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MIDTERM CASE DIGEST

BANAT VS. COMELEC


G.R. No. 179271 April 21, 2009

SUMMARY OF FACTS:
May 14, 2007 Elections
August 3, 2007- BANAT assails the Resolution Commission on Elections
(COMELEC) in NBC No. 07-041 (PL).
9 July 2007- Bayan Muna assails the NBC Resolution No. 07-60 and the
COMELEC announced that, upon completion of the canvass of the party-list
results, it would determine the total number of seats of each winning party,
organization, or coalition in accordance with Veterans Federation Party v.
COMELEC[5] (Veterans).

On 27 June 2002, Petitioner BANAT together with other similarly situated


party list group file before the Supreme Court titled as Petition to Proclaim the
Full Number of Party-List Representatives Provided by the Constitution.

Acting on BANATs petition, the NBC promulgated NBC Resolution No. 07-88
on 3 August 2007 that ruled the petition as moot and academic.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:

Is the twenty per cent allocation for party-list representatives provided in


Section 5(2), Article VI of the Constitution mandatory
or is it merely a
ceiling?

Is the three-seat limit provided in Section 11(b) of RA 7941 constitutional?

Is the two per cent threshold and qualifier votes prescribed by the same
Section 11(b) of RA 7941 constitutional?

SUPREME COURTS RULING:


Answer. We rule that, in computing the allocation of additional seats, the
continued operation of the two percent threshold for the distribution of the
additional seats as found in the second clause of Section 11(b) of R.A. No. 7941
is unconstitutional. This Court finds that the two percent threshold makes it
mathematically impossible to achieve the maximum number of available party
list seats when the number of available party list seats exceeds 50. The
continued operation of the two per cent threshold in the distribution of the
additional seats frustrates the attainment of the permissive ceiling that 20% of
the members of the House of Representatives shall consist of party-list
representatives.

How shall the party-list representatives be allocated?

Section 5(2), Article VI of the Constitution, on the other hand, states the ratio
of party-list representatives to the total number of representatives. We
compute the number of seats available to party-list representatives from the
number of legislative districts. On this point, we do not deviate from the first
formula in Veterans, thus:

Number of seats available


to legislative districts

Number of seats available to


x .20 =

party-list representatives

.80

This formula allows for the corresponding increase in the number of seats
available for party-list representatives whenever a legislative district is created
by law. Since the 14th Congress of the Philippines has 220 district
representatives, there are 55 seats available to party-list representatives.

220

x .20 =

55

.80

ATONG PAGLAUM, INC vs. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS


G.R. No. 203766 April 2, 2013

SUMMARY OF FACTS:
These cases constitute 54 Petitions for Certiorari and Petitions for Certiorari
and Prohibition1 filed by 52 party-list groups and organizations assailing the
Resolutions issued by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) disqualifying
them from participating in the 13 May 2013 party-list elections, either by

denial of their petitions for registration under the party-list system, or


cancellation of their registration and accreditation as party-list organizations.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:

Whether the COMELEC committed grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack


or excess of jurisdiction in disqualifying petitioners from participating in the 13
May 2013 party-list elections, either by denial of their new petitions for
registration under the party-list system, or by cancellation of their existing
registration and accreditation as party-list organizations; and second, whether
the criteria for participating in the party-list system laid down in (BANAT)
should be applied by the COMELEC in the coming 13 May 2013 party-list
elections.

SUPREME COURTS RULING:

We hold that the COMELEC did not commit grave abuse of discretion in
following prevailing decisions of this Court in disqualifying petitioners from
participating in the coming 13 May 2013 party-list elections. However, since
the Court adopts in this Decision new parameters in the qualification of
national, regional, and sectoral parties under the party-list system, thereby
abandoning the rulings in the decisions applied by the COMELEC in
disqualifying petitioners, we remand to the COMELEC all the present petitions
for the COMELEC to determine who are qualified to register under the party-list
system, and to participate in the coming 13 May 2013 party-list elections,
under the new parameters prescribed in this Decision.

SOCIAL JUSTICE SOCIETY (SJS) vs. DANGEROUS DRUGS BOARD


G.R. No. 157870

November 3, 2008

Summary of Facts:
Three petitions were filed before the Supreme Court assailing the
constitutionality of the various provisions in Section 36 of Republic Act No.
(RA) 9165, otherwise known as the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of
2002.
The first petition seeks (1) to nullify Sec. 36(g) of RA 9165 and COMELEC
Resolution No. 6486 dated December 23, 2003 for being unconstitutional in
that they impose a qualification for candidates for senators in addition to those
already provided for in the 1987 Constitution; and (2) to enjoin the COMELEC
from implementing Resolution No. 6486.
The second seeks to prohibit the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) and the
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) from enforcing paragraphs (c), (d),
(f), and (g) of Sec. 36 of RA 9165 on the ground that they are constitutionally
infirm.
And the third was to strike down as unconstitutional Sec. 36(c), (d), (f), and (g)
of RA 9165 for infringing on the constitutional right to privacy, the right
against unreasonable search and seizure, and the right against selfincrimination, and for being contrary to the due process and equal protection
guarantees.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:


Whether or not the various paragraphs in Section 36 of Republic Act No. (RA)
9165 is constitutional.

SUPREME COURTS RULING:

Pimentels contention is well-taken. Accordingly, Sec. 36 (g) of RA 9165 should


be, as it is hereby declared as, unconstitutional. It is basic that if a law or an
administrative rule violates any norm of the Constitution, that issuance is null
and void and has no effect. The Constitution is the basic law to which all laws
must conform; no act shall be valid if it conflicts with the Constitution.

