LESSON XXXV
VERB AND SUBJECT
I.

The

verbs and pronouns in these sentences are

Give reasons for the forms used

correct.
1.

2.

3.
4.

Talking and doing are not the same.


Many a man has sad recollections of his youth.
Every train and steamboat was crowded.
From what country is each of your parents?

5.

Every one of the witnesses says the same thing.

6.

Either you or

7.

8.

am

in the

wrong.

box of figs was sent us as a present.


There were more than one of us.

10.

The victuals are cold.


The word victuals is singular.

11.

There are no

12.

Neither wife nor child was there to meet him.


Books, and not pleasure, are his delight.

9.

13.

tidings.

14.

Money,

15.

To

16.
17.

" Very true," say they.


Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales "

18.

These

as well as

men,

is

needed.

possess and to profess are two different things.

variety of pleasing objects

is an old poem.
charms the eye.

are the principal rules for the agreement of a verb.

special rules

and suggestions

will

be given in Part Four.

few

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

l86
19.

Twenty -five

20.

You
The

21.

dollars

Thomas

is

is

not too

much

for a bicycle.

mistaken.

condition of the roads

is

very bad.

23.

Hence arise the following conclusions.


Everybody is very kind to me.

24.

Either he or

22.

2.

or

am

to blame.

following

the

Correct

and

errors,

give your

reasons
(Always be sure you know what words are the subject and prediyou attempt to correct the sentence.

cate before
J

What

studies have each of the boys

Every one of the boys are in their place.


j^^One of you are wrong.
4. There is one or more reasons for this.
5. Six days'" work have been done.
6^ Either you or, he are responsible.
7. Nothing but vain and foolish pursuits delight some
2.

persons.
8.

The

people, not the government,

responsible for the

is

welfare of the nation.


9^
10.

The number of our days


Between grammar and

are with Thee.


logic there

exists

many

con-

nections.11

" Oats " arc a

12.

The youth

13.

Idleness

i_4.

My

common

noun.

of this country has

many

opportunities.

and ignorance brings sorrow.


brother, with two friends, have arrived.

Strong arguments, not a loud voice, brings conviction.


In him were found neither deceit nor any other vice.
17. Either the horse or the wagon are to be sold.
18. The door of the cell is open, and within stands two

j^.
16.

prisoners.

one of the passions that

never satisfied.

19.

Avarice

20.

The

21.

all her movements there is grace and dignity.


Every house and barn were burned.
Every farmer\s house and barn was burned.
There seems to be disturbance and war in Russia.

is

sun, with

all its

is

planets, are but a small part of the

universe.

22.
23.

24.

In

AGREEMENT OF VERB

187

LESSON XXX VT
VERB AND SUBJECT
Some

1.

ji.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

and some are

of the following are correct

Make

incorrect.

the corrections necessary

More than one

has had a hand in this

affair,

Every one must follow their own views on the question.


Both money and labor were spent on it.
Either you or I are the one who they have selected.
Each of these studies have their own difficulties.
The report of the mayor and clerk were presented.
The report of the mayor and of the clerk was presented.

8.
9.

10.

Not her beauty, but her talents, attract attention.


Her talents, not her beauty, attract attention.
It is her beauty, and not her talents, that attract

at-

tention.

2.

11.

To do

12.

Each day and each hour bring

justly, to love mercy, and to be humble, are duties


of universal obligation.

their portion of duty.

Insert suitable verbs in the following blanks


1.

Not one of

2.

There

3.

Time and

my

neighbor's sons

my

neighbor and her daughter.


for no man.

succeeded in busi-

ness.

3.

has

tide

4.

That able scholar and

5.

The

6.

a valuable library.

critic

crime, not the scaffold,

7.

bushel of pears
Neither he nor I

8.

He

9.

There

or his brother

the shame.
taken from one tree.

frightened.

the book.

been several vessels

lost

on these rocks.

Write two sentences, each having a verb that

1.

2.

Two or more
Two or more

subjects connected by and.


singular subjects connected by or or nor

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

i88

4.

Two
Two

5.

Two

3.

in

by as well as.
number, and taken sepa-

in

person,

singular subjects connected


subjects, differing

rately.

subjects,

differing

and

taken sepa-

rately.
6.

Two

subjects, differing in

number, one affirmative and

the other negative.

LESSON XXX vn
SOME SPECIAL VERBS

SOME SPECIAL VERBS


3.

Fill

3.

4.
5.

Fill

on the

let it

Yes,

table.

here,

it

there.

on his bed a long


The sick man has
now ?
What plans are you
their burdens down ?
Have they
I remember when the cornerstone was

6.

4.

given in paragraph

in the first pair

The book was


Well,

2.

89

each of these blanks with the proper form of

one of the verbs


1.

time.

your head on the pillow.

and

these blanks with the proper forms of the

verbs mentioned in paragraph


1.

Mary, you may

2.

William

the table.

by the stove, but Samuel

is

the

is

old hen.
3.

The

4.

Your coat

5.

6.

The

and

traveler rose early,

out at six o'clock.

well.

yourself

down and

creek

(rising, raising),

is

still.

and the men are

(rising,

raising) that old house.


7.

8.
9.

10.

We

After fighting

ground
5.

6.

of

in the road.

found the knife

Much land has been


The trial was (set, sat)

Use each

all

waste by the high water.


for next

Monday.

down on

day, the soldiers

the

to sleep.

of these

words

in a sentence

lie

lies

lying

lain

lay

lays

laying

laid

sit

sits

sitting

sat

set

sets

setting

rises

raises

rose

raised

rising

Write a sentence containing the past participle

lie.

7.

Write a sentence containing the past tense of

sit.

8.

Write a sentence containing the past tense

of lay.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

ygo

LESSON XXXVIII
CORRECT FORMS OF VERBS
1.

verb,

The

past tense

and the past

never used with an auxiliary

is

participle

is

never used without an

auxiliary (sometimes not expressed).


2.

Choose the right word, and give reasons


He (dene, did) it.
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

(se, saw) him.

Have you ever (sw, seen) a giraffe ?


Has he (wrote^- written) the letter ?
The letter ( wro^ written) yesterday was mailed
{That was is understood.)
Has the messenger (come, came) yet ?
The storm soon (began, begun).
The boy said his book was (tore, torn).
,

Some
I

11.

The

13.

of our best apples were (st^^, stolen)

train

him as soon as I (saw, -se^n) him.


had (gone, went) an hour before I (eetrrc;-

came)
This work cannot be (did, done) in one day.
She (ought, ha4-ebt) to go. (As the verb ought has
no past participle, it cannot be used with an auxiliary.)

14.

He was

15.

The

16.

That witness has surely (swore, sworn)

(-ehose,

chosen) umpire of the game.

tune was (sung, -saag) well.


falsely.

Select the right verbs, and give reasons


1.

(think, guess, expect, suppose) that he

3.

how many grains are on


Will you (learn, teach) me to skate ?

4.

Mother,

5.

Try (and,

6.

2.

to-day.

(kncMKcd, knew)

10.

12.

3.

(Guess, think)

will (go,

come)

to see

gone

sick.

this ear of corn.

you next week.

to) learn your lesson.

(expect, think) he has

is

to Europe.

CONJUGATION
7.

191

New York

expected (to be, to have been) in

by

this

time.

He

8.

Remember

(don't, doesn't) believe in hypnotism.

that

Use the

4.

douH can be used only

as a contraction for do not.

past tense and past participle of each of

these verbs in a sentence

throw

see

do

ride

eat

come

break

begin

know

sing

draw
swim

take

blow
go

fly

LESSON XXXIX
CONJUGATION

The

1.

ment
2.

of

conjugation of a verb
voices,

its

The

These

can,

forms are said

On

may,

shall,

could, might, should,

by grammarians to be

they do not express past time.


3.

the orderly arrange-

modes, tenses, persons, and numbers.

auxiliaries

forms for the past

is

and will have


and would.

in the past tense, but

Tense does not always mean time.

the following pages will be found the conjuga-

tion of the verb to be.*

INDICATIVE

MODE

PRESENT TENSE
Plural

Singular

*
tion.
ers,

am,

2.

You

3.

He

are,

is.

2.

3.

We

are,

You are,
They are.

There is a tendency in many schools to neglect the study of conjugaProbably this is the reason why so many students (and many teach-

too) cannot parse a verb correctly.

until the pupil

Conjugation should be studied

can give any voice, mode, or tense called

for.

92

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PRESENT-PERFECT TENSE

2.

3-

^.^Syv ^ajc^^o3
CONJUGATION

193

PRESENT-PERFECT TENSE
Plural

Singular
1.

2.
3.

may have been,


You may have been,
He may have been.

i.

2.

3.

We

may have been,


You may have been,
They may have been.

PAST TENSE
1.

2.

3.

might be,
You might be,
He might be.

i.

2.
3-

We

might be,

You might be,


They might be.

PAST-PERFECT TENSE
might have been,

1.

2.

You might have

3.

He

i.

been,

We

2.

might have been.

3.

might have been,

You might have been,


They might have been.

IMPERATIVE MODE
PRESENT TENSE
2.

Be, or do thou be.

2.

Be, or do ye or you be.

INFINITIVES
Pre sent- Perfect^ To have been.

Present^ to be.

PARTICIPLES

4.

that

Having been.

Past-Perfect,

Past, Been.

Present, Being.

In the study of conjugation

it

should be observed

I.

In the formation of the futures, we have two auxiliaries,


For the expression of simple futurity,
shall and will.
we use shall in the first person, and will in the second

and third persons, as given


hand, by using will in the

On

in the table.
first

the other

person and shall in the

second and third persons, we express the various ideas


of promise,

be there

''

Lord thy
(i.e., I

command,

obligation, etc.

expresses a promise.
is a command.
make him) expresses

God"

will

sity.

hoenshel's eng. gram.

13

"

Thus

Thou
''He

"

will

shalt love the


shall

do it"

obligation or neces-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

[94
2.

The

singular form, thou art, etc.,

is

now used

jnly in

solemn occa:ions. In
addressing one person, we say
the meaning being singular, but

acts of worship, or on other

ordinary discourse, in
yo24.

are, you were, etc.,

the form plural.


3.

In the third person, the subject of the verb

may beany

any of the relative


pronouns, who, which, what, that, etc., or any noun.
For convenience of recitation, only one subject is
of the personal pronouns, he, she,

it,

inserted.
4.

In the potential

mode

the auxiliary

may be

In the present tense, may, can, or must

In the past tense, might, could, would, or shoidd;


In the present-perfect tense, 7nay have, can have, or
mjist

have

In the past-perfect tense, 7night have, could have,

woidd

have, or shoidd have.

LESSON XL
CONJUGATION
I.

Conjugation of the verb Love,

INDICATIVE

in the

MODE

Active Voice.

CONJUGATION

195

PAST TENSE
Singular

Plural

We

loved,

You

He

loved,

You loved,
They loved.

loved,

loved.

PAST-PERFECT TENSE

We

had loved.
You had loved.
He had loved.
I

2.
3-

had loved.

You had loved,


They had loved.

FUTURE TENSE
shall love.

You

He

I.

will love,

2.

will love.

3-

We

shall love.

You will love.


They will love.

FUTURE-PERFECT TENSE
I

shall

You

He

have loved,

will

i.

have loved,

will

2.

have loved.

3.

We

shall

have loved,

You will have loved,


They will have loved.

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE
PRESENT TENSE
If

love,

1.

If

we

If

you love.

2.

If

you

If

he love.

3.

If they love.

love,
love,

POTENTIAL MODE
PRESENT TENSE

may love,
You may love,
He may love.

1.

2.

3.

We

may love,
You may love,
They may love.

PRESExNTT-PERFECT TENSE
I may have loved.
You may have loved,
He may have loved.

We

may have loved,


You may have loved,
They may have loved.

PAST TENSE
might love.
You might love.
He might love.
I

We might

love,

You might love.


They might love.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

196

PAST-PERFECT TENSE
Plural

Singular

might have loved,

2.

You might have

3.

He

loved,

We

You might have loved,


They might have loved.

2.

might have loved.

might have loved,

3.

IMPERATIVE MODE
PRESENT TENSE
2.

Love, or love thou.

Love, or love you.

2.

INFINITIVES
Present^

To

Present-Perfect^

love.

To have

loved.

PARTICIPLES
Past, Loved.

Present, Loving.

2.

Past Perfect, Having loved.

Conjugation of the verb Love,

in

the

Passive

Voice.

INDICATIVE

MODE

PRESENT TENSE
Plural

Singular

am

loved,

1.

2.

You

are loved,

3.

He

loved.

is

i.

2.
3.

We

are loved,

You are loved,


They are loved.

PRESENT-PERFECT TENSE

2.

have been loved,


You have been loved,

2.

3.

He

3.

1.

i.

has been loved.

We

have been loved,

You have been loved,


They have been loved.

PAST TENSE
1.

2.

3.

was loved,
You were loved,
He was loved.
I

i.

2.

3-

We

were loved,

You were loved,


They were loved.

PAST-PERFECT TENSE
1.

2.
3.

had been /oved,


You had been loved,
He had been loved.
I

i.

2.

3.

We

had been loved,

You had been loved,


They had been loved.

CONJUGATION

197

FUTURE TENSE
Plural

Singular
1.

be loved,

shall

2.

You

3.

He

1.

2.

You

3.

He

will

be loved,

shall be loved,

You will be loved,


They will be loved.

2.

be loved.

will

We

i.

3.

FUTURE-PERFECT TENSE
shall

have been loved,

will

will

We

i.

have been loved,

have been loved.

shall

have been loved,

You will have been


They will have been

2.

3.

loved,

loved.

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE
PRESENT TENSE
1.

If

2.

If

3.

If

be loved,
you be loved,
he be loved.
I

i.

If

we be

2.

If

you be loved,

3.

If they be loved.

loved,

PAST TENSE
1.

If

2.

If

3.

were loved, or were

i.

If

2.

If

we were loved,
you were loved,

3.

If

they v/ere loved.

loved,

you were loved, or were you loved,


If he were loved, or were he loved.

POTENTIAL MODE
PRESENT TENSE

3.

may be loved,
You may be loved,
He may be loved.

1.

1.

2.

i.

2.

3.

We

may be loved,
You may be loved,
They may be loved.

PRESENT-PERFECT TENSE
2.

3.

may have been loved,


You may have been loved,
He may have been loved.

i.

2.
3.

We

may have been loved,


You may have been loved,
They may have been loved.

PAST TENSE
might be loved,

1.

2.

You might be

3.

He might be

1.

loved,

loved.

i.

2.

3.

We

might be loved,

You might be loved,


They might be loved.

PAST-PERFECT TENSE
2.
3.

might have been loved,


You might have been loved,
He might have been loved.

i.

2.
3.

We

might have been loved,

You might have been loved,


They might have been loved.

198

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

IMPERATIVE MODE
PRESENT TENSE
Plural

Singular
2.

Be

loved,

07'

be thou loved.

Be

2.

loved, or be you loved.

INFINITIVES
Present,

To

Present-Perfect,

be loved.

To

have been loved.

PARTICIPLES
Present

Past

Being loved.

Loved.

of

3.

The

its

voices,

The

is the orderly arrangement


modes, and tenses in one person and num-

first

person, singular).

conjugations already given are of the ComThere are two other forms the Progress-

mon Form.
ive

loved.

synopsis of a verb

ber (usually the


4.

Past-Perfect

Having been

and the Emphatic.

5.

The

Progressive

Form

of the verb

represents the action as in progress

that

is

as, " I

which

am

writ-

ing."

made by

1.

The Progressive Form

2.

present participle the various modes, tenses,


persons, and numbers of the verb to be.
Since the progressive form always ends with the present
before

of any verb

is

placing

its

participle
participle,

and the passive always ends with the past


follows that the progressive form is
it

always in the active voice.


6.

The Emphatic Form

the assertion

is

of the verb

expressed with

is

which
as "I do

that in

emphasis

write."
1

The Emphatic Form

is

made by

prefixing the present

or past tense of do to the simple form of the verb.


2.

This form

is

used in the present and past indicative, and


active voice, and in the im-

the present subjunctive,


perative, both active
3.

The emphatic form is


"Does he write.?"

and

passive.

often used in asking questions

as,

WRITTEN REVIEW

199

LESSON XL!
REVIEW
1.

Write

a synopsis of the verb

see,

progressive

form.
2.
3.

mon
4.

Write a synopsis of the verb see, emphatic form.


Write the conjugation of choose, active voice, comform.

Write the conjugation of

common

choose,

passive voice,

form.

LESSON XLII
WRITTEN REVIEW
Write a sentence having a verb

in the

2.

Active, indicative, present-perfect.


Active, indicative, future-perfect.

1.

3.

Passive, indicative, past-perfect.

4.

Passive, indicative, past.

5.

Active, potential, past.

6.
7.

Active, potential, past-perfect.


Active, potential, present-perfect.

8.

Passive, potential, past.

9.

Passive, potential, present.

10.

Active, imperative.

11.

Passive, imperative.

12.

Active, subjunctive, present.

13.

Passive, subjunctive, present.

14.

Passive, subjunctive, past.


Active, indicative, past, progressive form.
Active, indicative, present, emphatic form.
Active, potential, past, progressive form.

15.

16.
17.
18.
19.

Active, indicative, present-perfect, progressive form.


