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Genus Brucella has 6 species namely: Growth = enhanced by serum or blood

B. abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, B. ovis, B. suis except B. Tool for primary isolation = complex media (serum dextrose
neotome (important pathogens of domestic animals and man) agar or Albimi Brucella agar or broth)
Brucellosis = disease cause of this bacterial pathogen Antibiotics = they are sometimes added to these basal media to
Infections = reproductive organs and reticuloendothelial tissues inhibit contaminants in specimens such as milk and vaginal
Abortion = in cattle, sheep, goat because of the lesions of the discharge.
female reproductive tract and of the placenta and fetus. Primary isolation
Transmission = directly or indirectly from infected animls to = they are slow-growing and barely visible at 48 hours
humans (there is a zoonotic importance because of this) = reach maximum size after 5- 7 days at the optimum growth
Brucella melitensis = first member of the genus to be isolated by temperature (37oC)
David Bruce in 1887 = may be on a smooth type characterized by a round convex
Source = from the spleens of patients who died in Mediterranean colonies with an entire edge or they may be associated by rough
or Malta fever type colony in which they have large flat colonies with a dull
Brucella abortus = the second member was isolated by Fredrick granular appearance.
Bang in 1897 =growth is sparse in fluid media and appear as a faint clouding.
Source = aborted bovine fetus
Bacteriophage Typing
Brucella suis = isolated by Jacob Traum in 1914 Bacteriophage = often used for identifying and typing cultures of
Source = aborted piglet Brucella sp.
B. Ovis and B. canis = more highly host adapted and they were Tb, Wb, Fi, Bk2, and R strains = the phages currently in routine
isolated in 1956 and 1969 respectively Rotuine Test Dilution (RTD) = dilution of the phage; the
Morphological and cultural features of the 6 members = not minimum number of phages that will produce confluent lysis on
sufficiently characteristic to differentiate. Nor the host from a lawn of the propagating strain
which the organism is isolated . But each species have a Phage typing = is rapid and very useful tool of identifying B.
predilection site for certain hosts. abortus
*Isolation of a Gram-negative rod from a suspected case of
brucellosis requires reliance on the results of the laboratory tests.

Brucella abortus
(Bacillus abortus, Bang’s bacillus) Antigen

Affected animal = cattle population (absent in countries where cell wall of B. abortus = consists of an outer layer of
eradication programs have been actively pursued) lipopolysaccharide protein on which polysaccharide chains are
Morphology and Staining reaction exposed
= short rod / a coccobacillus (0.5 to 0.7 µm by 0.6-1.5 µm.) Polysaccharide chains = carries the major antigen (A and M)
=rods are short that are mistaken to be a cocci involved in the agglutination reaction
=arranged singly, although in cultures appear to be in short cell wall proteins have been groouped into three = 88,000-
chains 94,000. 95,000-40,000 (porins); and 25,000-30,000
= a facultative intracellular bacterium
= found in clumps and smears made from exudates Epizootiology and Pathogenesis
=Gram negative and stains with ordinary stains although with
some difficulty B. abortus = an obligate facultative intracellular parasite of cattle
=not acid fast and some wild ruminants; they are not very resistant to sunlight
=Can resist decolorization with some mild acids. and drying and therefore survives better in winter than summer;
can survive and grow in host macrophages and epithelial cells
Koster stain = which the organism stains deep red Transmission = ingestion of contaminated discharges or feed;
Other characteristics = nonmotile, doesn’t form spore, doesn’t venereal transmission is possible but unusual; intramammary
have a well-developed capsule (poorly developed capsules have and congenital transmission also occur
been demonstrated on freshly isolated strains using special Other infected animals = horses, sheeps, chickens, and dogs
stains) survives = in milk
Cultural and biological features destroys = pasteurization
=aerobic growth (many strains require increased tension of CO2 Large dairy herds = more likely to be infected with a high
for growth especially on primary isolations prevalence of infection within the herd. the greater level of
= is catalase and oxidase positive and usually produce H2S from intensivism and opportunity for transmission within large herds
protein or peptides rich in amino acids containing sulfur together with the greater likelihood of introduction of a latently
=produces urease infected animals are some of the factors that contributes to the
=8 biotypes are currently recognized by dye sensitivity test, CO2 higher risk of infection in large herds
requirement, H2S production, and presence of A or M Antigen. factor of transmission = common pastures, contaminations of
= not hemolytic, doesn’t liquefy gelatin, doesn’t produce acid streams, activities of carrion feeders
from glucose Brucella infection in free-living animals = bison, moose and elk
= It has a characteristic substrate oxidation pattern (comingling with this animals in cattle enhances the possibility
of cross-infection)
Prepubescent animals = resistant to infection enhanced following activation by lymphokines from sensitive T-
Heifer calves = can be infected early in life either in utero from lymphocytes.
