Basic Hawaiian Language Lessons

Nâ Ha`awina o Ka `Ike Kumu o Ka `Ôlelo Hawai`i ~ Aunty D: http://hawaiianlanguage.com || http://geocities.com/dhc2020/ Basic Hawaiian Language Workshop at the The Southern California `Ukulele Festival

There is only a limited amount of knowledge that one can impart at a workshop. The following lessons are presented with extended learning aids, including links to enhance and further your Hawaiian language learning experience: I. Greetings :: Nâ Aloha: Phonetic pronunciation: Aloha! Correct: [ah loh' hah] Incorrect: [ah LOH' hah!] [ah low hah!] [ah LOH HAH'!] [ah loh' hah KAH' kou!] [ah loh' hah KAH oo-(w)ah!] [ah loh' hah-(y)eh (Inoa)!] [HOO'-(w)ee!] [ah loh' hah-AH hoo'-(w)ee hou!] Translation into English: alo = presence hâ = (Divine) breath More than a greeting, it is a blessing. Aloha to all of us! (More than two of us) Aloha to you and me! (Two of us) Aloha to (Name)! Halloo! Yoo hoo! Aloha until (we) meet again.

Aloha kâkou! Aloha kâua! Aloha e (Inoa)! Hûi Aloha â hui hou!

To further your learning: More Hawaiian greetings - The Meaning of Aloha - The Aloha Spirit More Hawaiian greetings and sentiments

II. A Brief History :: He Mo`olelo Pôkole Origins: ? - Marquesas / Tahiti ---> Hawai`i. Post contact: Hawaiian population was decimated from 1,000,000 to 40,000. Missionaries from New England converted Hawaiian into a written language. Hawaiians soon became the most literate in the world; at one time, up to 90% of the Hawaiian population read and wrote their once oral-only language. Over time, English usage dominated and the Hawaiian language receded; 25 years ago, the number of native Hawaiian speakers was down to ~2000. Like the nênê, the endangered Hawaiian goose, the Hawaiian language was on the brink of extinction. Pidgin (a.k.a. Hawai`i

Creole English), an amalgam of Hawaiian, English, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino and Portuguese words, among others, has helped to preserve its words, as well as its grammatical and intonation patterns. In the 1980's, the Hawaiian language (a.k.a. ka `ôlelo Hawai`i) was revived with the Hawaiian Renaissance. Today, there are more than 10,000 speakers and the number is growing. Hawaiian and English are now the two official languages of Hawai`i. `O Ka `Ōlelo Ke Ka`ā; O Ka Mauli" "Language is the fiber that binds us to our cultural identity" We honor our kûpuna by heeding them: "If you kill the language, you kill the culture." Keep the culture alive by learning Hawaiian. It is never too late. E ola mau ka `ôlelo Hawai`i! [eh-(y)oh lah mau kah OH leh loh hah vai ee!" May the Hawaiian language live on!

To enhance your learning: Why Learn Hawaiian? 20 Pono Reasons He Kono - An Invitation to Give Back to Hawai`i, Hawaiian Culture, and Aloha

III. Hawaiian Words of Wisdom :: Ka `Ôlelo No`eau: On learning Nânâ ka maka Ho`olohe ka pepeiao Pa`a ka waha [NAH' NAH' kah mah' kah] [hoh oh loh' heh kah peh pei(y)ao'] [pah' ah kah vah' hah] Thus one learns. To further your learning: Nâ `Ôlelo No`eau: Hawaiian Words of Wisdom / Proverbs Hawaiian Proverbs and Wise Sayings for Seniors IV. Hawaiian Alphabet :: Ka Pî`âpâ Hawai`i: The Hawaiian alphabet uses 12 Roman letters ( a, e, i, o, u, h, k, l, m, n, p, w), five (5) Roman letters (a, e, i, o, u) with a diacritical mark called a kahakô, and a diacritical mark called `okina.