Active, imperative, progressive form.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

200

>

LESSON

XLIII

THE INFINITIVES
The

1.

form

infinitive is that

presses action or being without affirming


to

have written

The

2.

it

as, to write^

to exist.

following are the infinitives of the verb see

Active

to see,

Passive

to

Present-Perfect

Present

The

which ex-

of the verb

be seen,

infinitive has the progressive

to

have seen.

to

have been seen.

forms

to be seehig

and

have

to

been seeing.

Of

course an intransitive verb has but the two active infini-

tives.

The names present and present-perfect do

not have reference to

the time expressed by the infinitive, but to

depends on the

The

finite

form.

its

The

time

verb of the sentence.

sign of the infinitive

is

to.

This sign

omitted after the

is

as,
verbs bid^ dare, feel, hear, help, let, make, see, and some others
" See the birds fly:'
" Let him coine.''
When to is omitted, it
;

should be suppHed in parsing.


3.

The

used as a noun, an adjective, or

infinitive is

an adverb.
4.

The
1.

following

is

*'To work

the order for parsing an infinitive


not always

is.

intransitive,

verb, regular,

ent

it

"The

infinitive,

is

pres-

is.

To

lesson to be learned was very difficult."

learned
tive,

active

To work

has the construction of a noun, nominative,

subject of the verb


2.

pleasant."

is

a verb, regular, transitive, passive

present

modifying

it

lesson.

be

infini-

has the construction of an adjective,

THE INFINITIVE
"He

3.

went
a

is

school

to

transitive,

active

infinitive,

the construction of an
Construction means the

has
it
modifying went.

present

To study

study grammar."

to

regular,

verb,

20I

adverb,

same as

office.

5.

In the following sentences the infinitive has the

construction of a

As

b.

As

3.

object of a verb.
like to

a.

b.

The

As

walk.

thief desires to escape.

attribute

complement

To see is to believe.
To study is to learn.

a.
b.

4.

In apposition with subject


a. It is useless to inquire.

5.

As

It is

b.

a sin to speak deceitfully.

object of a preposition

was about to write.*


They had no choice but

a.

b.

6.

To learn requires application.


To clijnb trees is dangerous.

a.

2.

noun

subject

to go.

In the following sentences the infinitive has the

construction of an adjective
1.

Not

used in the predicate

from the wrath to come.


Leaves have their time to fall.

a. Flee
b.

2.

Used
a.
b.

7.

in the predicate (attribute

The house is to be sold.


The governor's authority

to be supported.

In the following sentences the infinitive has the

construction of an adverb
I

Modifying a verb
a. Music was ordained to refresh the mind.
b. They fought to defetid their country.

* In such sentences, about

same

is

complement)

as ready or prepared.

may be called an adjective, meaning nearly the


The infinitive, then, would have the construc-

tion of an adverb, modifying about.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

202

Modifying an adjective
a. These apples are good to eat.
b. The industrious boy is anxious

2.

Modifying an adverb

3.

a.

He

b.

It is ripe

is

enough
is

marked

A model

{To eat modifies enough.

to eat.

an adverb, modifying

Parse the infinitives in

tences

work.

too young to enlist (modifies too^.

Enough
8.

to

all

ripe.')

of the preceding sen-

a.

for written parsing

can easily be arranged by teacher or

pupil.

9.

Write the
lie, sit,

infinitives of these

verbs

choose, tear, do.

LESSON XLIV
INFINITIVES
I.

Point out the infinitives in these sentences, and

give the construction of each

3.

They had the good fortune to escape.


The student has a license to preach.
The cuckoo tried to steal the nest.

4.

She

5.

1.

2.

is

sad to see her sister faihng.

have come to hear you sing.

6.

You have

7.

8.

10.

You were kind enough to aid.


These men were sent to rule a
He is old enough to vote.

11.

The

12.

Not to save my right hand would


I come not here to talk.

9.

13.

am

a problem to solve.

prepared to hear you.


distant province.

pupil forgot to study his lesson.


I

do

it.

THE INFINITIVE
It is

14.

useless to inquire.
to inquire.

It

To obey

16.

It is

To
To

is

useless

better than to be punished.

better to strive

wrong
18.

is

(I)

15.

17.

203

right than to rail at the

for the

good)
hesitate is to be

lost.

rob a caravan

a crime, but to steal a continent

(is

is

is

glory.

Every one should

19.

strive to

be an ornament to his pro-

fession.

One stumble

20.

honorable
2.

is

enough

to deface the character of

an

life.

Diagram the preceding sentences.

LESSON XLV
REVIEW OF THE INFINITIVE
1.

Usually, no word should

the verb

thus,

*'

to rapidly

come between

walk

"

should be

to

" to

and
walk

rapidly."

Some
2.

authors do not hesitate to disregard the above rule.

The

present-perfect infinitive should not be used

after verbs of wis/mig, expecting, etc.

say

*'

He

wished

to

have gone,

"

go3.

Write a sentence having


1.

2.

An
An

infinitive, present, active.


infinitive, present, passive.

but

We
"

He

should not

wished to

:
.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

204

An
An
An

3.
4.
5.

Write

4.

infinitive, present-perfect, active.


infinitive, present-perfect, passive.

infinitive

without

a sentence

to.

having an

infinitive

with the

construction of

An adjective,
An adjective,

2.

A
A
A
A
A

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

not in the predicate.


in the predicate.

noun, subject.
noun, object.
noun, attribute complement.
noun, object of a preposition.
noun, in apposition with a subject.

An adverb, modifying a verb.


An adverb, modifying an adjective.
An adverb, modifying an adverb.

8.

9.

10.

LESSON XL VI
THE PARTICIPLE

Participle

is

word derived from a

ing of the properties of

a verb and

verb, partak-

of an adjective or a

noun.

There are three

2.

participles

the Present, the Past,

and the Past-Perfect.


Past is sometimes called the Perfect, and the Past-Perfect
sometimes called the Compound Participle.

The
is

3.

The

following are the participles of the transitive

verb see
Present
Active

Passive

An

seeing,

being seen,

Past

Past-Perfect

seen,

having seen.

seen,

having been seen.

intransitive verb has only the three active participles.

THE PARTICIPLE
Some grammarians do

205
past participle in the

not consider the

active voice a separate participle, because

it

has the same form as

the past participle in the passive voice. While it is true that they
have the same form, there is often quite a difference in meaning.

The active participle is used with an auxiliary in forming many of


''
I have seen the parade,"
the tenses in the active voice thus, in
have is the auxiliary and seen is the past participle, active. In " I
have been seen," have bee7i is the auxiliary and seen is the past parti;

In "

ciple, passive.

seen

is

4.

the mountain

The animal seen on

was a bear,"

the past participle, passive.

Write

all

the participles of these verbs

write, choose, walk, go, do, try, sit.

5.

always has the construction of

participle

an

adjective or a noun.

No word is a participle unless it is derived from a verb thus, in


He was unknown in the community," unknown is not a participle,
;

"

because there
6.

The

is

no verb unknow from which

following

"The

1.

is

learned

and modifies

"By

verb,

is

participle, past

2.

it

yesterday
regular,

was

not

transitive,

recited."

passive;

has the construction of an adjective,

lesson.

learning the lesson he

won

the approval of his

a verb, regular, transitive,


it has the construction of
participle, present

teacher."
active

can be derived.

the order for parsing a participle

lesson

Learned

it

Learning

is

a noun, the object of the preposition by.

7.

In the following sentences the participle has the

construction of an adjective
I

Not used in the predicate


a. Wealth obtained dishonestly soon disappears.
is tired.
b. Having walked 2. long distance, the soldier
:

c.

The policeman found


bushes.

the criminal concealed in the

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2o6
2.

Used
a.
b.
c.

8.

as attribute

Truth

lies

complement

wrapped up and hidden

Cincinnatus was found plowing.


The general lay wotmded on the

in a well.

field.

In the following sentences the participle has the

construction of a noun
1.

2.

In the nominative case

good

a.

Riding a bicycle

is

b.

This reirinding

me

c.

me.
My admitting the

exercise.

of your kindness

is

fact will not affect the

repj'oving

argument.

In the objective case


obtain information by reading good books.
a.
b. Light minds undertake many things without com:

We

pleting them.
c.

9.

He

could not resist taking the apple.

Parse the participles in the preceding sentences.

LESSON XLVII
THE PARTICIPLE
I.

Point out the participles in these sentences, and

give the construction of each


1.

2.

like to read.
Pardon my
Avoid keeping company with the depraved.

asking

if

you

5.

The Indians ran screaming in pursuit.


Many have amassed wealth by living economically.
Attempting much and doing little is a common cause

6.

Pocahontas was married to an Englishman named John

7.

The

8.

Instead of

3.

4.

of

failure.

Rolfe.

philosopher sat buried in thought.

reasoning more forcibly, he

talked

loudly.
9.

Our united

efforts

could not prevent his going.

more

THE PARTICIPLE
10.

He

spent hours

in

correcting

20/
and polishing a single

couplet.

best conquered by obeying her.

11.

Nature

12.

The

13.

14.

an adjective in the predicate.)


The pardon of the governor prevented his being hung.
God's balance, watched by angels, is hung across the

15.

The

is

child stood weeping.

has the construc-

(^F<?.?//;/^

tion of

sky.

yesterday has been mailed.

letter written

placed before nouns to de-

Participles are often

2.

scribe

some condition

become simple
1.

The

or

They then

characteristic.

adjectives.

engineer,

iiijured in the wreck,

was taken home.

(Participle.)

3.

The injured vm.n was taken away. (Adjective.)


The horse, running rapidly, soon reached the opposite

4.

The rummtg

2.

side of the field.

3.

Use each

as an adjective

words

of these
;

(Participle.)

horse was soon captured.

in

(Adjective.)

two sentences

second, as a participle.

wounded, chosen,

stolen, rippling, polished, sworn.

LESSON XL VIII
DIAGRAMS
I.

Notice these diagrams


I.

The

soldier lay

wounded.
(^

soldier

lay

wounded,

The
I

2.

We

We
I

should avoid injuring the feelings of others.

should avoid

mjunng
feelings.
I

first,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

208
3.

Your writing

that letter so neatly secured the situation.

wntinof

Your

neatly

letter

so

that
j

secured
situation.

The

participial

4.

We

phrase

is

the subject of secured.

can improve our minds by reading good books.

reading

^^

books.

Reading

a participle used as the object oiby^ and books

is

is

the

object of reading.

5.

The pardon
pardon

of the governor prevented his being hung.

prevented
[

being hung.
his

Being hung

is

a participle, with the construction of a noun,

object oi prevented.

6.

Pardon

my

asking

if

you

like to read.
if

Pardon

REVIEW

209

LESSON XLIX
WRITTEN REVIEW OF PARTICIPLES
1.

Write a sentence having a participle


1.

2.

3.

4.

With
With the construction of a noun,
With the construction of a noun,
With the construction of a noun,

the construction of a noun, subject.


object of a verb.

object of a preposition.
object of a verb,

and

having an object.
5.

With
an

6.

With

the construction of a noun, subject, and having


object.

the

construction

of an

adjective, not attribute

complement.
7.

With the construction of an

adjective, attribute comple-

ment.
2.

Diagram the sentences you have

written.

LESSON L
WRITTEN REVIEW OF INFINITIVES AND
PARTICIPLES
I.

tences

Parse the infinitives and participles in these sen:

1.

2.
3.

Learn to labor and to wait.


impossible to advance rapidly.

It is

He

dislikes

being falsely accused.

5.

John Brown's body lies moldering in the tomb.


We expected him to come. (The object of expected is
him to come. To come has the construction of an

6.

7.

8.

4.

adjective,

know him

modifying hivi.')
to be an honest man.

was opposed to his teaching the class.


{Him is not the object of
heard him reproved.
heard.^

hoenshel's eng. gram.

14

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2IO
9.

heard him recite the lesson.


is to be blamed for keeping us waiting so long.

He

10.
{

to

be blamed

is

us

He

waiting:

long-

keeping

To

be is

so

understood before waiting, forming the progressive form

of the present infinitive.

2.

11.

His having

12.

His desire

failed

is

not surprising.

to teach is gratified.

Diagram the preceding

sentences.

LESSON LI
ANALYSIS AND DIAGRAMING
Analyze and diagram these sentences
1.

ourselves what

make

not always easy to

It is

we wish

to be.
2.

Many

persons think

it

is

not wrong to

to escape

lie

punishment.
3.

We

4.

are commanded to love our


know how to write a letter.

5.

To obey

6.

Hope comes with

7.

We

8.

By doing

9.

10.
11.

He

is

better than to be punished.

smiles the hour of pain to cheer.

feel the earth

could

enemies.

nothing,

we

tremble beneath our

learn to do

feet.

ill.

soon began to be weary of having nothing to do.

By endeavoring to
The teacher being
school

please

all,

we

sick, school

fail

to please any.

was dismissed.

was dismissed.
I

teacher

The

[being

sick

The
tence.

phrase, teacher being sick, has no connection with the senTeacher is in the nominative case (nominative absolute).

THE ADVERB
12.
13.
14.

15.
16.

17.

The

211

jury having been sworn, the

trial

proceeded.

Our lessons having been recited, we came home.


Having recited our lessons, we came home.
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick.
The rain having ceased, we saw a rainbow.
To see you here on such a day surprises me.

LESSON

LIT

THE ADVERB
1

An

adverb

is

word used

to

modify a verb, an

adjective, or an adverb.
2.

According

are divided

to their office in the sentence,

into three classes

adverbs

Simple, Interrogative,

and Conjunctive.

3.

which

Simple Adverb simply modifies the word with

it is

as

He

2.

The mountain

An

4.

used

reads well and writes very well.


exceedingly high.

is

Interrogative

Adverb

is

one used

in

asking a

question.

5.

in a

Conjunctive Adverb

one that modifies a word

is

dependent clause, and

also

connects that clause

with the independent clause.


In the sentence,

''

will

recite

when

the time comes,"

when

modifies cojnes and connects the adverb clause with will recite.

The

principal

conjunctive

adverbs are when., where., as, why,

wherein, whereby, while, whenever, whereon, and than.


It

is

evident that conjunctive adverbs are found in complex

sentences.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

212
6.

Such adverbs as surely yperJiaps^

certainly, yes, nay^

and not are sometimes called Modal Adverbs.

no,

Notice that a modal adverb is not an adverb of manner. A


modal adverb describes the manner of making the assertion, not
the manner of performing the action.
In " He will certainly come quicldy," certamly is a modal adverb,
describing the manner in which the assertion is made, and quickly
is an adverb of manner, describing how the action will be performed.
7.

According

meaning adverbs are divided

to their

as follows
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

Adverbs
Adverbs
Adverbs
Adverbs
Adverbs
Adverbs
Adverbs

of Place

where, here, etc.

as,

Time
of Number
of Manner

of

now, again, afterward,

-as,,

of Degree

as,

how, well,

as, very, too,

^\.z.

as, 07ice, twice, secondly, thirdly.


so, etc.

much,

etc.

why, wherefore, etc.


of Affirmation and Negation; 2is, yes,

of Cause

as,

no, yea,

nay, etc.
8.

The

only modification of adverbs

They have

is

comparison.

the same degrees as adjectives, but usually

only adverbs of manner can be compared.


9.

Classify the adverbs in these sentences according

to use

and according
Tarry

On my way

4.

hither, I saw her come forth.


There were no other persons there.*
They hved together very happily.

3.

The

meaning

he comes.

1.

2.

till

to

5.

How

6.

Perchance you are the man.

rapidly the

moments

have not seen him since

7.

8.

Whither has he gone?

9.

How

first

there

far that little

is

fly!

returned.

candle throws

not an adverb;

it is

its

beams!

simply an introductory word.

;:

THE ADVERB

213

Slowly and sadly we laid him down.


These scenes, once so delightful, no longer please him.
Having duly arranged his affairs, he departed imme-

10.
11.

12.

diately.

adverbs are composed of two or more

Many

10.

and

words

called

Phrase Adverbs.

by

as,

one by one, at

by,

all.

These may be

Notice the difference between a phrase adverb and an adverb


phrase.
11.

Only one negative should be used

in

making

denial.
"

12.

has never done nothing " should be " He has never


done anything," or " He has done nothing."

He

for adjectives, nor

Adverbs should not be used

adjectives for adverbs.


In the sentence, "
disagreeable

is

The day

is

disagreeable cold," the adjective

used instead of the adverb disagreeably.

In "This pen does not write good," the adjective good


instead of the adverb well.

may be an

well, better, best

the intention
feeling.

{Good,
adverb.)

best

Therefore, the adjective

<5^rt^

used

is

to express the queen's condition, not her

is

is

an adjective;
In " The queen feels badly,"

better,

manner of

should be used instead of the

adverb badly.
13.

Some

adjectives,

when used

in the predicate to

express the condition of the subject, are incorrectly

The

called adverbs.

following sentences are

1.

She looks

2.

Velvet feels smooth.

3.

4.
5.

He

all

correct

cold.

sat silent.

The
The

lady feels bad.

author stood bareheaded in the presence of the

king.

Bareheaded
it

does not

tell

is

the

an adjective, expressing the condition of author


manner in which he stood.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

214

LESSON LIII
THE ADVERB

1.

Correct where necessary, and give your reasons

for the changes

1.

He

2.

Speak more

3.

4.

How

5.

The sun

shines brightly and the grass looks greenly.

6.

He

very sadly about his loss.

7.

8.

stood, silently

and alone.

distinctly.

miser never gives anything to nobody.


sweetly the music sounds.

feels

The teacher was tolerable


The young lady looked

well informed.
beautiful\y,

and she

sang

beautiful.
9.

We

arrived at

ID.

The

bashful

11.

This apple looks well (good

12.

