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People of Paraguay, (1 of 3), by Martin Dobrizhoffer
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Title: An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People of Paraguay, (1 of 3)
Author: Martin Dobrizhoffer
Release Date: December 6, 2015 [EBook #50629]
Language: English
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Martin Dobrizhoffer was born at Gratz in Styria, on the 7th of
September, 1717. In the year 1736, he entered the order of the Jesuits;
and in 1749 went as a Missionary to South America, where for eighteen
years he discharged the duties of his office, first in the Guarany
Reductions, latterly in a more painful and arduous mission among the
Abipones, a tribe not yet reclaimed from the superstitions and manners
of savage life. Upon the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish America,
he returned to his native country, and, after the unjust and impolitic
extinction of his order, continued to reside at Vienna till his death,
which took place July 17, 1791. The Empress Maria Theresa used
frequently to send for Dobrizhoffer, that she might hear his adventures
from his own lips; and she is said to have taken great pleasure in his
cheerful and animated conversation.
These notices concerning him have been obtained from one of the last
survivors of his celebrated order.
In 1784, he published the work, a translation of which is now laid
before the public. The original title is _Historia de Abiponibus,
Equestri, Bellicosaque Paraquariæ Natione, locupletata copiosis
Barbararum Gentium, Urbium, Fluminum, Ferarum, Amphibiorum, Insectorum,
Serpentium præcipuorum, Piscium, Avium, Arborum, Plantarun, aliarumque
ejusdem Provinciæ Proprietatum Observationibus; Authore Martino
Dobrizhoffer, Presbytero, et per Annos duodeviginti Paraquariæ
Missionario_. A German translation, by Professor Kreil of the University
of Pest, was published at Vienna in the same year. There is no other
work which contains so full, so faithful, and so lively an account of
the South American tribes.
His motives for undertaking the work, and his apology for the manner in
which it is executed, may best be given in his own words:—

"In America, I was often interrogated respecting Europe; in Austria, on
my return to it, after an absence of eighteen years, I have been
frequently questioned concerning America. To relieve others from the
trouble of inquiring, myself from that of answering inquiries, at the
advice of some persons of distinction, I have applied my mind to writing
this little history; an undertaking which, I am aware, will be attended
with doubtful success and infinite vexation, in this age, so abundant in
Aristarchi, accustomed to commend none but their own, or their friends'
productions, and to contemn, as abortive, those of all other persons."
"A seven years' residence in the four colonies of the Abipones has
afforded me opportunities of closely observing their manners, customs,
superstitions, military discipline, slaughters inflicted and received,
political and economical regulations, together with the vicissitudes of
the recent colonies; all which I have described with greater fidelity
than elegance, and for the want of this I am surely to be pardoned; for
who can expect the graces of Livy, Sallust, Cæsar, Strada, or Maffeus,
from one who, for so many years, has had no commerce with the muses, no
access to classical literature? Yet in writing of savages, I have taken
especial care that no barbarisms should creep into my language. If my
sincerity be only acknowledged, I shall have attained my object: for
candour was always the most noble ornament of an historian. To record
true, and as far as possible well-established facts, has been my chief
aim. When you read, I do not ask you to praise or admire, but to believe
me; that I think I may justly demand."
"What I have learnt amongst the Paraguayrians in the course of eighteen
years, what I have myself beheld in the colonies of the Indians and
Spaniards, in frequent and long journeys through woods, mountains,
plains, and vast rivers, I have set forth, if not in an eloquent and
brilliant narration, certainly in a candid and accurate one, which is at
least deserving of credit. Yet I do not look upon myself as a person
incapable of making a mistake, and unwilling to be corrected. Convince
me of error and I shall yield, and become as pliable as wax. Yet I
advise you to proceed with caution; for you may err in judging as well
as I in writing. So far am I from deeming this little work of mine
perfect, that before it is printed and published, I intend to correct
and polish it. But as I am now fast approaching my six-and-sixtieth
year, I dare no longer defer the publication, lest the work should prove
a posthumous one. These premises I have thought proper to make. Adieu!
friendly reader, whoever you are; and pardon the errors of the press,
and of the author likewise: for, _Nihil humanum a me alienum puto_."
