You are on page 1of 41

Futuristic car

Renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices
fluctuate. At the educational level, it is therefore critical for engineering and technology students
to have an understanding and appreciation of the technologies associated with renewable energy.
One of the most popular renewable energy sources is solar energy. This paper describes a
capstone design project where a student in mechanical engg designed a solar car. Solar car
enables more energy to be utilized because the solar panel is able to maintain a perpendicular
profile to the suns rays. This system builds upon a prior senior design project where students
built a solar-powered battery charger, thus making this system ideally self-contained. The student
was able to demonstrate a working system, thus validating the design. Potential improvements to
the system are presented.

There are three ways to increase the efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The first is to
increase the efficiency of the solar cell. The second is to maximize the energy conversion from
the solar panel. A solar panel under an open circuit is able to supply a maximum voltage with no
current, while under a short circuit is able to supply a maximum current with no voltage. In
either case, the amount of power supplied by the solar panel is zero. The key is to develop a
method whereby maximum power can be obtained from the voltage and current multiplied
together. This maximum power point is illustrated by looking at a voltage-current (VI) curve,
and finding the knee of the curve. A number of maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
algorithms have been developed and employed.
Thus we are utilizing the solar energy in running our car which is totally dependent on solar
energy which we get from sun, the energy we get from sun will charge our battery and the motor
of the car will run from the energy stored.

The third method to increase the efficiency of a PV system is to employ a solar panel tracking
system. Development of solar panel tracking systems has been ongoing for several years now. As
the sun moves across the sky during the day, it is advantageous to have the solar panels track the
location of the sun, such that the panels are always perpendicular to the solar energy radiated by
the sun. This will tend to maximize the amount of power radiated by the sun. It has been
estimated that the use of a tracking system, over a fixed system, can increase the power output by
30% - 60%. When tracking the sun, it is noted that the direction of the sun, as seen by the solar
panel, will vary in two directions. The azimuth angle is the horizontal direction from the observer
to the sun. There is also an altitude angle, representing the vertical direction from the observer to
sun. More effective solar panel trackers are two-axis in nature5, 6, 7 and have been
demonstrated, for example, in the use of a solar oven concentrator.

System Design
At the beginning of the project, the student and faculty advisor agreed to the following design
Must track the sun during daylight hours

During the time that the sun is up, the system must follow the suns
position in the sky.

This must be done with an active control, timed movements are wasteful.

Self powered, must be fully autonomous

The system must operate on, and charge its own battery supply

Semi-permanent installation on the flat roof of a building

A base must be designed to allow installation without fasteners onto a flat section
of roof

Weather resistant

This system will be designed to be fully functional outdoors and resist any
wind and weather complications.

Remote instrumentation to monitor status

A method will be implemented to allow the system to be monitored remotely.

Block Diagram:

Auto Light sensor


Solar panel


Dc Motor Driver system

Right Motors

Left Motors

As indicated above, an Advance system is employed to control the movements of the Dc motor
which control solar panel. This whole system is chosen because of the energy conservation
perspective. Three power measurements are made at and around the last azimuth angle of the
solar panel. The location of the largest power measurement becomes the new azimuth angle of
the solar panel. One of the key elements of the design is for the system to be autonomous. An
energy balance calculation was performed to determine if the overall energy consumption (to
drive the motor, etc.) would be less than the amount of energy generated by the solar panel.
The energy consumed during the 72 hour period may exceed the energy available to charge the
battery. In fact, although the system was able to operate in front of an audience during the senior
design day, the system eventually drained the batteries during subsequent testing during the
summer. This may have been due to the energy balance, a software glitch in the microcontroller,
or a combination of the two. Clearly, the major energy drain over a long period of time is due to
the system at idle.