infected dams or by ingestion of contaminated milk *the organism has been shown to multiply more slowly in the
(susceptibility increases with sexual development and macrophages of vaccinated calves than in controil animals.
pregnancy) humoral antibodies = corralate poorly with protective immunity
Latent infection = cannot be detected by serological test in
calves exposed in this way Strain 19 vaccines = cattle vacinated by this have been shown to
Male cattle = resistant to infection but infection of the be resistant to challenge after antibody titers fall below
epididymis and testicle has been recorded (Bulls can transmit the detectable levels
infection in their semen) IgM agglutinins = first antibodies to appear in the plasma and
Main portals of entry = oral mucosa (milk), nasopharynx, and their levels reach a peak at about 2 weeks; IgG antibodies appear
conjunctiva of cattle as well as the genital tract in both bulls and later.
cows IgG1 subclass = infected cattle have high titers of
experiimental conditions = organisms has been shown to nonagglutinatingh antibody
penetrate the unbroken skin of guniea pig and cattle. after pH 3.6 = treatment with acid at this level activates their
penetrationof the host, B. abortus initially localizes in the agglutinating ability.
regional lymph node and then enters to the blood stream. strain 19 = IgM antibody levels increase rapidly in calves
bacteremic phase = results in dissemination of the organisms to vaccinated with this strain; IgG1 antibody levels rise more
the udder, uterus, and associated nodes. slowly, do not attain high high levelsand do not persist. also,
B. abortus = has an unusal resistance to intraleukocytic killing; levels of nonagglutinating IgG1 antibodies are much lower than
proliferates massively in cells with high levels of erythrithol in naturaolly infdected animals.
(found in genital tract in male and pregnant female) protective immune responses = appear to be most effective when
*it penetrates the epithelial cells of the chorion and proliferates, infection occurs before puberty. the majority of infectionbs in
producing placentitis. *Endometritis is produced with ulceration sexually mature animals persist for life although the immune
of the epithelial lining of the uterus. response does reduce the severity of disease in the uterus and
*Lesions of the fetus include edema and congestion of the lungs placenta so that such animals are more likely to carry to term
along with hemorrhages of the epicardium and splenic capsule. later in pregnancies.
*fetal death occurs (it is unclear wheter endotoxin of the
organism or to interference with placental function) Vaccines
*inflammation of the membranes(this interference with
thecirculation of the fetus may explain why abortion occurs) strain 19 and the McEwen killed 45/20 = two vaccines that are
*organisms found in the stomach and lungs of aborted fetuses important in the control of B. abortus infection
*abortion occur late in pregnancy Strain 19
*organism is present in large numbers in uterine discharges for a = consists of viable culture of a strain that was discovered to
few days but is then gradually cleared from the reproductive have very little virulence for guniea pigs and cattle but to
tract (after calving or abortion) possess excellent immunizing properties.
*infection is maintained in the reticuloendothelial tissue and the = it has a great stability
udder = it is a smooth strain that is mildly pathogenic for guniea pigs
Milk = source of infection for calves and also humans (shed in = pregnant cattle can be made to abort by inoculating them with
large numbers) large doses of this
*most infected animals are remain carriers for life and shed the = vaccine organisms can usually be demonstrated without
organisms in uterine exudates and in milk after each calving difficulty in the fetal membranes and the fetus itself
*abortion are usually seen only during the first pregnancy after = susceptible cattle, associating with those have aborted as a
infection (placenta is infected during each pregnancy) result of inoculation with the vaccine strain, do not become
*organisms are seen in the lymph nodes of the digestive tract infected
and in the spleen in the infected cattle. = it is unlikely transmitted from one animal to another; if any
*it has been isolated from the blood and from hygromas of the damage is doneby the use of tyhis vaccine, it is limited to the
knee (shows high correlation with brucella abortion in African animal injected.
cattle) = it is rarely shed in milk of vaccinated animals
it can cause infection to humans, although it is usually mild with
B. abortus in horses = less frequency than in cattle; frequently recovery in a much shorter time than with virulent strains
localizes in bursae, joints, or tendon sheath and has been found = it is dangerous to humans and should be handled with caution
in poll evil and fistulous withers, supra-atlantal bursitis, and = calves are vaccinated 2-10 months of age (vaccination at this
supraspinous bursitis as well as in lesions of the fetlock and age is advocated to avoid persistent agglutinins that could create
sternum. diagnostic problems later in the animal;s life)
= it protects about 65-70 percent of animals for 4 or 5
Immunity pregnanciesand is most effective for protection of young
breeding animals when applied in a herd basis.