In the course of the work, Dobrizhoffer frequently takes occasion to
refute and expose the erroneous statements of other writers respecting
the Jesuits in Paraguay, and the malignant calumnies by which the ruin
of their institutions in that country was so unhappily effected. It has
been deemed advisable to omit many of these controversial parts, which,
though flowing naturally from one who had been an active member of that
injured society, must of course be uninteresting in this country, and at
these times. In other parts also, the prolixity of an old man, loving to
expatiate upon the pursuits and occupations of his best years, has been
occasionally compressed. No other liberty has been taken with the
translation. The force and liveliness and peculiarity of the original
must of necessity lose much, even in the most faithful version. Yet it
is hoped, that under this inevitable disadvantage, Dobrizhoffer will
still be found one of those authors with whom the reader seems to become
personally familiar.

Of its Length and Breadth Of the Geographical Charts of Paraguay Of the Division of the whole Province Of the City. Iago. I. St._ 2 _ib. 40 Of Sta. and Inhabitants of Buenos-Ayres 1 _ib. Port._ Of Nova Colonia do Sacramento 4 Of the new Limits established in Paraguay.CONTENTS OF VOL. Castle. Fè and Corrientes 10 Of the thirty Guarany towns subject to the jurisdiction of the Governor of Buenos-Ayres 12 Of the sedition of the Uruguayans on account of the cession of their towns to the Portugueze 18 Of the Fable of the pretended King Nicholas. Prefatory Book on the State of Paraguay. and the cities of Cordoba. and its origin 27 Of the famous General Pedro Ceballos. &c. and the colonies of the Chiquitos 46 Of the Jesuits called into Paraguay by Francis Victoria. at the last Peace. and Fortification of the city of Monte-Video 8 Of the Gulf of Maldonado 9 Of the cities of Sta. between the Spaniards and Portugueze 7 Of the Port. Royal Governor of Buenos-Ayres 35 Of Tucuman. PART I. Cruz de la Sierra. Page. Bishop of Tucuman 47 Of the Province of Paraguay 49 .

and Uruguay. Abipones. Paraguay. Maló occupied by the French. Destroyers of the Guarany towns. the Parana. 146 Of the Shipwreck of the Spaniards near Terra del Fuego. the retreat of the Savage Nations 118 Of the other Indian Tribes. and St. and afterwards sold to the Spaniards 154 Of the Brazilian Mamalukes. Asumpcion 50 Of the new Colonies of the Ytatingua Indians. and Hunters of the Indians 157 Of the Slavery of the Indians prohibited or regulated by Royal Edicts 163 Of the Principal Rivers. undertaken by command of King Philip V. who wander without Chaco. and other Savages hostile to this Province 113 Of the Province of Chaco. Mocobios. and of the other lesser streams which are absorbed by them 167 Of the horrid Cataract of the River Parana 185 . Stanislaus 52 Of the Savages discovered by me in Mbaevera 60 Of the Colony which I intended to found for them 82 Of my Excursion to the River Empelado 87 Of the Colony of Belen constructed for the Mbaya Savages 96 Of the native Productions of this Country 99 Of the Herb of Paraguay 100 Of Tobacco 109 Of the Payaguas. St. Joachim. chiefly those who dwell towards the South 126 Of the exceeding fidelity which the Guaranies have always manifested towards the Spaniards in the Royal Camps. and of their fate 138 Of the Voyage of three Jesuits to explore the shores of Magellan. and of the signal services which they have performed there 133 Of the Colonies founded by us for the Indians of the Magellanic Region. Guaycurus.Of its Metropolis. and of the Inhabitants of that Island 151 Of the Island of St.