LDR sensor/auto light: As shown in the circuit diagram the solar tracker consist of three LDR
circuit. The three Azimuths are selected and each LDR is faced towards this azimuth.
The microcontroller is programmed to continuously scan three analog input and compare analog
input coming from LDR. Based on comparison the uC rotate solar panel toward maximum
A LDR photosensor is a complete assembly that includes the optical arrangement and electronic
circuitry that is coupled to an electronic component called a photocell. A photocell is typically
nothing but a light responding silicon chip that converts incident radiant energy into an electrical
signal. Photosensor generally includes a diffuser or lens (which may also be called an integrator)
that collects light from different directions within the room, and typically an optical filter that
rejects the UV and IR spectra, so as to simulate the human visual response to incident radiation.
The electronic circuitry amplifies the dc voltage generated by the photocell, and after comparing

it with a reference voltage, sends an appropriate signal (termed the photosensor signal) to the
control device.
The LDR light sensor is used to sense intensity of light. In the light sensor we use IC LM358 as a
main component. Pin no 8 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 4 is connected to the
negative voltage. One capacitor is grounded from the pin no 3 for noise cancellation. Output is
available on the pin no 1. Sensor is connected to the pin no 3.
In case of high intensity of light LDR is all most shorted so LM 358 gives 5v as soon as light
intensity decreases voltage output of LM358 decreases up to 0v.
The voltage is inputted to the analog port of PIC. In this circuit AN0, AN1, AN2 is used for the
analog input port. Because it isn't using V REF+ and VREF-, the minimum of the A/D conversion is
Vss=0V and the upper limit is Vdd=+5V.

DC motors - operate from a direct current power source. Movement of the

magnetic field is achieved by switching current between coils within the motor.
This action is called "commutation". Very many DC motors (brush-type) have
built-in commutation, meaning that as the motor rotates, mechanical brushes
automatically commutate coils on the rotor. You can use dc-brush motors in a
variety of applications. A simple, permanent-magnet dc motor is an essential
element in a variety of products, such as toys, servo mechanisms, valve actuators,
robots, and automotive electronics. There are several typical advantages of a PM
motor. When compared to AC or wound field DC motors, PM motors are usually
physically smaller in overall size and lighter for a given power rating. Furthermore,
since the motor's field, created by the permanent magnet, is constant, the
relationship between torque and speed is very linear. A PM motor can provide
relatively high torque at low speeds and PM Field provides some inherent selfbraking when power to the motor is shutoff. There are several disadvantages
through, those being mostly being high current during a stall condition and during
instantaneous reversal. Those can damage some motors or be problematic to
control circuitry. Furthermore, some magnet materials can be damaged when

subjected to excessive heat and some loose field strength if the motor is
High-volume everyday items, such as hand drills and kitchen appliances, use a dc
servomotor known as a universal motor. Those universal motors are series-wound
DC motors, where the stationary and rotating coils are wires in series. Those





both AC



power. One



drawbacks/precautions about series-wound DC motors is that if they are unloaded,

the only thing limiting their speed is the windage and friction losses. Some can
literally tear themselves apart if run unloaded.
The term geared motor is used to define a motor that has a gear reduction system
(or gearbox) integrally built into the motor. The gearbox increases the torque
generating ability of the motor while simultaneously reducing its output speed.


Relay is a common, simple application of electromagnetism.
It uses an electromagnet made from an iron rod wound with
hundreds of fine copper wire. When electricity is applied to the
wire, the rod becomes magnetic. A movable contact arm above
the rod is then pulled toward the rod until it closes a switch
contact. When the electricity is removed, a small spring pulls the
contract arm away from the rod until it closes a second switch
contact. By means of relay, a current circuit can be broken or
closed in one circuit as a result of a current in another circuit.
Relays can have several poles and contacts. The types of
contacts could be normally open and normally closed. One closure

of the relay can turn on the same normally open contacts; can
turn off the other normally closed contacts.
Relay requires a current through their coils, for which a voltage is applied.
This voltage for a relay can be D.C. low voltages upto 24V or could be 240V a.c.

