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Chapter 5: Developmental Psychology

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1. According to Freud, what do girls experience during the phallic stage?

a suppression of psychosexual interest
increased pleasure from all physical activities
increased concerns with dependence and independence
penis envy

2. According to Freud, sexual interest is suppressed during which stage of

psychosexual development?

3. According to Sigmund Freud, normal adults are in which stage of sexual


4. Yesterday Professor E asked children aged 6 through 12 to list their favorite

foods, and then compared the results for different ages. This is an example of which
kind of study?

5. Dr. Publisher reports a study comparing 3-year-old, 5-year-old, and 7-year-old

children, all tested at the same time. Which kind of research design is this?





6. Suppose researchers want to compare the abilities of 60-year-olds to those of 80year-olds, but they worry about finding equivalent samples at the two ages. To
minimize that problem, the best design for this study would be

7. What does a researcher examine in a longitudinal design?

a single group of people at different times
different people (of different ages) at the same time
different species of animals
people from different countries or different cultures

8. An investigator who uses a longitudinal design

examines a single group of people at several times as they age.
compares humans to other animal species.
compares people from different cultures.
examines people of different ages at the same time.

9. Infants with a "difficult" temperament are likely to grow up to be difficult children

and eventually troubled adults. That statement must be based on evidence from
which kind of study?





10. One advantage of a cross-sectional study over a longitudinal study is that a

cross-sectional study
uses the same subjects at all ages.
is better suited to studying the effects of age on intelligence.
can be completed more quickly.
compares people from different backgrounds.

11. Which of the following studies would be impossible to answer by a crosssectional study?
At what age do most children understand conservation of number?
Do first-grade and sixth-grade children generally like different music?
Do the best 6-year-old artists remain outstanding as they grow older?
Do older children generally memorize facts more easily than younger children?

12. Suppose you wish to study personality development, but you worry that you
might accidentally select different kinds of people at different ages. Which
experimental design should you use?

13. A research design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs is

known as





14. What is the major benefit to a sequential design?

It combines many of the strengths of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
It enables researchers to separate the contributions of heredity and environment.
It enables researchers to draw cause-and-effect conclusions.
It explores the relationship between brain development and language development.

15. You are in the same cohort as other people who

have the same interests that you do.
were born at about the same time you were.
have an IQ score within 10 points of yours.
live in the same part of the country where you do.

16. If young adults differ from older adults by a cohort effect, what caused the
differences in brain activity
changes in peoples interests as they grow older
the way in which investigators measured a behavior
the historical era in which people grew up

17. Newborn babies weighing less than 4 pounds at birth have increased probability
of later behavior problems. Why should we NOT necessarily conclude that low birth
weight caused the problems?
Prenatal development has nothing to do with brain development.
Hospitals give small babies less attention, on average, than larger babies.
Most small babies have Down syndrome or other medical disorders.
Malnourished or unhealthy mothers may provide poor care after the child is born.




18. Which of the following is often a cause of brain abnormalities in newborns?

The mother had morning sickness during pregnancy.
The mother gained weight during pregnancy.
The mother exercised frequently during pregnancy.
The mother drank much alcohol during pregnancy.

19. Which of these attracts the most attention by a 2-day-old human infant?
solid red picture.
solid white picture.
narrow diagonally striped pattern.
drawing of a human face.

20. Under which condition do infants most easily recognize a face?

They are best at recognizing faces they see in the morning.
They are best at recognizing faces they see in the afternoon.
They are best at recognizing the kinds of faces most familiar to them.
They are best at recognizing faces that lack any emotional expression.

21. An infant who hears a novel sound increases its sucking rate. After several
presentations of the same sound, the sucking rate declines. This decrease in
responding is called
reflexive attenuation.

22. What evidence, if any, shows that newborn infants hear a difference between
ba and pa?
No evidence supports this conclusion.




Infants learn to copy the two sounds.

Infants learn to kick when they hear one sound and stop when they hear the other.
An infant who habituates to ba increases sucking rate after hearing pa.

23. An investigator repeatedly plays a recording of the sound "ba" while checking the
rate that an infant sucks on a nipple. After the infant's rate of sucking decreases, the
investigator switches to the sound "pa." What is the investigator probably trying to
Which of the two sounds does an infant like best?
Can the infant detect the difference between the two sounds?
Does the infant copy the sounds it hears?
What is the capacity of an infant's short-term memory?

