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You are on page 1of 17

TITLE

PAGE

Table of Content

1.0

2.0

Abstract

Introduction

3.0

4.0

5

Objectives

Theory

5.0

6.0

7.0

7

Apparatus and material

Experimental procedure

Results

and calculation

11

8.0 Discussion

9.0 Conclusion

10.0 Recommendations

References

Appendices

3

45

67-8

8

911-12

13

13

13

14

ABSTRACT

1

are to determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter, to

calculate flow rate with venturi meter and to demonstrate Bernoullis

Theorem. The combination of venturi meter complete with the manometer

tubes and hydraulic bench were used. The experiment was proceed in

order to find the time taken to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow

rates of the water, difference of the pressure at all manometer tubes

which known as static head, dynamic head and last but not least the total

head. The data was recorded at three adjusted head differences which

were 78mm, 116mm and 160mm. All the related procedure in this

experiment is referred to Bernoullis principle. In fluid dynamics,

Bernoullis principle states that for an in viscid flow, an increase in the

speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a

decrease in the fluids potential energy. The values for the total head

when 78mm pressure difference is 0.162m (Ha), 0.152m (Hb), 0.080m (Hc),

0.121m (Hd), 0.129m (He) and 0.136m (Hf). Besides that, at the pressure

difference is 116mm H20, the value of the total head is 0.146m (Ha), 0.139m (Hb),

0.079m (Hc), 0.114m (Hd), 0.122m (He) and 0.130m (Hf). Lastly, the value

of total head that measured at 160mm H20 is 0.175m (Ha), 0.164m (Hb),

0.076m (Hc), 0.132m (Hd), 0.144m (He) and 0.154m (Hf).

INTRODUCTION

In the Bernoullis Theorem, states that an increase in the speed of

moving air or a flowing fluid is accompanied by a decrease in the air

fluids pressure. This theorem also known as Bernoullis principle. Daniel

Bernoulli which is Swiss scientist (1700-1782), demonstrated that, in most

cases the pressure in a liquid or gas decreases as the liquid or gas move

faster. This is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid

through the pressure difference. Normally, a fluid is moving in a horizontal

direction and encounters a pressure difference. This pressure difference

will result in a net force, which is by Newtons Second Law will cause an

acceleration of the fluid.

Bernoullis Theorem also states that the total energy involves the

pressure energy, potential energy and kinetic energy of an incompressible

and non-viscous fluid in steady flow through a pipe remains constant

throughout the flow, provided there is no source or sink of the fluid along

the length of the pipe. This statement is depend to the assumption that

there is no loss energy due to friction.

2

P + gh + V = constant

identify the validity of Bernoullis equation. It is also used to show the

validity of the continuity equation where the fluid flows is relatively

incompressible. In addition, the results that have been recorded will show

the presence of fluid energy losses, often attributed to friction and the

turbulence with eddy currents associated with a separation of the flow

from the conduit walls.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

2. To measure flow rate with venturi meter

3. To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

THEORY

Clearly state that the assumption made in driving Bernoullis principle

equation is:

1. The model calculation here assumes laminar flow(no tubulance)

5

2. The distance from the larger diameter to the smaller is short enough

that viscous losses can be neglected

3. The velocity profile follows that of theoretical laminar flow

4. The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the

critical velocity for the liquid.

5. There is no loss energy due to friction.

Then, it is expressed with the following equation:

p = fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m2.

r = density of the flowing fluid in kg/m3

g = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 (its value is 9.81

m/s2 = 9810 mm/s2)

v = mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s

z = elevation head of the center of the cross section with

respect to a datum z=0

hT = total (stagnation) head in m

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the

pressure head (h), velocity head (hi ), and elevation head (z), respectively.

The sum of these terms is known as the total head (hT). According to the

Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head hT at any

cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given above). In a

real flow due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement

uncertainties, the results will deviate from the theoretical ones.

In our experimental setup, the center line of all the cross sections we are

considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the

6

datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above

equation reduces to:

p

' g

v2

2. g

= hT = constant

Total head, hT = hs + hv

For our experiment, we denote the pressure head as h and the total head

as h*i, where i represents the cross section we are referring to.