A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of another electrical circuit. In
the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets
of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output
circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered, in a broad sense, to be a form
of electrical amplifier.
These contacts can be either Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC), or change-over

Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is
disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called Form A contact or "make"
contact. Form A contact is ideal for applications that require to switch a high-current
power source from a remote device.

Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is
connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called Form B contact or "break" contact.
Form B contact is ideal for applications that require the circuit to remain closed until the
relay is activated.

Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normallyclosed contact with a common terminal. It is also called Form C contact.

When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is
mechanically linked to a moving contact. The movement either makes or breaks a connection
with a fixed contact. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a
force that is half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Usually this is a spring,

but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Relays are manufactured to
operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high
current application, this is to reduce arcing.
If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the
energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a
spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. If the coil is designed to be
energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading
ring" creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature
during the AC cycle. [1]
By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made
with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation, a lightemitting diode (LED) is used with a photo transistor.
Relays are used:

to control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems,

to control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an


to detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing
circuit breakers (protection relays),

to isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when the two are at different
potentials, for example when controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage
switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are
easily installed in partitions, which may be often moved as needs change. They may also
be controlled by room occupancy detectors in an effort to conserve energy,

to perform logic functions. For example, the boolean AND function is realised by
connecting NO relay contacts in series, the OR function by connecting NO contacts in
parallel. The change-over or Form C contacts perform the XOR (exclusive or) function.
Similar functions for NAND and NOR are accomplished using NC contacts. Due to the
failure modes of a relay compared with a semiconductor, they are widely used in safety
critical logic, such as the control panels of radioactive waste handling machinery.

to perform time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay
closing a set of contacts. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copper
disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in the disk
maintains magnetic field for a short time, lengthening release time. For a slightly longer
(up to a minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is
allowed to escape slowly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the
flow rate. For longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is installed.

Obstacle sensor
The infrared intruder sensor is used to sense some unknown person like thief entering in your
house without your permission.
In the infrared sensor we use IC 555 as a main component. Pin no 4 and pin no 8 is connected to
the positive supply. Pin no 1 is connected to the negative voltage. One capacitor is grounded
from the pin no 5 for noise cancellation. Output is available on the pin no 3. Sensor is connected
to the pin no 2.
In the case of infra red sensor Pin no 2 is negative bias through the 33k ohm resistor and pin no
is positively biased through the photodiode. One infrared transmitter led is focused to the

photodiode. Infra red led is directly connected to the positive and negative supply through the
330ohm resistor.
In normal stage when light is focusing on the photodiode then pin no 2 is positively biased
photodiode. If pin no 2 is positive then negative output is available on the pin no 3. Now when
any body interrupts the light then there is no light on the photodiode and pin no 2 is now gets its
voltage from only 33 k ohm resistor. If pin no 2 is become negative then output is shifted to the
pin no 3. The output of the 555 timer is applied to the transistor BC548 which is used to drive
Power supply: The power supply section consists of step down transformers of 230V primary to
12V secondary voltages for the +5V power supplies respectively. The stepped down voltage is
then rectified by 4 1N4007 diodes. The high value of capacitor 1000 F charges at a slow rate as
the time constant is low, and once the capacitor charges there is no resistor for capacitor to
discharge. This gives a constant value of DC. IC 7805 is used for regulated supply of +5 volts in
order to prevent the circuit ahead from any fluctuations. The filter capacitors connected after this
IC filters the high frequency spikes. These capacitors are connected in parallel with supply and
common so that spikes filter to the common. These give stability to the power supply circuit.
As can be seen from the above circuit diagrams, the rectified voltage from the 4 diodes is given
to pin 1 of the respective regulators. Pin 2 of the regulators is connected to ground and pin 3 to
Vcc. With adequate heat sinking the regulator can deliver 1A output current. If internal power
dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes
over preventing the IC from overheating.