of the Paraguayrian Horses 224 Of Mules 240 Of Asses 244 Of the Management of Sheep 246 Of the various Temperatures of the Air. bears the name of La Plata 189 Of the various perils to be encountered in the navigation of this river 192 Of the Want of Metals and Precious Stones in Paraguay 202 Of the various Attempts. and of Medicinal Plants. the Tiger. Cotton. near the city of Buenos-Ayres. Rhubarb. &c. Teaching. 291 Of the more rare Birds. of the River Parana. as the Emu. which. Cedar. and of various Methods of Fishing 333 Of remarkable Trees. Parrot. Guayacàn. Yguanà. &c. Diseases. 308 Of many Species of Fish unknown to Europe. Ports. Cardinal. Otter. Capiiguára. Lion. 389 . &c. Cupaỹ. and Sheep 218 Of the Hunting of Wild Oxen 221 Of the Voracity of the Indians 223 Of the Form. Sassafràs. &c._ Of the incredible Multitudes of Horses. and false Stories of Portugueze and Spaniards.Of another smaller one 186 Of the creation of fresh Islands. and the destruction of old ones 188 Of the two yearly Floods _ib. Seal. Rice. Zarza Parrilla. Mules. Cures. Variety. Huanaco. the Crocodile. Oxen. Shoals. as China Chinæ. Anta._ Of the Magnitude. Tamandua. &c. possessed with an Idea of finding Metals there _ib. the Holy Wood. Tunca. and other peculiarities of the Climate of Paraguay 247 Of certain Wild Beasts. &c. Sugar-cane. the Mandioc. 251 Of Amphibious Animals. 349 Of the Productions of America. &c.

a determinate opinion must not be expected. In Peru and Mexico. the river compensates for the weakness of the walls. wanting the requisite allurement. he would want the courage to enter it. never will be. and desirous of the attempt. Geometry is there a _rara avis_. seeking out savages for God and the Catholic King. therefore. The churches are handsome. Paraguay is a vast region in South America. though impregnable to the assaults of savages. and were any one capable of measuring the land. on the banks of which is the city of Buenos-Ayres. and even of the citizens themselves. or by the difficulties of the journey. the dwellings at about 3000. the rivers which they crossed. and. they have noted with the utmost fidelity. to the utmost of their ability. in whose authority it is ruled by three governours. ditch. a region unproductive of gold. PREFATORY BOOK ON THE STATE OF PARAGUAY. and a citadel.Of various kinds of Vegetables 428 Of the Petrifaction of Wood and Bones 433 Of Hot Springs _ib. From Brazil to the kingdoms of Peru and Chili.000. every part of the province. some fewer leagues. or Spanish miles. to the northern region of the Amazons. Concerning this matter. possibly. receding very far from the Colonies. French. Some reckon more. according as they use German. there is no corner which the Europeans. would soon yield to the warlike engines of Europeans. monasteries for both sexes. from approaching. deterred either by the fear of savages. These huge tracts of land.100. their lives. but they are all low. examined the coverts of its forests. extending very widely in every direction. traversing. which. the seat of the royal governour. Each province has its governour. excepting a few of two stories. attracted by the hope of gold. and roofed with tiles. they reckon 700 Spanish leagues: from the mouth of the river La Plata. and the banks of its remotest rivers. and of a bishop. though not always with equal art. defects common to all the other cities of the province. Paraguay is subject to the King of Spain. are not yet rightly explored._ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ AN ACCOUNT OF THE ABIPONES. gates. 1. the summits of its mountains. ships being prevented. and often losing. constructed chiefly of brick. and similar fortifications. who can deny that it is almost entirely owing to the efforts of the Missionaries? The plains which they traversed. even to the eye of an European. the first is that of La Plata. always risking. and as many bishops. The inhabitants are reckoned at 40. It is famous for an academy. but we are still unacquainted with great part of Paraguay. by shoals. together with the distances of places. Men of our order. The finest are . It is destitute of a wall. As for what is discovered. have not searched into. a port.