She dresses suitable to her station and means.


I was exceeding glad to hear from you.

13.
14.
15.

16.

2.

home safety and soundly.


young man appeared very awkwardfy.
t ),

but

it

tastes bad.

The train doesn't wait for no one.


The doctor said she would never be jrlo better.
Every man cannjpt afford to keep a coach.

Choose the right word, and give reasons


1.
He looked (glad, gladly) when his brother
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

Lucy

felt

very (sad, sadly)

when her

came.

friend died.

The evening bells sound (sweety- sweetly) and


The eggs were boiled (soft, softly).
The house was made (strong, strongly).

Come

low.

(quick, quickly).

10.

The slaves were treated (harsh^ harshly).


The singer's voice seemed (harsh; harshly).
The moon rose (clear, clearly).
The house appears (comfortable, comfortably) and

11.

The boy was dressed

7.

8.
9.

(pleasant, pleasantly).

(comfortable, comfortably).

POSITION OF THE ADVERB

215

LESSON LIV
POSITION OF THE ADVERB
1.

Adverbs should be so placed

that there can be no

doubt as to what they are intended to modify.


these sentences, and explain the

The
The

3.

Improve the location of the adverb

tences

Notice

of each

Only the address can be written on this


address can only be written on this
address can be written on this side

1.

2.

2.

meaning

side.
side.

only.

in these sen-

1.

We

2.

All

3.

All that glitters

4.

Two young

only recite three lessons a day.

men

are not educated.


is

not gold.

ladies

came

to the

party nearly dressed

alike.
5.

6.
7.

Such prices are only paid in times of great scarcity.


Corn should be generally planted in April or May.
No man has ever so much that he does not want more.
shall be glad to see

8.

9.

The work

10.

11.

The

action,

3.

you always.

be never completed.
Having nearly lost a thousand dollars by the transwill

cannot afford to venture again.

secretary was expected to resign daily.

12.

He

13.

14.

We

15.

The Chinese

16.

nearly walked ten miles.

only bring forward a few things.

merely speak of ourselves.


chiefly live

upon

rice.

only ate one apple to-day.

Write three sentences, each containing


1.

2.

A modal adverb.
An adverb of manner.

4.

A conjunctive adverb
A phrase adverb.

5.

An

3.

adverb phrase.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2l6

LESSON LV
THE PREPOSITION

of

1.

its

object to

Some
account

Preposition

prepositions are

means

by

of,

a word that shows the relation

is

some other word


of,

in the sentence.

composed of two or three words

from

under,

Prepositions are sometimes used as part of a verb

laughed

''This matter must be attended

:/.'"

as,

on

etc.

/c."

as, " He was


Such verbs are
;

Compou7id Verbs.

called

Some

words, originally participles, are sometimes prepositions

The

2.

regarding, respecting.

as, conceriiing,

object

of

preposition

may be

a word,

phrase, or clause.
I.

The Esquimaux

1.

He

3.

is

about

live in

huts

made oi snow.

to returrt.

The wind had ceased before the rain began to fall.


(Some authors call before a conjunctive adverb in this
sentence.)

When

3.

preposition has

no object,

either an adverb or an adjective;


1.
2.

it

becomes

as

The days are passing (5/. (Adverb.)


The sentence above is correct. (Adjective.)

4. The preposition usually precedes its object.


When the object is the relative that, it always precedes the preposition

as,

" This

is

the

man

that

spoke to."

Frequently in interrogative sentences the preposition

is

placed

end of the sentence; as, "What are we coming to?''


"Whom did he give it to? " This form is much better than " To
what are we coming? " or " To whom did he give it? "
We have many other examples of good English in which the
at

the

THE PREPOSITION
preposition

is

think about

From
made, "
tence,"
5.

placed at the end

is

as,

house to

live in

subject to

practice which no one objected to.

the preceding

21/

will

it

be seen that the statement frequently

preposition should never be used at the end of a sen-

not sanctioned by good English.

Care must be taken

to use appropriate preposi-

tions.

Between

two objects, and a?iiong

refers to

refers to

more than

two objects.

Observe the difference


into the house "

in

"

meaning between / 3.ndmto.

He walks

means

that he walks from the outside into the inside.


in the house " means that he is in the house, walking around.

"Hewalks
In some grammars a long list of words is given, arranged alphabetically, each word followed by a preposition supposed to be
appropriate but as the same word may have more than one appropriate preposition, and as the selection of the proper one depends
;

on the meaning intended

to be conveyed,

it

seems

only way to learn to use prepositions correctly

me

to
is

to

that the

study the

language of good writers and speakers.


6.

Correct the errors in these sentences


1
The sultry evening was followed with a heavy
:

frost.

2.

He

3.

6.

Our government is based in the rights of the people.


He was accused with robbery.
This work is different to that.
There is a constant rivalry between these four rail-

7.

Divide the apples

8.

He was
He was

4.
5.

fell

from the bridge in the water.

roads.

9.

10.

among

the two girls.

eager of studying grammar.


desirous for studying Latin.

Battles are fought with

other weapons besides pop-

guns.

7.

11.

The band was

12.

Raise your book (q^,

Fill

followed with a large crowd.


of, off

of the
~)

table.

each of these blanks with a proper preposition

He

2.

poured the water


the barrel.
We saw you
the concert.

3.

The

1.

prisoner

is

accused

stealing a horse.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2i8

what I say.
You may rely
wild animals.
The forests abound
preparation.
There is much need
(Use of between
consumption.
The man died
the verb died and the name of the disease.)
corn.
The soil is adapted
money.
The merchant is in want

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

He

10.

school

stays

late.

LESSON L VI
THE CONJUNCTION
1.

Conjunction

a word used to connect words,

is

phrases, and clauses.


Sometimes a conjunction is used simply as an introductory word.
He went out as captain," as is not a connective. Sometimes a
conjunction is introductory to an entire sentence, but in such cases
In "

a preceding clause

Some
if,

is

often understood.

conjunctions are composed of two or more words

as well as, in order that,

According
into two classes

to

2.

3.

as,

as

etc.

their

use conjunctions are divided

Coordinate and Subordinate.

Coordinate Conjunction

is

one that connects

elements of equal rank.


1

Copulatives simply couple or join

as, both, atid,

more-

over, etc.
2.

Alternatives (disjunctives) denote separation, or a choice

3.

between two as, or, either, neither, nor, etc.


Adversatives denote something opposed or adverse to
what has been said as, but, still, yet, however, not;

withstanding,
4.

etc.

as, therefore,
/natives denote effect or consequence
wherefore, hence, consequently, accordingly, so that,
;

thus, then, etc.

..

THE CONJUNCTION
4.

The words,

219

phrases, or clauses connected by a co-

ordinate conjunction should be similar in form.


1.

He

good and wise;

is

He

not,

good and

is

of

full

wisdom.
2.

He came

cheerfully and promptly


and with promptness.
Did they go skating, or riding

not,

He came

cheer-

fully

3.

skating, or to ride
5.

Did they go

not,

Improve these sentences


1.
He did not remain to pray,
:

2.

but for scoffing.


Like signs give plus, but unlike signs will produce
minus.

3.

They

4.

5.

lived together in peace and quietly.


Thanking you for your kindness, and I hope to hear
from you soon, I am yours truly.
Great and full of power art thou, O Lord
Faithfully and with earnestness he tried to perform
!

6.

the task.
6.

Subordinate Conjunction

is

one that connects

elements of unequal rank.

A
tence,
7.

subordinate conjunction

and

is

always found in a complex sen-

joins the dependent clause to the independent clause.

According

to the

meaning

of the dependent clause,

subordinate conjunctions are divided into those of


1

Time

2.

Reason or Cause

as, as, until, since, etc.


;

as, because,

for, since, as, inasmuch

as, etc.
3.

Condition or Siippositioji
cept,

8.

as, if, pi'ovided, unless,

notwithstanding, whether,

4.

Etid or Purpose ;

Concession

6.

Comparison

as,
;

as, that, in

1.

2.

An

order that,

though, although.

as, than.

Write a sentence containing


copulative conjunction.

adversative conjunction.

etc.

lest.

ex

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

220
3.

An

4.

Alternative conjunctions.

illative

conjunction.

A subordinate
A subordinate
A subordinate

5.

6.
7.

conjunction of time.
conjunction of purpose.
conjunction of concession.

LESSON L VII
CORRELATIVES
1.

conjunctions, a conjunction and an adverb,

Two

or two adverbs are often used in pairs.

The

called Cori^elatives.
correlatives

They

are then

following are the principal

Neither

nor.

Either or.

It

neither rains nor snows.

Either Spain or Cuba

is

to

blame.

and. She both reads and writes.


Both
Though he was rich, yet he was a miser.
yet.
Though
As as. He is as tall as I am.
As so. As he thinks, so he speaks.

asShe is not so wise as her sister.


So
The lesson is so long that I cannot get it.
that.
So
Whether he goes or remains is uncertain.
or.
Whether

Not

only

but

also.

The

climate,

is

not only healthful,

but also pleasant.

As

some
They should be parsed as

as well as, but likewise, notwithstanding that, and

if,

other combinations, are not correlatives.

one word.
2.

tives,

Care should be taken

and

to

to select appropriate correla-

place them where they belong.

Correct the following


1

2.

He

will neither go or send any one.


Nothing either strange or interesting occurred.

CORRELATIVES
3.

He was

221

not only considered a statesman, but also an

orator.
4.

Both he works and plays.

works
r

He

'

plays

7.

not only visited New York, but also Philadelphia.


Though he has a bad reputation, so I will trust him.
He was as angry that he could not speak.

8.

Wood

5.

6.

9.

10.

He

(So and as are the


is not as durable as iron.
proper correlatives in negative sentences.)

Is this as

He

is

good

as that

not qualified for either teaching mathematics or

language.
shall neither

11.

12.

Some nouns

depend on you nor on him.


are

used in the singular or the

either

plural.
13.

3.

Gold

is

both found in California and Colorado.

The Comparative Degree, and

words

the

ot/ier,

and otherwise, are generally followed, by

rather, else,

than.
4.

Examine these sentences


1.

Gold

2.

is

heavier, but not so useful as iron.

never have and never

will vote for

such a man.

sentence means, "Gold is heavier as iron, but not so


This is incorrect, because as should not follow the
comparative heavier. The sentence should read, " Gold is heavier
than iron, but not so useful."
The second sentence means, " I never have vote and never will
vote for such a man." This is incorrect, because the past participle
The sentence should read,
voted should be used with have.

The

first

useful as iron."

"

never have voted for such a man, and never will."


5.

Correct the errors in these sentences


1.

2.

3.

February is not so long, but colder, than March.


February is colder but not so long, as March.
I always have, and always will be, an early riser.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

222

He

ought and will go this evening.


Napoleon could not do otherwise but to retreat.
The visitor was no other but the Colonel.
That house is preferable and cheaper than the other.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Such behavior is nothing else except disgraceful.


This is different but better than the old.
The artist went and remained in Italy a year.

8.
9.

10.

6,

Use each

sentence

both

and,

whether
as

pair of the following correlatives in a

such

either

as

as,

so

so

yet,

so,

not only

as,

neither

or,

though

or,

LESSON

nor,

that,
as,

but also.

LVIII

THE INTERJECTION

An

1.

Interjection

is

word used

to

denote strong

feeling or emotion.
Interjections have

no grammatical construction.

Words from almost any other part of speech may become


as, J/y stars I What I Weill
jections

inter-

is

generally used before words of address, and oh before words

expressing emotion

2.

as

Great and manifold are thy works,

2.

Oh! how can

Lord

go?

Interjections are generally followed by the excla-

mation point.
strong feeling, or

If
if

whole expression, a

the

interjection

does not express

the feehng continues through the

comma

is

usually placed after the

ANALYSIS AND PARSING


and the exclamation point

interjection,

is

223
placed at the

end.

The exclamation
3.

point should not be used after O.

Parse the adverbs and

Analyze these sentences.

conjunctions
1.

2.

3.

She did not go

4.

This

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

{Both

The fact that he is an American needs no


You cannot tell where he has gone.
is

to school until she

the time

when snow

proof.

was ten years

old.

falls.

The bells rang and the whistles blew.


Love is sunshine, but hate is shadow.
Be wiser to-day than yesterday.
Childhood shows the man, as morning shows the day.
He is both wise and virtuous.

and should be

taken together, and parsed as a strengthened

conjunction, connecting wise and virtuotis.)


4.

Diagram the sentences

in

paragraph

3.

LESSON LIX
ANALYSIS AND PARSING
Analyze these sentences, and parse the pronouns,
verbs, participles, and infinitives

dreamed that Greece might still be free.


it on your heart, that every day is the best day

1.

2.

Write

in

the year.
3.

That people are good

4.

Time misspent

5.

For a time the Puritans kept unbroken the plan of a

6.

Good

is

in the main, is a true statement.

not lived, but

lost.

religious State.

conversation

is

gaining knowledge.

the most

delightful

method of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

224

8.

a mission to go into every corner and reconquer


unhappy world for God.
Men with no prejudice and a great brain are the men to

9.

A man

7.

Life

is

this

govern the world.

Remember
tha7i,

shorter

is

when

that

when he

the

is

walking than when

comparative degree

the positive degree of the

same word

is

is

at rest.

followed by

either expressed or

understood.

and the useful metals are found in any region,


manufacturing interests will sooner or later be de-

10.

If coal

11.

There are some schools whose course of study provides

12.

When

13.

Recollect that

14.

There

veloped.
for but little study of English.

tion

faith is lost,

is

no

when honor dies, the man is dead.


make perfection, and that perfec-

trifles

trifle.

afl"airs of men, which, taken at the


on to fortune.
I slept, and dreamed that hfe was Beauty;
I woke, and found that life was Duty.
He who has a thousand friends hath not a friend to

a tide in the

is

flood, leads

15.

16.

spare.

And

he

17.

Happy

20.

21.

Try

who

has one enemy shall meet him everywhere.

the nation that has no history.


18. To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die.
19. The truly wise man will so speak that no one will observe how he speaks.
is

supposed him to be her.


to care for what is best in thought and action.

LESSON LX
REVIEW
Correct the errors and analyze these sentences
1.

We

should be careful, because each of us has our in-

fluence.
2.

Every one of you is expected to write his own essay.


{To write has the construction of an adjective used as
attribute complement.)

REVIEW

225

Us

girls are getting up a tennis club.


Mathematics are very difficult for me.
Most persons behave very good in church.
Two thousand dollars were divided between the

five

heirs.

10.

work is most done, and I am tired. (Use almost


whenever nearly may be used in its place.)
You will find me at home most any time.
The invalid is some better this morning. (Use somewhat ; some is an adjective.)
Plato believed that the soul was immortal.

II.

Columbus believed

12.

Pleasantly rose, next morn, the sun, on the village of

13-

Now

My

Grand

that the earth

is

round.

Pre.

the winter of our discontent

is

made

glorious by

the sun of York.


14.

IS-

No

16.

and Yankee vessel were sailing side by side.


king was ever so much beloved by his subjects as

British

King Edward.
17-

have heard that story of yours many times.


Of all other poets, Longfellow is my favorite.

18.

To dare

19.

Sweet
to

great, but to bear

is

it is

is

greater.

have done the thing one ought.

to

have done
thinj

one

ought.
I

lx><
It(

The
with

it.

infinitive to

IS

sweet

have done, with

all

its

After ought, to have done which,


20.

21.

modifiers,
is

is in

opposition

understood.

We always may be what we might have been.


We are made happy by what we are^ not by what
have.

22.
2324.

25.

gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind.


Honor or reputation are dearer than life.
The house stood on rather a narrow strip of land.
The remonstrance laid on the table.

Rich

HOENSHEL'S ENG. GRAM.

I5

we

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

226

LESSON LXI
Diagram the sentences

in

Lessons 59 and

60.

LESSON LXII
WORDS AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH
1.

Since

termines

its

it is

the use of a word in a sentence that defollows that

many words

as different parts of speech.

Above, for

part of speech,

may be used

it

instance, can be used as four different parts of speech

as

1.

2.

3.

4.

It

1.

3.

4.

sentence above

is

1.

3.

(Noun.)
all

As an adjective.
As an adjective pronoun.
As an adverb.
As a noun. (I have lost my

all.')

As a preposition.
As an adverb.
As a conjunctive adverb.

Write a sentence, using but


1

2.

3.

As a conjunction.
As a preposition.
As an adverb.

(Adjective.)

correct.

comes from above.

Write a sentence, using before


2.

4.

above the bridge. (Preposition.)


(Adverb.)

eagle soars above.

Write a sentence, using


2.

3.

He lives
The
The

2.

PUNCTUATION
5.

Write a sentence, using fast


As
As
As
As

1.

2.

3.
4.

6.

a noun.

an adjective.
a verb.

an adverb.

Write a sentence, using since

As a preposition.
As an adverb.

1.

2.

7.

22/

Write a sentence, using that

As an adjective.
As an adjective pronoun.
As a relative pronoun.
As an introductory conjunction (introducing a

1.

2.
3.

4.

sub-

ordinate clause)
8.

Write a sentence using

till

As a noun.
As a verb.
As a conjunctive adverb.

1.

2.
3.

LESSON

LXIII

PUNCTUATION
I.

Notice the punctuation of these sentences


Washington, who was born

1.

in Virginia,

was our

first

President.

He was

2.

looking out of the window and, therefore, did

not see
3.

In the

"

first

enthetical

The same

will

entering the room.


said, "

if I

have time."

who was born in Virginia^ is parcan be omitted without spoiling the sense.
true of therefore^ in the second sentence, and of she
sentence the clause,

that
is

me

come," she

is,

it

said, in the third sentence.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

228
2.

