You are on page 1of 22

What is Vibration ?

o Vibration the motion of a body about a reference point.

o At its simplest vibration is displayed as displacement over time.

No. 1

Machine Monitoring

Why do we need to Measure the Vibration ?

For Protection of machinery

To predict crucial machinery Problems

Imbalance

Misalignment

Shaft crack

Bearing Failures

Parameters to measure

Thrust

Vibration (varying gap measurement)

Speed

No. 2

How do we measure vibration?

Three types of sensors

Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

Signal processor of some type (CSI 2130)

Local or portable display for field analysis

Remote

Software for viewing and storing collected vibration data

No. 3

The Units

Displacement accentuates

the low frequencies Mils

Velocity is consistent across

a larger range of frequencies

Acceleration accentuates

the higher frequencies (gs)

Most vibration is analyzed in Velocity since the energy level is consistent

throughout the frequency range,

No. 4

Displacement Probes

Typical Applications

Shaft vibration measurement

Key phaser marker

Shaft center line position

Best suited for 1 to 500 hz

No. 5

RECOMMENDED LOCATIONS OF SHAFT VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS AS PER ISO

Measuring

Amplifier

Measuring

Amplifier

45 O

PROXIMITY

PICK-UP

45 O

SHAFT

VERTICAL

OR

SHAFT

HORIZONTAL

No. 6

Velocity Pickup

Velocity Sensor Application

Mounted on case of machine for bearing and structural vibration

best suited for 10 to 1000 hz

depending on the application when integration to displacement is required

No. 7

Accelerometer

Accelerometer Applications

Case mounted or magnet mounted

Primarily Rollerelement Bearings and Gears

When analysis and diagnostics are important

No. 8

Signal processing

No. 9

Vibration Monitoring System Overview

Probe

Radiates Magnetic

Shaft

Field

Extension

Cable

Proximitor
Barrier

Generate RF signal

Produce Amplitude

Demodulated output

Monitor

with respect shaft movement

No. 10

Units of Vibration

Average

RMS

= 0.707 x (0-Peak)

Average

= 0.637 x (0-Peak)

Peak to Peak

RMS

0 - Peak

Peak - Peak

= 2 x (0-Peak)

English and Metric units:

Frequency

Acceleration

(Peak or RMS)

Velocity (Peak)

Displacement

(Peak to Peak)

CPM

g pk

g RMS

in/s pk

mils pk pk

m/s2 pk

m/s2 RMS

mm/s pk

mm pk - pk

Hz

No. 11

Wiring Terminology

No. 12

Wiring Terminology

No. 13

Proximity Transducer System

No. 14

Proximity Probes

No. 15

Proximity Probes

No. 16

Proximity Probes

No. 17

Proximity Probes

No. 18

Vibration

Characteristics of vibration signal

AMPLITUDE

FREQUENCY

PHASE

ORBIT

No. 19

No. 20

Reasons of Vibration

If the measurement is healthy, following may be the reasons of vibration

problem

UNBALANCE

MISALIGNMENT

LOOSENESS

PIPE PULLS

SHAFT CATENARY / BEARING LOADING

RESONANCE

UNEQUAL FLOW PATH CLEARANCES

RUBBING

SHAFT BOW

OIL / STEAM WHIRL

DEVIATED OPERATING PARAMETERS

DEFECTIVE BEARING / ASSEMBLY OF BEARING

VIBRATION TRANSMITTION FROM OTHER SOURCE

GEAR INACCURACIES

CASING DISTORSTION

CAVITATION

No. 21

QUOTE OF THANKS

Efforts find their way towards success

No. 22