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You are on page 1of 6

Solutions

12.1

Problem 12.10

A magnetized cylinder of iron has a magnetic field B = 0.040 T in its interior. The magnet

is 3.0 cm in diameter and 20 cm long. If the same magnetic field is to be produced by a

5.0-A current carried by an air-core solenoid with the same dimensions as the cylindrical

magnet, how many turns of wire must be on the solenoid?

Solution

The magnetic field produced by a solenoid carrying a current I and has a length ` and

number of turns N is given by:

N

I

`

`B

N =

I

0.2 0.040

=

4 107 5

= 1273 Turns

B =

12.2

Problem 12.15

(a) If the winding has 2000 turns/m, what is the required current?

(b) What force per meter does the magnetic field exert on the inner windings?

Solution

(a) A solenoid with n turns/m that carries a current I will produce a magnetic field B given

by:

B = nI

B

I =

n

10

2000 4 107

= 3979 A

=

(b) The magnetic force FB due to a magnetic field B acting on a wire of length ` carrying

a current I is given by:

FB = I`B

FB

= IB

`

= 3979 10

= 39, 790 N/m

If we assume that the loops of the solenoid are in the x y plane and the current is

circulating clockwise then the magnetic field will be directed along the ve z axis and

the magnetic force will be directed away from the axis of the solenoid. On the other

hand, if the current is circulating anti-clockwise the magnetic field will be directed along

the +ve z axis and the force will also be directed away from the axis of the solenoid.

Winter 2004

Ahmed H. Hussein

12.3

Problem 12.20

Persistent currents. In an experiment carried out by S. C. Collins between 1955 and 1958, a

current was maintained in a superconducting lead ring for 2.5 years with no observed loss.

If the inductance of the ring was 3.14 108 H, and the sensitivity of the experiment was 1

part in 109 , determine the maximum resistance of the ring. (Hint: Treat this as a decaying

current in an RL circuit, and recall that ex 1 x for small x.)

Solution

The current in an RL circuit is given by:

I(t) = I e(R/L)t

I(t)

= e(R/L)t

I

(12.1)

The sensitivity of the experiment was 1 part in 109 and there was no detected change in the

current, then the minimum value of the current I(t) is:

I(t) = I 109 I

I(t)

= 1 109

I

(12.2)

from equations Equations (12.1) and (12.2) we get the maximum value of the resistance Rmax

that corresponds to the minimum current as:

max /L)t

1 109 = e(R

Rmax

t

1

L

Rmax

t = 109

L

L 109

Rmax =

t

3.14 108 109

=

2.5 365.25 24 60 60

= 3.94 1024

Winter 2004

Ahmed H. Hussein

12.4

Problem 12.27

Isotope effect. Because of the isotope effect, Tc M . Use these data for mercury to

determine the value of the constant . Is your result close to what you might expect on the

basis of a simple model?

Isotope

199

Hg

Hg

204

Hg

200

Tc (K)

4.161

4.153

4.126

Solution

If:

Tc = KM

where K is a constant, then:

ln Tc = ln K M

The last equation is that of a straight line with a slope of and an intercept ln K. Using

the data given and the fact that M A, where A is the atomic number and M is the atomic

mass, we get:

Isotope

Tc

M

ln Tc

ln M

199

Hg 4.161 199 1.4257 5.2933

200

Hg 4.153 200 1.4240 5.2983

204

Hg 4.126 204 1.4173 5.3181

Plotting ln Tc vs ln M using the last 2 columns of the table above and fitting them with a

straight line, its slope is:

Slope =

ln Tc

=

ln M

1.4173 1.4257

=

5.3181 5.2933

= 0.34

= 0.34

is expected to be 21 , which is close to the value obtained using the simple model given in

the problem.

Winter 2004

Ahmed H. Hussein

12.5

Problem 12.39

Magnetic field inside a wire. A type II superconducting wire of radius R carries current

uniformly distributed through it cross section. If the total current carried by the wire is I,

show that the magnetic energy per unit length of the wire is I 2 /16.

Solution

Let us take a small circular area with a radius r within the cross sectional area of the wire.

Since the current is uniform, then the current within this small area is proportional to the

area, i.e.

r2

I

rR

I(r) =

R2

The magnetic field produced by the current is then,

I(r)

2r

Ir

=

2R2

B(r) =

The magnetic energy per unit volume u stored in the magnetic filed is given by:

u=

B2

2

R

Z

U =

u dA

0

R

u d(r2 )

=

0

R

Z

=

2ur dr

0

R

Z

=

0

Z

=

0

2rB 2 (r)

dr

2

r 2 I 2 r2

2 4 dr

4 R

Winter 2004

Ahmed H. Hussein

R

I 2 3

r dr

4

0 4R

I 2

R4

=

4R4

4

I 2

=

16

Z

U =

The energy per unit length U is independent of the radius of the wire.

Winter 2004

Ahmed H. Hussein

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