24. Jean Piaget's main emphasis was that

children in different stages think in different ways.
developmental processes differ substantially among cultures.
parenting style has a major influence on social development.
positive reinforcement is more effective than punishment.

25. According to Piaget, a childs intellectual growth occurs through

conservation and object permanence.
classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
habituation and dishabituation.`
Adaptation, assimilation and accommodation

26. In Piaget's terminology, what is it that sometimes gets assimilated and

sometimes gets accommodated?
the child
a cohort
a schema




an identity

27. According to Piaget, applying an old schema to a new object or problem is called
object permanence.
concrete operations.

28. A child who is familiar with an iPad tries to control a television the same way.
She is showing
a lack of conservation.
concrete operational thought.
object permanence.

29. According to Piaget's concept, what is accommodation?

combining classical conditioning with operant conditioning
fitting an old schema to a new object or problem
understanding that objects continue to exist, even when hidden
understanding that objects keep their number and volume after changing shape

30. The order of stages in Piaget's theory of development is:

sensorimotor--formal operations--concrete operations--postoperational
preoperational--concrete operations--formal operations--sensorimotor
concrete operations--sensorimotor--preoperational--formal operations
sensorimotor--preoperational--concrete operations--formal operations

31. Which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development do people reach last (at age
11 or later)?




formal operations
concrete operations

32. According to Piaget, children in which stage of development respond only to

what they see and hear at the moment, rather than what they might remember?

33. Object permanence refers to the idea that

objects continue to exist even when we don't see them.
objects we see continue to exist even when we aren't talking about them.
objects permanently exist in one location.
the substance of an object remains constant even when its form changes.

34. According to Piaget, how can we determine whether a child understands object
Watch the child's eye movements when the object moves.
Place a toy behind a barrier and see whether the child retrieves it.
Squash some clay and see whether the child thinks it still is the same amount.
See whether the child consistently prefers one toy to another.

35. An experimenter places a colored spot on a childs nose, lets the child look in the
mirror, and observes whether the child touches his/her own nose. What concept is
being tested?
object permanence




sense of self
theory of mind

36. What did Piaget mean by an "operation" (as in "concrete operations")?

a way of answering hypothetical questions
applying a schema to a new object
modifying a schema to fit a new object
a mental process that can be reversed

37. What did Piaget mean by the term "egocentric"?

seeing the world only from your own perspective
having a well-defined, individually chosen identity
withdrawn, shy, and inhibited

38. Which of the following would Piaget consider evidence that a child is thinking
The child demands that other people attend to the child's needs.
When asked "How would this look from where I'm standing?" the child describes how it appears from
where the child is standing.
The child speaks in relatively complex sentences when speaking to an adult but uses shorter, simpler
sentences when speaking to a younger child.
The child describes a set of plans and goals for the future that he or she thought out alone, rather than
borrowing from parents.

39. A professor gives her introductory class an extremely complicated lecture,

assuming that if she understands it, they will also. This is an example of which of the
Piagets concepts?
object permanence




concrete operations

40. Which of the following is an example of egocentric thought, in Piagets sense of

that term?
A basketball coach expresses great optimism for the team at the start of the season.
A writer uses someone elses words without giving credit.
Josh blames other people for everything that goes wrong in his life.
Dr. Jones gives her intro class the same complex lecture she gave to professionals.

41. An experimenter shows a child two equal glasses of water and then pours the
water from one of them into a glass of a different shape. Then the experimenter asks
whether the new glass has more or less water than the other one. What concept is
the experimenter testing?
object permanence
hypothetical reasoning

42. A psychologist shows a child two rows of coins and then spreads out one row
and asks which row has more. Which Piagetian concept is she probably testing?
object permanence
formal operations

43. According to Piaget, a child who has the concept of conservation understands
which of these?
The weight and mass of an object stays the same when the shape changes.
One should work out a strategy before starting on a complex task.




An object continues to exist even when one does not see it.
A group of people has to take turns talking to one another and then listening.

44. An investigator shows a child two equally full beakers of water and pours one of
them into a tall, thin container. The child says that the thinner container has more
water. Evidently the child lacks
the concept of object permanence.
the concept of conservation.
ego integrity.

45. According to Piaget, children in the concrete-operations stage

have trouble with abstract and hypothetical questions.
no longer use schemas.
have only simple movements and do not use language.
lack the concept of conservation.

46. To determine whether or not a child has reached the stage of formal operations,
a psychologist might test whether the child can
understand that objects maintain certain properties despite changes in their shape.
speak in complete sentences.
understand that an object continues to exist even when it is out of sight.
answer hypothetical and abstract questions.