forming a village. and of known success. The climate is moist. or hail of an incredible magnitude. in mules and the herb of Paraguay. than in money. have often besieged. for the sudden occasions of war. Pedro Zevallos. I doubt not. during a whole year. or secretly smuggled from the Portugueze. having in view their profitable traffic with the Portugueze. crowd to this port. Tempests are equally violent at all times of the year. The land under Portugueze authority is of such small circumference. nor is it surprising. be called _Cavalleros_. This little city. for near two hundred leagues. though sufficiently stored with military engines. arms.two of which Primoli. and in long. and the Spanish sentinels. in the Spanish tongue. The houses are few and low. pregnant with fire and water. at all costs. lat. the peach tree is constantly made use of for fuel. thunder often continuing for whole days and nights. through a breach in the wall. and diamonds are concealed beneath its miserable roofs. terrify. Surrounded with a single and very slender wall. that new fortifications were added to the old wall. secured as it was with a numerous garrison . was the architect. and similar dignities. or Chili. Clouds. that the most inactive person might walk round it in half an hour. that I thought it might be taken. You may count more carriages in Austrian Vienna in one street. Hence it is easy to guess why the Portugueze have ever determined to defend this colony. by a hundred soldiers. Buenos-Ayres is one of the principal emporiums of America. the magistracy of the city. wares of every kind. Peru. and now in repute in his native city. alone confer nobility. colossal statues. a Roman lay-brother of our order. But as the fear of war came upon them. as the siege cost so much time and trouble to the Spanish General. On the eastern shore of the river stands Nova Colonia do Sacramento. Besides willows. 34° 36´. laden with English and Dutch wares. it yet discovers neither strength nor elegance. and Negro slaves. either bribed or deceived. merchandise being either brought from Spain. both men and cattle. from the diminution of the customary taxes. the latter of which feeds innumerable herds of cattle. a restoration which the inhabitants of Buenos-Ayres openly favoured. which have a great sale in America. in the whole city. 321° 3´. this is common to all parts of Paraguay. as built and fortified by the Portugueze on Spanish ground. the like to which Europe has never seen. is a well wooded plain. the subject of so many disputes. who. horses. and mules. There are no public fountains. than you can here. stands on the higher bank of the river. often destitute of water. a consummate officer. and as often restored by treaty. The more wealthy carry on a lucrative trade with Peru and Chili. and in one hour. gold. Military rank. Wherever you turn you meet droves of wild horses. which the Spaniards. convey the goods to Paraguay. and the Spaniards. opulent merchants. or images of the Saints in the market-place. the appearance of the place was such. either with lightning. in one assault. The land round about the city. the property of the first that catches them. Troops of horse may be seen every moment. to destroy it. During my residence of two days. It is incredible how many millions are lost to the Spaniards in this forbidden traffic. rather than city. silver. when he prepared to storm the city. opposite to Buenos-Ayres. and provisions. Portugueze ships. that even those of moderate estate should. in which the islands of the river abound. But the revenue of the Catholic King was grievously affected by the gains of these private individuals. and often destroy. The riches of the inhabitants consist rather in cattle. on the other hand. The city is situated in S. yet it is far from despicable. but rich in corn and pasturage.

surprised S. the farms large. About the same time. and Pedro Zevallos. that they might be near to strike home. an old man. which frequently leave this port. a castle. Chance put an end to the engagement. twelve English and Portugueze ships of war arrived there. founded in the year 1726. Transient. Rosa. The Indians. always creating terror. and every thing was rifled.and military engines. and they in turn accusing the foolhardiness of the English. having conquered the Island of Santa Catharina. a very few Portugueze sallied from the same fort. was the advantage which Paraguay derived from this victory. in quest of blood or booty. and Manilla. were driven out and dispersed. for we would not tear open the newly seared wound. Fiercer than wild . but little success. need a provision for many months. Besides soldiers and Guaranies. They conducted the affair with much noise. fell a victim to the journey. and of men to wield it? Some years ago. both which places the English had taken from them. But away with these sad memorials. war was rekindled. Rosa. who rise up in troops from their coverts. Bruno Mauritio Zavala. were dragged into captivity. Before the walls were yet repaired. one of them. Two Jesuit priests. and advantageous only to the Portugueze. whilst the other was thrown into prison. Governour of Buenos-Ayres. yet by the accession of new territories. called Moxos. as they are. Miguel. scarce a single vessel sets sail without a freight of twenty or thirty thousand ox hides for Europe. we would not presage ill for the future. By no arts can they be subdued. the little fort of S. accustomed. On every side the land is fertile in corn. intending to reduce the Spaniards. for peace being ratified between the European powers. by D. October 31. the English throwing the blame on the cowardice of the Portugueze. (called La Estacada. and the cattle and horses incredibly numerous. when it had lasted a few hours. For the one fought under the very gates. and there is daily opportunity of selling cattle and hides for corn: as the ships. lest themselves should be injured. and afterwards fortified with a wall. and never slothful in extending the limits of their kingdom.) and other colonies. The English Admiral's ship being burnt. with tiers of cannon. that they might recover the Havanna. 