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General Characteristics:
1. ribbon-like and dorsoventrally flattened
2. most of the show indirect types of life cycle. The
exceptional type of life cycle is found in Hymenolepis spp
where direct and indirect types are found.
3. they are hermaphrodite
4. cysts or bladderworms are intermediate or larval stage of
the parasite
5. the final host gets infection by ingestion of intermediate
host or flesh of intermediate host containing the bladder
6. the body can be divided into three broad parts

Head/ Scolex
-very minute as compared to other parts Poultry Tapeworm
-shape varies which may be roughly triangular,ball shaped or Genus Raillietina
round -small to medium-sized tapeworm that inhabit the small
-there is presence of sucker (armed or unarmed ) which is not intestine
used for taking food but used as apertures for attachment -cosmopolitan in distribution
-anteriorly there is structure called rostellum
Neck R. cesticillus
-immediately behind the head and without any segment R. echidnobothrida
-segmentation starts here R. tetragona
R. asiatica
Body R. celebensis
-area is completely segmented R. demerariensis

Three types of segments are present: R. cesticillus

IMMATURE- the reproductive system and eggs are absent Morphology:
MATURE- completely developed reproductive system 1. smaller (4-15 cm) than R. tetragona, R.
GRAVID- reproductive system is replaced by the eggs echidnobothrida
-either detached from the parasite or its disintegrated 2. broad rostellum which is armed with 400-
and the eggs are expelled out 500 hooks
3. circular sucker is unarmed
Eggs: 4. egg capsule contains single egg
-have basic structure comprising oncosphere or hexacanth
embryo, a striated shell or embryophore and a delicate R. echidnobothrida
membrane Morphology
-the following are the events which occur during biological 1. size is 8.5-22 cm
development: 2. suckers are circular and surrounded by
a. Eggs are expelled out from the gravid segment several rows of hooks
b. the eggs are ingested by the intermediate hosts and 3. rostellum is very small
hatching occurs in the intermediate host or hatch in the 4. egg capsule contains multiple eggs
environment ( Cotyloda)
-metacestodes / bladderworms / cyst / larval stages are formed R. tetragona
in the intermediate host 1. 25 cm long and largest tapeworm in poultry
-final host gets the infection by ingestion of the intermediate 2. rostellum is small and possesses one or two
host or the muscles and flesh containing the cysts or rows of hooks
bladderworms 3. egg capsule contains multiple eggs
4. sucker is oval and surrounded by several
rows of hooks

• egg
• oncosphere
• cysticercoid ( infective stage )
• adult
Ants and Musca domestica acts as IH of R. tetragona and R. 2. constant irritation of the anal sac resulting to
echidnobothrida. The beetle acts as IH for R. cesticillus anal pruritus
3. intoxication due to absorption of the
Pathogenesis: metabolites released by the parasites which
1. nodule formation in the intestine by R. affects the nervous system
2. enteritis by R. tetragona and R. cesticillus Diagnosis:
1. examination of fecal sample
Genus Davainea 2. dragging anus over the ground or any hard
D. proglottina objects
D. meleagridis
Family Anoplocephalidae: common cestodes of equine
1. very small only several mm that’s why it is Morphology:
advised to take mucosal scraping for its 1. rostellum and hooks are present
detection 2. segments are noticeably broad\
2. has prominent rostellum armed with hammer- 3. presence of egg capsule or paruterine organ
shaped hooks 4. eggs have 3 coverings; the outermost formed by
3. presence of single set of reproductive organ the vitelline gland, middle albuminous and
which alternates regularly inner chitinous
4. has 4-9 segments 5. eggs of many members bear a pear shaped
5. egg capsule contains single egg structure called pyriform apparatus

Life cycle: Genera:

Egg Anoplocephala Moniezia
Oncosphere Paranocephala Cittotaenia
Cysticercoid in IH (infective stage on ants or slugs) Pseudanocephala
Other Species
The gravid segments crawl out of the host. The gravid
segments are actively motile and crawl onto the grass blade Anoplocephala Anoplocephala Pseudoanoplocephala
due to its phototactic nature. The eggs are released during the magna perfoliata mamillana
act of crawling. The eggs hatch after ingested by IH and
cysticercoid is formed within a month. The final host gets the
infection when the infected snails are ingested by the birds. 1. Largest Small intestine Si and stomach
cestode found
Family Dipyliidae: in the horse
Dipylidium caninum- double pored tapeworm of dogs found in SI
and stomach
Morphology: 2. 80 cm long 1-8 cm 0.6- 5 cm
1. head or scolex is pyriform in shaped having
hooks characteristically rose-thorn shaped
2. presence of two sets of reproductive system like
Moniezia spp 3. Testes are 250 100
3. mature segments are cucumber seed shape arranged in
rows. The
LIFE CYCLE: number of
egg testes are 400-
onchosphere 500
cystercercoid in IH (flea C. canis, C. felis, T. canis, Pulex sp ) 4. Pyriform Large and Large and srong
adult apparatus is strong
not strong and
Gravid segments get detached from the adult tapeworm and large
crawl. During crawling the eggs are released from the gravid Lappets are present absent
segment. The IH ingest the eggs and hatched in the gut and absent
oncospheres are released and these migrate in the body cavity.
A cysticercoid with tail appendage is formed within few
weeks. Final host gets the infection by ingestion of the
infected IH.