Guided by Vernonia and Board of Education, the Court is of the view and so
holds that the provisions of RA 9165 requiring mandatory, random, and
suspicionless drug testing of students are constitutional. Indeed, it is within
the prerogative of educational institutions to require, as a condition for
admission, compliance with reasonable school rules and regulations and
policies. To be sure, the right to enroll is not absolute; it is subject to fair,
reasonable, and equitable requirements.

To impose mandatory drug testing on the accused is a blatant attempt to


harness a medical test as a tool for criminal prosecution, contrary to the stated
objectives of RA 9165. Drug testing in this case would violate a persons right
to privacy guaranteed under Sec. 2, Art. III of the Constitution. Worse still, the
accused persons are veritably forced to incriminate themselves.

REPRESENTATIVE DANILO RAMON S. FERNANDEZ vs. HRET


G. R. No. 187478 December 21, 2009
SUMMARY OF FACTS:
Petitioner filed for candidacy as Representative of the First Legislative District
of the Province of Laguna in the May 14, 2007 elections. In his Certificate of
Candidacy (COC), he indicated his complete/exact address as No. 13

Maharlika St., Villa Toledo Subdivision, Barangay Balibago, Sta. Rosa City,
Laguna (alleged Sta. Rosa residence).
Private respondent Jesus L. Vicente (private respondent) filed a Petition to
Deny Due Course to and/or Cancel Certificate of Candidacy and Petition for
Disqualification but the COMELEC (First Division) dismissed said petition for
lack of merit.
Petitioner was proclaimed as the duly elected Representative of the First
District of Laguna on June 27, 2007, having garnered a total of 95,927 votes,
winning by a margin of 35,000 votes over the nearest candidate.
On July 5, 2007, private respondent filed a petition for quo warranto before the
HRET citing as main ground for the quo warranto petition that petitioner
lacked the required one-year residency requirement provided under Article VI,
Section 6 of the 1987 Constitution. Since the HRET ruled in favor of private
respondent, petitioner ran to the Supreme Court for legal succour.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:


The issues for determination are: (1) whether the HRET had jurisdiction over
the case; and (2) whether petitioner sufficiently complied with the one-year
residency requirement to be a Member of the House of Representatives, as
provided in the 1987 Constitution.

SUPREME COURTS RULING:

The SC did not agree. The 1987 Constitution explicitly provides under Article
VI, Section 17 thereof that the HRET and the Senate Electoral Tribunal (SET)
shall be the sole judges of all contests relating to the election, returns, and
qualifications of their respective members. The authority conferred upon the
Electoral Tribunal is full, clear and complete. The use of the word sole
emphasizes the exclusivity of the jurisdiction of these Tribunals,[33] which is
conferred upon the HRET and the SET after elections and the proclamation of
the winning candidates. A candidate who has not been proclaimed and who

has not taken his oath of office cannot be said to be a member of the House of
Representatives. [34]

Thus, private respondent correctly pointed out that a petition for quo warranto
is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the HRET, and cannot be considered
forum shopping even if, as in this case, the COMELEC had already passed
upon in administrative or quasi-judicial proceedings the issue of the
qualification of the Member of the House of Representatives while the latter
was still a candidate.

RENALD F. VILANDO vs. HRET


G.R. Nos. 192147 & 192149 August 23, 2011
SUMMARY OF FACTS:

Private respondent Jocelyn Sy Limkaichong is again obliged to answer the


legality of her citizenship by her detractors, among others herein Petiotioner
Renald F. Villando.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:

Whether or not private respondent Jocelyn Sy Limkaichong is a legitimate


Member of the House of Representatives owing to her dual citizenship.

SUPREME COURTS RULING:

GAUDENCIO M. CORDORA vs. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS


G.R. No. 176947 February 19, 2009

Summary of Facts:
Petitioner Cordora filed before the COMELEC Law Department a complaint
affidavit that Tambunting made false assertions in his Certificate of Candidacy
for the 2001 elections and that he was not eligible to run for local public office
because Tambunting lacked the required citizenship and residency
requirements. By proving such false assertion Cordora submitted a
certification from the Bureau of Immigration which stated that, in two
instances, Tambunting claimed that he is an American: upon arrival in the
Philippines on 16 December 2000 and upon departure from the Philippines on
17 June 2001. According to Cordora, these travel dates confirmed that
Tambunting acquired American citizenship through naturalization in Honolulu,
Hawaii on 2 December 2000.

STATEMENT OF RELEVANT ISSUES:

Whether or not the COMELEC acted with grave abuse of discretion amounting
to lack or excess of jurisdiction when it declared that there is no sufficient
evidence to support probable cause that may warrant the prosecution of
Tambunting for an election offense.

SUPREME COURTS RULING:

The Supreme Court held that there was no grave abuse of discretion in the
COMELEC En Bancs ruling that there is no sufficient and convincing evidence
to support a finding of probable cause to hold Tambunting for trial for violation
of Section 74 in relation to Section 262 of the Omnibus Election Code.

Furthermore the High Court agreed with with Commissioner Sarmientos


observation that Tambunting possesses dual citizenship. Because of the
circumstances of his birth, it was no longer necessary for Tambunting to
undergo the naturalization process to acquire American citizenship. The
process involved in INS Form I-130 only served to confirm the American
citizenship which Tambunting acquired at birth. The certification from the
Bureau of Immigration which Cordora presented contained two trips where
Tambunting claimed that he is an American. However, the same certification
showed nine other trips where Tambunting claimed that he is Filipino.
Clearly, Tambunting possessed dual citizenship prior to the filing of his
certificate of candidacy before the 2001 elections. The fact that Tambunting
had dual citizenship did not disqualify him from running for public office.