*the organisms are so readily escapes the bactericidal effects of = animals vaccinated as adults are also protected but develop
antibody and complement in plasma persisting agglutinins.
protective immunity = depends mainly on cell-mediated = Latently infected animals or animals in the early stages of
responses in whcich the micorbicidal activity of macrophages is infection do not benefit from vaccination.
Colostral antibodies may interfere with response to strain 19 =the test are applied to serum, whole blood, vaginal mucus,
during the first 5 months of the calf's life. seminal plasma, whey, or milk.
= vaccination of cows in early pregnancy with large doses Serum tube agglutinatio test (SAT) = used in eradication
produces probability of uterine infection. this risk is greatly programs; The test is performed in small test tubes on dilutions
diminished when the dose is reduced. of serum. Complete agglutination at a serum dilution of 1:100
= horses with fistulous withers sometimes treated by this and higher is considered positive. In Great Britain, a titer at least
vaccination 50 percent agglutination at 1:40 is considered positive
Flase-positive reaction = can be caused by reactions of
McEwen killed 45/20 vaccine antibodies to yersinia enterocolitica 09 and other Gram-negative
= a rough strain that is inactivated and adjuvanated for use as a organisms. It occur in a significant number of serum sampls
vaccine or antigen in the anamnestic diagnostic test from latently or chronically infected animals. Animals in the
= it is administered in two doses (6- 12 weeks apart) early stage of infection similarly may fail to react.
= it stimulates complement fixing antibodiesand agglutinins for Buffered antigen plate agglutination tests = replaced standard
rough B. abortus antigens of the IgG1 subclass SAT because the use of buffered antigen reduces the frequency
= it has been used widely for the control of bovine brucellosis of false-positive reactions
Rose bengal plate tests = B. abortus cells stained with rose
Diagnosis bengal and suspended in acidic buffer to inhibit nonspecific
bacteriologically and serologically = B. abortus can be agglutinins. The test can be used as a screen or definitive test.
diagnosed by these. The frequency of false-negative reactions is less than for the
Bacteriological diagnosis SAT
= isolation and recognition of B. abortus are often accomplished Card test = the antigen is a buffered, stained, whole cell
by direct culture on a basal medium such as tryptose agar or suspension of B. abortus strain. the antibody source is plasma
Albimi agar to which serum and selected antibiotics are added. separated from blood following clumping or erythrocytes by
= cultures are incubated at 37oC in an atmosphere of 10 percent lectins. the test is useful for the detection of early inection where
co2 tension and are examined 2-3 days IgM is the dominant antibody.
=serologic typing of Brucella strains and phage typing with the Plate agglutination = test is a heavy suspension of strains of B.
Tbilis (Tb)strain of bacteriophage are useful aids to definitive abortus stained withj gentian violet and brilliant green to make
identification, but their use in restricted to specifically equuipped the test easier to read. Serum, whole blood, or whey can may be
reference laboratories used in this test. (using glass slide or plate)
whole-blood method = used for testing range cattle when it is
Specimens should be examine by the following: desirable to hold the animals in chutes until the results are
1. The aborted fetus = direct cultures of specimens of the known
stomach contents, intestinal contents, or the lung tissue Milk ring test = the antigen is a hematoxylin-stained suspension
2. the placenta = direct stained smears from the outer surface of of killed B. abortus. It is mixed with fresh milk in a tube in the
the chorion, especially from the margins of the characteristic proportion of one drop per milliliters of milk. the mixture is then
thickenings, will usually suffice to make positive diagnosis incubated in a water bath at 37oC for 1 hour.
without the need for cultural method (the organisms occur free clumps of agglutinated organisms= a positive test is indicated by
or enclosed in the epithelial cells). these are visualized using the a bluish violet cream layer and a decolorized milk column. The
modified Koster stain by which appear red against a blue test is widely used for the examination of bulk milk samples and
background. so allows herds in an area to be quickly and economically
3. The uterine exudate = after abortion or calving, when the screened. positive herds are then subjected to blood tests on
placenta has been infected in the lochia and can be recognized individual animals.