Parenthetical expressions are separated from the

by commas.

rest of the sentence


3.

An

Notice the punctuation of these sentences


1

We

2.

Next week, we

3.

We,

4.

begin our work.

shall

next week, shall begin our work.

when

When

work next week.

shall begin our

adverb phrase

sentence, or

it

out of

is

its

natural order

stands between a verb and

a phrase

out of

is

its

when

its

begins a

it

subject.

natural order,

it

is

separated from the rest of the sentence by

usually

commas.
5.

Punctuate the following sentences


1.

My brave men

2.

London

3.

Paris which

the largest city in the world


is

the general said charge for the guns.

situated

is

on the Seine

in

England.

is

the capital of

France.
4.

With merry

5.

meadows.
The date which

we wandered through

hearts

the beautiful

a kind of food grows on a palm

is

tree.
6.

The

minstrel sang a song played a tune

and danced a

jig-

7.

No no no

8.

9.

By

you cannot go.

youth a boy or a mere child could answer that


question.

10.

6.

7.

My

industry and perseverance


friend will you give

me

we

obtain knowledge.

a dollar

,-*

Notice the punctuation of these sentences


1.

My

2.

Joseph,

uncle Joseph

my

uncle,

is

a sailor.

is

a sailor.

Appositives, unless short and used as part of the

name, are separated from the

commas.

rest of the sentence

by

PUNCTUATION
8.

Punctuate these sentences


1.

229

Superintendent Saylor has charge of the

schools of

Lincoln.
2.

Saylor the superintendent has charge of the schools of

3.

Chancellor

4.

Tennyson the poet wrote " In Memoriam."


Bryant the American poet wrote '^Thanatopsis."

Lincoln.

5.

9.

Snow

lives in

Lawrence.

Write and punctuate a sentence containing


1.

2.
3.

A series of adverbs.
A parenthetical word.
A parenthetical clause.

5.

A
A

6.

An

4.

phrase out of

its

natural order.

quotation divided into two parts.


appositive that should be separated from the rest of

the sentence.
7.

An

appositive that should not be separated from the

rest of the sentence.

10,

Give two different meanings to this sentence by

punctuating differently
Mary Helen and

Julia

have gone.

LESSON LXIV
ANALYSIS AND PARSING
Diagram these sentences, and parse the
ciples,

and

infinitives

Talk not too much, nor of

2.

He

(^As

is

It

is

not

dead.

much

as that of his adop-

a conjunctive adverb, connecting the

dependent clause to
3.

thyself.

loves not other lands so

tion.

verbs, parti-

known how

so.)

the Egyptians

embalmed

their

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

230

The English language has undergone many changes


since Shakespeare lived.

few tattered huts stand among shapeless masses of


masonry where glorious Carthage once stood.
room hung with pictures is a room hung with

thoughts.

The

greatest luxury

know,

is to do a good action by
found out by accident.
We venture to say that no poet has ever had to
struggle with more unfavorable circumstances than

and

stealth

have

to

it

Milton.
9-

From

the lowest depth there


heights.

was never

What we
sense,

we

alone than

less

traly

What

a path to the

loftiest

when by myself

and earnestly

are.

is

strive to be, that, in

some

not a double relative here,


expressed.)

is

because its antecedent is


noble things, not dream about them all day long.
If I should neglect to use my right hand, it would
forget its cunning.
(The subordinate clause often
precedes the principal clause.)
Instead of saying that man is the creature of circumstance, it would be nearer the mark to say that man is
the architect of circumstance.

Do

that

man
^

is

architect

to say

circumstance.
that

man

is

creature

the

saymg

'11 )

circumstance

would be

X mark
the

Some would

call Clearer

an adjective.

REVIEW

231

LESSON LXV
REVIEW
Correct
1.

necessary, and give reasons

2.

My!

3.

Two weeks'

don't that deer

know how

to run!

vacation are too much.

6.

There is a man and a woman on the bridge.


These kind of people will never succeed.
Have you any new children's shoes?

7.

This child

8.

Who

4.
5.

9.

10.

11.

will

real sick.

is

you vote for?

Him from my

childhood

have known.

Whom do you think was with


A speech should be judged by

me?
its

argument.

12.

Many

13.

There appear

14.

15.

This

16.

more sublime than any of the poets.


This opinion never has and never can prevail.

17.

a captain, with

all the crew, have been


be many others interested.
intended to have gone yesterday.

in

is

Milton

It

We

lost at sea.

to

accordance to

my

plans.

is

not only has beauty but

18.
19.

20.

when

In his pocket are a knife and a top.

utility.

saw a man digging a well with a Roman nose.


He seems to have the universal esteem of all men.

21.

How

22.

There

can we
is

tell

whom

'

to trust ?

plenty of molasses in the jug.

23.

Neither the army or navy was represented.

24.

Two

29.

of the boys have swam ashore.


Hadn't we ought to go?
The farmer went to his neighbor and told him that his
cattle were in his field.
(Use direct quotation.)
Has the second bell rang?
He owned an old and new house.
The old and the new governor are sitting in the carriage

30.

Either he or

25.
26.

27.
28.

side

by

side.
I

am

right.

PART FOUR
LESSON

COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES


1.

The

clauses of a

compound sentence

are

some-

times called Members.


2.

The

clauses of a

compound sentence may be

different classes, according to their form.

of

If the sen-

tence has but two clauses, the following varieties

may

be found
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Both clauses simple: America was discovered by the


Northmen, but they made no permanent settlement.
One clause simple, the other complex: America was
discovered by the Northmen, but they made no settlements that were permanent.
One clause simple, the other compound America was
discovered by the Northmen, but they made no permanent settlement, nor did they conquer the Indians.
One clause complex, the other compound America was
discovered by people who came from the northern
part of Europe, but they made no permanent settlements, nor did they conquer the Indians.
Both clauses complex: The Northmen discovered the
:

is now called America, but they made


no settlements that were permanent.
6. Both clauses compound
In the tenth century America
was discovered by the Northmen, and many of these
bold navigators crossed the Atlantic; but soon all
accounts of the discovery were forgotten, and America
was again unknown to Europeans.
the compound sentence has more than two members, many

country that

If

more

varieties

may be

found.

232

^Lcn?^(jw/v3o^^V3
THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

233

Write two compound sentences of each of the

3.

six

varieties mentioned.

The

4.

clauses of a complex sentence

according to their form.

may be

of dif-

If the

sentence

has but two clauses, the following varieties

may be

ferent classes,

found
1.

Both clauses simple: Rhode Island was settled by


Roger Williams, who had been expelled from Mas-

2.

One

3.

One

4.

One

sachusetts.

clause simple the other complex


Milton did not
educate his daughters in the languages because he
believed that one tongue is enough for a woman.
:

clause simple, the other compound When thy


wealth has taken wings, and when thy companions
have deserted thee, the true friend will still remain
:

faithful.

clause complex, the other compound When thy


wealth has taken wings, and thy companions have
deserted thee, the friend that is true will still remain
:

faithful.

Both clauses complex: When Lot had selected the


valley through which the Jordan flows, Abraham dwelt
on the hills that lie west of the river.
Both clauses compound Christ came and the new era
began when Greece had lost her greatness and the
seeds of decay had been planted in the Roman Em-

5.

6.

pire.

5.

in

The

following

paragraph 4
friend

is

the diagram of the third sentence

will

remain

true

faithful.

still
I

The

wealth

has taken

when

thy

companions

have

wmgs.

;;

deserted

thy

when

"

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

234
6.

Write one complex sentence of each of the

six

varieties just mentioned.

LESSON

IT

COMPLEX SENTENCES
I.

According

clauses), there are

The dependent
1.

2.

3.

4.

dependent clause

to the use of the

many varieties
may be

(or

complex sentences.

of

clause

An adjective clause.
An adverb clause of time.
An adverb clause of place.
An adverb clause of degree

as, "

He

writes as well

as he reads.'"
5.

6.

An
An

adverb clause of concession.


adverb clause of purpose

may
7.
8.

9.

An
An
An

11.
12.
13.

adverb clause of specification

14.
15.

may

A
A

We

eat that

we

The

as,

"

We

are anx-

succeed."

A noun clause used as subject.


A noun clause used as attribute
A noun clause used as object.
A noun clause used as object
"

as "

adverb clause of cause.


adverb clause of condition.

ious that he
10.

live."

prisoner has no idea of

complement.
of a preposition; as,

why he was

arrested."

noun clause in apposition with the subject.


noun clause in apposition with the object as, " The
young man obeyed the commandment, Honor thy
father and thy mother.'
noun clause in apposition with the attribute comple;

'

16.

ment.

many authors would supply ^'for this


word anxious^ and make the clause in apposition

In the ninth example,


thing''''

after the

with things but

it is

better to consider the clause an adverb modify-

ing the word anxious.

Other clauses of specification are found

in

PHRASES
these sentences

"

the North Pole."

We
''

are not certain that an open sea surrounds

The

invalid

be noticed that

It will

235

all

is

confident that he will recover.''

these clauses of specification modify

adjectives.

Write one complex sentence of each of the sixteen

2.

varieties just mentioned.

Write two complex sentences, each having two

3.

subordinate clauses.

LESSON

TIT

PHRASES
The

1.

subject with

all its

modifiers

the General Subject, by others


Subject, and by

still

others

In the same manner

ject.

it is

it is

called

is

called the

by some

Complex

called the Logical Sub-

we have

the General,

Com-

plex, or Logical Predicate.

Phrases are sometimes divided into Simple, Com-

2.

and Compound.

plex,

3.

is

a single phrase.

may have one of its principal elements com''To Boston and New York." "Into and out of the
" By reading books and magazines."

simple phrase

pound

as,

house."
4.

Simple Phrase

Complex Phrase

is

one having one of

modified by another phrase;


Transfiguration."

"

as,

'*

Reading a book

On
of

the

its

parts

Mount

poems."

of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

236
5.

Compound Phrase

nected

and

New

to

as,

"Going

two or more phrases con-

is

and looking out."

in

''To Boston

York."

6.

Phrases are also Separable and Inseparable.

7.

Separable Phrase

is

one whose parts, or words,

can be parsed separately.


8.

An

Inseparable Phrase

not be parsed separately;

is

one whose words can-

as, *'at

once," "at

all,"

"in

vain."
07ice

is

not the object of

at,

but the two words should be parsed

together.
Infinitives are inseparable phrases.

9.

Write a sentence containing


1.

2.

An

participial phrase.

7.

A
A
A
A
A

8.

An

3.

4.
5.

6.

infinitive phrase.

noun phrase.
simple phrase.

complex phrase.

compound

phrase.

separable phrase.
inseparable phrase.

LESSON IV
THE NOUN
I.

When

noun usually masculine or feminine

fers particularly to

the neuter gender


1.

Man

2.

Her name

is

a word and not


as

masculine, because
is

to a person,

Lizzie.

it

denotes males.

it is

re-

of

NUMBER
Man
person.

is

neuter, because

Lizzie

is

it

refers to the

neuter, because

it

237
word man and not to a
name and not to

refers to the

the person.

taken from foreign languages without


2. Nouns
change generally retain their original plurals.
Singular

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

238
5.

Compound words and combined words used


pluralize the base

nouns

principal

or

word

as

the

of

expression.

sons-in-law.
dukes of Wellington.
King of England kings of England.
Son-in-law

Duke

of Wellington

Such nouns as the preceding add the sign of possession to the last
word; as, "son-in-law's house," "Duke of Wellington's career,"
"

somebody
6.

else's

book."

Compounds ending

ing j; as

spoonful, spoonfuls.
the difference between " three cupfuls of vinegar " and

Cupful, cupfuls

What

is

" three cups


7.

full

When

and not

of vinegar "

noun

to objects,

2.

ful form the plural by add-

in

form refers

plural in
it is

to

some word

number

in the singular

as

Books is a common noun.


Boys is plural.

Books and boys are both singular, because each

refers to a single

word.
8.

Some

nouns, though always plural in form, are

singular

either

intended to

or

be

according to

plural

conveyed.

Such

the

are

meaning

odds,

meanSy

amends, wages, and some others.


9.
title,

In forming the plural of proper names with a

some authors

Brown.

pluralize

the

title

Others pluralize the name

as, the
as,

tJie

Misses

Miss

Browns.
The

latter

method seems the

each of two names,

Drs. Scott

(2r

Smith.

it

better

but

if

the

title

belongs to

should take the s in forming the plural

as,

CASE
Parse the words in

10.

How

1.

She
His

2.

3.

239
these sentences

italics in

do you parse the word boys

is

a personal pronoun.

title is

Duke of Marlborough.

Write the possessive singular and the possess-

11.

ive plural of these

nouns

brother-in-law, queen of England, captain of the ship, lieu-

tenant colonel.

LESSON V
CASE
Intransitive verbs

I.

sitive

after

the

and

their participles,

and

tran-

verbs in the passive voice, have the same case

them

as before

same person or

them when both words

refer to

(This rule will explain

thing.

predicate nominative.^
Pocahontas was married to an Englishman named John

1.

Rolfe.

John Rolfe
2.

Governor

is

in the objective case, to agree with

want him
is

to

Englishman.

be governor.

in the objective case to agree with

///;;/,

the objec-

tive subject of to be.

To

3.

President

is

be right

is

better than to be President (is good).

in the objective case, to agree with one or

understood, the objective subject of to

There

a curious exception to the rule just given.

with the construction of a noun


it

and the nominative case

after

may have
it

as,

person

be.

''

participle

the possessive case before

His being a scholar secured

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

240

Scholar

the situation."
his refer to the

He

difference."

is

nominative case although

in the

its

in

is

and

it

being he should make no

" Its

nominative

in the

bemg^ while

participle

is

same person.

case after the intransitive

the possessive case

before the

participle.

2.

Appositive and predicate nouns need not agree

with the principal term in gender, person, or number


as

2.

I am he.
He was eyes

3.

The Greeks, a synonym

1.

to the blind.
for

brave men, gained a great

victory over the Persians.

3.

clause,

noun may be

in apposition

with a phrase or

and a phrase or clause may be

in

apposition

with a noun.
1.

Her aiding me, a kindness


cause of

2.

my

She aided me

can never forget, was the

success.
in procuring a situation, a

kindness

can

never forget.
3.

This

task, to teach the

In the second sentence, kindjtess

young, has
is

with the preceding clause, although the clause


4.

A noun used independently


1.

2.
3.

4.

its

pleasures.

in the nominative in apposition

is

is

not a noun clause.

in the nominative

By direct address as, John^ come here."


By pleonasm as, " Cleveland^ he was President."
By exclamation as, " What a pleasure "
By subscription (as when signed to a letter or

''

other

written production).
5.

Absolute

as, "

The snow

melting, the river rose."

In order to be in the nominative absolute, the noun or pronoun

must be placed before a

participle

and must be independent of the

remainder of the sentence.


5.

noun

Each

of these sentences contains a

in the nominative,

noun

used independently.

or pro-

Pick out

CASE
each one, and decide whether

241
it is

nominative by direct

address, pleonasm, exclamation, subscription, or in the

nominative absolute:
The

Pilgrim Fathers, where are they

Great and manifold are thy works, O Lord


Mr. President I rise to ask a question.

2.

3.

5.

None but the brave


The Lord of the

6.

What

4.

deserve the fair.

Dryden.

Universe, he will hear their com-

plaints.

6.

joy,

what happiness!

Write a sentence having


1

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

10.

11.

A noun in apposition with a phrase.


A noun in apposition with a clause.
A phrase in apposition with a noun.
A clause in apposition with a noun.
A pronoun, objective after an intransitive
A noun, nominative by direct address.
A noun, nominative by exclamation.
A noun, nominative by pleonasm.
A noun, nominative by subscription.
A noun, nominative absolute.
A pronoun, nominative absolute.

LESSON

verb.

VT

CASE
1.

In forming the possessive the additional

times omitted

when

sive sounds of

its

s is

some-

use would cause several succes-

as,/<?r conscience sake.

This omission of the

s is

not so

common now

as

it

was twenty

years ago.
2.

It

should be remembered that


hoenshel's eng. gram.

16

when two

apposi-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

242

tives are in the possessive case, only

one

will take the

sign.

This

1.

is

Arnold's grave, the

"This

Better,

traitor.

is

the grave of Arnold, the traitor."

Here

2.

rests his

head upon the lap of

fortune and to fame

unknown.

earth,

{Youth

a youth to
the

in

is

possessive case, in apposition with his.)

3.

noun or pronoun placed before a

participle with

the construction of a noun should be in the possessive


case

as
1.

3.

Do

am opposed

to the gentleman's speaking again.

His being a good penman secured the position.


What do you think of my going to Europe?

2.

two sentences have the same meaning?


you studying Latin." " I am surprised
studying Latin." May both be correct?
these

surprised

4.

nouns

at

Each

of the following sentences has one or

in the objective case without a


1

He

2.

The sun

3.

4.
5.

(IVof'th

am

"I
at

your

two

governing word:

waited an hour.

shines night and day.


Four times every year he visits his old home.
Corn has grown ten inches this month.
Good horses are worth one hundred dollars a head.
is

an adjective, modifying horses. A


its object, but most authors

maybe

a prepo-

a an adjective and parse head in the objective case without a governing


sition,

with head for

call

word.)
6.
7.

5.

Some land will produce eighty bushels


Adams and Jefferson both died July 4,

Some

verbs seem to take two objects meaning the

same person
1.

