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# UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

Page
Front Page
i
Title

1. Objective
2. Introduction

1
3. Theory
2
4. Equipment
5. Experimental Procedure

5
6. Result
7. Sample Calculation

6
8. Analysis Result
9. Discussion
10. Conclusion

7
9

12
11. References
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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

1.0 TITLE
FORCED CONVECTION
2.0 OBJECTIVE:
1. To demonstrate the effect and the use of finned surface and pinned surface to improve the
heat transfer in forced convection.
3.0 INTRODUCTION

Convection is the transfer of energy between a solid surface and the adjacent fluids
that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.
Convective heat and mass transfer take place through both diffusion of the random Brownian
motion of individual particles in the fluid and by advection, in which matter or heat is
transported by the larger scale motion of currents in the fluid.
Convection is also the mode of energy transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid
or gas that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.
The faster the fluid motion, the greater heat convection heat transfers. In the absence of any
bulk fluid motion, heat transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid is by pure
conduction. The presence of bulk motion of the fluid enhances the heat transfer between the
solid surface and the fluid, but it also complicates the determination of heat transfer rates.
Convection is called forced convection if the fluid is forced to flow over the surface by
external means such as a fan or the wind. In contrast, convection is called natural (or free)
convection if the fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces that are induced by density
differences due to the variation of temperature in the fluid. Convection can also be qualified
in terms of being natural, forced, gravitational, granular, or thermo magnetic.

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

4.0 THEORY

Heat transfer from an object can be improved by increasing the surface area in
contact with air by adding fins or pins normal to the surface. This can be seen in
Newton`s Law of Cooling, which defines the convection heat transfer rate:

Q hAs Ts T

## The effect of the surfaces can be demonstrated by comparing finned and

unfinned surfaces with a flat plate under the same conditions of power and flow.

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

5.0 EQUIPMENT
The surfaces are shown in the figure below. The finned surface consists of 9 fins that are each
0.1 m high and 0.068 m wide. The pinned surface consists of 17 pins that each have a
diameter of 0.013 m and are 0.068 m long.

Finned
Plate/Pinned
Surface

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

## 1. Bench top unit with holder

2. Sensors for measuring temperature and flow velocity
3. Air duct
4. "cylinder" heating element
5. Temperature sensor
6. Measuring glands
7. Fan
8. "finned" heating element
9. "flat plate" heating element
10. Display and control unit
11. Handheld sensor to measure airflow velocity

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

6.0 PROCEDURES
Heat exchanger placed into the test duct, and the value of ambient temperature (T) has been
record due to the surrounding temperature.
a. The heater then set to 270W to allow the temperature rise until 80C.
b. The heater control is adjust to 20W after its reading reach 80C and allow the
temperature decrease due to the time allowance 5 minutes by using stopwatch.
c. After 5 minutes, the reading of the heater meter has been recorded.
d. The next step is by using the fan with speed of 1.0 m/s on the thermal anemometer.
e. 5 minutes time allowance as before to stabilize and then take the meter result.
f. Finally the fan speed is been increase to 2.0 m/s and 2.5m/s with the same step as
before.
g. All the temperature value that been record is base on surface temperature of the
object.
h. All steps have been repeated and apply to the other specimen with same procedure.

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

7.0 RESULT
Ambient air temperature, T

= 250C

Q
Power input,

= 20 W
Heater Temperature (Ts)
[0C]
FINNED
PINNED PLATE
PLATE
66.7
70.2
53.0
55.2
51.3
51.6

Air Velocity
[m/s]
0
1.5
2.5
DATA ANALYSIS
SAMPLE CALCULATION

i.

Abase L w
0.1 0.11
0.011m 2
ii.

## Surface area of (As) of the finned and pinned plates;

A finned 9 Lw Abase
plate

## (9 0.1 0.068) 0.011

0.0722m 2
Apinned 17
plate

DL
2

Abase

(0.013)( 0.068)

17
0.011
2

0.0346m 2
MEC 554-THERMALFLUIDS LAB: FORCED CONVECTION

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

iii.

## Convection heat transfer coefficient (h);

-For finned plate (at 2.5 m/s);

Q
As Ts T
20
0.0722(51.3 25)

10.533W /( m.0 C )

## -For pinned plate (at 2.5 m/s);

Q
As Ts T
20
0.0346(51.6 25)

21.731W /( m.0 C )

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

RESULT ANALYSIS

PLATE
FINNED
PINNED

Surface Area, As
(m2)
0.0722
0.0346

Air Velocity
[m/s]
0
1.5
2.5

FINNED PLATE
TS- T
h

[W/(m.0C]
[0C]
66.7
41.7
6.643
53.0
28.0
9.893
51.3
26.3
10.533
Ts
[0C]

Ts
[0C]

PINNED PLATE
TS- T
H

[W/
(m.0C]
[0C]

70.2
55.2
51.6

45.2
30.2
26.6

12.788
19.140
21.731

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

## Air velocity vs Surface Temperature

3
2.5
2
Air Velocity

1.5
1
0.5
0
24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

44

Surface Temperature

## Air velocity vs Surface Temperature

3
2.5
2
Air Velocity

1.5
1
0.5
0
25

30

35

40

45

50

Surface Temperature

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

8.0 DISCUSSION
Prepared by : MUHD ZHARFAN ZUHAIR BIN ZAINURUL ZAHAR
2014275902

2014621946

2014442524

2014691028

2014843754

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

9.0 CONCLUSION
Prepared by: MUHD ZHARFAN ZUHAIR BIN ZAINURUL ZAHAR
2014275902
Prepared by: MUHAMMAD FAIZ BIN MOHAMAD ASRI
2014621946

2014442524

## Prepared by: MUHAMMAD KHAIRUDDIN BIN MOHD KHIRZAM

2014691028
Prepared by: MUHAMMAD IZZAT NAQIUDDIN BIN MAT
2014843754

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## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MAR A

FAC U LTY Of M EC H A N I C A L E N G I N E E R I N G
THERMAFLUID LAB (MEC 554)

10.0 REFERENCES

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