by guniea pig inoculation. (organisms seems to disappear and complement-fixation test = one of the most accurate tests in
cannot be found at the uterus until the animal is again pregnant widespread use for the diagnosis of B. abortus infection. It
and reinfection of the organ occurs) detects IgM and IgG1 antibodies only. The test does not
4. milk = udder is infected and detected by the intraperitoneal differentiate infected animals from animals recently vaccinated
injection in milk into guniea pigs or by direct culture with strain 19 or 45/20. This test designed to test antibody to the
5. abscesses = direct culture of specimens from abscesses of the 45/20 vaccine is also available. And for that, the test has been
testicle and epididymis usually produced pure cultures, and automated in many laboratories thus resulting in greater
isolations have been made from hygromas in cattle and from precision.
infected burasae in horses. Antiglobulin (coombs) test = measures binding of
nonagglutinating antibodies to B. abortus antigen.
Inoculation of guniea pigs = most reliable method of detecting The ravinol and mercapteothenol tests = used to help distinguish
B. abortus in infected materials. their serums are examined for between agglutinin titers caused by chronic infacetion and those
the presence of antibodies and specimens from the spleen, liver, caused by vaccination with strain 19. IgM antibodies are
regional lymph nodes, testicles are cultured. sensitive to mercaptoethenol.
Direct examination of tissues and flourescentantibody = aid to Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) = offer promise
diagnosis and practicaly useful for examing contaminated of greater sensitivity and specificity than the test described
materials (placental membranes, cotyledons, fetal or vaginal above.
discharges). Allergic skin test = based on purified antigens; is to be a
valuable addition to serology for detecting animals.
serological diagnosis
Control Feces and urine = the organisms survives at least 6 weeks
1. affected animals are detected and eliminated from the herd Feral swine= is most infected than domesticated swine; can be
(detection using serological test - milk ring test - agglutination also a source of infection for cattle
test - slaughter) Biotype 1 = is isolated from tissues of wild swine
2. resistance of the remaining animals or any replacements is wild boars = important reservoirs of B. suis biotype 2
increased by vaccination source of infection = contaminated pastures from these hosts can
3. General priciples of hygiene are imposed to prevent spread or infect domesticated swine
reintroduction of infection Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) = brucellosis is an important
systematic calf vaccination = a protective measure in herds that disease; B. suis biotype 4 has been isolated from them; it cause
are only lightly infected bursitis; spondylitis, arthritis, and orchitis
systematic calfhood vaccination with strain 19 or 45/20 = is used Larvae of reindeer warble fly = seen the B. suis organism and
in heavily infected herds there is a speculation that this insect may act as a vector of this
calfhood vaccination = it is maintained in such a herd as long as disease
there is a real danger of the exposure to the disease from any Wolves of Siberia and sled dogs in Alaska = seen B. suis
source because they fed on infected reindeer meat
periodic milk-ring tests and random testing on serum= Soviet Union = brucellosis is of particular interest and
surveillance of herd is maintained on bulk milk samples when significance because of the large number of their free-living
they are sent to slaughter reindeer
back-tagging = allows infection to be traced back to the her of Domestic guard dog = seen to be a carrier of B. suis biotype 2
origin (source of infection for a herd of domestic swine)
*although feral animals can be a source of B. suis infection for
Antimicrobial sensitivity pigts, the organism is transmitted almost exclusively from pig to
Gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and rifampicin = B. pig (by coitus or by the ingestion of feed contaminated by urine
abortus is sensitive to these substances or genital excretions from infected boars or sows)
tetracycline + streptomycin = treatment for human brucellosis * spread is rapid in a susceptible herd
*cattle are not usually given antimicrobials for prophylaxis or * outbreak of disease followed by intermittent cases as
therapy of B. abortus infection susceptible newcomers contact chronically infected pigs.
initial infection = B. suis is localized in the regional lymph
Brucella suis nodes. It proliferates and may caiuse extended bacteremia with
(porcine type of Brucella) generalized infection of the spleen, lymph nodes, joints, udder,
and genitalia
=caused by brucellosis in swine. B. suis = a facultative intracellular parasiteand owes a great deal
=has wider range of host specificty (humans, dogs, rodents, of its pathogenic properties to its ability to survive in the host's
horses, reindeer, musk, oxen, and wild carnivores) phagocytic cells.
