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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

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NAME

STUDENT ID.

DATE SUBMIT

SEMESTER

PROGRAMME / CODE

GROUP

ASSIGNMENT

SUBMIT TO

(CPE562)

: 2013210382

: 75/12/2015

:5

: EH221

: EH2215A

: CONTROL LOOP SIMULATION

: SIR MOHD AIZAD AHMAD

Remarks:

Checked by:

Rechecked by:

-------------------------------

-----------------------------

)

Date:

Date:

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

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feedback mechanism. In early years, PID controller is used as automatic ship steering.It was

implemented as a mechanical device such a lever, spring and a mass and were often energized by

compressed air. The first PID controller was developed by Elmer Sperry in 1911 and theoretical

analysis first introduced by Russian American engineer Nicolas Minorsky, (Minorsky 1922). The

goal is stability, not general control, which simplified the problem significantly. Proportional

control provides stability against small disturbances while derivative term was added to improve

stability and control. In modern years, PID controllers in industry are implemented

in programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and applied in industrial ovens, plastics injection

machinery, hot stamping machines . It used the the implementation of the PID algorithm.

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i (s)

+ d (s)

s

)

Gc ( PID )=K c

1+

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Where

Kc

i (s)

d (s )

is the derivative

gain

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Proportional Action

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difference between the set point and the process variable which is indicated as error. Then this

proportional control will applies appropriate proportional changes to the control variable to

eliminate error. Many control systems will, in fact, work quite well with only Proportional

control due to it fast response time and its ability to minimize fluctuation. However, it contains

large offset. It is an instantaneous response to the control error for improving the response of a

stable system. Contrastly, it cannot control an unstable system by itself. Therefore when the

frequencies leaving the system , the gain is the same with a nonzero steady-state error.

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Integral Action

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Integral (I) control usually examines the offset of set point and the process

variable over time and corrects it when and if necessary. This integral control has small offset

and always return to steady state but it leads to slow response time. Integral action drives the

steady-state error towards 0 but slows the response since the error must accumulate before a

significant response is output from the controler. Since an integrator introduces a system pole at

the origin, an integrator can be detrimental to loop stability. Only controllers with integrators

can wind-up where, through actuatorsaturation, the loop is unable to comply with the control

command and the error builds until the situation is corrected.

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Derivative Action

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Derivative (D) control, monitored the rate of change of the process variable and

When there is a "process upset", meaning, when the process variable or the set point quickly

changes - the PID controller has to quickly change the output to get the process variable back

equal to the set point. Once the PID controller has the process variable equal to the set point, a

good PID controller will not vary the output. Thus, there are two responses occur such as fast

response (fast change in output) when there is a "process upset", but slow response (steady

output).

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Controller gain

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The proportional gain (Kc) determines the ratio of output response to the error

signal. For instance, if the error term has a magnitude of 10, a proportional gain of 5 would

produce a proportional response of 50. In general, increasing the proportional gain will increase

the speed of the control system response. However, if the proportional gain is too large, the

process variable will begin to oscillate. If Kc is increased further, the oscillations will become

larger and the system will become unstable and may even oscillate out of control.

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Deadtime

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Deadtime is a delay between when a process variable changes, and when that

change can be observed. For instance, if a temperature sensor is placed far away from a cold

water fluid inlet valve, it will not measure a change in temperature immediately if the valve is

opened or closed. Deadtime can also be caused by a system or output actuator that is slow to

respond to the control command, for instance, a valve that is slow to open or close. A common

source of deadtime in chemical plants is the delay caused by the flow of fluid through pipes.

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Effect of increasing and decreasing value of P,I &D toward process response

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problem in the identification of PID controller. Controller structure has to be determined since

manufacturers do not provide data on controller structure whether serial or parallel. Manual

tuning of controller parameters had to be done if they are changed with time. Other than that,

manual tuning of controller parameters also had to be done when change in process parameters

occurred. Manual parameter tuning can be done using trial and error and if rules shown in the

table below:

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Parameter

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Speed of

Increasing K

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Response

Increases

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Stability

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Accuracy

Deteriorate

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Improves

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Increasing Ki

Increasing Kd

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Decreases

increases

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Deteriorate

Improves

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Improves

No effect

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Settling time : The time at which the PV reaches 5% of the total change in the

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Overshoot

: Most notably associated with P-only controllers, is the difference fromthe

SP to

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Decay ratio

:

The size of the second peak above the new steady state divided by thesize of the

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to the process controllability. To study the effect of controller gain, effect of integral time, effect

of derivative time and effect of deadtime on the control loop process.

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CHAPTER 2 : METHODOLOGY

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Procedure

Open matlab software then new model is opened by selecting file button.

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Click button simulink library browser, then drag clock, to workspace, constant, PID

controller,

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order.

transfer fcn , sum, scope and display. Arrange and connected all simulink in the right

5s

s 10 s

2

Plot PV vs time

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>>plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(2),plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(3),plot(time,PV)

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Rename the x-axis as time and y-axis as PV and every figure as PID1, PID2, and PID3.

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Show the SP at 1.

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Procedure

Open mat lab software then new model is opened by selecting file button.

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3. Click button simulink library browser, then drag clock, to workspace, constant, PID

controller, transfer fcn, sum, scope and display. Arrange and connected all simulink in the right

order.

5s

s 10s

2

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8. Plot PV vs time

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>>plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(2),plot(time,PV)

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11. Run a third set of PID`s value P3=0.05 I3= 0.04, D3=0

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>>figure(3),plot(time,PV)

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14. Combine response of figure (2) and figure (3) into figure (1)

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15. Rename the x-axis as time and y-axis as PV and every figure as PID1, PID2, PID3.

