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ABSTRACT

Characteristics of drilling mud can be identified by using various methods. In this


experiment, these methods are divided into two parts which are part A for the emulsion test as
well as part B for solid and liquid content of the drilling mud test. In part A, the emulsion test
is to determine the Electrical Stability (ES) of the drilling mud samples, which are oil based
mud and water based mud. The ES can be determined from the result of voltage and current
flow in the mud. The reading will show the mud emulsion stability and higher reading of ES
show that it has good mud emulsion. From the experiment, the water based mud give an
average value at 1.3v meanwhile the oil based mud is 142.0v. In part B, the experiment is
carried out to determine the solid and liquid contents of drilling mud samples. In this
experiment, water based mud has been selected as the mud sample. It is conducted by using
Retort Kit that working on the principle of condensation, the heating and vaporization of the
drilling fluid sample. The drilling mud is heated up until all liquid have been vaporized and
left behind the solid content. Based on the experiment, the result obtained from the
condensation of the sample is 47 mL of colorless liquid and 1 mL a brownish condensate. The
dry mud weight obtained is 1.4163g. Hence by the product obtained, the characteristics of the
drilling mud can be identified.

INTRODUCTION
Part A: Emulsion Test
Emulsion tester is used in the evaluation of inverted emulsion drilling fluids, cement
and fracturing fluid. This test indicates the stability and types of emulsion whether water-inoil or oil-in-water. Time stability and resistance to electrolyte contamination of these systems
can be predicted from a measurement of relative emulsion stability.

Electrical Stability (ES) test is a test that applied to oil-base and synthetic-base muds
that indicates the stability of the emulsion and oil-wetting capacity of the sample. The
electrical stability is determined by applying a steadily increasing sinusoidal alternating
voltage across a pair of parallel flat plate electrodes submerged in the oil base drilling fluid.
Maximum voltage that the mud will sustain across the gap before conducting current is
displayed as the ES voltage.

The composition of the oil base drilling fluid controls the absolute magnitude of (ES).
Several conditions influence the Electrical Stability of a given drilling fluid such as resistivity
of the continuous phase, conductivity of the non-continuous phase, properties of suspended
solids, temperature, droplet size, type of emulsifier used, dielectric properties of the fluids and
shear history of the sample. It is advised to take several readings of ES of the samples to
establish a trend. This series of (ES) measurements will reflect a more accurate condition of
the drilling fluid on which drilling fluid treatments can be based.

Part B: Solid and Liquid Content


Drilling fluid composition consists of liquid (oil and water) and solid. Knowledge of
solids content is fundamental to proper control of mud properties such as rheology, density
and filter cake building properties. The amounts of solids need to be controlled to avoid
drilling problem such as pipe sticking. The Oil & Water Retort provides a simple, direct field
method for directly measuring the percentage by volume of oil and water in samples in
drilling mud. The volume of solids is found by subtraction from 100%.

Knowledge of the liquid and solids content of a drilling mud is essential for good
control of the mud properties. Such information will often explain poor performance of the
mud and indicate whether the mud can best be conditioned by the addition of water or
whether treatment with chemical thinner or the removal of the contaminant is required.
Similarly, proper control of an oil emulsion mud depends upon knowledge of the oil content.
For muds containing only water and solids, the quantity of each can be determined
from the mud density and from the evaporation of a weighed sample of mud. Oil and water
content can also be obtained by measuring the liquid fraction. The latter method is only
applicable to oil emulsion muds.
The retort kit working principle is based on the heating, vaporisation and
condensation. The mud is heated up to 500C until all the liquid is vaporized. The vapour then
flow into the condenser and condensed back to liquid form.

OBJECTIVES

PART A: EMULSION TEST


To determine the Electrical Stability (ES) of drilling mud samples

PART B: SOLID&LIQUID CONTENT


To determine the liquid and solid contents of each of the drilling fluid samples.

THEORY

Liquid drilling fluid is often called drilling mud. The main functions of drilling fluids
include providing hydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluids from entering into the well
bore, keeping the drill bit cool and clean during drilling, carrying out drill cuttings, and
suspending the drill cuttings while drilling is paused and when the drilling assembly is
brought in and out of the hole. The drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected to
avoid formation damage and to limit corrosion.