Observe with the eyes Listen with the ears Shut the mouth

Number of letters in the Hawaiian alphabet: 10 vowels + 8 consonants = 18 letters. Here's the breakdown: 10 Hawaiian Vowels: 5 vowels: a e i o u [pronounced: ah eh ee oh oo] 5 vowels with kahakô: â ê î ô û [pronounced with elongated sounds: AH EH EE OH OO] What's a kahakô? (kaha = mark) + ( kô = elongate). It is a diacritical mark that is a horizontal line over a vowel to signify elongation of its sound. Instead of one beat of sound, give it two. In English, this mark is called the macron. Because â ê î ô û are recognized as vowels in addition to a e i o u, there are ten (10) vowels in the Hawaiian language.

8 Hawaiian Consonants: h, k, l, m, n, p, w, ` [pronounced: heh, peh, keh, lah, moo, noo, peh, veh, `oh kee nah] What's an `okina? (`oki = cut) + na (a suffix that makes a word a noun). It is a diacritical mark that looks like " a tiny "6" with the hole filled in." Known in English as a "glottal stop," it signifies a break in the breath, as in "oh-oh." Because `okina is recognized as a consonant, in and of its self, there are eight (8) consonants in the Hawaiian language. Thus, there are 18 letters in the Hawaiian alphabet, and NOT the frequently erroneously reported 12 letters. Here is a graphic that depicts the exact representations of the kahakô and the `okina:

Graphic, courtesy of The Royal Hawaiian Band Unfortunately, to date, the Internet does not support the faithful rendering of these diacritical marks, although efforts to rectify this situation are underway. The closest renderings of the diacritical marks necessary for the proper pronunciation, spelling, and comprehension of Hawaiian words employ the caret (^) to represent the kahakô and the backward quote mark (`) to represent the `okina, as used on this page. Diacritical marks are important to pronunciation. Use them where they are required. You CAN make them on your word-processor. Here's how. To further your learning: Ka Pî`âpâ Hawai`i :: The Hawaiian Alphabet Why is Hawaii spelled Hawai`i? A List of Common Mispronunciations of Hawaiian Words Common Mispronunciations of Hawaiian Place Names V. Colors & Numbers :: Nâ Waiho`olu`u & Nâ Huahelu: Learn to sing the "color song": `Ula`ula, melemele, poni, polû, `ele`ele Phonetic pronunciation: [ooh' lah ooh' lah, meh' leh meh' leh, poh' nee, poh LOO', eh' leh eh' leh] Translation: Red, yellow, purple, blue, black `Alani, `âkala, ke`oke`o, `âhinahina, `ôma`oma`o Phonetic pronunciation: [ah lah' nee, AH kah' lah, keh' oh keh' oh, AH hee nah hee' nah, OH' mah' oh mah' oh] Translation: Orange, pink, white, gray, green Further your learning: Colors :: Nâ Waiho`olu`u More on Colors Learn to count in Hawaiian: 0 =`ole, 1= ho`okahi, 2 = `elua, 3 = `ekolu, 4 = `ehâ, 5 = `elima, 6 = `eono, 7 = `ehiku, 8 = `ewalu, 9 = `eiwa, 10 = `umi Phonetic pronunciation:

[oh' leh, hoh oh kah' hee, eh loo-(w)ah, eh koh' loo, eh HAH', eh lee' mah, eh-(w)oh noh, eh hee' koo, eh vah loo, ei' vah, oo' mee] Further your learning: Numbers :: Nâ Huahelu More on Numbers VI. Pronunciation :: Ka Hopuna: Uncorrected, gross mispronunciations go mainstream and become virtually impossible to correct. Check out these gross mispronunciations of common Japanese words by English speakers: Words: karaoke || sake || karate Mispronunciations: "carry oh' key" || "sack' kee" || "kah rah' tee" Actual pronunciation: [ kah rah' oh keh] || [sah keh] || [kah rah teh'] Learn to pronounce the words correctly. Hawaiian is too beautiful for it to be trashed with mispronunciations which distort and obscure the intended meanings. Rules of Thumb:
• • •

All letters are sounded. There are NO silent letters in Hawaiian. Vowels are sounded separately EXCEPT when two vowels are next to each other and the sound is then blended as diphthongs. Stress the "next-to-the-last" sound. Sounds with kahakô and diphthongs are stressed.