1. sloughing, denudation of mucosa
Taenia pisiformis Cysticercus rabbits
LIFE CYCLE: pisiformis
Onchosphere Taenia Cysticercus rodents
Cysticercoid in IH ( mite) taeniaformis fasciolaris

Pathogenesis: Taenia multiceps Coenurus Sheep And

A. perfoliata particularly affects the ileocecal orifices and cerebralis goat
they produce depressed ulcers which is dasrk in color and may
cause perforation of SI
A. magna causes hemorrhagic enteritis obstruction of the
intestinal lumen Taenia saginata Taenia solium
P. mamillana less significant
Host is man man
Family Hymenolepididae

H. carioca H. diminuta H. nana Rostellum is absent Present armed with

dwarf hooks
1000-2000 segments 800- 1000
1. 3-8 cm 2-6 cm 7-80 cm

2. 500 500 segments Few segments Ovary is bilobed trilobed

3. testes lie Testes are Testes lie in line
across the ovoid and separated by Oval egg Spherical
segment the ovary

Uterus has 14-32 16 branches

LIFE CYCLE: branches
cysticercoid in IH Taenia solium
Life cycle:
Family Taeniidae egg ( hatch after being ingested)
Morphology Onchosphere ( migrates in different organs and tissues)
1. large tapeworm Cysticercus ( infective stage in the pork )
2. proglottids are rectangular Adult ( ingestion of infected ham and pork )
3. rostellum may or may not be present
4. segments are longer and broader Man gets infection by the ff: ways
5. uterus has median stem and lateral branches 1. ingestion of pork containing cysticercus
6. egg capsule is easily lost and the embryo pore is striated in 2. ingestion of eggs through the food and cysticercus
appearnace develops in man
3. by autoinfection due to retrosperistaltic movement. The
eggs return to the stomach and hatch
Intermediate Intermediate
Stage host Predisposing factors:
1. eating habits of people
Taenia solium Cysticercus pig 2. large scale implementation of insewcticide
Taenia saginata Cysticercus cattle 1. utilize the nutrition of the host
bovis 2. causes enteritis
3. neurocysticercosis
Taenia Cysticercus Sheep,
hydatigena tenuicollis ruminants Pig
1. measly pork- presence of cysticerci in different organs
or tissue
Clinical signs: individual and there would be hypersensitive reaction
Man Neurocysticercosis within 15 mins or less in positive cases
1. diarrhea 1. encephalitis and meningitis
2. abdominal pain 2. epileptic fit and excitement Family Mesocestoididae:
3. vomiting Genus Mesocestoides
4. flatulence M. lineatus M. jonesi
M. variabilis
Taenia multiceps M. tenuis

Life cycle: Morphology:

egg 1. head or scolex is devoid of rostellum and hooks
Onchosphere 2. presence of single set of reproductive system
Coenurus ( infective stage in the brain of sheep and goat ) 3. genital pore is dorsally situated
Adult 4. bilobed ovary and vitelline glands
5. testes are situated on either side of the excretory canal
Migratory onchospheres care dangerous in the sheep. This DH- dog, fox, cat
causes meningitis and encephalitis IH- 1st – mites
Gradually the cyst creates pressure in the brain as per the 2nd - birds
advancement of development of cyst. The brain muscles get
atrophied Developmental stages:
The skull gets atrophied and ultimately maybe soft and easily egg
felt when touching onchosphere
Aside from brain several nerves are also affected ( ocular, cysticercoid in IH
auditory ) tetrathyridium in birds, lizards, snakes
Clinical signs:
1. the animal looses the condition and fails to respond to the *M. corti can asexually multiply in the IH and DH
2. circling movement ( gid ) is an important sign Pathogenesis:
3. sometimes the animals move in straight and keep its head 1. enteritis
on the hard surface 2. nervous disorder
3. anal priritus
Genus Echinicoccus
E. granulosus Genus Diphyllobothrium
E. vogeli Species:
E. multilocularis D. latum
E. oligarthus D. mansonoides

Morphology: Morphology:
1. very small only few segments are present 1. long and maybe reaching up to several meters
2. terminal segment is the gravid segment 2. thousands of segments are presents
3. scolex has the rostellum which is armed with hooks 3. head is spatula shaped with a deep groove in the middle
4. ovary is kidney shaped called bothria
4. no rostellum
Life cycle: 5. genital organs are situated mid-ventrally
egg 6. eggs are oval and operculated and have fair resemblance
onchosphere to trematodes
hydatid cyst in IH 7. ovary is bilobed and uterus is rosette-shaped
Life cycle:
Pathogenesis: Egg
1. enteritis Ciliated coracidium
2. pressure atrophy in the vital organs due to pressure of Procercoid (cyclops)
large- sized cyst Plerocercoid (fish)
3. functional disturbance Adult

Diagnosis: Pathogenesis
1. examination of feces 1. enteritis
2. detection of cysticercus in the tongue and other palpable 2. anemia ( B12 def. or Pernicious anemia )
areas 3. anal pruritus
3. Casonis Test- hydatid fluid is inoculated in the suspected 4. epileptic fit

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