47. What should a psychologist test to determine whether a given child is in the
concrete-operations stage or the formal-operations stage?
whether the child reaches around a barrier to retrieve a hidden toy
whether the child understands that a liquid maintains its volume after a shape change
whether the child can answer abstract and hypothetical questions
whether the child can distinguish between appearance and reality




48. What does a child in the formal operations stage do that a child in the concrete
operations stage does not do?
plan systematic approaches to hypothetical questions
correctly answer questions about object permanence
understand that some people have false beliefs
understand conservation of number

49. The thought processes of an adult are most like those of children in which of
Piagets stages?
formal operations
concrete operations

50. Olivia understands that objects maintain their weight and volume after changes
in shape. But she has trouble answering abstract or hypothetical questions. She is in
which of Piaget's stages?
formal operations
concrete operations

51. Below are descriptions of four children. Which one is in Piaget's stage of formal
performs well on tests of object permanence; still has trouble with conservation
systematically plans approaches to hypothetical questions
understands conservation but has trouble with abstract and hypothetical questions
does not speak in complete sentences; fails tests of object permanence




52. A child who fails tests of object permanence and cannot speak more than a few
words would be in which of Piagets stages?
concrete operations
formal operations

53. For both Piaget's stages of cognitive development and Erik Erikson's stages of
emotional and social development,
almost everyone reaches the final stage on schedule, at the same age.
children in two-parent families develop faster than those from single-parent families.
first-born children develop faster than their later-born brothers and sisters.
almost everyone goes through the stages in the same order.

54. Erik Eriksons eight stages of human development dealt with which aspect of
language skills
reactions to the prospect of dying
social and emotional conflicts
understanding the concept of right and wrong

55. What was a key point of Erik Eriksons stages of development?

Emotional difficulties in one stage will impair development in the next.
Genetic differences influence the development of social behaviors.
The speed of progression through stages of development varies among cultures.
Those who go through the stages more slowly are better off in the long run.

56. According to Erik Erikson, the main concern of a newborn infant is

early experiences of independence.




achievement and self-worth.

conflict with parental restrictions.
forming a trusting attachment.

57. People differ greatly in their tendency to be active or inactive, outgoing or

reserved. These tendencies are known as

58. If two people differ in their temperament, what can we expect to find?
They react differently to new situations.
They differ in their interests and academic abilities.
They prefer different types of foods.
They differ in their self-esteem.

59. According to Erik Erikson, the identity crisis (the question "Who am I?") is of
greatest concern to people of what age?
preschool children
older adults

60. At what stage of life are people most likely to experience identity crisis?
early childhood
young adulthood
old age




61. According to Erikson, during a midlife transition, what makes people

awareness of physical deterioration of the body
lack of social activities
awareness of unachieved goals
increased work and responsibility

62. When girl fetuses are exposed to somewhat elevated testosterone levels during
prenatal development, what is an effect on their later development?
These girls are more likely than average to get high grades in math courses.
These girls are more likely than average to pay close attention to facial expressions.
These girls are more likely than average to enjoy typical boys toys.
These girls are more likely than average to be right-handed.

63. If you choose a job because you consider it mans work or womans work, you
have been influenced by what?
sex roles
sex hormones

64. When a boy experiences an Oedipus complex, toward whom does he feel sexual
his mother
his father
girls his own age

65. What did Freud mean by libido?




repressed memories
infantile behaviors
aggressive tendencies
sexual energy

66. According to Freud, we go through stages of sexual development in the following

latent, anal, oral, genital, phallic
anal, oral, latent, genital, phallic
oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
oral, latent, anal, phallic, genital

67. How would Sigmund Freud explain why someone eats, drinks, or smokes too
The person has a strong id and a weak superego.
The person has a very high level of libido.
The person is engaging in projection and rationalization.
The person had a fixation during the oral stage.

68. How would Sigmund Freud explain why someone has lasting concerns about
dependence and independence?
The person has a strong id and a weak superego.
The person has a very high level of libido.
The person is engaging in projection and rationalization.
The person had a fixation during the oral stage.

69. According to Freud, someone who goes through life "holding things back" and is
orderly, stingy, and stubborn was probably fixated in the
oral stage.
anal stage.




phallic stage.
latency period.

70. According to Freud, what does a boy experience during the phallic stage?
a tendency to become either very messy or very orderly
intense pleasure from oral stimulation
fear of having his penis cut off
a desire for sexual intercourse




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