"The Nuts and Bolts" of Pronunciating Hawaiian Words: Diphthong [dip' thong] = a blended sound from two vowels in a row, as in "ou" in house or "oi" in noise. In Hawaiian the two vowels are not so tightly joined as in English and BOTH must be "completely executed." The first vowel of the blended pair is stressed more. Diphthongs: Sounds like: Examples: ai ae ao au ei eu iu oe oi ou "i" in ice I or eye "ow" in how but without a nasal twang "ou" in house or out but without a nasal twang "eh leh-(y)oo'" "ee-(y)oo" similar to "ew" in few oh-(w)eh "oi" in voice "ow" in bowl Kai = Sea water Mae`ole = Never-fading Maoli = True Kaona = Hidden Meaning Au = I, I am

"ei" in chow mein or in eight Lei = Garland `Eleu = Lively Wêkiu = Topmost `Oe = You Poi = Hawaiian staple Kou = Your

ui W-Sounds:

"oo-(w)ee" in gooey

Hui = Together, team, chorus

• •

"W" sounds like "V" or "W" when it starts a word or follows "a". Examples: Welina! [weh lee' nah] or [veh lee' nah] = Greeting; Hawai`i [hah wai' ee] or [hah vai' ee] "W" sounds like "V" when it follows "e" or "i. ". Mnemonic:"Vei" Examples: iwi [ee' vee] = bone; `Ewa [eh' vah] "W" sounds like "W" when it follows "o" or "u." Mnemonic: "Wou" Examples: wôwô [WOH WOH] = roar; kûwili [KOO wee' lee] = spin

Y-Glides and W-Glides: These glide sounds are automatically produced with certain vowel combinations. Hawaiian is not spoken in staccato fashion. When two vowels are next to each other (in the same word and with adjacent words), smooth out the sounds with these glides. W-glides: Maui [ Mau'-(w)ee] `oe [oh-(w)eh' ] : you Auê [ au-(W)EH'! ] : Oh no! Darn! lauoho [lau-(w)oh' hoh] : hair Y-glides: `O ia [oi'-(y)ah] : he, she, it; he is, she is, it is `iâia [ee-(Y)AH'-(y)ah] : to him, to her heiau [hei'-(y)au'] : place of worship, rock shrine E Hawai`i Aloha ê [eh hah vai' ee-(y)ah loh' hah-(Y)EH]

Practice saying the eight major Hawaiian islands correctly: Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lâna`i, Kaho`olawe, Maui, Hawai`i. Pronounced: [nee ee hau'], [kau-(w)ah' ee], oh ah' hoo], [moh loh kah' ee], [LAH' nah ee], [kah hoh oh lah' veh], [mau'-(w)ee], [hah vai' ee] or [hah wai' ee].

Honolulu is pronounced [hoh noh loo' loo]. Practice singing this beloved Hawaiian song: HAWAI`I ALOHA.