APPARATUS

1. Venture meter

2. Pad of manometer tube

3. Hydraulic bench

4. Stop watch

5. Water

6. Water tank equipped with water controller

7. Water host and tubes

PROCEDURE

1. The main switch on the pump is switched on.

2. The flow control valve is fully opened to let the water flow into the

venture meter and manometer tubes.

3. The control valve and valve are closed.

4. The air bleed screw is regulated until water level in manometer

tubes reach 150 mm.

5. The flow control valve is fully opened and waited for some time for

the level in manometer tube h is in steady state.

6. After the steady state is achieved, the water tank is closed with

water controller and the time to for volume of water to reach the 3

litre is recorded.

7. The Pitot (total head measuring) tube that connected to manometer

h is pushed gently and its end reaches the cross section of the

venture tube at a. After waited some time, the reading of

manometer h and a are taken.

8. The step 5 to 7 is repeated with difference flow rate.

RESULT

Experiment 1

Volume ( m

0.003

20

Flow rate ( m /s )

1.50 x 10-4

Cross

Section

A

B

C

D

E

F

h*= hH

hi

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

0.420

0.485

0.767

0.678

0.343

0.140

168

163

160

158

156

154

159

151

130

141

150

153

Ai = Di2 /

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m2)

5.309 x 10-4

3.664 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.309 x 10-4

0.283

0.409

0.746

0.477

0.395

0.283

0.137

0.076

0.021

0.101

-0.052

-0.143

Experiment 2

Volume ( m

0.003

9

17

Flow rate ( m /s )

1.764 x 10-4

Cross

Section

h*= hH

hi

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

Ai =

D2/

i

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

0.372

0.482

0.878

0.562

0.464

0.332

0.110

-0.070

-0.026

-0.002

0.021

-0.019

A

B

C

D

E

F

169

166

171

169

168

167

159

155

126

144

147

152

(m )

5.309 x 10-4

3.660 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.309 x 10-4

0.442

0.465

0.852

0.560

0.485

0.313

Experiment 3

Volume ( m

0.003

16

Flow rate ( m /s )

1.875 x 10-4

Cross

Section

h*= hH

hi

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

Ai =

D2/

i

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

0.353

0.512

0.932

0.597

0.493

0.353

0.190

0.066

0.107

0.131

0.133

0.152

A

B

C

D

E

F

180

175

171

169

168

167

165

158

116

142

148

154

0.543

0.578

1.039

0.728

0.626

0.505

(m )

5.309 x 10-4

3.664 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.314 x 10-4

10

CALCULATION

Experiment 1

Volume ( m

0.003

20

Flow rate ( m /s )

1.50 x 10-4

Cross

Section

h*= hH

hi

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

Ai =

D2/

i

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

0.283

0.409

0.746

0.477

0.395

0.283

0.137

0.076

0.021

0.101

-0.052

-0.143

A

B

C

D

E

F

168

163

160

158

156

154

159

151

130

141

150

153

(m )

5.309 x 10-4

3.664 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.309 x 10-4

0.420

0.485

0.767

0.678

0.343

0.140

Experiment 2

Volume ( m

3

Flow rate ( m /s )

0.003

17

1.764 x 10-4

11

Cross

Section

A

B

C

D

E

F

h*= hH

hi

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

(m)

(m)

(m/s)

0.442

0.465

0.852

0.560

0.485

0.313

169

166

171

169

168

167

159

155

126

144

147

152

Ai = Di2 /

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m2)

5.309 x 10-4

3.660 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.309 x 10-4

0.372

0.482

0.878

0.562

0.464

0.332

0.110

-0.070

-0.026

-0.002

0.021

-0.019

Experiment 3

Volume ( m

0.003

16

3

Flow rate ( m /s )

1.875 x 10-4

Cross

Section

A

B

C

D

E

F

h*= hH

(m)

180

175

171

169

168

167

hi

(m)

165

158

116

142

148

154

ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

Ai = Di2 /

Difference

ViB Vic

(m/s)

(m/s)

(m/s)

0.543

0.578

1.039

0.728

0.626

0.505

(m2)

5.309 x 10-4

3.664 x 10-4

2.011 x 10-4

3.142 x 10-4

3.801 x 10-4

5.314 x 10-4

0.353

0.512

0.932

0.597

0.493

0.353

0.190

0.066

0.107

0.131

0.133

0.152

12

DISCUSSION

Based on the objective, this experiment is being conduct to

investigate the validity of the Bernoullis equation when applied to the

steady flow of water in a tapered duct. As we already know water is fluid

and all fluid have properties to take the shape of the container or

wherever they flow or stored. Since the volume passing through at given

length of pipe during a given period of time will be the same, there must

be a decrease in pressure. From the Bernoullis principle, it states that the

slower the rate of flow, the higher the pressure, and the fastest the rate

flow the lower the pressure.