Five types are recognized = Biotype 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Erythritol = has a growth-stimulating effect upoin B. suis and is
Biotype 1, 2 , 3 = have the pig as their natural host but can be found in placenta of sows and seminal vesicles of boars
transmitted to other host stimulatory action of eythritol + its presence on tissues = lesions
Biotype 2 = occurs naturally in horses and relatively avirulent in male and female genital tracts
for humans clinical signs anmd lesions produce = depends on animal's age,
Biotype 4 and 5 = reindeer and rodents are the primary natural previous exposure, organ or organs involved
hosts (but others can be infected) Suckling and weanling piglets = they can be affected
adults = can have abortion, metritis, spondylitis (vertebrea in the
Morphology and Staining reaction lumbar and sacral region are not uncommon), lameness, and
B suis is closely resembles B. abortus paralysis
posterior paralysis = caused by pressure from the necrotic tissue
Cultural and Biochemical Features on the spinal cord
=does not require increased levels of CO2 for growth. nodular splenitis = also been associated with brucellosis
= large amounts of H2S are produced by Biotype 1 but more
produce by other biotypes Immunity
= Urea is highly hydrolyzed field and experimental evidence = indicates the swine immunity
to brucellosis is very slight and that after a period of herd
Antigen resistance, animals are again susceptible to the disease
=surface antigen predominates a smooth cultures of all biotype Abortion = don't occur after the first exposure but when
except biotypes 4 and 5 reexposed
Biotype 4 = has both A and M antigens in equal amounts cell-mediated immunity = important in protecting the host
Biotype 5 = has mostly M antigens on its surface
Diagnosis
Epizootiology and Pathogenesis cultural methods and agglutination test = positively diagnose
= it occures to most swine raising areas (not been reported in brucellosis in swine
Great Britain, Iceland, or Canada) Isolated B. suis = from blood, spleen, uterus, lymph nodes, and
= Survival in the environment has not been well studied (but mammary glands of sows and testes and semen of boars
similar to B. abortus)
*methods are the same as B. abortus except that an increase of B. melitensis = facultative intracellular parasite that survives and
the CO2 tension of the culture jar (unnecessary) multiplies within the phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial
Agglutination test = used as an aid in diagnosis but not as system
reliable in swine as it is in cattle; it is valuable in determining Erythrithol = the growth is stimulated
whether the infection exists in a herd Extended bacteremia with fever = 5 to 10 weeks or longer is
Card test and rose bengal test = superior to most other followed by abortion storm (highly susceptible goat herd or
serological tess for detection of antibody in swine serum sheep flock)
ELISA = it replaced the tube agglutination test Infected does = shows lameness, hygromas, and mastitis
Billy goats = develops orchtis
Control Kid goats = can remain latently infected until sexually mature
sell all stock to slaughter = simplest way to eradicate the disease
*the premises should be thogoughly cleaned and disinfected Immunity
For breeding herd in which blood lines must be preserved = pigs Goats and sheep = develop effective protective immune
are raised from the infected unit. They are weaned (8 weeks old) responses to this organism that eventually clear the infection
and tested individually by agglutination test Humoral antibody = appears about 2-3 weeks after infection
If negative = they are removed from the infected herd, placed on Infected sheep = develop delayed hypersensitivity to antigens of
a clean ground and raised in isolation B. melitensis
*all pigs are tested periodically (reactors are immediatley live avirulent Rev 1 and strain 53H38 = vaccines used to prevent
removed) and control B. melitensis
when of Breeding age = serological negative gilts are bred to Rev 1 = more effective than 53H38; prevents abortion and
noninfected boars. the original herd is disposed of as soon as the shedding of the organism; animals immunized by this become
replacemen unit has grown to sufficient size serologically negative 6 months later. disadvantage of this is that
it may localize in the placenta of pregnant does and cause
Antimicrobial Susceptibility abortion. Localization in the mammary gland and shedding in
B. suis is sensitive to = vitro to aminoglycosides, rifampicin, and the milk also occur
tetracyclines 53H38 = stimulates more persistent antibody response then Rev
clinical efficacy of antimicrobials = very low 1

Brucella melitensis Diagnosis


(Bacterium melitensis, caprine type of Brucelle, Micrococcus bacteriological methods = the same as those used to detect
melitensis) brucellosis
phage sensitivity, agglutination with monospecific antiserum,
=first isolated by Bruce in 1887 from the spleen of aresident of guniea pig inoculation = isolations may be identified
the Island of Malta who had died of a disease known as Malta complement fixation, agar-gel immunodiffusion, and rose bengal
fever or Mediterranean fever plate test = serological tests tat are available and give
= it is a disease of goats and sheeps comparable results with the classic agglutination test
Whey test = can be performed also
Morphology and Staininbg Reacions Milk-ring test = not reliable on sheep milk
= forms small rods that are so short that they are mistaken to be Intrapalpebral allergic test = more sensitive but slightly less
a cocci specific than serological assays for detection of infection in
stains = same as B. aborus sheep flocks

Cultural and Biochemical Features Antimicrobial Susceptibility


= does not require supplementary CO2 for growth and either Aminoglycosides, rifampicin, and tetracyclines = sesitive to B.