Drilling fluid composition consists of liquid (oill and water) and solid. Solids content
is fundamental to proper control of mud properties such as rheology, density and filter cake
building properties. Amouts of solids need to be controlled to avoid drilling problem such as
pipe sticking. The volume of solids is found by substraction from 100%. Liquid and solid
content of a drilling mud is essential for good control of the mud properties. Some will
explain poor performance of the mud and indicate whether the mud can be conditioned by
addition of water or whether treatment with chemical thinner or the removal of contaminant
required. The proper control of oil emulsion mud depends of the oil content.

Muds that containing only water and solids their quantity of each can be determined
from the mud density and from the evaporation of a weighed sample of mud. Oil and water
content can also be obtained by measuring the liquid fraction. Latter method is only available
to oil emulsion muds. The mud is heated up to 500 C until all the liquid is vaporized. The
vapour then flow into the condenser and condensed back to liquid form.

The emulsion test is a method to determine the presence of lipids using wet chemistry.
It is used in the evaluation of inverted emulsion drilling fluids, cement and fracturing fluid.
This test indicates the stability and types of emulsion whether it is water-in-oil or oil-in-water.
The time stability and resistance to electrolyte contamination of these systems can be
predicted from a measurement of relative emulsion stability.

Electical Stability (ES) test is a test that applied to oil-base and water-base muds that
indicates the stability of the emulsion and oil-wetting capacity of the sample. It is determined
by applying a steadily sinussoidal alternating voltage across a pair of parallel flat plate
electrodes submerged in the oil base drilling fluid. Maximum voltage that the mud will sustain
across the gap before conducting current is diplayed as the ES voltage. There is a few
conditions influence the Electrical Stability of a drilling fluid such as resistivity of the
continuous phase, conductivity of the non-continuous phase, conductivity of the noncontinuous phase, properties suspended solids, temperature, droplet size, type of emulsifier
used, dielectric properties of the fluids and shear history of the sample. Series of (ES)
measurements will reflect a more accurate condition of the drilling fluid on which drilling
fluid treatments can be based.

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS


Part A
Electrical Stability (ES) Tester, calibration kit, water based mud, oil based mud, 100mL
beaker.
Part B
Oil based mud, grease, Retort Kit, measuring cylinder, cleaning kit, wetting agent, steel wool,
square bar retort wrench.

PROCEDURES
General Start-Up
1

Mud was prepared by put it into the mud cup until reach the upper indicator of the
cup.

Then, the mud was mixed by using the mixer about 3-5 minutes.

The mud was transferred into a beaker and ready to use.

Part A: Emulsion Test


1. All apparatus was set up.
2. The mud was put into a 100mL beaker.
3. Then, the ES Tester was switched on and the calibration kit was plugged into the ES
Tester to check the machine calibration.
4. After that, the rod was put into the beaker and it was ensured to immerse into the mud.
5. The TEST button was pressed at the ES Tester and the reading was recorded.
6. Step 2 to 5 was repeated by using another type of mud.
Part B: Solid and Liquid Content
1. The Retort Kit was set up and the Power supply was switched on.
2. The upper chamber was packed with steel wool.
3. The water based mud was selected and the sample chamber was filled with the mud
until it reached the surface.
4. The sample chamber lid was placed and excess mud spilled was cleaned.
5. Sample chamber was screwed with lid into the upper chamber and it was being tighten
using square bar retort wrench.
6. The chamber was put into the Retort Kit and the condenser was attached to the
chambers.
7. 3 drops of wetting agent was added in to the measuring cylinder and the measuring
cylinder was placed under the condenser.
8. The Retort Kit was turned on and the retort kit was allowed to be heated until the pilot
lamp goes off.
9. The liquid appeared in the measuring cylinder was observed.
10. The chamber and the furnace was left to cool off about a day.
11. After that, the steel wool was removed using the corkscrew and the chamber was
cleaned with spatula.
12. The retort threads was cleaned and lubricated with high temperature lubricant.
13. The result sample was weighted and data was recorded.