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Experiment No : 02

Date of performance :14th oct. 2015

Study of a boiler

Bangladesh University of Engineering &

Steam and Power plant sessional
Course No: ME404

Name: Shiddartha Paul

Dept: ME
Student ID:1010128
Sec: C
Group: C11


The main purpose of the experiment is

a.To study a boiler .
b.To study the mountings of a boiler.
c.To study accsesories of a boiler


Brand name
Country of Make
Maximum Pressure
Working pressure


1.6ton p/hr
14 bar
5 bar

Study Questions Answer

Draw the schematic diagram of the boiler showing its different mounting & accessories.
Answer :

Figure 1: schematic diagram of the boiler showing its different mounting

Draw the schematic diagram of water flow circuit which includes the water treatment
Answer :

Figure 2: schematic diagram of water flow circuit which includes the water treatment plant
Draw the schematic diagram of fuel flow circuit
Answer :

Figure 3: schematic diagram of fuel flow circuit

Define Capacity of boiler ,Tonnage rating ,KW rating and Boiler HP rating
The Boiler Horsepower (BHP)
The Boiler Horsepower (BHP) is the amount of energy required to produce 34.5 pounds of
steam per hour at a pressure and temperature of 0 Psig and 212 oF, with feedwater at 0 Psig and
212 oF. A BHP is equivalent to 33,475 BTU/Hr or 8430 Kcal/Hr and it should be noted that a
boiler horsepower is 13.1547 times a normal horsepower.
1 horsepower (boiler) = 33445.6 Btu (mean)/hr = 140671.6 calorie/min (thermo) = 140469.4
calorie (mean)/min = 140742.3 calorie (20oC)/min 9.8095x1010 erg/sec = 434107 foot-poundforce/min = 13.1548 horsepower (mech) = 13.1495 horsepower (electric) = 13.3372 horsepower
(metric) = 13.1487 horsepower (water) = 9809.5 joule/sec = 9.8095 kilowatt
Tonnage Rating:
The Tonnage Rating is widely used as a datum by shell boiler manufacturers to give a boiler a
rating whichshows the amount of steam in kg/h. It is the amount of water evaporated from feed
water at 100 C and formedinto dry and saturated steam at 100 C at normal atmospheric pressure.
Each kilogram of steam would then havereceived 2 257 kJ of heat from the boiler.Shell boilers are
often operated with feed water temperatures lower than 100C. Consequently the boiler isrequired
to supply enthalpy to bring the water up to boiling point
Kilowatt Ratting:
Some manufacturers will give a boiler rating in kW. This is not an evaporation rate, and is subject

to the sameTonnage Rating.To establish the actual evaporation by mass, it is first necessary to
know the temperature of the feed water andthe pressure of the steam produced, in order to establish
how much energy is added to each kg of water. Thefollowing equation can then be used to calculate
the steam output.
boileroutput(Kg/hr) = BoilerRating(KW )

Energy addedKj/kg

List of the operations of air and fuel flow for firing a boiler

Operations of Air and Fuel Flow for Firing a Boiler:
1.Blow out of the exhaust gas
2.Checking the water level in the boiler and if level is below the safety level water is refilled
3.Air is blown in by starting blower
4.Natural Gas acts as fuel passes through pressure gauge, regulator and solenoid valve and finally
entersinto the burner
5.Air and gas mixes in proportional limit and produce spark in the electric spark rod.
6.Pilot flame is established then full combustion starts
7.The fire or hot flue gasses from the burner is channeled through tubes that are surrounded by
the fluid to be heated.
Briefly state the control of the water level indicator
It indicate the water level inside the boiler vessel. It shows the level in the boiler drum.
When steam cock and water cock opened, steam rushes from upper passage and water rushed from
lower from passage to the glass tube. This will indicate the level of water in the boiler. Two ball
are places at the junction of metal tube. Under normal operating condition the ball are kept. full
line circle in case the glass tube is broken, steam will rushes from upper passage and water from
lower passage due to pressure difference between boiler pressure at atmospheric pressure. the ball
are carrier along the passage to and of glass tube and then closed passages. This position of ball
sown in fig by dotted circle. Thus flow of water and steam out of boiler is prevented.
Briefly state Function of the pressure setting valve
Safety valves are located on the top of the boiler. They guard the boiler against the excessive high
pressure of steam inside the drum. If the pressure of steam in the boiler drum exceeds the working
pressure then the safety valve allows blow-off the excess quantity of steam to atmosphere. Thus
the pressure of steam in the drum falls. The escape of steam makes a audio noise to warm the
boiler attendant.

Figure 4: Dead weight safety valve

It consists of valve V is placed upon a valve seat which is fix upon a long vertical pipe having a
flange at the bottom for fixing at the top of the boiler. The weight carrier D suspended from the
top of the valve which carries cast iron rings (weight) as shown figure. The total weight must be
sufficient to keep the valve on it seats against the normal working pressure.We set the pressure at
6 br in the experiment

Define Hydrostatic test of a boiler
The test consists of filling the Boiler with water and pressurizing the water to at least one and
half times the maximum operating pressure for a short time. Every part is subject to more than
the maximum stress it will normally encounter. This is an endurance test; any weak link fails
during the test.


In this experiment we have studied different parts of a fire tube boiler.Non-condensing firetube
boilers are available for low- or high-pressure steam, or for hot water applications. Typically used
for applications ranging from 15 to 2,200 horsepower, a firetube boiler uses a cylindrical vessel,
with the flame in the furnace and the combustion gases inside the tubes. The furnace and tubes
are contained within this vessel, which also houses the water and steam.
Six criteria should be considered when selecting a boiler tomeet the application needs. The
criteria are:
1. Codes and standards requirements
2. Steam or Hot Water
3. Boiler load
4. Number of boilers
5. Performance considerations
6. Special considerations