does not produce H2S (does in trace amounts) melitensis
solid and liquid media of B. abortus = suitable for B. melitensis Efficacy of antimicrobials in therapy = has not been reported
3 biotype = Biotype 1, 2, 3
Biotype 1 = the most common Brucella neotomae

Antigens = first isolated by Stroenner and Lockman from a dessert wood


smooth cultures = have the A and M antigens or both antigens rat (Neotoma lepida) trapped alive in the Great Salt Dessert of
together. Utah
= it has not been recovered from any other naturally infected
Epizootiology and Pathogenesis host
natural hosts = goats and sheeps wood rat = well tolerated and upon experimental infection it
other infected animals = pigs, cattle, camles, and humans, feral persist for at least a year without producing significant lesions
animals including hares and impala
Goats = more susceptible than sheeps Brucella ovis
Source = ingestion of feed or water contaminated by uterne and
vaginal discharges from infected does =causes epididymitis in rams
Milk = contains large numbers of this organisms = early isolation in New Zealand and Australia
Pathogenecity = same as B. abortus in cows = produces late abortions in females and lowers flock fertility
vaccines = consists of saline oil adjuvant bacterins of
Morphology and Staining Characteristics formalinized B. ovis or live B. melitensis Rev 1
=acid fast under certain conditions of staining B. ovis 7-26 = a live vaccine was shown to be effective in 6-10
korster staining method = it stains blue, not red weeks old lambs (it was not transmitted to unvaccinated sheep)
Vaccination of ewes = does not influence spread of infection in a
cultural and biochemical features flock
=requires supplementary CO2 for growth
= does not produce H2S Diagnosis
=most strains are urease negative =palpation of the testicles, culture of the semen, and
= does not metabolized erythritol or other carbohydrates demonstration of antibodies in the serum
colonies = appear to be smooth, they are always in the rough Palpation = is of limited value since many advanced cases show
phase on primary isolation no palpable lesions of the testes (enlarged epididymis with
= there are no biotypes testicular atrophy is valuable in diagnosis)
= the only species to show less than 100 percent DNA homology culture of the semen = important adjunct to diagnosis and has
with otehr species in the genus been facilitated by the use of selective media modieifed for the
growth of the organism
Antigens flourescent antibody test = use to detect the organism in a semen
= it has an R surface antigen that cross reacts with roughj strains smear
= does not react with A or M antigens complement-fixation, ELISA, immunodiffusion, and
= shares a large number of protein antigen with other brucella hemagglutination test = used for the detection of the antibody in
sp. the serum
ELISA = less accurate and sensitive as the complement-fixation
Epizootiology and Pathogenesis test nad is easier to perform
sheep = only natural hosts of B. ovis complement-fixation test = rams are five times more likely than
British breeds = more susceptible than Merinos ewes to be positive
rams = clinically affected much more frequently than ewes
Transmission = venereal, and rams become infected by mating Control
with ewes previously covered by other infected rams = depends on preventing spread of infection between rams
ewes = developed placental infections with subsequent abortion Infected older rams = must kept separate from young rams and
Pasture = B. ovis can survive for a month or two the latter are used only on ewes known to be free of infection
Route of natural infection = ingestion; rams can be be eradication of the disease = reacts in the complement-fixation
experimentally infected by the oral route as can ewes in the early and ELISA
stages of pregnancy; rams as young as 4 months old can be come
infected Brucella canis
clinical signs = transient, inaapparent bacteremia with (canine type of Brucella)
subsequent localization of the organism in the epididymis of the
male. (tail of the epididymis is affected often unilaterally). the first isolation = in 1966 from outbreaks of abortion and whelping
ram may show no clinical signs at this time but shed the failures among dogs in the US and Great Britain
organism in its semen for a prolonged period . 1968 = it was characterized and named Brucella canis
epididymis = a permatocele forms and ruptures, and finally = highly adopted to domestic dogs
spermatic granulomas form with later testicular atrophy =not readily transmitted to other animals, although it will infect
Rams= have lowered fertility humans.