Listen: The Kawaiahao Church Choir

VII: Simple Sentences :: Adjective + Noun/Pronoun Pattern As with the Spanish language, the adjective (word that describes) come before the noun (the subject). But first, here are some words to help you begin to speak in a sentence. Pronouns / Proper noun: au [ Mau'- (w)ee] : I, I am `oe [oh- (w)eh' ] : you, you are kâua [KAH-oo-(w)ah : we, as in "you and I" kâkou [KAH' kou] : we, as in "all of us" `olua [oh loo-(w)ah : you, as in "you two" `oukou [ou kou'] : you, as in "all of you"

lâua [LAH' kou] : they, as in "two of them" `o ia [oi'-(y)ah ] : he or she or it, he or she or place of worship, rock shrine it is lâkou [LAH' kou] : they, as in "all of them" place of worship, rock shrine `o ("So-and-so") : "So-and-so" is Adjectives: maika`i [mai kah' ee] : good kolohe [koh loh' heh] : naughty, rascal `ino [ee' noh] : bad, evil `eleu [eh leh-(y)oo] : energetic, lively mâluhiluhi [MAH' loo hee loo hee] : tired mâlie [MAH' lee-(y)eh] : calm huhû [hoo HOO'] : angry, ticked off nui [noo-(w)ee] : big li`ili`i [lee' ee lee' ee] : little ikaika [ee kai' kah] : strong nâwaliwali [NAH vah lee vah lee] : weak nani [nah' nee] : pretty nohea [noh heh-(y)ah] : handsome pupuka [poo poo' kah] : ugly hau`oli [hau oh' lee] : happy kaumaha [kau mah' hah] : sad hoihoi [hoi' hoi'] : interesting manakâ [mah nah KAH'] : bored, uninteresting * A very useful word: `ole [oh' leh] : not Put `ole after the adjective to negate it: Examples: maika`i `ole : not good anuanu [ah' noo-(w) ah' noo] : cold wela [veh' lah] : hot mahana [mah hah' nah] : warm `olu`olu [oh' loo oh' loo] : comfortably cool, pleasant ola [oh' lah] : healthy ma`i [mah' ee] : sick pôloli [POH' loh lee] : hungry mâ`ona [MAH' oh nah] : full (with food) makewai [mah keh vai'] : thirsty kena [keh' nah] : quenched akamai [ah kah mai'] : smart hûpô [HOO' POH'] : stupid pono [poh' noh] : proper, righteous, balanced pupule [poo poo' leh] : crazy, insane onaona [oh nao' nah] ; fragrant hauna [hau' nah] : smelly, stinky pa`ahana [pah ah hah' nah] : industrious, busy moloâ [moh loh-(W)AH] : lazy miki`oi [mee kee oi'] : neat, precise kâpulu [KAH' poo loo] : careless, slovenly Example: Pôloli `o Pila. : Bill is hungry.

`ino `ole : not evil Using the sentence pattern of adjective + noun/pronoun: Pôloli au. I am hungry. Nani `oe. You are beautiful. Maika`i `o ia. He/She is good. Makewai `o Pila. Pila is thirsty. Moloâ `ole lâkou. They are not lazy. VII: Commonly used Hawaiian words and expressions: Hawaiian Word List KA `ÔLELO HAWAI`I (HAWAIIAN): `ae `a`ole pela paha aikâne `âina Akua Iesu Kristo ali`i Aloha au iâ `oe. `A`ole pilikia. `au`au Auê! `aumakua nâ `aumâkua E kala mai. E mâlama pono. E `olu`olu. E komo mai! Haina iâ mai ana ka puana Hopuna (Pronunciation): [ae] [ah oh' leh] [peh lah pah' hah] [ai KAH' neh] [ai' nah] KA `ÔLELO HAOLE (ENGLISH): Yes No Maybe friend; friendly; to become a friend land; overall environment

God, usually referred to as Ke [ah koo'-(w)ah] [ee-(y)eh' Akua soo] [krees' toh] Jesus Christ [ah lee' ee] [ah loh' hah vau-(y)ee YAH' oh-(w)eh] [ah oh' leh pee lee keh' (y)ah] [au au] [au-(W)EH'!] chiefly class; royalty I love you. No trouble. You're welcome. to bathe Oh no! Alas! Oops!