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Procedure

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1. Open Mat lab software then new model is opened by selecting file button.

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3. Click button simulink library browser, then drag clock, to workspace, constant, PID

controller, transfer fcn , sum, scope and display. Arrange and connected all simulink in the right

order.

5s

s 10 s

2

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8. Plot PV vs time

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>>plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(2),plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(3),plot(time,PV)

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14. Combine response of figure (2) and figure (3) into figure(1)

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15. Rename the x-axis as time and y-axis as PV and every figure as PID1, PID2, PID3.

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Procedure

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1. Open mat lab software then new model is opened by selecting file button.

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3. Click button simulink library browser, then drag clock, to workspace, constant, PID

controller, transfer fcn , variable time delay , sum, scope and display. Arrange and connected all

simulink in the right order.

5s

s 10 s

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4. Process transfer function is set as

and set

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Time Delay to 5.

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>>plot(time,PV)

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>>figure(2),plot (time,PV)

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>>figure(3),plot (time,PV)

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14. Combine response of figure (2) and figure (3) into figure (1)

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15. Rename the x-axis as time and y-axis as PV and every figure as PID1, PID2, PID3.

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Result

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1.8

PID1

1.6

PID2

1.4

PID3

1.2

SP

PV

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

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200

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time

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500

600

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DISSCUSSION

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In the figure above shows 3 different graph plotted in order to observe the oscillations of

each graph plotted. The 3 different values of Proportional (P) are considered which are 0.05, 0.1,

and 0.2. Based on the graph, it can be concluded that the high proportional value will lead the

system to become unstable and oscillate. The proportionality is given by controller gain. For a

given change in time, the amount of output process value (PV) will be determined by the

controller gain. It is the best controller gain if the peak of the graph reaches the set point. From

the graph obtained, figure 3 has the best controller gain since the peak point of the graph is

nearest to the set point (SP=1). Thats why this condition will contribute to better processes.

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Result

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1.8

PID3

PID2

1.6

PID1

1.4

1.2

SP

PV

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

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200

300

TIME

400

500

600

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DISSCUSSION

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For second experiment is to find the effect of integral time. The larger value of integral

time, the more oscillates of the graph obtained. Based on observation of the graph, there are

more oscillations for integral time, I=0.04. Thus, the integration will take part until the area

under the curve becomes zero. If there is decreasing in I, it will result in instability system. From

the graph, it can be concluded that increasing too much I will contribute the present value to

overshoot the set point value. Figure 6 has a better process since the peak point reaches nearest to

the set point. So that, we can conclude that the increasing value of I will lead the graph to more

oscillations.

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1.8

1.6

PID1

PID2

1.4

PID3

1.2

SP

PV

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

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100

200

300

TIME

400

500

600

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DISSCUSSION:

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From the the graph obtained, it can be concluded that the larger values of derivative will

decrease the overshoot. Besides that, this change will lead to instability since it will slow down

transient response. In fact, derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot

produced. Derivatives term is also used in slow processes such as processes with long time

constant.

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Result

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2.5

PID3

PID2

PID1

PV

1.5

SP

0.5

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300

Time

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600

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DISSCUSSION

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Based on the graphs, it can be concluded that the increasing in Time Delay will produce

more oscillations on the graph. The calculation is starting at the dead time icon. The more time

delay, the instability of the system also increases. This is due to the long stopped reaction time.

For time delay = 5, there is not much oscillation occur. When we increase the time delay to 7,

there is small oscillation occur.

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The performance of each of the three types of controllers varies due to the differing

components of controller equation. In P-only control, the only adjustable tuning parameter is KC as

the proportional term is the only term in the corresponding controller equation. The advantage of

P-only control is that there is only one tuning parameter to adjust and therefore the best tuning

values are obtained rather quickly.Tthe disadvantage to P-only control is that it permits offset. To

minimize offset, KC may be increased, however this results in greater oscillatory behavior.

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The advantage to PI control is that it eliminates the offset present in P-only control

by minimizing the integrated area of error over time. To assess the effect changing the two tuning

parameters has on a PI controller performance, both K C and I were halved and doubled. In this

process, using these tuning parameters actually resulted in increased magnitude of oscillations over

time and thus an unstable system. Either lowering I, or increasing KC from the initial value

resulted in a greater peak overshoot, larger settling time and larger decay ratio.

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In PID control all three terms are utilized. The function of the derivative term is to

determine the rate of change of the error (slope) thus influence the controller output. A rapidly

changing error will have a larger derivative and therefore a larger effect on controller output. The

derivative term will therefore work to decrease the oscillatory behavior in the process variable. To

assess the effect of changing derivative time, a comparison of the tuning parameter D was made

for the PID controller by halving and doubling the initial value.

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Increasing the derivative time results in less oscillatory behavior of the process

variable however there is also an increased noise in the controller output. Increasing D also

increase rise time, settling time, and decreases peak overshoot

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RECOMMENDATION

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performance is subjective, meaning that some processes may desire a PV response with no

overshoot, others may be able to tolerate overshoot and prefer faster rise times. For a process that

desires fast rise time with the minimal amount of oscillatory behavior and overshoot it would be

suggested to use a moderate to moderately aggressive PI controller.

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REFRENCES

1. Abdul Aziz Ishak & Zalizawati Abdullah. (2014). PID TUNING Fundamental Concepts

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Temperature, Flow and Filling Level. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

3. Basso, Christophe (2012). "Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching Power

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4. Blanke, M.; Kinnaert, M.; Lunze, J.; Staroswiecki, M. (2006), Diagnosis and

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