Type 3 hypersensitibity responses = plays a role in the
pathogenesis of the epididymis because lesions in Morphology and Staining reactions
experimentally challanged rams are more severe in animals =a small rod-shaped coccobacillus similar to other Brucella sp.
previously vaccinates than in nonvaccinated controls. Stains = similar to other Brucella sp.
Ewes - less susceptible to infection by B. ovis but lesions occur.
They vary from a superficial purulent exudate on an intact Cultural and Biochemical Features
chorioallantoic membrane to advanced fibrosis and necrosis of =produces only rough or mucoid colonies
this membrane = smooth phase has not been observed
Lambs = organism is pathogenic to this in the utero, but the fetus = it is inhibited by 10 percent CO2
may survive in the presence of infection Broth =growth becomes quite mucoid and a ropy, viscous
Placentitis = interferes with fetal nutrition sediment is formed
=does not utilize erythritol as a preferred nutrient
Immunity =produces large amounts of urease
cell-mediated = immunological basis of the protective immune = does not form H2S.
response
*many rams that become infected do not develop epididymitis Antigens
humoral antibodies = detectable in about 3-4 weeks after = it carries R but not A or M surface antigens
infection, and delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to B. ovis = s species-specific antigen is associated with the mucoid
antigens develops later antigen shed by the organism
= cross-reactivity with Actinobacillus equuli, Pseudomonas aminocycline (25mg/lb twice daily) + streptomycin (25 mg/lb) =
aeruginosa, and P. multicoda also occur given by intramascular injection for 7 days is effective in curing
= it has been found in breeding kennels, pet and stray dogs, and only 3 out of 11 experimentally infected dogs.
in lkaboratory colonies of beagles
= infection appears to be more prevalent in stray dogs than in Brucellosis (Undulant Fever) of Humans
pets
= 2-3 years age group had a higher prevalence of seropositivity = can be caused by B. abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, and b suis
than did older dogs (all biotypes)
Transmission = occurs proncipally at the time of abortion, when =species involved is in great part determined by opportunity for
mayn bacteria are shed in the persistent vaginal discharge. it exposure
continues 4- 6 weeks after an abortion B. suis infection = common in swine belt (north central of US)
Male dogs = harbor the organism in their genital tracts, from it B. abortus = southeastern US is found
shed intermittently (transmitted by coitus to the female) B. melitensis = coomon in Mexico and in localized areas of the
=after initial infection, bacteremia follows for 2 years. southwestern part of US
= infected dogs do not show no clinical signs but some do =this species is also found with some frequenxy in the
exhibit clinical signs have generalized lymphadenitis, splenitis, midwestern states (where it is contracted from swine)
and embryonic deaths and abortions at approximatelt 50 days of Caribou (North American reindeer Rangifer tarandus) =
gestation. brucellosis in humans have been derived in Alaska infected with
Infected males = have epididymitis, scrotal dermatitis, and B. suis biotype 4
testicular atrophy.
Sperm agglutination in the semen, phagocytosis of spermatozoa, B. canis = many peopele were found to be infected with this
delayed skin hypersensitivity to testicular antigens = isioimmune species ten years after it was isolated. Half were laboratory
responses to sperm antigens plays a role in the pathogenesis of personnel who were working with the organism, and most of the
B. canis infections and male fertility owners of infected dogs were infected
*there is evidence that damage to epithelial cells of the testes,
epididymis, and prostate caused by B. canis (triggers production Cases of B. abortus and B. suis = usually seen in veterinarians,
of sperm antibody) farmers, slaughterhouse personnel, and others connected to cattle
and swine
Immunity =men are more susceptible than woman (2/3 of the cases were
cell-mediated = protective immune response of B. canis men that was infected partly B. abortus and partly B. suis
Humoral antibodies = appear at between 2-7 weeks nad are infection)
present in highest concentration in bacteremic animals direct contact = is more hazardous than drinking infected milk
Titers = diminish with resolution of the bacteremia (infections in men are more common even in areas where the
*there is no successful vaccines against B. Canis infection in predominant type is B. abortus)
dogs 20 and 45 years = age group that can have brucellosis
B. ovis vaccines = can stimulate some resistance to B. Canis, but infants = who drinks milk is seldom become infected although
this resistance is much inferior to that observed dogs following the disease has been diagnosed in children as young as 4 years
recovery from B. canis infection old

Diagnosis B. suis = more virulent for humans then B. abortus; most often
*diagnosis is easy in animals that show clinical signs of abortion contracted by exposure to blood or tissue fluids from infected
and infertility (females) or epididymis (males) swine in the slaughterhouse
Clinical signs, direct cultre of blood, lymph nodes, or bone
marrow; and serological test = are used in diagnosis Brucellosis as an Occupational Hazard for Veterinarians
mercaptoethanol, tube agglutination, complement-fixation, brucellosis = poses a hazard to veterinariansin rural practice
counter immunoelectrophoresis, agar-gel immunodiffusion, and because they often come in contact with infected secretions
a rapid slide agglutination test = are not completely standardized Blood test surveys = indicates that a comparatively large
and are subject to occassional but important "false-positives" and percentage of veterinarians reacted positively, although may had
hard to interpret "low titers" and to broad heterotypic reactivity no clinical history of the disease
shown by B. canis antigens infection in veterinary colleges = was not uncommon
Agar-gel immunodiffusion test = based on internal antigens of *the veterinarians who showed no evidence of antibodies to
B. canis is the most sensitive and accurate serologic means of brucella infection were either recent graduates or involved in
detecting infection. commerce, laboratory work, or teaching.