1762. (La Estacada. Cuyaba. and often inflicting death. in the last peace concluded between the courts of Madrid and Lisbon. Finally. took it conditionally. Some think this intimate connection dangerous to Peru. a handful of Portugueze defended the little fort of S. by the labours of the Guaranies. except those who had escaped by flight. were added to Portugal. Fifty leagues to the south of Nova Colonia. to arms and difficult routes. took it a second time. who had the care of the city. is the desire and the prophecy of every good man. a little city. Grievous it is that so rich a soil should lie open to the devastating savages. a Peruvian city. For what should hinder the latter. when I was in Paraguay. and. from their infancy. a place rich in gold. by no kindness be won to the friendship and religion of the Spaniards. and coming artfully by night. the Spaniards restored Nova Colonia to the Portugueze. Matto Grosso. hurtful to the Spaniards. The produce of the farms is a provision for the colonists. capital of the Philippines. but destitute of iron. however. inhabited by Indian Christians. on the same shore. the assailants being shamefully repulsed. After a few years. many more inlets were opened to them. it contains many men from the Canary islands.) against a numerous army of Spaniards and Indians. from going and possessing themselves of the treasures of Potosi. it was ceded to the Spanish. enlisted at Potosi. This they threw in each other's teeth. here and there. That the happiness and safety of these flourishing estates may be confirmed by a lasting alliance. the rest fled hastily to the ports of Brazil. the other at a distance. then masters of the city. stands Monte-Video. This was a bitter loss to the Portugueze. a mountain abounding in silver.

fascinated by which. Concepcion. must make many windings to avoid the rapidity of the current. unless armed with a musket. Its latitude is 31° 46´. and exquisitely embroidering garments. and the other on the west shore of the Parana. The more valuable and remoter estates were entirely destroyed. from their indolence and love of ease. It is inconceivable with what a mass of water these conjoint streams roll proudly down in one mighty channel. its distance is reputed to be an hundred leagues. The former is the handsomest and most opulent. how would it guard Paraguay against its enemies! For they could not elude the fire of the cannon by taking the east side of the river. at mid-day. when joined to the Paraguay. behind. and were the natural rock on which it stands defended by a double tier of cannon. you might fancy it a sea. and settled in the new colony of St. the abodes of misery. but. Hard by is an island. in the passage of the river. which the Spaniards call De las Siete Corrientes. lively. From Buenos-Ayres. the great river Paraguay flows into the still greater river Parana. it was almost razed to the ground. Ferdinand.beasts. it amasses wealth to a great amount. flourishing again. being at length subdued. the one changing its course. slaughters were committed. if they but knew how to improve the fertility of the soil. and Charruas. S. Pablo. this city began to take breath. rolling on from east to west. In former years. Pedro. by the barbarous Abipones. even of large burden. The other city. and on both sides. when they might abound in every thing. and flowing on very rapidly. in the very market-place. which they repent for the rest of their lives. The latitude of this city is 34° 48´. and it was provided by law. at other times. and thus reduced to solitude. or English shoal. who had long afflicted the neighbourhood with slaughter and rapine. The Paraguay loses its name for that of the Parana after its junction with that river. A row-boat. The women destroy themselves with labour. If you did not see the banks. S. affording a commodious station for ships. Before. against which the current breaks with great violence. To the government of Buenos-Ayres belong the cities of Santa Fé and Corrientes. Xavier. with roofs of palm-leaves. and expert in horsemanship. From its trade in divers articles. The Abipones. and from its countless herds of cattle. the habitation of seals. About thirty leagues from hence lies the gulph of Maldonado. carries down ships. threaten destruction to the inhabitants. Tobas. Jeronymo. The men are naturally agile. it is bounded by rivers. and S. you see nothing here but a few cabins. Mocobios. when they overflow. weaving. and the advantages of the river. they have now for two centuries mocked the toil of soldiers and of priests. Except sentinels. extremely beneficial to them. and unworthy of the name. which they call ponchos. are oppressed with poverty. which. takes its name from seven points of the rock jutting out into the Parana. and. For the Parana. it lies nearly in the middle of the river. The inhabitants are remarkable for their beauty. This place. but are. that no one should enter the church. and the other its name. many of the Europeans are entangled in marriages. unless they preferred being buried in the _Banco Ingles_. the one on the east. coming up the stream. the inhabitants revived after they had . But after we had founded the colonies of S. is chiefly composed of mud-hovels. returned the security it had previously received. unless in full sail under a strong wind. in name alone a city. as I have often experienced: for hard upon the city. its longitude 322° 20´. hurries down in a southerly direction with it.

