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COP 21

Earth
Negotiations
Bulletin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #7
A Reporting Service for Environment and Development Negotiations
Online at http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop21/enb/

Vol. 12 No. 658

Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

Monday, 7 December 2015

PARIS HIGHLIGHTS:
SATURDAY, 5 DECEMBER 2015

Switzerland, for the EIG, emphasized that, in contrast to COP
15 in Copenhagen, “we now have a strong basis for negotiations
developed by all parties together” with a text that reflects
On Saturday, 5 December, the ADP contact group convened
important political positions that need to be resolved.
in the morning, followed by the ADP closing plenary, which
Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, described the
adopted its conclusions, and forwarded the draft agreement and
number of INDCs as “a demonstration of our collective
decision to the COP. The COP met in the evening to hear the
commitments” and sought a way to reflect differentiation in line
report of the ADP. Informal consultations under the COP and the with modern day realities.
CMP continued throughout the day.
The EU reminded parties of their responsibility to deliver an
ambitious Paris agreement applicable to all and acceptable by
ADP
all.
CONTACT GROUP: In the morning, ADP Co-Chair
Suggesting that Paris will lead to a historical agreement,
Daniel Reifsnyder presented ADP draft conclusions (FCCC/
Sudan, for the AFRICAN GROUP, affirmed the group’s
ADP/2015/L.6), with the draft agreement and decision text on
confidence in the COP Presidency.
workstream 1 and 2 in annex I, and a reflection note in annex
Maldives, for AOSIS, said the process ensured party
II. He explained that the draft text had not changed from the
ownership
and stressed that the principles of the Convention
compilation text with bridging proposals, and that the reflection
note contained the comments made during those discussions. He must be honored to reach an agreement that positively impacts
the lives of vulnerable people.
said that, should there be a comment that a party was unable to
Angola, for the LDCs, looked forward to engaging in “the
make due to time constraints, or an inaccuracy or omission in
work
that remains to be done on the draft text in addition to
the reflection note, parties could make submissions until 1:00pm
some political decision making.” TURKEY stressed “making
on Saturday, 5 December.
this an inclusive agreement where no country is left behind.”
Parties agreed to forward the draft conclusions to the ADP
Calling for a REDD+ mechanism to be reflected in the
plenary.
agreement, Panama, for the COALITION FOR RAINFOREST
CLOSING PLENARY: ADP Co-Chair Reifsnyder opened
the plenary. After thanking the parties and co-facilitators for
NATIONS, recalled that heads of state sent a “strong” political
their hard work and dedication, ADP Co-Chair Reifsnyder turned signal on the role of forests and biodiversity in their speeches.
to ADP agenda item 3 (implementation of all the elements of
Malaysia, for the LMDCs, stressed the need to “recognize
Decision 1/CP.17), noting significant progress had been made in that the principles of equity and CBDR must be preserved in
reducing gaps between parties’ positions, and saying the ADP’s
all their facets and forms.” He urged parties to look at the best
work would now be passed on to the COP to “complete the last
available social science to assess modern realities and stressed
leg.”
that civil society must have access to negotiations.
Following assurances by ADP Co-Chair Reifsnyder, inter
Lamenting that, in the first week, the text had been reopened
alia, that the reflections note would be revised to include parties’ for new insertions, Saudi Arabia, for the ARAB GROUP,
remaining comments, including all definitions presented in the
expressed readiness to engage with the COP Presidency and
Friday, 4 December, contact group, and that “nothing has been
looked forward to a “fair process that will take us to a fair
decided or left behind,” including the issue of loss and damage,
outcome.”
the ADP adopted conclusions (FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6) to be
Venezuela, for the BOLIVARIAN ALLIANCE FOR THE
forwarded to the COP for further consideration.
PEOPLES
OF OUR AMERICA, called for sustaining the
Laurence Tubiana, COP 21 Presidency, assured parties that
principles
of
party-drivenness, transparency and inclusiveness
negotiations would continue on the basis of the ADP text that
“until
the
final
second of the COP.”
was agreed. She highlighted the importance of party ownership
Saying parties had never before been so close to delivering
to make progress.
an ambitious outcome, Guatemala, for AILAC, called for
South Africa, for the G-77/CHINA, expressed willingness to
work on the basis of the ADP text, and called for a balanced and moving beyond national positions to a “solution cognizant of our
collective interest.”
equal treatment of all elements of the Durban mandate, and an
outcome under the Convention in accordance with its principles
and provisions.
This issue of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <enb@iisd.org> is written and edited by Jennifer Allan, Beate Antonich, Rishikesh Ram Bhandary,
Mari Luomi, Ph.D., Anna Schulz, and Virginia Wiseman. The Digital Editor is Kiara Worth. The Editor is Pamela Chasek, Ph.D. <pam@iisd.org>.
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Cooperation (SDC)), and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. General Support for the Bulletin during 2015 is provided by the German Federal Ministry
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International, the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Japanese Ministry of Environment (through the Institute for Global Environmental
Strategies - IGES), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Specific
funding for coverage of this conference has been provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the European Union (EU), the Austrian Federal Ministry
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Earth Negotiations Bulletin
Monday, 7 December 2015 Vol. 12 No. 658 Page 2
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Stressing “this is a global crisis,” MARSHALL ISLANDS
reminded that, while a “favorite phrase here is nationally
determined,” parties are in Paris “to fight for what is globally
necessary.”
In closing, ADP Rapporteur Yang Liu presented, and parties
adopted, the report of the meeting (FCCC/ADP/2015/L.5).
Saying that “sometimes words cannot capture our feelings,”
ADP Co-Chair Ahmed Djoghlaf congratulated parties for their
achievement so far, and thanked parties for their trust.
UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres noted her
appreciation for the full dedication of parties on this “complex”
task and said work needed to continue next week.
Thanking all, ADP Co-Chair Reifsnyder gaveled the plenary
to a close at 1:07pm.
COP PLENARY
REPORT OF THE ADP: In the evening, COP 21 President
Laurent Fabius presided. ADP Co-Chairs Reifsnyder and
Djoghlaf presented and transmitted the draft agreement and
decision (FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6/Rev.1) and suggested changes
(FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6/Rev.1/Add.1) to the COP.
Parties agreed to the mode of work outlined by COP 21
President Fabius, including the “Paris Committee,” an openended single-setting group, presided over by the COP 21
President, to progress the text and facilitate compromise. He
said the committee would work under the principle, inter alia, of
“nothing is agreed until everything is agreed,” and its meetings
would be transmitted to screens at the conference site to facilitate
transparency.
He further outlined four informal working groups facilitated
by ministers to work on cross-cutting issues: support, facilitated
by Emmanuel Issoze-Ngondet (Gabon) and Jochen Flasbarth
(Germany); differentiation in the context of mitigation,
transparency and finance, including pre-2020 finance,
facilitated by Izabella Teixeira (Brazil) and Vivian Balakrishnan
(Singapore); ambition, long-term objectives and periodic review,
with facilitators to be announced; and acceleration of pre-2020
ambition, with facilitators to be announced.
He stated that the outcome should be concluded in time for
a review group on legal and language matters to address related
issues before Friday, 11 December.
South Africa, for the G-77/CHINA, emphasized the
importance of clarity and predictability in the negotiation
process, and asked that the reflection note be updated with
suggestions that are still missing.
Maldives, for AOSIS, asked for clarity on how the issues of
adaptation, and loss and damage would be handled.
In response to the RUSSIAN FEDERATION, COP 21
President Fabius said that the Russian language version is being
finalized and that all languages will be respected.
Sudan, for the AFRICAN GROUP, noted that important issues
have been left out of the agreement, but expressed certainty
that parties will address these issues. MARSHALL ISLANDS
called for the Paris agreement to include, inter alia, a 1.5°C
temperature goal and assurances on long-term climate finance.
Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, said the ADP text
is party-driven and party-owned. Saudi Arabia, for the ARAB
GROUP, emphasized that setting a goal for governments’ efforts
“needs to be substantiated by proven science,” provided by the
IPCC.
Guatemala, for AILAC, called for awareness that “this is our
text and it will be our ability to listen to one another and our
ability to articulate our needs” that will enable an effective agreement. Angola, for the LDCs, expressed disappointment that the