Isolation of B. Canis in infected dogs = most certain diagnostic practicing veterinarian = is exposed to more viable Brucella
method organisms than other people in rural communities. during the
common procedure of removing a retained placenta from a cow,
Antimicrobial Susceptibility the vet. comes in intimate contact with the uterine discharges
Vitro to aminoglycosides, rifampicin, and tetracycline = B. canis rich in organisms that can enter his or her body through the
is sensitive to conjunctiva or the intact skin, or by inhalation.
*B. canis infection is unlikely to be successful wounds on the hands = make ideal sites of entry
Accidental inoculation with B. abortus strain 1 9 = major source *patients may be lebeled neurotic (complains are gard to
of infection in vet in vaccinating cattle. Veterinarians may jab substantiate by laboratory test)
the needle into his thigh or scratch thumb.
strain19 = it usually does not cause chronic infections in humans Melitococcic spondylitis = an adteoarticular complication of
but can cause severe effects in those previously infected with B. brucellosis of humans in Italy
abortus septic arthritis of the hip= came from B. suis
Brucella organisms = implicated cases of osteomyelitis and
Diagnosis diseases in the nervous system
blood culture = when positive, are diagnostic
*the acute disease is frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed. isolation of the organism = from the blood is usually dirricuylt
*patients frequently decide they have influenze or chills and then and often possible, particularly when the offending organism is
recover B. abortus
acute stage = the disease may be misdiagnosed because of its *Greater success is achieved in acute rather than in chronic cases
sporadic in nature and its vague signs
diagnosis = based on the patient's history, clinical signs, Standard agglutination test, antiglobulin test, and the
isolation of the organism, and serological tests. complement-fixation test = three serological test used in aid to
severe phase of the disease = individual is acutely ill, suffers diagnosis
from prostration and weakness, develops daily fever (afternoon Agglutination test = it has been used for years, but it must be
and evening), suffers chills and night sweats during which fever interpreted with great caution because it may produce aberramt
disappears only to have the cycle recur on following days. the results, such as occassional prozones, and "nonagglutination"
acute symptoms usually lessen after a few days, but , following antibodies may be present, giving a negative test even in persons
an interval of varying length during which the patient feels who have had the disease for a long time; useful particularyly in
better, another period of acute symptoms may appear. There may recently acquired acute cases of brucelllosis
be several remissions Antiglobulin test (Coomb's test) and complement fixation test =
intermittent fever = responsible for the name undulant fever are supplementary and are value in the diagnosis of long-
Infections with B. melitensis and B. suis = are usually more stranding brucellosis
severe than those with B. abortus, but this is not always the case.
*the mortality is low, but recovery from infections often is very Treatment
slow. Tetracyclines = are recommende by FAO/WHO Expert
*many persons never fully recover from the effects of this Committe on Brucellosis be given for 21 days
disease. Tetracycline + streptomycin = must be given to severe infection
and for all B. suis infections
chronic cases = this form is more difficult to diagnose. usually Chloramphenicol = is of value but urged caution in its prolonged
the patients suffers from great debility, weakness, a low-grade use.
remittent fever, and joint pains; there may be sweating, lassitude *although these antibiotics often produce a good
and malaise, gastritis, abdominal pain, skin rashes, headache, initial clinical response, a large percentage of patients
irritability, depression, insomnia, arthritis, and backache.
suffer recurrence of the disease.