and to the sceptre of the Catholic King. This work gave me great pleasure. medicine. as the body by the soul. every one possesses the necessaries of a comfortable subsistence. and the use of the fields and woods. in every undertaking against the warlike savages. the Guaranies. say the Europeans. what expense of lives the Jesuits have effected this—how infinitely these thirty towns surpass the other American tribes in the number of their inhabitants. or against the insurgents of the city of Concepcion. on or near the banks of the Parana. have been reduced to civilization. Money wanting.entertained thoughts of deserting the city. daily experience the truth of the aphorism. Francisco Xarque. whenever they were called upon by the royal governour—that the parishes are visited by the Bishops as often as seems good—that the Bishops are honourably received. Without needing to buy or sell. and the Paraguay. lodging. you may learn from the letters every where published of the kings. whose book was translated from English into German. "We Europeans doat when we blame the Jesuits of Paraguay. but by the labour of the Guaranies—that the royal army consists chiefly of the Guaranies. in arts. These last. a republic rebellious to the Catholic King. being stocked with noble trees. or the land of Missions. against the Portugueze and their town of Nova Colonia. It were better to deliberate how we may bring about in Europe. of the learned Abbot Antonio Muratori. in Christian morality. though unacquainted with any kind of money. victuals. of the Spaniards. the Guaranies. By geographers they are called Doctrines. their sex. from the works of Doctor D. in their prompt loyalty. if to manifest the falsehood of their calumnies. and in military activity. fought in the royal camps without any stipend. and the Spanish bishops. an eye-witness. though it sometimes made me smile. afford excellent materials for building ships and waggons. in their books. In their towns. in mechanical skill. indeed. Proportioning the task to their age. With what labour. 318° 57´. which were ruled by a few Spaniards. I mention the following facts:—That the Jesuit missionaries have ever left Europe at the expense of the Catholic King. so often attacked and taken. formerly wandering cannibals and obstinate enemies to the Spaniards. at Hamburgh. painting them in the blackest colours which envy and unbridled calumny can suggest. in the year 1768. and preserving the old—that they are supported by an annual stipend from the royal purse—that the Guaranies pay yearly tribute to the King—that a century before as many thousands as were appointed. but the ignorant or malicious style them. The fields supply pasturage for cattle of various kinds. The lat. and all for each. to whose care they were intrusted by the Catholic kings. the royal governours. it may be for many weeks—that the castles of Buenos-Ayres and Monte-Video were built under the direction. and splendidly entertained. each labours for all. Dean of Albarrazin. are also thirty Guarany towns. in the splendour of their churches. The inhabitants derive considerable profits from these sources. was restored them. . By the labours of nearly two centuries. what they effect among the Guarany Indians without violence and without money. Let me be excused. the kingdom of the Jesuits. on the other side of the river. all is wanting. and an anonymous Englishman. and these towns were conducted in a manner precisely conformable to the royal laws. to religion. the Uruguay. _Dii laboribus omnia vendunt_. not as slaves by their masters. on the other hand. gains which the daily fear of assailing savages deprived them of. though destitute of gold and silver. for the purpose of founding new colonies. but as children by their parents. In the jurisdiction of the Governour of Buenos-Ayres. its long. and education. The Guaranies were governed by the Jesuits. under our authority. of the city is 27° 43´. God gives every thing to labour. especially where the author says.