COP Bureau “formulation” was used to form the review group,
excluding the LDCs.
Malaysia, for the LMDCs, underscored the group’s
commitment to goodwill and expressed concern over the repeated
use of the refrain “the world has changed.” Asking developed
countries to take the lead, CHINA underlined that an ambitious
Paris outcome should give equal weight to all of the Durban
mandate components.
AZERBAIJAN asked his insertions to be incorporated into
the reflection note. Noting that his country did not belong to
any negotiating group, TURKEY asked to be considered as a
group for consultations on negotiations. NEPAL highlighted the
fragility of mountain ecosystems.
COP 21 President Fabius noted that the SBSTA and SBI
had concluded their work but three items remained unresolved:
the 2013-2015 review; capacity building under the Convention
and the Kyoto Protocol; and impact of the implementation of
response measures. COP 21 President Fabius said the 2013-2015
review would be considered by the long-term goal informal
working group. On the remaining two items, COP 21 President
Fabius said he will hold consultations and propose a way
forward.
The four working groups will commence and ministers will
meet to discuss modalities of work on Sunday, 6 December.
COP 21 President Fabius then suspended the meeting. ​
IN THE CORRIDORS
Saturday kicked off in what many called an “unexpectedly
harmonious mood.” Friday’s tense exchanges had left many
wondering if spirits of past, less successful COPs had come to
haunt Le Bourget. On Saturday morning, many arrived with the
expectation that the procedural debates and common refrains
would continue, and were surprised with the dramatic change in
tone in the conversation.
As one delegate put it, parties had managed to “exorcise”
Copenhagen’s lack of transparency. Several parties welcomed the
new ADP text, a compilation of parties’ work and co-facilitators’
bridging proposals, coupled with a reflection note capturing
parties’ comments. While not as advanced as most would have
wished, several delegates seemed reassured that their inputs were
reflected.
Looking to the second week when ministers arrive, many
hoped that the agreed mode of work, centered around the Paris
Committee, together with ministerial consultations, would serve
as a strong basis for inclusive negotiation. A negotiator from a
smaller delegation, however, could not help but worry that talks
would move away from the Committee and end up behind closed
doors for prioritized issues.
A number of delegates worried over some issues receiving
more attention than others. With ministerial attention now fixed
on just four issues in the working groups, some delegates were
concerned that issues of importance to them were being left at
“the bottom of the pile.”
Yet, one observer pointed out that the issues on the ministers’
“to-do list” seemed to be selected on the basis of whether they
were likely to make or break the Paris agreement. Despite the
fundamental importance of a number of other issues, finance,
mitigation and – “the oldest ghost of all” – differentiation will
undoubtedly be in the spotlight in week two.
Delegates, however, seemed generally reassured by the COP
Presidency on transparency and hoped that the agreed mode of
work would stop ghosts from emerging again.