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Angular Quantities

Circular Motion and Rotational Motion

Uniform Circular Motion

Rotational Motion

Center of Gravity

Angular Momentum

Torque

2.

Angular Position ()

Denotes the orientation of object in space (rotation)

Direction of the displacement vector drawn from the axis to


the location of the object (revolution)

Angular Displacement ()

Change in angular position

Difference between initial (i) and


final (f) angular positions

= f - i
*Property of STI

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Angular Quantities
Angular Velocity

1.

Angular Quantities

*Property of STI

Angular Position/Displacement

Rate of change in objects angular position


Angular displacement per unit of time t

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Find the angular
velocity of a sprinter
that makes two laps
around an oval in
10.0 minutes.

Angular Acceleration

Rate at which the angular velocity changes:

*Property of STI

f i
t

where f and i are the final and initial angular velocities


respectively
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*Property of STI

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A compact disc makes 500


revolutions per minute. If
the CD accelerates
uniformly in 4.0 seconds
from rest, what is its
angular acceleration in
radians per second?

Angular quantities as vectors

Angular velocity and angular acceleration are


vectors
= same direction as
= opposite direction of

Right-hand rule

*Property of STI

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Angular quantities as vectors

*Property of STI

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Angular quantities as vectors

*Property of STI

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*Property of STI

Angular displacement is not a vector quantity


Addition of angular displacements is not
commutative

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Uniform Circular Motion

Movement of an object along a circular path


with constant speed and constant angular
velocity

Tangential Speed (v)

Speed of an object along a circular path


v

*Property of STI

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Tangential Speed (v)

Other equations:
v r
2r
v
2rf
T

*Property of STI

where v is the tangential speed, r is the radius of


the circular path and t is the time

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Centripetal Acceleration (ac)

Acceleration of object moving in a circular path

Always directed towards the center

Not denoted as a vector because its direction is


never constant
Formulas:
ac =

T = period of revolution
f = frequency

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v2
r

a c = 2r

1
f
T
*Property of STI

r
t

ac =
*Property of STI

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4 2 r
T2

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Centripetal Force (Fc)

Force that causes the object to move in circular


path

Always have the same direction as ac

It is not denoted as vector because its direction


is never constant
Formulas:
Fc =m 2 r

Fc = mac

Fc =
*Property of STI

mv 2
r

Fc =m

4 2 r
T2

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A 40 kg child makes 10 revolutions around the
Cliffhanger in 29.3 seconds. The radius of the barrel
is 2.9 meters, what is the centripetal force acting on
the child?

*Property of STI

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*Property of STI

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A 0.035 kg pebble is made to whirl in a circular
path at the end of a 1.00 m string. What is the
tangential velocity if the pebble makes one
revolution in 1.50 s? What is the centripetal
acceleration? What is the tension in the string?

*Property of STI

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Centrifugal Force

Not a real force, but experienced as if they are


actual force
Arises due to inertia
Objects tend to resist centripetal force and
move in straight path

Rotational Motion

Translational Motion

*Property of STI

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Rotation
Movement of an object along its axis causing it
to change its orientation in space

*Property of STI

Movement of an object along a path causing it


to change its location in space

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Rotational Inertia

Tendency to resist any change in rotational motion

Depends on the distribution of mass in relation to the


axis

The farther is the bulk of mass from the axis, the


greater is the rotational inertia

Expressed using Newtons Second Law for Rotational


Motion

t=Ia

*Property of STI

I = rotational inertia

t = the torque

a = the angular acceleration


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*Property of STI

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Center of Gravity

A point within the object which when used as a


pivot point will result in balanced torque and
hence will not cause any rotation

May lie at a point within the object where there


is no mass

Angular Momentum

The product of the moment of inertia I


and the angular velocity
L = I

An object or system of objects will maintain


its angular momentum unless acted upon
by an unbalanced external torque.
*Property of STI

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Law of Conservation of Angular
Momentum

If no unbalanced external torque acts on


a rotating system, the angular
momentum of that system is constant

*Property of STI

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Cross Multiplication

Type of vector multiplication where the product of


two vectors a and b is another vector c, such that
c lies perpendicular to the plane of a and b
c=ab

Magnitude of c is determined by the formula:

c ab sin
where is the angle between a and b

*Property of STI

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Direction is determined by right-hand rule

Not commutative

*Property of STI

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Torque ()
Force acting at a certain distance away from the axis;
this distance is called lever arm
The cross-product of force and lever arm:

=Fr

= Fr sin

F = force
r = lever arm
= the angle between them

r
*Property of STI

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*Property of STI

unit of torque is Newton


meter (N m)
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You pull the door open with a
perpendicular force of 10.0 N.
Your hand is 0.400 m away
from the door hinge. How
much torque is produced?

*Property of STI

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*Property of STI

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Solve for the torque due to a force of 15 N on a


body if the lever of arm is 0.75 m in length.

Rotational Equilibrium

An object is in rotational equilibrium if the sum


of all torques acting on it is zero
NET 1 2 3 0

*Property of STI

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At what distance from the center of the seesaw
should a man weighing 75.0 kg sit in order to
balance the seesaw while a 30.0 kg child is sitting
on the other side 2.0 m away from the center?

*Property of STI

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*Property of STI

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