2.

3.
4.

of corn an acre.
1826.

or thing

as

They made him king.


They chose him captain.
The people elected Harrison president.
The Dutch named the settlement New Amsterdam.

^Wk ^ f^^^ 2

63

CASE
In these sentences to be
ject,

making the

second
to be king."

may be

objective

Him

supplied before the last ob-

object the subject of the infinitive

first

the

object

243

to be

objective subject of to

be,

kmg

attribute;
is

and king

and the

"They made him

thus,

the object of made,

him

is

the

in the objective case to agree

is

with him.
6.

When

verbs of making, choosing, creating, elect-

two

ing, etc., take

of the action

is

objects, the

one showing the result

often called the Factitive Object (fac

make).
In the sentences given in paragraph

5, kitig,

captain, president,

and New Amsterdam are factitive objects.


as,
Sometimes the factitive object may be an adjective
" The medicine made the child sick."
Here sick modifies child,
It seems to me,
but it is called the factitive object by some.
;

however, that neither child nor sick


that the real object

is

Remark. Some

is

the object

made, but

of

child {to be) sick.


call

the factitive object

" objective comple-

ment."
7.

Some

verbs seem to take two objects, one denot-

ing a person and the other denoting a thing; as


1.

Aristotle taught Alexander philosophy.

2.

The queen asked Ahasuerus

In the

first

most grammarians call philosophy the


and say that Alexander is the object of a

understood.

considered the

a question.

sentence,

object of the verb,

preposition

object,

In

the

second

and Ahasuerus

is

sentence,

question

called the object

is

of a

preposition understood.

Greek grammars give such verbs two obno reason why the same may not be done in
English.
As either philosophy or Alexander can be made the
subject in the passive, it would seem that either can be consid"Alexander was taught philosoered the object of the verb.
phy." "Philosophy was taught to Alexander." If we call both
philosophy and Alexa?ider the objects in the active voice, when

The

jects,

Latin and the

and

see


ENGLISH GRAMMAR

244
Alexajider
the

object

made

is

subject, philosophy

the

the passive

of

verb.

This

can

in

is

be

parsed

harmony with

as

the

grammars, and is fully as logical and sensible as to say


Alexander was taught (as to) philosophy/' or " Ahasuerus was
asked (as to) a question."
Another peculiar objective is found in such sentences as " He
struck the rock a blow." Blow is undoubtedly in the objective case,
and we cannot easily supply a preposition before it. Of course, blow
classic

"

is

not the object of struck in the same sense that rock

is

something about struck that governs blow

8.

first

When

pronouns follow

me

but there

interjections, those of the

person are usually in the objective case

wretched

is,

in the objective case.

as, "

Ah

"
!

Such objectives are not the object of the

interjection, but are in

the objective merely as a matter of custom.

Pronouns of the second or the third person following

inter-

jections are in the nominative case.

9.

Write a sentence containing

2.

A compound phrase.
A complex phrase.

3.

The

1.

possessive plural q{ son-in-law.

11.

A predicate noun differing in number from the subject.


A noun, nominative by direct address.
A noun, objective case without a governing word.
A factitive object.
A pronoun, objective after an interjection.
A pronoun, nominative after an interjection.
A noun having no singular.
A noun having no plural.

12.

An

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.
10.

appositive differing in

number from the

principal

term.

Remark.
youth

In

sentence

rests his head, etc.,

2,

paragraph

making

2,

the meaning

rests transitive,

may be

with head iox

its

that the
object.

OUTLINE OF NOUN

LESSON

245

VII

OUTLINE
I.

Study the following outline of the noun.


Proper.

Classes

^
Common

abstract.
collective.

material.
verbal, etc.

masculine,
feminine,

Gender

neuter,

common.
[

Person

third.

Number

singular.

Properties

first.

second.

plural.

subject.

predicate,

apposition,
direct address,
'

nominative

exclamation,

pleonasm,
absolute,

subscription.

Case

owner.

apposition.

possessive

object of verb,
object of preposition,
apposition.
wL-jv,v,tivv,
objective

^viti^out

gov. word.

sub. of infinitive.
y

2.

Write an essay on

just given.

objective attribute.

"The Noun,"

using the outline

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

246

LESSON

VIII

PARSING
I.

In the following sentences the word senator

used in
I.

all

the possible constructions of a noun

is

Nominative:
a.

Subject of the sentence

b.

In the predicate

c.

In apposition

d.

Direct address

e.

Exclamation:

Pleonasm

f.
g.

Absolute

h.

By

The

senator

is

speaking.

Mr. Clay is senator.


Mr. Clay, the senator, lived in Kentucky.

Senator,

when

will

you return?

noble Senator!

The
The

what did he say?

senator,

senator having concluded his address,

the meeting adjourned.

(signed to a letter or other written

subscription

production).

2.

Possessive:
a.

Owner: The

b.

Apposition

senator's election

is

assured.

Mr. Clay, the senator's, speech was printed

in all the great dailies.

3.

Objective:

The

a.

Object of a verb

b.

Object of a preposition

c.

Apposition

citizens
:

honor the senator.

voted for the senator.

d.

I saw Mr. Clay, the senator.


Without a governing word [The melon weighs forty
poimds.'] (Nouns referring to persons cannot be used

e.

Subject of infinitive

/.

Objective attribute

governing word.)
want the senator to succeed.
The people wished Mr. Clay to be

in the objective case without a

senator.

DIAGRAMING
2.

Pronouns can be used

in

247

most of the preceding

Write sentences, using pronouns instead

constructions.

of nouns.
3.

Diagram these sentences, and parse the words

in

italics
1.

Tenderly her blue eyes glistened, long ti7ne ago.


is usually parsed as an adjective modifying

In such sentences ago

time = past time), but I believe that ago is an adverb


modifying glistened, and the phrase long time modifies ago.
Take

time (ago

this sentence

'Mt happened forty years ago."

Now,

\{

forty years

modifies happened, and ago modifies years, the meaning is. "It
happened for forty years."
But the meaning is, " It happened ago
(in the past) (to the extent of) forty years."
2.

Each

in his

narrow

forever laid, the rude forefathers

cell

of the hamlet sleep.

6.

spring coming, the general began the campaign.


Ye everlasting /^/C'j I am with you once again.
He looked a sachem in red blanket wrapt.
Every why hath a wherefore.

7.

The

3.

4.
5.

.'

boast of heraldry, tht

And

all

that beauty,

all

pomp

of power.

that wealth e'er gave,

Await alike the inevitable hour

The
8.

9.

10.

11.

paths of glory lead bnt to the grave.

He was

driven an exile from his native land.


would be free himself vmist strike the blow.
Every sailor in the port
Knows that I have ships at sea.
Of the waves and winds the spo?'t
And the sailors pity me.
Where one lives as a ki?ig, many live 2.^ peasants.

Who

as

many
12.

wish

it

live := peasants.

to be distinctly

of his whereabouts.

understood that

know nothing

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

248

LESSON IX
THE PRONOUN

I.

personal

pronoun of the possessive form

often used without the

"This

is

yours, that

name

is

of the thing possessed

mine."

Here the things

sessed by yours and mine are not mentioned.


possessive

forms

sometimes

are

called

is

as,

pos-

Such

Possessive

Pronoims.
If these words are called possessive pronouns, they should not
be parsed as in the possessive case. In the above sentence yours
and mine are both in the nominative case, used in the predicate.
In " I have yours, you have mine," yours and 7nine are both in the

objective case, object of have.

possessive

pronoun

is

never in

the possessive case.


If

we supply

the

word

that

is

understood

{book., for

sentence becomes "I have your book, you have


book

is

the object of the verbs, and

my

example), the

book."

Now

your and my are personal proThis method is used by many

nouns in the possessive case.


authors.
It should be stated, however, that we cannot always
supply an understood noun thus, in '' A friend of mine," we cannot supply friends and say " A friend of my friends," because
the meaning may be very different from the original.
I prefer the
term possessive pronoun, and I parse ?ni?te as the object of the
;

preposition of.

Sometimes a noun may perform the same office as these possessive


pronouns as, " An uncle of John's." Here John's has the sign of
;

possession, but

is not in the possessive case, the idea of possession


being indicated by the preposition of John''s is in the objective
case although it has the sign of possession.
(It is but just to state

some grammarians consider the above sentence incorrect, and


it to
'-An uncle of John"; but the expression has the
sanction of good authority, and is in our language to stay.)

that

change

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN


2.

Clause

Restrictive

meaning

of the

word

it

one that

is

modifies

as

249
restricts

the

(The relative
is the horse that my friend bought.
clause limits horse to one particular horse.)

This

1.

2.

have the book that you mentioned.

The boy that was here yesterday is twelve years old.


The boy, who was here yesterday, is twelve years old.

3.

4.

(Not

restrictive.)

In the fourth sentence, the hearers are supposed to know what


The speaker starts out to inform them that
particular boy is meant.
is twelve years old, but he gives the additional information
(almost by way of parenthesis) that the boy was here yesterday.
The hearers did not know he was here yesterday, so that the speaker

the boy

In such sentences, the relative

gives information in both clauses.

clause

is

not restrictive.

know what
boy the speaker has in mind several boys may have been
Therefore, the speaker informs them that
mentioned previously.
the particular boy that was here yesterday is twelve years old. The
In the third sentence, the hearers are not supposed to

particular

relative clause does not

knew he was here

give additional

information

yesterday, but did not

know he

is

hearers

the

twelve years

In such sentences the relative clause is restrictive.


Notice the punctuation of the third and fourth sentences.

old.

3.

That should be used instead

of

who

or which in

restrictive clauses.

Many good
4.

writers

and speakers do not follow

Appositives,

participial

when not

clauses,

phrases,

restrictive, are

this rule.

and

relative

usually set off

by

commas.
5.

and

Examine the

relative

clauses in these sentences,

select those that are restrictive.


1.

recently heard one of the best orators that live in

America.
2.

The diamond, which


gem.

is

pure

charcoal,

is

a brilliant

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

250

The diamond

3.

that the countess wore cost fifty thousand

dollars.

My

4.

March

4, 1895.

5.

My

6.

Listen to the song that nature sings.

7.

He

was a member of the congress that expired

friend

March

6.

was a member of the 53d congress, which

friend

expired

1895.

4,

was the

drollest fellow that

ever saw.

Select the correct pronoun in these sentences

was the first (that, who) entered.


This is the same story (that, which) we read before.
(When the subject is
It was not I (who, that) did it.
the predicate pronoun is generally followed by
//,

He

2.
3.

that.^

Was

you or the wind (who, that) shut the door


I have is thine.
Yesterday I met an old friend, (that, whom) I

4.

it

All (which, that)

5.

6.

failed

to recognize.

Yesterday

7.

met an old

friend (that,

whom)

failed to

recognize.

He

8.

sold his bay horse, (which, that)

had been given

to

him.

He

9.

sold the bay horse (which, that) had been given to

him.

LESSON X
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN
I.

As

\s>

used as a relative pronoun after such, many,

and same.

3.

(We might say "who love


love me.
me," but as sounds better than who.
Milton.
Tears, such as angels weep, burst forth.
I shall not learn my duty from such as he.

4.

As many

1.

2.

love such as

as were called responded.

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN


2.

25

Give the construction of the relative as

in

each of

the preceding sentences.


3.

But,

when

that not,

equivalent to

sometimes

is

used as a negative relative pronoun.


1

2.
3.

4.

The

Where
There
There

breathes the foe but

no wind but soweth seeds of a better

relative

pronoun

is

it.

life.

frequently understood.

1.

Men

5.

is

2.

4.

before us

falls

here but knows

not a

All the wealth he had ran

3.

will reap the things

in his veins.

they sow.

Let not harsh words mar the good we might do


Take the goods the gods provide thee.
The orator we heard is from Kentucky.

The antecedent

5.

man

is

of a relative

is

here.

sometimes under-

stood.

6.

1.

Who

2.

Whom

3.

Let him be

steals

purse steals trash.

who he may.

Parse the relative pronouns found in the sentences

under paragraphs
7.

my

the gods love die young.

In Part

3, 4,

Three

and
the

5.

compound

relatives

whoever

and whosoever were declined, giving the forms whosever,


whosesoever, whomever, and whomsoever.

Not all authors agree to this. Maxwell says, ''Whosoever is the


compound relative declined." Harvey says, "Compound

only

Notwithstanding the assertions of these


eminent authors, I believe that the possessive and objective forms of
whoever and whosoever are good English.
As a compound relative always performs two offices (its own, and
in
that of its unexpressed antecedent), some persons have difficulty
when
form
objective
the
or
nominative
deciding whether to use the

relatives are^ indeclinable."

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

252
one

office

sentence

Whoever

other

the

from and

compound

sells

the subject of
it

Take

As

sells.
is

this

cheapest.

the office of

the subject of the subor-

is

The

dinate clause, and therefore should have the nominative form.

understood antecedent
If

we supply

changed

'^

all

relatives in the subordinate clause that determines its

In the above sentence whoever

form.

objective.

whoever

from

purchase

shall

pronouns are found in subordinate clauses,

relative

the

We

the object of

is

and

nominative

is

"

is

the object oi from in the principal clause.

antecedent,

the

who ;

to the simple

the

thus, "

compound whoever should be


We shall buy from him who

sells cheapest.''

Whomever you select will go," the subordinate


Whomever you select," and whomever is the object of
The principal clause is,
therefore, it has the objective form.

In the sentence, "


clause
select]

"

He

is

"

(or that one) will go."

8.

compound

relative

Select

2.

Give

it

9.

The

youwish.
wants

to

long will find trouble.

prize

is

Observe that a

pendent,

it.

lives

3.

4.

proper form of the

these blanks with the

Fill

wins

for

relative

In the following sentences,

2.

Who

3.

It

is

who

is
is

is

always in a de-

always a connective.
a not a relative, but

know who

1.

pronoun

and

adjective clause,

an interrogative

it.

did

it.

the legal speaker of the house has not yet been

determined.

There
10.

is

has not yet been decided

an indirect question

who

discovered America.

each of the above sentences.

Give the construction of the relative out

sentence of paragraph
11.

in

in

each

3.

Write a sentence having a compound relative

the objective case.

in

REVIEW

253

LESSON XI
REVIEW
In the following sentences the pronouns

1.

Examine

with their antecedents.


1.

2.
3.

In such sentences as "

is

//

is

are) in the wrong."

but

li

you that

some gram-

will succeed,"

Change the sentence


If that agrees

with

it,

to " It

the verb

writers

correct

believe

which
At the same time, I believe the majority of
and speakers would use are as the predicate of that in

the relative
//

and

you that

is

is is

that agrees with yoie^ the verb are should be used.

particular

good

It is

the antecedent of that^ and others say that

the antecedent.

(is,

that

He is one of the best men that live in the city.


Every boy and girl must depend on himself.
All boys and girls must depend on themselves.

marians say that

you

carefully

agree

is

clause

is

restrictive

limits

it,

telling

yo7i.

the given sentence.


2.

Select the correct sentence from each of these

pairs
f

'

3.

nouns

Fill

It is I

lit

is I

that

am

that

is

standing here,

standing here.

It is

they that were responsible.

It is

they that was responsible.

these blanks with the proper personal pro-

1.

Neither of us

2.

4.

John and I have


John and you have
Each member of this

5.

Two

3.

is

willing to give

up

claim.

lessons.
lessons.
class

must have

or three of us have finished

own
work.

book.

ENGLISH GRAiMMAR

254

4.

6.

The mother,

7.

If

as well as the father,

you should find


to me.

my

Correct where necessary


a friend which

1.

This

2.

Thou

art the

3.

Take

that

is

must do

part.

horse or cow, please bring

love.

man who

book

to

has done the crime.


the library, which I

left

on the

table.
4.

There was a bird caught by the

fox,

which was web-

footed.
5.

6.
7.

5.

prisoner was sentenced by the judge, who committed the crime.


This is the vice that I hate.
Jamestown was the first permanent settlement which
was made in the United States by the English.

The

Correct the case forms where necessary


1

2.

3.

Who

will

you

select for secretary

Let (he, him) be (who,


A gentleman entered

whom) he may.
who I afterward

learned was

the governor of the state.


gentleman entered who I afterward found out to be

4.

5.

Who

6.

She who

studies, the teacher will

7.

Give the

letter to

the governor of the state.


shall

go

to

commend.

Henry, (he, him) who

is

standing by

the gate.
8.

refer to

Newton, he who discovered the law of gravi-

tation.

10.

You may guess who it is.


You may guess whom they

11.

Whom

9.

6.

elected.

did you say was chosen?

Write a sentence having a compound relative

in

the nominative case.


7.

Write a sentence having a compound relative

in

the possessive case.


8.

May any

one of the pronouns

correct for the blank in sentence

i,

Jiis,

her, our,

paragraph 3?

be

PARSING

255

LESSON

XII

PARSING
I.

Parse the nouns and pronouns in these sentences


1.

He

granted

my

an act

request,

for

which

greatly

esteem him.
2.

3.

He
He

that formed the ear, shall he not hear?

waited an hour, staff in hand.

He

waited

hour
staff
L

(being)
5*

4.
5.

6.

hand.

Next Anger rushed, his eyes on fire.


Whosoever will, let him come.
Whomsoever the governor selects

shall

receive

the

appointment.
7.

The

Give the prize to whomever you deem most worthy.

following

is

an outline of the pronoun


simple.
J

personal

compound.
simple.

relative

double.

compound.

Classes
interrogative,
f

adjective

demonstrative.

indefinite,
1^

possessive.
3.