[au mah koo'-(w)ah] guardian spirit, ancestor [NAH au MAH koo-(w)ah guardian spirits, ancestors [eh kah' lah mai] [eh MAH lah' mah poh' noh] [eh oh' loo oh' loo] [eh koh' moh mai!] [hah-(y)ee' nah-(y)ee(Y)AH' mai-(y)ah' nah kah poo-(w)ah' nah] Excuse me. Forgive me. Take care. Please. Welcome! Literally, Come In! "To tell the refrain." Sung at the end of most traditional Hawaiian songs.

hale hâlau Hana hou! hânai haole hapa hâpai haumana nâ haumâna hauna Hau`oli Lâ Hânau! Hiki! Hiki nô! Hau`oli Makahiki Hou! Hô! hô`ike ho`olaule`a Ho`omaika`i! hula `auana hula kahiko huli `îlio ka ke nâ ke keiki : the child nâ keiki : the children

[hah' leh] [HAH' lau] [hah' nah hou!] [HAH' nai] [hao' leh] [hah' pah] [HAH' pai] [hau mah' nah] [NAH hau MAH' nah] [hau' nah] [hau oh' lee LAH HAH nau!] [hee' kee!] [hee' kee NOH'!]

house, home, building hula school; originally, canoe house Encore! Do it again! adopted, Hawaiian style Caucasian part, usually refers to mixed ethnicities pregnant; to carry student students smelly, stinky Happy Birthday! Can do! Sure! All right! Okay! (Hiki with more emphasis)

[hau oh' lee mah kah hee' Happy New Year! kee hou !] [HOH!] [HOH' ee keh] [hoh oh lau leh' ah] [hoh oh mai kah' ee!] [hoo' lah au-(w)ah' nah] [hoo' lah kah hee' koh] [hoo' lee] [EE lee'-(y)oh] [kah] [keh] [NAH] Wow! to show, exhibit; exhibition celebration Congratulations! modern hula ancient hula turn, reverse; to turn over dog the The word "the" is far more frequently used in Hawaiian than in English. Abstract words are preceded by "the", as in, ke Aloha. Rules of Thumb: Use ka for words that begin with a, e, o, k, and `okina. Use ke for all other letters. Use nâ to pluralize, ahead of the noun. Do not add a "s" to pluralize

Hawaiian words. Correct: one lei, two lei, four lei... ka`a kâlâ kama`âina kanaka maoli kâne Kanikapila! kaona kapu kêia kênâ kêlâ keiki nâ keiki keiki o ka `âina kî hô`alu kîkâ kôkua kona kukui Kulikuli! kumu kupuna nâ kûpuna ku`u ipo Lawa! Le`a le`a! lânai lani lauhala [kah' ah] [KAH' LAH'] [kah mah AI' nah] [kah nah' kah mao' lee] [KAH' neh] [kah nee kah pee' lah!] [kau' nah] [kah' poo] [KEH'-(y)ee-(y)ah] [KEH' NAH] [KEH' LAH] [kei' kee] [NAH kei' kee] [kei' kee oh kah AI' nah] [KEE HOH' ah loo] [KEE' KAH] [KOH' koo-(w)ah] [koh' nah] [koo kui'] [koo' lee koo' lee!] [koo' moo] [koo poo' nah] [NAH KOO poo nah] [koo' oo-(w)ee' poh] [lah' vah] [eh leh' ah leh' ah !] [LAH' nai] [lah' nee] [lau hah' lah] car money native, native-born, Hawai`i born. indigenous person; any descendant of those persons who lived in Hawai`i prior to 1778 man, male, husband, Mr. kani = sound, ka = the, pila = stringed instrument. Figuratively, "Let's play music!" hidden/deeper meaning of songs taboo, secret, off limits, don't touch! this that (nearby) that (over there) child children children of the land, island-born slack key guitar guitar help, aid, assistance leeward; hot winds that blow from the lee side against the trades candlenut tree; its nuts are used for lei Hush! Quiet! (Hâmau! is more polite) teacher elder elders my sweetheart Enough! Have fun! porch, veranda, patio heaven; heavenly; sky; spiritual leaves from the hala (pandanus)