General Description
The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or
oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired.
In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one
external resistor and capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free
running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external
resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling
waveforms, and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL


Direct replacement for SE555/NE555

Timing from microseconds through hours
Operates in both astable and monostable modes
Adjustable duty cycle
Output can source or sink 200 mA
Output and supply TTL compatible
Temperature stability better than 0.005% per C
Normally on and normally off output
Available in 8-pin MSOP package


Precision timing
Pulse generation
Sequential timing
Time delay generation
Pulse width modulation
Pulse position modulation
Linear ramp generator

Schematic Diagram

Connection Diagram

Absolute Maximum Ratings

If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor
Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications.

Supply Voltage +18V

Power Dissipation
LM555CM, LM555CN 1180 mW
LM555CMM 613 mW
Operating Temperature Ranges
LM555C 0C to +70C
Storage Temperature Range 65C to +150C


Monostable Operation

In this mode of operation, the timer functions as a one-shot. The external capacitor
is initially held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. Upon application of a
negative trigger pulse of less than 1/3 VCC to pin 2, the flip-flop is set which both
releases the short circuit across the capacitor and drives the output high.

The voltage across the capacitor then increases exponentially for a period of t = 1.1 RA C, at
the end of which time the voltage equals 2/3 VCC. The comparator then resets the flip-flop
which in turn discharges the capacitor and drives the output to its low state. Figure 2 shows
the waveforms generated in this mode of operation. Since the charge and the threshold level
of the comparator are both directly proportional to supply voltage, the timing internal is
independent of supply.

VCC = 5V

Top Trace: Input 5V/Div.

TIME = 0.1 ms/DIV.

Middle Trace: Output 5V/Div.

RA = 9.1kBottom Trace: Capacitor Voltage 2V/Div.

C = 0.01F

During the timing cycle when the output is high, the further application of a trigger
pulse will not effect the circuit so long as the trigger input is returned high at least
10s before the end of the timing interval. However the circuit can be reset during
this time by the application of a negative pulse to the reset terminal (pin 4). The
output will then remain in the low state until a trigger pulse is again applied. When
the reset function is not in use, it is recommended that it be connected to VCC to
avoid any possibility of false triggering. Figure 3 is a nomograph for easy
determination of R, C values for various time delays.


If the circuit is connected as shown in Figure 4 (pins 2 and 6 connected) it will

trigger itself and free run as a multivibrator. The external capacitor charges through
RA + RB and discharges through RB. Thus the duty cycle may be precisely set by
the ratio of these two resistors.

In this mode of operation, the capacitor charges and discharges between 1/3 VCC
and 2/3 VCC. As in the triggered mode, the charge and discharge times, and
therefore the frequency are independent of the supply voltage.

VCC = 5V Top

Trace: Output 5V/Div.

TIME = 20s/DIV.

Bottom Trace: Capacitor Voltage 1V/Div.

RA = 3.9k
RB = 3k
C = 0.01F

Time period

The charge time (output high) is given by:

t1 = 0.693 (RA + RB) C
And the discharge time (output low) by:
t2 = 0.693 (RB) C
Thus the total period is:
T = t1 + t2 = 0.693 (RA +2RB) C
The frequency of oscillation is:

Figure 6 may be used for quick determination of these RC

values. The duty cycle is:

Frequency Divider

The monostable circuit of Figure 1 can be used as a frequency divider by adjusting the length of
the timing cycle. Figure 7 shows the waveforms generated in a divide by three circuits.

VCC = 5V

Top Trace: Input 4V/Div.

TIME = 20s/DIV.

Middle Trace: Output 2V/Div.

RA = 9.1kBottom Trace: Capacitor 2V/Div.

C = 0.01F

Pulse Width Modulator

When the timer is connected in the monostable mode and triggered with a continuous pulse train,
the output pulse width can be modulated by a signal applied to pin 5. Figure 8 shows the circuit,
and in Figure 9 are some waveform examples.

VCC = 5V Top

Trace: Modulation 1V/Div.

TIME = 0.2 ms/DIV.

Bottom Trace: Output Voltage 2V/Div.