Write an essay on

line just given.

*'

The Pronoun," using

the out-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

256

LESSON

XIII

DIAGRAMING AND PARSING


Diagram these sentences, and parse the words

in

italics
1

The

noblest soul

is

that which choses the right, not for

gain or glory, but because


2.

All prize

3.

Happy

the

is

man who

and

We

right.

has mastered the most

of life's problems, na?nely,

4.

'tis

most what they do not possess.


iho. problem

difficult

of living wisely

well.

teach

much when we

are not teaching at

all

un-

conscious influence.
5.

Do and

6.

have your pupils do and be.


Education is the debt the present

be, so nearly as in

you

lieth,

what you would


owes

to

future

generations.
7.

The comprehensive law

of education

is,

" Exercise gives

development."
8.

would rather be right with the few than wrong with

the tnany.

Rather

an adverb, the comparative of an obsolete positive,

is

rath^ or rathe.
9.

Friendship! mysterious cement of the soul, sweetener of

and solder of society.


mind to me a kingdom is.
There is nothing great on earth but man', there
life

ID.
11.

My

nothing great in

man

is

but mind.

12.

Aristotle tells us that a statue lies buried in a block of

13.

14.

Ill

marble.

heard that that

Where
15.

man

that was expected has arrived.

fares the land, to hastening

Blessed

wealth accumulates and


is

the

man whose God

ills

2iprey,

men
is

decay.

the Lord.

REVIEW

257

LESSON XIV
REVIEW
1.

Correct where necessary, and analyze these sen-

tences

1.

Let not him boast that puts his armor on, but he that

2.

Oh, no,

takes

And him
3.

child 'twas not in war.

that kills a single

Let none touch

5.

He
He

6.

His

4.

it off.

my

is

the

is

the

is

it

but they

man his neighbors


who are clean.

abhor.

man who was thought to be you.


man who you were thought to be.

the language of the heart.

8.

The time of prosperity will come who doubts


I can make it clear that I am innocent.

9.

Bring such books as will be needed.

7.

all

10.

Whom

11.

Gentle reader,

12.

All,

13.

Tell me, in confidence,

it?

do people say won first place in the contest?


let you and me walk in the paths of

virtue.

save

I,

were pleased.

whom

2.

Write a sentence in which as

3.

Write a sentence

in

is

she you love.

is

a relative pronoun.

which but

is

a relative pro-

noun.
4.

Write a sentence in which a relative pronoun

is

understood.
5.

Write a sentence containing a

restrictive relative

clause.
6.

Write a sentence containing a non-restrictive

tive clause.

hoenshel's eng. gram.

17

rela-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

258

LESSON XV
THE ADJECTIVE

When

1.

tives

is

used with two or more adjec-

belonging to different nouns, the

repeated

When
if

the article

as,

''

article

should be

a large and a small house " (two houses).


used in comparative expressions with than,
same person or
should not be repeated as, " He is a better

the article

is

the nouns before and after than both refer to the

thing, the article

soldier than statesman."

2.

One

"a

adjective sometimes limits another; as,

deep blue color."


3.

An

adjective sometimes modifies an adjective

a noun combined;
fies

as,

"a good

old man."

6^^?^^

modi-

old man.

Notice the difference in the meaning of these expressions


good old man," and " a good, old man."

4.

and

"a

In such expressions as "two hundred bushels,"

some authors claim that hundred is


the adjective two, and that bushels

a noun, modified by
is

the object of the

preposition of understood.
as
I see no reason why two hundred cannot be parsed together
Three, six thousatid,
one adjective, just as we parse seventy-five.
four dozen, etc, all answer the question, "How many?" and should

be treated as simple adjectives.

THE ADJECTIVE
5.

When

most^ nearly

authors consider 7nore and most adverbs.

all

In more Joyful,
positive degree

if

we

Do

compared with more and

are

adjectives

^2x?>%

not

all

joyful as an adjective,

agree that tnore joyful

tive degree of the adjective/^///^//

the comparative degree,


7nore by

7nore joyful

6.

why

itself,

and

When

259

why

If

it

not in the

the compara-

both words are required for

not parse them together?

not parse er in older by

tnost

is
is

itself

If

we parse

prefer to parse

joyful together.

the comparative degree of a word

fol-

is

lowed by than, the positive degree of the same word


understood in the subordinate clause, and than

is

is

a con-

junctive adverb connecting the two clauses.


In "

He

is

older than

dependent clause.

am

Good

writers

am," old is understood after am, and the


is an adverb clause of degree, modify-

old,"

Than connects

ing older.

7.

"

the clauses and modifies old.

and speakers sometimes use the

superlative

when comparing only two

such use

contrary to the rules of grammar.

8.

is

degree below the positive

adding ish ;
9.

When

is

objects,

although

sometimes made by

as, blackish, greenish.

two or more adjectives are connected by

conjunctions, the shortest and simplest should generally

be placed

first;

as,

''This tree

is

larger and

more

useful than that."

When

adjectives thus connected are

compared

differently,

authors say they should be arranged as stated above, and that


or most should be placed before the
righteous cause never existed."

first

believe

as, "
it

is

nobler and more righteous cause never existed."

some
fitore

more noble and

better to say,

''

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

26o

The word

10.

like,

when used

an intransitive verb,

some grammarians prefer


He

In "

is

an adjective, although

often

is

appositively or after

to call

a preposition.

it

an adjective, modifying

like his father," like is

he,

and

the object of to or unto understood.


Here, like has the
meaning of sitnilar. In " He, like the brave man he was thought

father

is

ground,"

be, firmly held his

to

tively

and modifies

adverb, modifying

When

like is

ca7i

run, and deer

an adverb,

it

an adjective, used apposi-

like is

"She can run

In

he.

means

is

like a deer,"

///^^

is

an

the object of to understood.

similarly, or in

a similar manner.

do not think that like is ever a preposition.


The words unlike, near, nigh, and opposite should be treated
I

as the

word

Less should be applied to nouns of magnitude

11.

and fewer should be applied

(bulk),

titude

just

like.

(many)

as, less

money,

less

nouns of mul-

to

water ; fewer

dollars,

fewer gallons.
12.

Many

a and wJiat a should often be parsed

gether as one adjective

blush unseen."

"

as, "

What

Many

a crash that was

What a is sometimes an adverb as, " What


"
What a is an adverb, modifying large.
;

is

a flower

13.

elder),

Old has two forms


and two

for

Elder and eldest are


older and

oldest

are

the

for the

is

"
!

a large parade that

comparative (older,

superlative (oldest,

appUed

only to

applied to

to-

born to

eldest).

persons,

but

persons, animals, or

things.
14.

verb),

Further and furthest come from forth (an ad-

and farther and farthest come from far.

..

REVIEW

261

LESSON XVT
REVIEW
Correct the errors, and parse the words in

better statesman than a general.

Washington was a

2.

This

3.

The Russian Empire

4.

He

5.

The banner

man

of

others

all

italics

most to be pitied.
more extensive than any natios

is

is

on the globe.
is

a better disciplinarian than teacher.

a blue
6.

Fire

7.

of the United States

is

a red, a white, an(?

flag.

a better servant than a master.

is

and pale

rosy-faced

girl

were seen

sitting side

by

side.
8.

9.

The pen

is

He was

such a criminal, that a few persons mourned

10.

rosy-faced

and a

pale girl

was seen

in the

company.

a mightier weapon than sword.

his death.
1 1

Although he was unpopular, yet he had few

12.

Grief

13.

He was

struck dead.

14.

A good

farmer keeps his horses /<2/^.

15.

All went

16.

The hunter was

made her

merry

friends.

insane.

as a marriage bell.

so badly frightened that he turned

pale.

and mighty above

17.

Great

18.

Unheard., because our ears are dull,

is truth,

all

things.

Unseen., because our eyes are dim,

He walks our earth, the Wonderful,


And all good deeds are done to Him.
19.

Give him

this

memoranda.

Jacob loved Joseph more than all his children.


21. This is a better furnished room than any in the house.
20.

22.

Noah and

his family outlived all the people that lived

before the flood.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

262

LESSON XVII
THE VERB

A verb is

1.

as, "

sometimes combined with a preposition

This must be attended

This combining does not often occur in the active voice.


"

The mayor must

attend

IS

pound

attend to this matter," to

is

a preposition,

is

In

and

In "This matter must be attended to by the

intransitive.

mayor,'' to

to!'

part of the verb,

verb, transitive, passive.

object in the active voice,

and

and

?mist be attended to

The verb attend


is

will

a com-

is

not take an

passive only with the aid of the

preposition.

Other examples are


1.
He was laughed
2.

The

at

by the boys.

property was taken possession

of.

(Better

" Pos-

session was taken of the property.")


3.

The

4.

That should have been thought

2.

carriage has been sent for.

verb that,

when

complete predicate by
as

of.

joined to a subject, will form a

itself, is

called a

Complete Verb

1.

The baby

2.

Birds

3.

verb

sleeps.

fly.

that,

when

joined to a subject, will not

form a complete predicate by

itself, is

called an

Incom-

plete Verb.

The word used

with an incomplete verb

is

called the

Comple-

ment.

Most

The
plete,

intransitive verbs are complete.

intransitive verbs appear^ be, become, seem, etc., are incom-

and require complements.

Copulative Verbs.

These verbs are sometimes

called

THE VERB
The complement
object.

plement

4.

of a transitive verb in the active voice

''

He was

considered

Verb

Finite

com-

brave.''''

any mode or tense

is

its

is

transitive verb in the passive voice often takes a

as,

263

of the verb

except the infinitives and the participles.


definition for a finite verb might be, "

The

that changes

changeable

its

not

Infinitives

form to agree with


infinite.

and

do not change their form to agree with


words they modify. For this reason they are

participles

their subjects or the

not

any mode or tense


Finite means

subject."

its

finite.

5.

Ca7i

have

is

usually given as one of the signs of

the potential, present-perfect


6.

The

so-called

but

its

use

is

very rare.

past tense of the potential

does not express past

time,

but

either

mode

present

or

future.
This tense is called past because in early English, or AngloSaxon, fnight, could, would, and should meant past time.
7.

The

imperative

the third person

is

is

conjugated only in the


in either the first or

as

2.

Turn i^e aside and rest awhile.


Be // resolved by this society.

3.

Blessed be he that

8.

mde

may be found

second person, but

first

invented sleep.

In some grammars the past tense, progressive form,

called the Imperfect (not finished)

Tense

as, "

He

was walking
9.

sive

Sometimes a progressive form


voice

lesson

as,

"

was being

The house

is

is

being

used

in the pas-

built."

"

The

recited."

authors object to some such forms, and prefer to use the


In these examples
as, " The house is building.''
active progressive
it is better to use the passive form (cumbersome as it is) than the

Some

..

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

264

active.

common that they can


Wheat is selling for a dollar

few active forms have become so

claim the sanction of good usage

"

as,

a bushel."

When we

10.

speak of a past action or event, and no


it took place remains,
we

part of the time in which

should use the past tense but if there still remains


some portion of the time in which it took place, we
;

should use the present-perfect tense.


1.

made

Science has

2.

Many

3.

4.

Examples

great advancement this century.

battles were fought during the eighteenth century.


have been reading this morning. (It is not yet noon.)
(It is past noon.)
read this morning.

11. When two past actions or events are referred to,


one of which must have occurred before the other, this
sequence of time must be observed in the use of the

Examples

tenses.

went, but

have returned.

1.

2.

After Lee had been defeated at Gettysburg, he retreated

into Virginia.
3.

Napoleon reigned one hundred days


turned from the Island of Elba.

he had

re-

Statements always true or always false should be

12.

expressed in the present tense

as

Galileo believed that the earth moves.

2.

Our

fathers asserted that all

men

are created equal.

Correct where necessary, and parse the words in

13.
italics

after

2.

He was well taken care of.


The actor was looked at by

3.

Be\\. k7iown to all

4.

all over the country.


houses last year.
I built three houses this year.
After we visited Paris we returned

5.

6.
7.

Corn

is

have

thousands.

men.

gathering

built three

to

the

States.
8.

It

was proved years ago that the

air

had weight.

United

WOULD

SHALL, WILL; SHOULD,

LESSON

XVIII

WOULD

SHALL, WILL; SHOULD,


In
cult

many

265

cases the correct use of these words

to determine.

It

is

a well-established

is

dififi-

fact

that

in their use of

good writers and speakers do not agree


these words.

Where one good

you can

another equally as good using should.

find

Yet, a certain writer on English

writer will use wotild,

grammar

boldly

the assertion that carelessness or ignorance

is

makes

the only

excuse that can be offered for not using these words


correctly.

What

that

grammarian

some standard author may

Of

course, in the

calls correct usage,

call incorrect.

more common uses

the observing student need have but

The primary meaning

of will

is

nation, and the primary meaning

Shall in the

trouble.

purpose or determi-

of shall

is

obligation.

person and will in the second and

first

Will in the

third simply foretell.

determination.

of these words,

little

person expresses

first

/ will go means that

am

determined

Shall in the second and third persons means

to go.

an obligation not controlled by the subject, but by some


external influence.

going
assist

one.

is

Yoti shall

go means that the

not controlled by yourself.

me means

that

you

will

act of

You shall not

be prevented by some

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

266

In interrogative sentences, shall denotes that the sub-

under some external influence, and will denotes

ject is

that the act


?

there

"

controlled

is

by the

might be answered by " Yes,


" Will

vented by circumstances."

No

"

be answered by

Shall you be

*'

subject.

if

am

you be there

not pre?

"

might

do not care to go."

Rhetoric gives the following forms in inter-

Hill's

rogative sentences
Future of Deter7mnation
Shall I (we) go?
Will you go?
Shall he (they) go?

Future of Expectation
Shall I (we) go?
Shall you go?
Will he (they) go?

Should and would follow

in general the

Would \^ often used to


Would that I were at home

shall and will.

wish

as,

The

"

following

is

same

rules as

express a strong
"
!

from Richard Grant White

To my readers I shall venture to say that if they express hoping


and wishing and the like with will and would, and command, demand,
for example,
I hope
and mandatory desire with shall and should
that Mrs. Unwin will invite them to tea," and " I wish that Mrs. Unwin would invite them to tea " but " He commands that Mrs. Unwin
shall invite them to tea," and " He desired that Mrs. Unwin should
invite them to tea"; and, impersonally, "It is wished that no person shall leave his seat," and " It was requested that no persons should

'^

they

leave their seats "


I.

The

will not

be

far

from

right.

following uses of shall, will, shouldy and would

are correct

I.

fear

we

shall

2.

fear

he

will

shall enjoy the visit.

3.

4.

It is

5.

have

rain.

neglect his business.

requested that no one shall leave the room.

shall

be obliged to discuss this subject.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE
6.

Where

7.

When

8.

It

you be next week


you go ?

shall

shall

267

was intended that the army should march the next


day.

9.

We

10.

2.

Fill

should be happy to see you.


him to stay, but he would come.

told

shall, will, should,

each of these blanks with

or would,

and give reasons.

3.

betray him.
He knew who
I do ?
What
we finish this book
When

4.

^^

We

6.

He

7.

It

1.

2.

pay him to-day

^.

demand

he

it.

favor us.
be pleased if you
not succeed.
was afraid that he

probably rain to-day.


he be allowed to go on

8.

If

if

we

go

we hear good

to the concert,

sing-

ing?
that Crete were free

10.

LESSON XIX
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MODE
I.

ent.

The

subjunctive

mode has but one

tense, the pres-

In the verb be two subjunctive tenses are found,

the present and the past.


Probably authors differ more in their discussion of the subjunctive mode than in the discussion of any other part of grammar.
tenses,

some

and some only a small piece of a

tense.

Some

give this

mode

six

four,

some

three,

some two,

that is, the


In the classic languages, mode is a change of form
Some grammaverb has a different form for the different modes.
rians adhere to this principle in English, while others claim that mode
;

is

a change of meaning, not a change of form.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

268

If we examine the verbs in the sentences " I had gone " and " If
had gone," we shall find that the verbs are the same, and that the
Now, as // is not part of
difference is made by the little word if.
the verb, some say the verb in both sentences is in the same mode,
I

the indicative.

believe this

the correct view of the matter.

is

It

certainly has the merit of simplicity.

Taking the view that mode

is

a change of form, there are but two


" If thou

subjunctive forms in each verb (except the verb to be)

go," and " If he go."


lar

but, as not all

we can

correctly say there

If

tive.

These are both in the present tense, singU'


persons and numbers of the tense are included,

we drop

only a piece of a tense in the subjunc-

is

the zf in the above sentences, go in the

first

must

be changed io goest, and in the second to goes.


"If he walks" is indicative, and "If he walk" is subjunctive.
The s is omitted from the verb in the subjunctive because the aux" If he walk " means " If he
iliary shall or should is understood.
shall

The

(or should) walk."

subjunctive present denotes future

and should not be used to denote present time. " If it rains "
" If it rain " is subis indicative present, and denotes present time.
junctive present, and denotes future time.
" If I be," and " If I
In the verb to be there are two subjunctives
time,

The

were."

first is

called present tense, but denotes future time

As the
some form of the verb to be, verbs in the
passive voice can have two subjunctives, a present and a past as,
" If I be seen," and " If I were seen."
the second

is

called past tense, but denotes present time.

passive voice always has in

it

Write three sentences, each having a verb

2.

in the

subjunctive
1

Passive, present.

3.

Passive, past.

The

3.

wish

Active, present.

2.

as,

subjunctive
"

Would

In the above, were

is

that
is

sometimes used

my

in expressing a

father were here."

subjunctive, past, but denotes present time.