tree, used for weaving pit or hole that has a bottom. lua [loo-(w)ah] Colloquial term for toilet. The proper words that mean bathroom is lumi ho`opaupilikia, which literally means "room to end your trouble"). lû`au mahalo mâhû mâkaukau make makuahine makuakâne makule malihini malo mana manu ma uka ma kai mele Mele Kalikimaka! menehune moemoe moloâ momona mu`umu`u nîele nui `ohana `ôkole [LOO' au] [mah hah' loh] [MAH' HOO'] [MAH' kau kau] [mah' keh] [mah koo-(w)ah KAH' neh] [mah koo' leh] [mah lee hee' nee] [mah' loh] [mah' nah] [mah' noo] [mau' kah] [mah kai'] [meh' leh] Hawaiian feast thank you gay person ready dead

[mah koo-(w)ah hee' neh] mother father old, of people; aged; elderly newcomer to Hawai`i, tourist, visitor loincloth spiritual power bird toward the mountains toward the sea song

[meh' leh kah lee kee mah' Merry Christmas! kah!] [meh neh hoo' neh] [moe moe'] [moh loh-(W)AH'] [moh moh' nah] [moo' oo moo' oo] [NEE'-(y)eh leh] [noo'-(w)ee] [oh hah' nah] [OH koh' leh] industrious, diminutive indigenous people of yore to cause to lie down; to hush or put to sleep lazy sweet, as in fruit Hawaiian-style dress nosey, inquisitive big; lots family anus, specifically the orifice (opening); derriere

`Elemu is more polite. oli `ono `ôpû `O wai kou inoa? `O Name ko`u inoa. pakalôlô Pâkê pali paniolo papa pâpale pau pau hana Pehea `oe? Maika`i nô. A `o `oe? piko poi [oh' lee] [oh' noh] [OH' POO] [oh vai kou-(w)ee noh'(w)ah?] [oh Name koh' oo-(w)ee noh-(w)ah. [pah kah LOH' LOH] [PAH' KEH] [pah' lee] [pah nee-(y) oh' loh] [pah' pah] [PAH' pah leh] [pau] [pau hah' nah] [peh heh-(y)ah oe?] [mai kah' ee NOH] [ah oh oe?] [pee' koh] [poi] chant delicious stomach, belly What's your name? Name is my name. marijuana, "pot," "grass" Chinese cliff; precipice Hawaiian cowboy class hat, cap, head covering done, finished finish work; "work is done" How are you? Very well. And you? navel, umbilical cord, genitals; summit Hawaiian staple from pounded cooked taro (kalo) root, forming a paste Appetizer made of cubed raw fish in a marinade of kukui nut-sea salt relish with chili peppers and seaweed (limu) Good luck! Best wishes! Blessings! cat flower hole, as in puka shells pray, prayer hors d`oeuvre, finger food, appetizer; sea/land shells Grandma; affectionate term for

poke

[poh' keh]

Pômaikai! pôpoki pua puka pule pûpû Tsâ! / Cha! / Kâ! tûtû

[POH' mai kah' ee] [POH' poh kee] [poo'-(w)ah [poo' kah] [poo' leh] [POO' POO']

[TSA!] / [cha!] / [kah!] Darn! Drat! Shucks! Oh no! [TOO' TOO]

old people--relatives or friends--of the grandparent generation `uku `ukulele wahine Wikiwiki! [oo' koo] [oo koo leh' leh] [wah hee' neh] [wee' kee wee' kee] Aloha â hui hou! Head louse; flea `uku= flea + lele = jumping Literally, "jumping flea" It is NOT spelled `iukuleili ! woman, female, wife, Mrs. Hurry up! Quickly! To hurry up, very quick.

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