RA = 9.1k
C = 0.01F

Pulse Position Modulator

This application uses the timer connected for astable operation, as in Figure 10, with a
modulating signal again to the control voltage terminal. The pulse position varies the modulating
signal, since the threshold voltage and the time delay is varied. Figure 11 shows the waveforms
generated for a triangle wave modulation signal.

VCC = 5V

Top Trace: Modulation Input 1V/Div.

TIME = 0.1 ms/DIV.

Bottom Trace: Output 2V/Div.

RA = 3.9k
RB = 3k
C = 0.01F

Linear Ramp
When the pullup resistor, RA, in the monostable circuit is replaced
by a constant current source, a linear ramp is generated.
Figure 12 shows a circuit configuration that will perform
this function.

Figure 13 shows waveforms generated by the linear ramp.

The time interval is given by:

VCC = 5V

Top Trace: Input 3V/Div.

TIME = 20s/DIV.

Middle Trace: Output 5V/Div.

R1 = 47kBottom Trace: Capacitor Voltage 1V/Div.

R2 = 100k
RE = 2.7 k
C = 0.01 F

In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the
electron flow increases to maximum in one direction, decreases
back to zero. It then increases in the other direction and then
decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction only.
Rectifier converts alternating current to flow in one direction only.
When the anode of the diode is positive with respect to its
cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current to flow. But when
its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse
biased and does not allow current to flow. This unidirectional
property of the diode is useful for rectification. A single diode
arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow during
positive half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles.
Double diodes arranged back-to-back might act as full wave
rectifiers as they may allow the electron flow during both positive
and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make a
full wave bridge rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used
to smooth out the pulsations in amplitude of the output voltage

from a rectifier. The property of capacitor to oppose any change in

the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the electric
field of the capacitor and of inductors to oppose any change in
the current flowing through them by storing energy in the
magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove pulsation of the
direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of
combination of capacitor, inductors and resistors may be also be
used to increase to action of filtering.
Perhaps all of you are aware that a power supply is a
primary requirement for the Test Bench of a home
experimenters mini lab. A battery eliminator can eliminate or
replace the batteries of solid-state electronic equipment and the
equipment thus can be operated by 230v A.C. mains instead of
the batteries or dry cells. Nowadays, the use of commercial
battery eliminator or power supply unit has become increasingly
popular as power source for household appliances like
transreceivers, record player, cassette players, digital clock etc.



Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India,
in the form of alternating voltage. The supply has a voltage of
220V (rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In the USA, it is 110V at 60
Hz. For the operation of most of the devices in electronic
equipment, a dc voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio
requires a dc supply for its operation. Usually, this supply is
provided by dry cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator
in place of dry cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac
voltage into dc voltage and thus eliminates the need for dry cells.
Nowadays, almost all-electronic equipment includes a circuit that
converts ac voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of
the equipment is called Power Supply. In general, at the input of
the power supply, there is a power transformer. It is followed by a
diode circuit called Rectifier. The output of the rectifier goes to a
smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The
rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply.

Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current
or voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for
rectification is called Rectifier. A rectifier permits current to flow
only during the positive half cycles of the applied AC voltage by
eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied
AC voltage. Thus pulsating DC is obtained. To obtain smooth DC
power, additional filter circuits are required.

A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of

diodes. But, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as
rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device consisting
of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other
an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor
diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector- the
diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for
rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and
selenium rectifier are also commonly used.