AGREEMENT OF VERB

269

LESSON XX
PERSON AND NUMBER OF THE VERB
It

I.

is

collective

sometimes difficult to determine whether a


noun should have a singular or a plural verb

to agree with

it.

Collective nouns denoting persons are


plural

than

more frequently considered

those denoting

things.
It is
public are invited " than to say " The public

individuals

If the
it

perform

various times) have passed to-day,

becoming

say

"

The

or in groups,

number of soldiers (at


and the number at the fort is

as,

''

large."

When

2.

to

invited."

the act separately,

better to have the verb plural

is

better
is

a verb has two subjects taken separately,

number, the verb agrees with the subject

differing in

nearest.
In such cases

verb

as, "

it is better to place the plural subject next to the


Neither the captain nor the soldiers have arrived."

In such sentences as " John and his sister too is


going," or ^']Q\ixv and his sister also is going," the verb
3.

should be singular.
be observed that the speaker does not intend to convey
information that two are going.
The hearer already knows
that John is going, and the speaker adds that his sister is going
It will

the

also.

4.

When

two singular subjects connected hy and

in apposition, the verb

is

singular

as,

The

*'

2iXQ

philoso-

pher and statesman has gone."


The same
latter is

and

is

added

front of

my

when the subjects are not in


make the former more emphatic

true
to

offense

is this."

apposition, if the
as, " The head
;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

270

Often the number of the verb depends on the idea


the mind of the speaker rather than on the words he
5.

in

uses

as

Why

is dust and ashes proud?


Seven hours is a long time to wait for a train.
Six dollars and seventy-five cents is too much.

1.

2.
3.

In the first sentence, the speaker


said " dust and ashes.'"'

had

in

mind

tnan, although he

In the second sentence, the seven hours are thought of as one con,
tinuous period of time.

In the third sentence, the dollars and cents are thought of as

one

price.

As

6.

a rule, the phrase modifying the subject has

no influence

determining the number of the verb,

in

but in some cases


the subject

is

it

This

has.

especially true

when

a fraction.

Nine tenths of the men were lost.


Nine tenths of the wheat was lost.

1.

2.

Both of the preceding are

correct.

multitude (composed of individuals)


a

is

noun of magnitude (bulk).

of the water

is unfit

In the first, 7nen is a noun of


while in the second, wheat is

In like manner we have " Two thirds


and " Two thirds of the apples are

to drink,"

rotten."

The verb

7.

need,

when followed by

third person singular without adding j

not,
;

forms the

as "

He

need

not go."

The

verb dare

is

sometimes used

in the

same manner

as,

"

The

prisoner dare not speak."


8.

Correct where necessary


1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Neither he nor you was there.


To reveal secrets or to betray one's friends is perfidy.
Eight horses is no part of twelve cows.
Eight is what part of twelve?
There was not a little tact and shrewdness in the
transaction.

REVIEW

8.

He and his father were on the lost steamer.


He and his father too were on the lost steamer.
He as well as his father were on the lost steamer.

9.

One

6.

7.

10.
1 1

12.

13.

the

or

more names

are omitted from the

list.

Seven eighths of the pupils are girls.


Three fourths of his hair are gray.
Two hundred bushels of potatoes are often raised
from one acre of ground.
Forty bushels of wheat is sometimes obtained from
one acre of ground.

Write

9.

271

first six

two sentences

at least

paragraphs of

to illustrate

each of

this lesson.

LESSON XXI
REVIEW
1.

Correct where necessary, and parse the verbs


1.

To thine own self be


And it must follow, as

4.

the night the day,


not then be false to any man.
slay me, yet will I trust him.
If he is a scholar, he is not a gentleman.
Had you come earlier, you could have seen him.

5.

Whether he be poor

2.
3.

true,

Thou canst
Though he

or rich, he shall be punished for

his crime.
6.

Were he my own

brother,

should not excuse his

fault.
7.

8.

Although he is my brother, I would not trust him.


Unless a farmer sow, he must not expect to reap.

Notice that when a sentence begins with the subordinate clause,


the pronoun will be in the principal clause and the antecedent in the
subordinate clause.
9.

10.

wish that he was wealthy.


not only found the questions easy, but very

We

verting.

Notice that questio?is


2.

is

not the object oi found.

Diagram the preceding sentences.

di-

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2/2

LESSON XXII
INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES
1.

as,

The infinitive is sometimes used independently


To tell the truth about the matter, I was not
;

'*

paying attention."

Not

2.

In "

all infinitives

are parsed as having subjects.

have a book to read," to read is parsed as having the


construction of an adjective, and nothing is said about its subI

ject.

3.

in

The

infinitive

has the construction of an adjective

such sentences as
4.

Part Three

In

present

" I

and

want

my

watch

was stated that the names

it

present-perfect,

applied to infinitives,

as

do not have reference to the time


infinitive,

but to

infinitive is the

its

same

form.

You
gone."

will

often

accordance

with

hear such
finite

the

know

yet been done.


5.

verbs,

the

of

finite

expressions

as

present-perfect
verb.
"

hoped

preceding

rule,

the

the time

present-perfect infini-

the hoping was

done;

when the hoping was done, the going had


The sentence should be, " I hoped to go."

that

Participles do not have the construction

although they sometimes seem to

predicate.

have

to

verb hoped expresses past time, and, in

tive expresses time previous to

but we

of the present

as that of the finite verb in the

previous to that of the

Now, the

expressed by the

The time

same sentence, and the time


infinitive is

to run."

of

not

ad-

modify the

THE PARTICIPLE

273

In "The Indians ran screaming in pursuit/' screaming has


construction of an adjective (in the predicate), modifying
The same is
/ndiafis, but in sense it seems to modify ran.
the

true

the

In

he,

running to me.''
although it appears to
languages,

classic

tell

participles

of adjectives, and have the

struction

Running

He came

"

in

belonging to
he came.

the

is

an adjective,
in which

manner

always

have

the

con-

same gender, number, and

case as the nouns or pronouns to which they refer.

When

6.
it

seems

a participle

become

to

is

preceded by the

mere noun, and

article the,

will take neither

an object nor an adverb modifier.

We
Books

can say, " By reading good books we improve the mind."


the

is

of reading.

object

But

if

we

insert

the

before

govern books ; as, " By


the reading of good books we improve the mind." We can say
"By walking rapidly," but we cannot say "By the walking

we must use

reading,

preposition

to

rapidly."

past participle, used in forming the passive

The

7.

really

voice,

construction

has the

of

an

adjective,

modifying the subject.


"

In

The

was

lesson

was a studied

lesson.

studied,"

studied belongs to lesson ; it


was studied should

In parsing, however,

be parsed together as the indicative, past, passive of study.


Was can be parsed separately as the indicative, past, of be, and
studied as the passive participle, past, of study, having the
construction

When

8.

and

of an

adjective,

modifying lesson.

a participle has the construction of a noun,

same time may have an object or an adverb


it is called a Gerund by some authors.

at the

modifier,
9.

10.

Write two sentences, each containing a gerund.

Write a

construction of
1.

2.

An
An

sentence having a participle with the

adjective, not in the predicate.


adjective, in the predicate.

hoenshel's eng. gram.

18

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

274

A
A
A
A
A
A

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

noun, having an object.


noun, having an adverb modifier.
noun, preceded by

//^^.

noun, used as subject.

noun, used as object of a verb.


noun, used as object of a preposition.

Write one sentence for each of the constructions

11.

mentioned

in

paragraph 10 (except the

fifth),

using

in-

finitives instead of participles.

Write a sentence containing an

12.

infinitive

modify an adverb.

LESSON

XXIII

REVIEW
I.

The
As

to

following

form ...

is

the outline of the verb

used

to

PARSING

275
f

Voice

active.

passive.
I
f

indicative.

potential.

Mode

imperative.
!

Properties

r
\

subjunctive.
present.
present-perfect.

past.
J

Tense

past-perfect.
future.

future-perfect.

same

Person and number

as subject.

LESSON XXIV
PARSING
Diagram these

and parse the

sentences,

infinitives

and participles
1

" Let

the ballads of a nation," says Fletcher,


who makes the laws.'"
makes the laws, is the object of a preposition

me make

''and

The

who

clause,

Care

understood.
2.

How

3.

is

care not

intransitive.

I am to see you again


have more money than I know what to do with.

glad

I
"^"""^

have

money
I

(that

is

much)
than

to

do
what

know

I
I

=^

(which)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2/6

For a man

7.

to give his opinion of what he sees but in


an unjustifiable piece of rashness and folly.
If you do not wish a man to do a thing, get him to talk
about it.
Imperial Csesar, dead and turned to clay.
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away.
Sorrow's crown of crowns is remembering happier

8.

It is

4.

part, is

5.

6.

things.

a custom more honored in the

breach

than in

the observance.
tree of liberty only grows when watered by the
blood of tyrants.
10. Better to love amiss than nothing to have loved.
a joy divided is doubled.
11. A sorrow shared is halved
12. The auditorium is capable of seating three thousand
9.

The

people.
13.

14.

15.

Some

persecutor who inflicts nothing which he is not


ready to endure, deserves some respect.
mountain rises there, called Ida, joyous once with
leaves and streams, deserted now like a forbidden
thing.

to

poets, before beginning to write

be

a poem, wait

inspired.

LESSON XXV
THE ADVERB
1.

Modal adverbs may be divided


1

2.

3.
4.

2.

that

into

Those of reasoning as, hence, therefore.


Those of affirmation; 2js>, certainly indeed.
Those of negation as, not., nowise.
Those of doubt as, possibly., perhaps.
;

conjunctive adverb modifies only one word, and

word

is

in the

dependent

clause.

It is often stated that a conjunctive adverb sometimes modifies


two words, one in each clause, but it is much better to consider the

dependent clause as the modifier of the word


pendent clause.
entire

in the inde-

THE ADVERB

When

3.

dependent adjective clause

clause by a conjunctive

the independent

adverb

is
1.

277

sometimes called a relative adverb


This

is

joined to

is

adverb, the
;

as

the place where (in which) the hero

2.

He

3.

The Indians were

lived in the land

fell.

where the orange grows.

driven to the reservation whence they

came.
It will

sition with a relative

The words

4.

is

equivalent to a prepo-

usually conjunctive

adverbs are not

be noticed that a relative adverb

pronoun

for its object.

always such.
In "

adverb.

do not know where he lives," where is not a conjunctive


It is an interrogative adverb in an indirect question, and

modifies lives.

Sometimes

5.

it

difficult to

is

decide whether a verb

should be followed by a predicate adjective or an ad-

The

verb modifier.

following sentences are correct:

2.

The milk tastes sour.


The speaker's voice sounded

3.

We

4.
5.

6.

The

He
He

shrill.

arrived safe.

grass looks fresh and green.

appeared prompt.

appeared promptly.

(What

difference in the

mean-

ing of these two sentences ?)

very bad.

7.

I feel

8.

The young

In such sentences,

lady looks sad.

when

the

word following the verb


it

the third sentence, safe does not

the

tell

is

used to

should be an adjective.

express the condition of the subject,

manner of our

In

arriving, but

our condition after we had arrived.

The adverbs

6
ify

yes^ no,

amen,

etc.,

sometimes mod-

an entire clause or sentence.

7.

The words

to-day, to-night, to-morrow, etc.,

though

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2/8

usually called adverbs, are nouns in the objective case

without a governing word.


Compare to-tnorrow and
morrow,'' and " He will come

Such expressions as as long

8.

He came

came-, the

ond as

come

as soon as,

to-

etc.,

Soon is an adverb modifying


an adverb of degree, modifying soon; the secconjunctive adverb, modifying could (come), and
as soon as he could."

first

is

as,

will

be taken together as conjunctions.

are not to
"

Wednesday in " He
Wednesday."

as

is

connects the subordinate clause to the

first as.

The

subordinate

an adverb clause of degree, modifying the first as. In


" He reads as well as he writes," as well as is parsed just as as
soon as in the preceding sentence.
In " He, as well as his sister,
clause

is

is

expected," as well as

The word

9.

In

"The more
"

the

is

is

parsed as a conjunction.

sometimes a conjunctive adverb.

examined

it,

the better

liked

it,"

the principal

an adverb, modifying
The first the is a conjunctive adverb, modifying more and
liked.
connecting the dependent clause to the second the ; more is an
adverb of degree, modifying examined', the second the is an adverb
clause

is,

liked

it

the better."

Better

is

examined it
; the dependent clause, " I
an adverb clause of degree, and modifies the second the.

of degree, modifying better


the more,"
10.

is

An

adverb sometimes modifies a preposition or a

phrase.
I.

Fools judge only by events.


cr
"^ events.

only
2.

3.

4.
5.

The guard stood just below the gate.


The dogs were beaten nearly to death.
The sun shines even on the wicked.
The speaker went entirely beyond the
tesy.

limits of cour-

PREPOSITION

279

Write two sentences, each having

II.

1.

2.

3.

An

4.

As used

5.

6.

A conjunctive adverb.
A relative adverb.
An
An

adjective in predicate, denoting condition.


as a conjunctive adverb.

adverb modifying a preposition.


adverb modifying a phrase.

LESSON XVI
PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS
In such sentences as

1.

sea,"

from over

having sea for

is

"He came

usually called a
object.

its

from over the

compound

preposition,

Fro^n can be considered a

having the phrase over the sea as

sirnple preposition,

its

object.

as,

2.
The preposition is frequently incorrectly
"The ball is the size of an orange."

omitted

As the sentence reads, size is a predicate noun, and must theremean the same thing as the subject, ball. But the ball is not
size ; it has size, and is large or small.
The sentence should read,
"The ball is of the size of an orange." The phrase, of the size,"
fore

'"

is

an adjective phrase in the predicate, and modifies

Other examples are


1

2.
3.

4.
3.

dall.

There is no use trying.


It was the length of my arm.
What use is this to him?
He is worthy better treatment.

Some

tences as "

authors call as a preposition in such senI

like

him as a teacher," and

as an ambassador."

"

He came

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

280

It seems much better to me to call as in such sentences simply


an introductory word. Teacher agrees with hijn in case, ambassador agrees with he. Even in '' His reputation as a teacher is

excellent,"

with

believe teacher

is in

the possessive case, in apposition

his.

TJian

4.

sometimes called a preposition, but most

is

authors agree that


In the sentence, "

by a

as objective, used

it

not.

is

Than whom no one

whom

is wiser,''

parsed

is

figure of speech for the nominative.

prefer

than a preposition in this sentence, and to parse whom as its


If we begin the sentence with the subject, the sentence will
object.
read, "No one is wiser than he (is)."
to call

In such sentences as "

5.

some

bushel,"

Wheat

is

worth a dollar a

a a preposition, used

call

the

in

same

sense as the Latin per.

The

6.

correct preposition to be used after certain

words can be learned only by observing good speakers

and

writers.
accuse

7.

of,

few examples are given

confide

of, differ

from, founded on, rely on.

Coordinate conjunctions generally connect similar

constructions, such
tense,

die

in,

two

as verbs

infinitives,

two

of

the

same mode and

participles, etc.

3.

Running and walking are good kinds of exercise. (Not


running and to walk.)
To read and to write are the essentials of an education.

3.

Did he not

(Better

him?

reading and writing.)


me his
and asked me to forgive
(Incorrect both verbs should have the

emphatic

fault

tell

form.

Correct

"Did

he

and ask," etc.)


modes and tenses are connected,

not

tell

me

his fault

When

different

repeat the subject


8.

The word

as,

or

"

He
is

went, but (he)

may

it

is

better to

return."

not a connective

when

duces an appositive, or explanatory word.

it

intro-

REVIEW
1.

Cash or

2.

The Iron Duke,

credit

is

(A

connective.)

or Wellington,

commanded

necessary.

and Prussians

lish

In the second sentence, or

When

omitted.

or

is

281

at

the Eng(Not a connective.)

merely introductory, and can be

is

thus used,

Waterloo.

think

it

ought to be preceded by

a comma, but authors do not agree in doing so.


9.

Write two sentences


1.

2.
3.

preposition

is

in

which

incorrectly omitted.

Some authors would call as a preposition.


The two uses of or are illustrated.

LESSON XXVII
REVIEW
1.

In each of these sentences there

is

an adjective

phrase used as attribute complement


1

Europe was

at war.

2.

This lady

of royal blood.

3.

Life

of short duration.

5.

The passions of some men seem under no control.


The whole community is of the same opinion.

6.

In slumbers of midnight the sailor-boy lay.

4.

Many

is

is

carelessly parse the phrases in the preceding sentences as

adverb phrases.

Remember
the

word

2.

that a preposition

shows the

relation of

its

object to

that the phrase modifies.

Write three sentences, each containing an adjective

phrase used as attribute complement.


3.

Parse the prepositions

paragraph

i.

in

the sentences given in

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

282

DIFFICULT SENTENCES ANALYZED

The

1.

citizens believe that they are not in the

"In the wrong"


In shows the

they.

He

2.

AND PARSED*

is

wrong.

a prepositional, adjective phrase, modifying

wrong

relation of

to they.

win the esteem of

lived so as to

all his

neigh'

bors.
This

a complex sentence, of which "

is

and

principal clause,

" to

The

the subordinate clause.

understood,

neighbors

the

full

win the esteem of

clause

lived

so "

is

the

his neighbors " is

predicate of the subordinate clause is


being " to win the esteem of all his

The subordinate clause is an adverb


As is a conjunctive adverb, modify-

or requires)."

