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basics

- Theory of vibrations
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When an elastic body such as, a spring, a beam and a shaft are displaced

from the equilibrium position by the application of external forces, and then

released, they execute a vibratory motion, due to the elastic or strain energy

present in the body. When the body reaches the equilibrium position, the

whole of the elastic or stain energy is converted into kinetic energy due to

which the body continues to move in the opposite direction. The entire KE is

again converted into strain energy due to which the body again returns to

the equilibrium position. Hence the vibratory motion is repeated indefinitely.

Vibration is the study of repetitive motion of objects relative to a stationary

frame of reference or equilibrium position. The system tends to return to its

original equilibrium position under the action of restoring forces (like mass

attached to a spring or gravitational forces). Generally, vibrations are

undesirable for structures because they produce increased stresses and

energy Josses. Hence vibrations can be harmful and should be avoided. They

can occur in many directions and can be the result of interaction of many

objects.

The motion of vibrating system is governed by the laws of mechanics,

and in particular by-Newton's second law of motion ( F = ma).

Definitions

Mass: Dynamically, it is the property that describes how an unrestricted

body resists the application of an external force. Mass is obtained by dividing

the weight of body by the acceleration of gravity. Unit of mass is given in

kilograms (kgs).

Oscillatory motion is any pattern of motion where the system under

observation moves back and forth across some equilibrium position, but does

not necessarily have any particular repeating pattern.

Periodic motion is a specific form of oscillatory motion where the motion

pattern repeats itself with a uniform time interval. This uniform time interval

is referred to as the period and has units of seconds per cycle. The reciprocal

of the period is referred to as the frequency and has units of cycles per

second. This unit of combination has been given a special unit symbol and is

referred to as Hertz(Hz)

Harmonic motion is a specific form of periodic motion where the motion

pattern can be describe by either a sine or cosine. This motion is also

sometimes referred to as simple harmonic motion. Because the sine or

cosine technically used angles in radians, the frequency term expressed in

the units radians per seconds (rad/sec). This is sometimes referred to as the

circular frequency. The relationship between the frequency in Hz (cps) and

the frequency in rad/sec is simply the relationship. 2p rad/sec.

Stiffness: It is defined as the force required to produce unit deformation. It

is an elastic property that describes the level of resisting force that results

when a body undergoes a change in length. The unit for stiffness is N/m.

Natural period (T): It is defined as the time required to complete one cycle

of free vibration. It is expressed in seconds.

'

Natural frequency: Generally frequency is the number of cycles per unit

time. When no external force acts on the system after giving it an initial

displacement, the body vibrates. These vibrations are called free vibrations

and their frequency is called natural frequency. It is expressed in rad/s' or

hertz.

Amplitude: The maximum displacement or deformation of a vibrating

system from its mean position is called as amplitude.

Free vibration: The vibration which persists in a structure after the force

causing the motion has been removed is known as free vibration. No external

forces act on them. It takes place when a system oscillates under the action

of forces inherent in the system itself.

Example: Oscillation of a simple pendulum.

Forced vibration: The vibration which is maintained in a structure by

steady periodic force acting on the structure.is known as forced vibration.

When the excitation is oscillatory, the system is forced to vibrate at the

excitation frequency. Forced vibration, may be either deterministic or

random. The behavior of a system under forced vibration depends on the

type of excitation.

Fundamental mode of vibration: The fundamental mode of vibration of a

structure is the mode having the lowest natural frequency.

Damping: Damping is the resistance to the motion of a vibrating body. The

vibrations

associated with this resistance are known as damped vibrations. It is a

phenomenon

in

which

the vibrational energy of the system is gradually reduced or the amplitude of

vibration

is

slowly

decreased. Unit of damping is N/m/s.

Resonance: When the frequency of external force is equal to or matches

with one of the natural frequencies of the vibrating system, the amplitude of

vibration becomes excessively large. This phenomenon is called resonance.

The failure of major structures such as bridges and buildings is an awesome

possibility under resonance.

number of coordinates necessary to specify the position or geometry of mass

point at any instant during its vibration. A real structure possesses infinite

number of dynamic degrees of freedom.

1 A harmonic motion has a time period of 0.2 s and amplitude of 0.4 cm.

find the maximum velocity

and acceleration

Solution: Given details:

T = 0.2 s

A = 0.4 cm

Frequency n=2/T = 31.42 rad/s

394.89 cm/s2

31.42 =12.57cm/s

Maximum acceleration An 2 = 0.4 x (31.42)2 =

frequency of 12 cps. Determine its amplitude, its period and its maximum

acceleration.

Solution: Given details:

maximum velocity = 6 m/s frequency f= 12 cps

f=1/T= n/2

ie 12= n/2 => n=75.398 m/s

m/s

maximum velocity=A n

6=A*75.398

T=1/75.398=0.08

A= 79.66 mm

=452514mm/s2

To understand the dynamic behaviour of the structures, it is necessary to

develop their models under the influence of dynamic loads such as winds,

blasts, earthquakes, and heavy rotating machinery, etc. These models can

be used either as laboratory models for doing experimental studies, for

research Work or as mathematical models for analytical purposes.

Let us. consider a simple portal frame as shown in Figure. While developing a

mathematical model, some assumptions are made to simplify the analysis.

They are

(i)

The total mass of a portal frame is assumed to act at the slab level,

since the masses of columns

are very less when compared to that of

slab: i.e., masses of columns are ignored.

(ii) The beam/slab is assumed as infinitely rigid, so that the stiffness of

the

structure

is

provided only by columns, i.e., flexibility of slab/beam is ignored.

(iii) Since, the beams are usually built monolithically within the columns,

the

beam

column

joint can be assumed to be rigid as without any rotations at joint.

By these assumptions, the possibility of lateral deformation or

displacement is due to only rigid beam/slab. The model resulting from all

the above mentioned .assumptions is called as shear building model. This

shear building idealization although unrealistic is necessary for

mathematical formulation of vibration problems

The portal frame under the influence of a lateral load F(t) can be

represented mathematically as -the response of SDOF system as shown in

Figure below. This typical discrete spring-mass system is equivalent to the

response of a portal frame. The parameters of the mathematical model are

related to its prototype (actual frame) as:

1. Mass m representing the total mass of the beam and the slab of the

frame and inertia characteristic of the structure; energy is stored by

mass in the form of kinetic energy.

2. Stiffness of spring k represents the combined stiffness of two columns

for lateral deformation that is the elastic restoring force and it stores

the potential energy (internal strain energy) due to columns.

3. Dashpot haying damping coefficient C represents the energy

dissipation, i.e. the frictional characteristics and energy losses of the

frame and

4. An excitation force F(t) representing the external lateral force applied

on the portal

From the above example, it is seen that the following four elements are the

most important

to determine the dynamic behaviour

(a) The inertia force (m)

(b)The restoring force or spring force ( kx)

(c) The damping force (c)

(d) The exciting force (F(t))

DAlemberts principle

Considering equilibrium of all the forces in X direction, the governing

equation of motion for the SDOF system is

m + c +kx = F(t)

The above equation is in the form of an equation of motion of force

equilibrium in which the sum of a number of force terms equals zero. Hence,

if an imaginary force which is equal to ma were applied to the- system in the

direction opposite to the acceleration; the system could then be considered

to be in equilibrium under the action of the real force F and the imaginary

force ma. This imaginary force ma is known as inertia force and the position

of equilibrium is called dynamic equilibrium.

D'Alembert's principle

states that 'a system may be in dynamic

equilibrium by adding to the external forces F(t) an imaginary force which is

commonly known as the inertia force (m)

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