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May 3, 2006

Assignment 2: Antenna Fundamentals


Problem 2.1
A uniform plane wave is propagating in direction of the positive z -axis. Find the
polarization (linear, circular, or elliptical), sense of rotation (CW or CCW), axial ratio
(AR), and tilt angle (in degrees) for
a)

E x = Ey

and

= 0 ,

b)

E x Ey

and

= 0 ,

c)

E x = Ey

and

= / 2 ,

d)

E x = Ey

and

= / 2 ,

e)

E x = Ey

and

= / 4 ,

f)

E x = Ey

and

= / 4 ,

g)

Ex = 0.5Ey

and

= / 2 ,

h)

Ex = 0.5Ey

and

= / 2 .

In all cases justify the answer.

Problem 2.2
Write a general expression for the polarization loss factor (PLF) of two linearly
polarized antennas if
a)

both lie in the same plane,

b)

both lie in different planes.

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May 3, 2006

Problem 2.3
A linearly polarized wave traveling in the negative z -direction has a tilt angle of

45D . It is incident upon an antenna whose polarization characteristics are given by


G
G
4ax + jay
G
a =
17
Find the polarization loss factor (PLF) dimensionless and in dB.

Problem 2.4*
A right-hand circularly polarized antenna has normalized electric far-field pattern
given as:
sin cos

E ( , ) =

a)

0D 180D,

90D 90D

elsewhere

Calculate the direction ( , ) of maximum radiation and the exact maximum


directivity in dB.

b)

Find the 3-dB beamwidths in azimuthal and elevation planes.

c)

A CW elliptically polarized plane wave propagates along x -direction


towards the antenna. The major axis of the ellipse is positioned along the y axis and is twice as large as the minor axis. Find the polarization loss factor
(PLF).
Note: It is assumed that the antenna is placed at the center of the coordinate
system.

Problem taken from a previous exam.

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Problem 2.5
The normalized E-field pattern of an antenna, independent of frequency, varies as
follows:

E
=

E0

0D 45D

45D 90D

1
2

90D 180D

a)

What is the directivity of this antenna?

b)

What is the radiation resistance of the antenna at 200 m from it if the field is
equal to 10 V/m (rms) for = 0D at the distance and the terminal current is
5 A (rms)?

Problem 2.6
A / 2 dipole, with a total loss resistance of 1 , is connected to a generator whose
internal impedance is 50 + j 25 . Assuming that the peak voltage of the generator is
2 V and the impedance of the dipole, excluding the loss resistance, is 73 + j 42.5 ,
find the power.
a)

supplied by the source (real),

b)

radiated by the antenna,

c)

dissipated by the antenna.

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Problem 2.7
The antenna and the generator of Problem 2.6 are connected via a 50 / 2 -long
lossless transmission line. Find the power
a)

supplied by the source (real),

b)

radiated by the antenna,

c)

dissipated by the antenna.

Problem 2.8
A 1 m long dipole antenna is driven by a 150 MHz source having a source resistance
of 50 and a voltage of 100 V. If the ohmic resistance of the antenna is given
by RL = 0.625 , find:
a)

the current going into the antenna ( I ant ),

b)

the average power dissipated by the antenna,

c)

the average power radiated by the antenna,

d)

the radiation efficiency of the antenna.

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Problem 2.9*
Assume a horn antenna located at the origin of the coordinate system. Its E-plane lies
in the yz -plane and its H-plane lies in the xz -plane. The antenna is operated at 3 GHz.
The figure below shows the orientation of the antenna and its equivalent circuit. The
radiation resistance is RR = 45 and the loss resistance is RL = 5 . The
maximum directivity of the antenna appears in the +z -direction and is D0 = 12 dBi .

RL= 5
y

Rr= 45

a)

Calculate the maximum effective aperture of the antenna with the assumption
of a matched load and a matched polarization.

b)

A generator with an internal impedance of Z G = 50 + j 20 and a peak


generator voltage of VG = 4 V is connected to the antenna. Calculate the peak
electric field strength at z = 1km .

c)

A lossless dipole antenna is located at z = 1km and lies in the plane parallel
to the xy -plane. The E-field of the antenna is parallel to the xy -plane and
assumes an angle of 45 with respect to the x -axis. Calculate the polarization
loss factor (PLF).

Problem taken from a previous exam.

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