(is,

modifying the adverb

clause,

He
all

so.

ing the predicate of the subordinate clause, and connecting the two

(Some authors may

clauses.

call

as a relative pronoun in this

sentence.)

He

3.

fell in love.

Fell does not have

same

usual meaning here, but means nearly the

its

In love

as beca7ne.

is

an adjective phrase, and forms part of

the predicate.
4.

He

Fell to

Laughhig
laughing.
I

5.

fell to
is
is

is

is

am

to.

Like

is

an adverb, modifying

the object of to or unto understood.

done.

This idiomatic expression


fact.
Done is an adjective.
6.

the meaning of began.

verb, used with

the object of fell

One

am

laughing like one out of his right mind.

compound

is

passive in form, but

is

not passive in

through eating.

Through is an adjective, used as done in the preceding sentence


Eating is the object of a preposition (with) understood.

used.

*The remainder

of the

bok

is

not divided into lessons.

DIFFICULT SENTENCES ANALYZED.


was

It

7.

to

This sentence

me

283

that he spoke.

correct idiomatic English, but

it cannot be
It is equivalent to " It was
posed of by the rules of grammar.
whom he spoke," which is easily analyzed.

is

The swans on

8.

still

Mary's lake

St.

disI

to

float double,

swan and shadow.


Swan and shadow

an adjective in predicate.
nouns of another clause

Double

is

" They

predicate

float

swan

are

and

shadow."

Be

9.

Of

the

of the

same mind, one toward another.

same viind

10.

In

order

must put heart


In order

may

all

" One be of the

Toward another probably

another."

in his

be taken as the

Texas

is

one

work.

means the same as


infinitive.

to succeed,

Some will

a preposition, and parse to succeed as


11.

modifies fnvid.

succeed in any undertaking,

to

to succeed

One may be parsed as


same mind toward

an adjective phrase.

is

the subject of another clause

more than

its

and

believe

it

prefer to call in order

object.

three

times as large as

Kansas.

complex sentence. " Texas is more " is the principal clause.


subordinate clause, " (Extant) three times as large as Kansas
much)," modifies more.
Than is the connective, a conjunctive

The
(is

adverb.

Of

the subordinate clause, extent, understood,

is

the sub-

modified by large.

Large is modified by as, an adverb of


degree.
As is modified by times, a noun in the objective case without a governing word.
As is also modified by the subordinate
clause, '^ Kansas (is large)."
The second as is a conjunctive

ject,

adverb, connecting the clause, " Kansas

is

large," to the first as,

and

modifying large.

Analyze these sentences, and parse the words


I.

Whoso sheddeth man's


be shed.

blood, by

man

in italics

shall his

blood

284
2.

Worth

is

3.

Many

world be worth thy winnings think, oh! think


worth enjoying.

If the

an adjective.
My Antonio,

am

it

all on fire.

5.

My Antonio, I am all on fire


My Antonio, am standing on fire.

6.

It is Setter to

7.

It is easier to

4.

Think

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

be right than to be president \\s, good).


be (he, him) than to be myself.
parse president and 7nyself in the nominative case.

will

carefully.
8.

A few suggestions

9.

Outward conduct

be ofpractical value.
of little value except as an indication

will

is

of inward thinking.
Except is a preposition, having indication as its object. As is
merely introductory.
10. Yet outward conduct jnust be looked to as the most
faithful expression of feeling.
11.

He

fell

asleep.

The dollars and cents are thought ofdiS


13. They love each other.
Each may modify other.^ but the better way is
12.

ono. price.

to

parse

it

in

apposition with they.


14.

They

15.

am

love one ajiother.

a very foolish, fond old man, fourscore and

up-

ward.
17.

The light burns dim.


The fisherman stood aghast.

18.

To

16.

the

Dmids, the

mistletoe, a parasitic

evergreen

seemed

especially

plant growing on certain

trees,

sacred.

For mine own part, I shall be glad to learn of noble


men.
20. The less you have to do with firearms, the better.
The entire sentence is, " (It is) the better, the less you have to do
with firearms." Less modifies some noun (care, attention) understood, the object of have. To do has the construction of an adjective,
and modifies the understood noun. Some may consider less the
19.

object of have.
21.

He

is

expected

to come.

To come has the construction of an

adjective.

22.

23.

Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again.


Orators are like the wind.

24.

beautiful behavior

is

better than a beautiful /i7r;.

ANALYSIS AND PARSING

285

25.

These are Clan-Alpine's warriors true


And, Saxon, I am Roderick Dhu.

26.

Some

27.

have greatness thmst upon them.


What you make of life it will be to you.

28.
29.

some achieve

are born great,

Where your

treasure

is,

and some

greatness,

there will your heart be also.

True honor, as defined by Cicero,


approbation of good men.

30. I remember its bemg done.


Being done has the construction of a noun

is

concurrent

the

objective

the

in

case.
31.

32.
33.

have found a plant answerifig \o the description.


remember, I remember, the house where I was born.
Sifice then, he has resided in Virginia.
I

I& since a preposition

36.

He who judges least, I think, is he who judges best.


I am sorry to hear it.
Do not expect to govern others unless you have learned

37.

how to govern yourself.


The predominant passion

34.
35.

of Franklin seems

to

have

been the love of the useful.


38.

His conduct was,

39.

bad taste.
Columbus felt

under
there

that

the

circumstances, in very

was a continent

to

be dis-

covered.
40.
41.

The

That ought to have been thought of.


For a man to confess his faults is noble.

object

oi for

is

man

objective subject of to confess.


sition

to

Man

the

confess

his faults.

noun

not the object of a prepo-

and the objective subject of an

is

infinitive at the

same

is

time.

Correct where necessary, analyze the sentences, and


parse the words in

italics:

1.

We

2.

He

3.

reason and religion.


Be so kind as to read this letter.
They need not be alarmed.

4.

should not be overcome totally by present events.


lived in a manner agreeably to the dictates of

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

286
5.

When

He

not poor, but

is

is

respectable.

in the course of the sentence

we pass from

the affirmative

to the negative, or the contrary, the subject should be repeated.


6.

Anger glances into the heart of a wise man, but


only in the bosom of fools.

Remember
cases,

coordinate conjunctions

that

modes, tenses,
7.

To

will rest

usually

connect same

differently

mark a base

etc.

profess regard

and acting

mind.
vy(^ 8.
9.

He was
It is

a teacher, but

now

is

a lawyer.

no more but what he ought

to do.

12.

come of themselves.
Trust not him whom you know is dishonest.
Trust not him who you know to be dishonest.

13.

It is

14.

This word

15.

There are oak trees and walnut


on the former are walnuts

10.
11.

Neither good nor

so clear as
is

it

evil

needs no explanation.

only found in Shakespeare.


trees
;

in

that

and on the

grove

latter are

acorns.
16.

An

oak tree and a walnut tree are standing on the

hill

the one bears walnuts, and the other bears acorns.


17.

Cato, before he durst give himself the fatal blow, spent

18.

None knew thee but to love thee.


Somebody told me, but I forgot whom.
Would that my brother was here.

the night in reading Plato's Immortality.

19.

20.

on your coming

23.

good season.
was composed of two gases.
Great benefits may be derived from reading of good

24.

21.
22.

rely

We learned

in

that the air

books.

fondness for display

is,

of

all

other

follies,

the most

ridiculous.
25.

No

26.

Six months' interest are due.

one (beside, besides, except) the immediate family


was present at the funeral.

27.

He

28.

You might come

29.

Here

is

a friend of the teacher's.

is

seems to make the child sick, boil


worth by poverty depressed.

30.

If fresh milk

31

Slow

for at least a (few, couple of) days.

a fresh basket of eggs.

rises

it.

ANALYSIS AND DIAGRAMING

287

SENTENCES FOR ANALYSIS AND DIAGRAMING


1.

No man

2.

Flowers are

3.

The

is

so wise that he cannot learn more.


like familiar friends that we love to meet.

ni

5.

kill that people are apt


have resisted their bullets.
He that cannot forgive Others breaks the bridge over
which he himself must pass.
He that observeth the winds shall not sow, and he that

6.

The

7.
8.

Nitrous oxide, or laughing-gas, produces insensibility.


No man is so fortunate as always to be successful.

9.

We

crocodile

is

so difficult to

to imagine that the scales

4.

regardeth the clouds shall not reap.


faster

you go, the sooner you

know what we

are,

but

will

reach home.

we know not what we may

be.
10.

From

the lowest depths there

is

a path to the loftiest

height.
11.

12.

"Nothing,'' says Quintilian,


" dries sooner than tears."

We

quoting

look for a new heaven and a

new

from

Cicero,

earth wherein

dwelleth righteousness.
13.

not, O man! at the shortness of time, if thou


more than is well employed.
We may not be able to accomplish all we desire, but
shall we therefore sit still with folded hands ?

Murmur
hast

14.

15.

It is true

that the sun pours

cheerily

16.

17.

18.

down

his

golden flood as

on the poor man's cottage as on the

19.

rich

man's palace.
The Chinese pitcher plant is quite common in Ceylon,
where it is called the monkey cup, because the
monkeys sometimes open the lid and drink the water
when there is no spring of water where they can
quench their thirst.
none go
'Tis with our judgments as wdth our watches
just alike, yet each believes his own.
It was Watt who told George II that he dealt in an
power.
article of which kings were said to be fond
Nor is it given us to discern what forged her cruel
chain of moods, what set her feet in solitudes.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

288
20.

Both

Pitt

and Wellington were great men; the former

in peace, the latter in war.

24.

teach an old dog new tricks.


was told this story while we were traveling in Egypt.
He was offered a large sum of money for his vote.
And the voice that was calmer than silence said, " Lo,

25.

Be

21.
22.

23.

You cannot
I

26.

be not afraid."
ours to hope and to prepare, under a firm and
settled persuasion, that, living and dying, we are his.
He made no secret of my having v/ritten the review.

27.

Teach me

28.

The

it is I

it

to hide the fault

see.

sight of in the

darkness of the

All persons are forbidden to trespass

on these grounds.

ship was lost

night.
29.
30.

31.

guarded tent.
The Turk lay dreaming of the hour
When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent,
Should tremble at his power.
There is no need that she be present.

At midnight,

in his

Correct where necessary, analyze, and diagram

6.

All are gone but him and me.


He is the man whom I told you about.
They came just behind father and I.
Richard is himself again.
It was the one whom you said it was.
God seems to have made him what he was.

7.

8.

As many

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

9.

10.

11.
12.
13.

14.

horse costs three times as


as

came were

much

as a cow.

satisfied.

Such as are virtuous are happy.

The

fugitive

threatened to shoot

whomever

tried

stop him.
knew the man

who the general appointed captain.


You cannot reap until after you sow.
The higher the bird ^ies, the more out of danger it is.
Of all the other Roman orators, Cicero is most reI

nowned.
15.
16.
17.

18.

to

have no other hope but this.


A whole month has passed since you have arrived.
The Mississippi has been very high this year.
The Ohio has been very high last month.
I

COMPOSITION

289

COMPOSITION

Our

best literary productions are

made up

cious combination of simple, complex,

sentences, and of

many

of a judi-

and compound

varieties of each.

Too many

break the sense too often, and


a succession of complex or compound sentences is tireshort, simple sentences

some

to the reader or the Ustener.

much practice in expanding and


combining short statements, and in contracting and
breaking up long sentences. They should also have
much drill in expressing the same thought in different
ways. Any reading book or magazine will furnish good
material for such exercises.
A few examples are given
This old soldier receives a pension. He was wounded.
Pupils should have

This wounded soldier receives a pension.


This old soldier, having been wounded, receives

2.

pension.

This old

3.

soldier,

having received a wound, draws a

pension.

5.

This old soldier receives a pension, because he was


wounded.
Because this old soldier was wounded, he receives a

6.

This old

4.

pension.
soldier

was wounded, and he

receives

pension.

who was wounded,

7.

This old

8.

Having been wounded,

soldier,

receives a pension.

this old soldier receives a

pen-

rained very hard.

The

sion.
1.

The

river

was high.

It

bridge was carried away.


2.
is

The country on both sides of the lower Mississippi


The country is protected by levees. These

very low.

levees sometimes break.


hoenshel's eng. gram.

19

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

290
3.

We

crossed the ocean in a large steamer.

landed at Liverpool.

The

New

is in

4.

Liverpool

Yoi'k.

name was

We

City of

England.

good composition contains many different kinds


Therefore, pupils should be familiar with

of sentences.

many

steamer's

kinds of sentences.

Change these simple sentences


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

to

complex

Honest people will be trusted.


I expected him to go.
Quarrelsome persons are disagreeable.
With patience he might have succeeded.
The manner of his escape is a mystery.

6.

The

7.

After sunset the rain

8.

9.

By

clouds having passed away, the sun shone again.

believe

him

fell

in torrents.

to be honest.

trying to rescue the child, he was drowned.

Many books on grammar and

composition contain a

long Hst of subjects for written work, but every teacher

can select topics better adapted

to the

than those selected by any author.

needs of

For

but few topics are given here.


I.

THE ADVENTURES OF A PENNY

Tell where the material was found.

Tell where and

Who

first

when

obtained

it

was coined.

from the mint, and how.


has been spent, and what for.

it

How many times it


Where it is now, and

its

probable future.

his class

this reason,

COMPOSITION

THE

II.

LIFE OF A

291

CANARY BIRD

Imagine a canary bird telling all about what has happened


from the first day of his life.
Where he has lived.
The scenery and climate of his native home.
What he has done.
What he thinks of some of the people he has seen.
III.

to

him

THREE PEOPLE

Imagine three people in a room. Describe and name them.


Tell what they are doing, and what they are talking about.
Tell some of the things they say.
Tell where they go as they leave the room.

A BROOK

IV.

Describe a brook winding about


the woods.
Tell where

What

it

among the meadows and through

starts from.

on its way.
Describe the flowers and trees on its bank.
Tell about a shady pool in one place, and what is found
Tell about a shallow place with pebbles on the bottom.
Tell how people cross it.
it

finds

What makes

it

grow

V. IF

larger.

Where

it

COULD DO AS

in

it.

finally goes.

PLEASED

Imagine that you are now able to do just what you please state
several things that you would do, and give your reasons for doin<
them.
;

*;'

VI.

COLUMBUS

Imagine that you w^re a companion of


Describe his efforts to procure aid,
voyage, the voyage, the discovery of
the country and its inhabitants, the

Columbus.
the
land,

preparation for
the

return,

the

the

appearance of
reception

in

Spain.

All the preceding subjects require the use of the


imagination, but subjects for real description and true
narration are easily found.

"

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

292

CAPITALS

capital letter should be used

For
For
For
For
For

2.
3.
4.
5.

the

first letter

of every sentence.

the

first letter

of every proper noun.

the

first letter

of every line of poetry.

the

first letter

of every direct quotation.

the

first letter

of every abbreviation that represents

a proper noun.

For initials that represent proper nouns.


For the words / and O.
For the first letter of all names applied to the Deity.
For the first letter of a strongly personified object
" Come, O life-giving Hope

6.

7.

8.

9.

as,

PUNCTUATION

COMMA
The comma should be used
1.

To

name

separate the

of the person addressed from

the remainder of the sentence.


2.

To

separate the words of a series.

seldom used

The word and

is

between the last two,


used between every two, no comma

in a series, except

but if ajid is
should be used.
3.

4.

5.

To

separate two adjectives modifying the

To

set

off"

words, phrases, and clauses out of their

natural order,
6.
7.

To
To

set
set

off"

8.

and non-restrictive

clauses.

a noun clause used as attribute complement.

off"

long, or

9.

same noun

when a7id is omitted.


To show omission of a word or words, especially in
writing a name and its address," and dates; as,
John Wilson^ Boston^ Mass. ; July 4, i8g6.

a noun clause used as the subject,


ends with a verb.

if it

is

if it

To set off" parenthetical


To set off appositives,

expressions.

unless short and used as part

of the name.
10.

To

set

off"

participial phrases

not restrictive.

and

relative clauses

when

PUNCTUATION

293

After as, to wit, namely, etc., when they introduce


examples or illustrations.
as,
12. To separate pairs of words joined by conjunctions
"Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give

11.

my hand and my

heart to this vote."

PERIOD

A period
1.

should be used

At the close of each

declarative

and imperative sen-

tence.
2.

3.

After each initial.


After every abbreviation.

INTERROGATION POINT
The

interrogation point should be used at the close of

every interrogative sentence.


The

interrogation point is not used at the close of an indirect


;
as, " He asked me if I knew who wrote the book.'''

question

EXCLAMATION POINT
The exclamation
tions (except O),

point should be used after interjec-

and usually

at the

end of exclamatory

phrases and sentences.

THE SEMICOLON
The semicolon should be used
1.

Before as, to wit, natnely,

amples or
2.

etc.,

when followed by

ex-

illustrations.

separate clauses having parts separated by commas.

To

THE COLON
The

colon
1.

2.

is

used

Before a quotation when formally introduced by thus,


as follows, etc.
Usually after the complimentary address at the beginning of a letter as, ''Dear Sir: In answer to yours,"
;

etc.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

294

THE HYPHEN
The hyphen
1.

is

Between

used

syllables

when they

are divided at the end of a

line.
2.

To

join the parts of a

compound word.

QUOTATION MARKS
Quotation marks should be used to inclose words and
sentences taken from another.

quotation within a quotation

is

inclosed by single marks.

Notice the location of the interrogation


quotation marks in these sentences
1

2.

Did you hear

He

me go "
Where am I ? "

the boy say, " Let

heard the boy say, "

point and

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