The Bernoulli theorem is an approximate relation between pressure,

velocity, and elevation, and is valid in regions of steady, incompressible

flow where net frictional forces are negligible. The equation is obtained

when the Eulers equation is integrated along the streamline for a

constant density for incompressible fluid. The constant of integration

(called the Bernoullis constant) varies from one streamline to another but

remains constant along a streamline in steady, frictionless, incompressible

flow. Despite its simplicity, it has been proven to be a very powerful tool

for fluid mechanics. Bernoullis equation states that the sum of the

kinetic energy (velocity head), the pressure energy (static head) and

Potential energy (elevation head) per unit weight of the fluid at anypoint

13

and the fluid used is incompressible. This is however, on the assumption

that energy is neither added to nor taken away by some external agency.

The key approximation in the derivation of Bernoullis equation is that

viscous effects are negligibly small compared to inertial, gravitational, and

pressure effects.

The Bernoullis equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of

fluid flow problems such as jets issuing from an orifice, jet trajectory, flow

under a gate and over a weir, flow metering by obstruction meters, flow

around submerged objects, flows associated with pumps and turbines etc.

The equipment is designed as a self-sufficient unit it has a sump tank,

measuring tank and a pump for water circulation as shown in figure1. The

apparatus consists of a supply tank, which is connected to flow channel.

The channel gradually contracts for a length and then gradually enlarges

for the remaining length.

From the experiment, we knew that as the fluid flow from wider to

narrower one, the velocity of flowing fluid increases. This shown in all the

results table, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct

increases as the duct area decreases. From the analysis we can conclude

that for this flow, the difference velocity increases as the pressure

difference increases.

In addition to find the velocity difference we use Bernoulli Equation and

Continuity Equation. As for the Bernoulli Equation : ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

Where g gravitational force = 9.81 m/s2

hH Reading at Tube A

hi Reading at Tube H

As for the continuity Equation : , Vic =

Q

Ai

14

Thus, from these values the velocity difference can be obtained.

Pressure Difference (mm H20)

210

116

160

0.137

0.110

0.119

As we can see from table above, as the pressure difference increase, the

velocity difference increase. From the Bernoullis Principle Theorem, as

the pressure increase, the velocity must be decrease. Thus, we can

conclude that there must be error during the experiment as the value of

difference velocity are not constantly decreased. One of them is, the

observer must have not read the level of static head properly, where the

eyes are not perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. Other

than that, the pressure on A until F are not stable yet but the reading are

already taken. Thus, there are some minor effects on the circulations due

to the errors. From the experiment has been found that the Bernoullis

principle is valid for steady flow of fluid in tapered duct .

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the objective of this experiment was achieved that is to demonstrate

the Bernoullis Theorem experiment. The result collected from the experiment is according to

the Bernoullis Theorem which is the highest speed is the one at the lowest pressure, whereas

the lowest speed is present at the most highest pressure. Due to the highest pressure of the

water, it causes the reading of manometer become the highest. This principle complies with

the principle of conservation of energy which it is the sum if all forms of mechanical energy

along the streamline.

RECOMMENDATION

15

The eye of the observer must be parallel to the water level to avoid parallax error.

Make sure the bubbles in the manometer are completely removed by adjusting the

bleed screw.

Make sure there is no leakage along the tube to prevent the water flowing out.

Make sure the pressure difference be maintained by control the valve slowly.

REFERENCES

John F.Douglas, (2001), Fluid Mechanics (4th ed.), Pearson Education

Limited.

B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi, (1998), Fundamentals of

Fluid Mechanics (3rd ed.), Wiley.

Lab Manual: Bernoullis Theorem demonstration Unit.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/39165346/Bernoulli-s-TheoremDistribution-Experiment

http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf

APPENDICES

16

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