It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage

by using two diodes in the circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 V rms
(18 V p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume further that two equalvalued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the
ac source. The 18 V p-p appears across the two resistors
connected between points AC and CB, and point C is the electrical
midpoint between A and B. Hence 9 V p-p appears across each
resistor. At any moment during a cycle of v in, if point A is positive
relative to C, point B is negative relative to C. When A is negative
to C, point B is positive relative to C. The effective voltage in
proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in Fig. The voltage
applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in
polarity at any given instant.
When A is positive relative to C, the anode of D 1 is positive
with respect to its cathode. Hence D1 will conduct but D2 will not.
During the second alternation, B is positive relative to C. The
anode of D2 is therefore positive with respect to its cathode, and
D2 conducts while D1 is cut off.
There is conduction then by either D 1 or D2 during the entire
input-voltage cycle.
Since the two diodes have a common-cathode load resistor
RL, the output voltage across RL will result from the alternate

conduction of D1 and D2. The output waveform vout across RL,

therefore has no gaps as in the case of the half-wave rectifier.
The output of a full-wave rectifier is also pulsating direct
current. In the diagram, the two equal resistors R across the input
voltage are necessary to provide a voltage midpoint C for circuit
connection and zero reference. Note that the load resistor R L is
connected from the cathodes to this center reference point C.
An interesting fact about the output waveform v out is that its
peak amplitude is not 9 V as in the case of the half-wave rectifier
using the same power source, but is less than 4 V. The reason,
of course, is that the peak positive voltage of A relative to C is 4
V, not 9 V, and part of the 4 V is lost across R.
Though the full wave rectifier fills in the conduction gaps, it
delivers less than half the peak output voltage that results from
half-wave rectification.

A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge

rectifier. It requires four diodes instead of two, but avoids the
need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the positive halfcycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D2 and D4 are conducting
and diodes D1 and D3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current
flows through the secondary winding, diode D2, load resistor RL
and diode D4. During negative half-cycles of the secondary
voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, and the diodes D2 and D4 do
not conduct. The current therefore flows through the secondary
winding, diode D1, load resistor RL and diode D3. In both cases,
the current passes through the load resistor in the same direction.
Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed
across the load.

The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an
output voltage that always has the same polarity: but however,
this output is not suitable as DC power supply for solid-state
circuits. This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output
voltage. This should be removed out before the output voltage
can be supplied to any circuit. This smoothing is done by
incorporating filter networks. The filter network consists of
inductors and capacitors. The inductors or choke coils are
generally connected in series with the rectifier output and the
load. The inductors oppose any change in the magnitude of a
current flowing through them by storing up energy in a magnetic
field. An inductor offers very low resistance for DC whereas; it
offers very high resistance to AC. Thus, a series connected choke
coil in a rectifier circuit helps to reduce the pulsations or ripples to
a great extent in the output voltage. The fitter capacitors are
usually connected in parallel with the rectifier output and the
load. As, AC can pass through a capacitor but DC cannot, the
ripples are thus limited and the output becomes smoothed. When
the voltage across its plates tends to rise, it stores up energy
back into voltage and current. Thus, the fluctuations in the output
voltage are reduced considerable. Filter network circuits may be
of two types in general:


If a choke coil or an inductor is used as the firstcomponents in the filter network, the filter is called choke input
filter. The D.C. along with AC pulsation from the rectifier circuit at
first passes through the choke (L). It opposes the AC pulsations
but allows the DC to pass through it freely. Thus AC pulsations are
largely reduced. The further ripples are by passed through the
parallel capacitor C. But, however, a little nipple remains
unaffected, which are considered negligible. This little ripple may
be reduced by incorporating a series a choke input filters.

If a capacitor is placed before the inductors of a choke-input

filter network, the filter is called capacitor input filter. The D.C.
along with AC ripples from the rectifier circuit starts charging the
capacitor C. to about peak value. The AC ripples are then
diminished slightly. Now the capacitor C, discharges through the
inductor or choke coil, which opposes the AC ripples, except the
DC. The second capacitor C by passes the further AC ripples. A
small ripple is still present in the output of DC, which may be
reduced by adding additional filter network in series.

Advantages :

A great solution for Energy Crisis.

A huge amount of electricity can be generated saving lot of money.
If implemented will be very beneficial for government.
Energy lost in environment can be utilized.
Saves a lot of money.
Once applied does not require much maintenance.
Renewable source of energy