Some time after it returned again. of Neptune. True it is. superfluity they know not. It would be endless to mention all whose vile detractions have calumniated the towns and the missionaries of the Guaranies. a Spaniard. 1743. and fresh towns were now and then added to the old ones. In the year 1732. In 1767. without danger. made repeated ravages to a frightful extent. A little while. and. and gave them to Europe as the undoubted truth. for many months. I oppose the histories of Father Nicolas del Techo. so fatal to Americans. however. not the setting sun is praised by the multitude. Alas! alas! the friendliest well-wisher could not then. The rising. Louis Antoine de Bougainville. The Jesuit priests are curates not of the souls. in his work entitled _Voyage autour du Monde_. cut off thirty thousand of them. the distinguished favourite of Mars. and such was then our fate. they are always employed. willingly believe that an author. day and night. I write from experience in both. in which. twice expelled from our society. but rather deceived by the narrations of others. printed at Neufchatel. he remained in Buenos-Ayres. printed with them. M. unless I am deceived. when we bade America farewell. is to be classed with these knaves. the victims of war in the royal camps. himself an eye-witness. 141. the towns increase wonderfully every year in population under our care. but in a milder form. dated from the palace of Buen-retiro. _Pessimum inimicorum genus laudantes_. I attended the sick of the small-pox and measles. there were about an hundred thousand numbered in these towns. Famine. and published in 1745. of all the Muses. than through envy or malice. he acquaints the same Philip with the state of the Guarany colonies. There he drew the very worst notions.and their strength. for in my office of priest. not in dreaded slavery amongst private Spaniards. and but a little while. bishop of Buenos-Ayres. let his history be carried to the spice shop to wrap pepper. the port and threshold of Paraguay. advocate our cause. but whom little suffices. like the other Indians. and sometimes six thousand men were detained. where five. The measles. Add to these. likewise. in the life of Agricola. also." As for Paraguay being the kingdom of the Jesuits. the 28th of December. to a meaner office. says Tacitus. arising from the continued drought and consequent density of the land. and the letters of Philip the Fifth—his two epistles to the Jesuit missionaries of Paraguay. are every where on . never oppressed with labour. yet are happier in their contentment than the wealthiest in their opulence.252 inhabitants were reckoned in the thirty colonies of the Guaranies. _La Conquista Espiritual_ of Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya. He loads the Jesuits with egregious praises. I would not. A Spaniard of no despicable authority has opened his mind in these words: "If every thing else which M. the history of Father Pedro de Lozano. of the illustrious Joseph de Peralta. yea." Being in subjection only to the Catholic King and the royal governours. To refute them. the annual accounts of Paraguay. from the very worst sources. the French original of Father Francis Xavier Charlevoix. He is not prosperous to whom much abounds. must be read with caution. he wrote falsely concerning us and the Guaranies. printed at Rome. (for the German translation is wretchedly mutilated and corrupted). but the small-pox breaking out soon after. but by and bye relates a thousand things as contrary to truth as dishonourable to us and the Guarany colonies. and eleven thousand only were its victims. it is the dream—the stupid fiction of Bernardo Ybañez. but of the bodies of the Guaranies. These important documents translated into Latin. the familiar epistles of Father Antonio Sepp to his brother. in the year 1772. de Bougainville has written on the other provinces be as false as what he has said concerning Paraguay. filled the tombs with Guaranies. I wish he had seen them! he would have painted the Indians and their missionaries in fairer colours. the letter. He never even saw the Guarany towns from a distance. Of luxuries they are ignorant.

No eloquence of the missionaries could induce them to believe themselves condemned by their good king. Would the Catholic King have these our deserts repaid with the most grievous punishments—with the loss of our country.) "in nothing have we or our ancestors sinned against our monarch—never have we injured the Spanish colonies: how then shall we. what can we ever deem incredible? In the letters of Philip the Fifth. we swore allegiance to God and the Catholic King. What! shall we give up our towns to the Portugueze. will command what Philip. his excellent father. had so often forbidden? But if. Who shall count the number of those our countrymen who have fallen in battle. To extend the limits of the Spanish domains. not through hatred of the king. "In nothing. so versatile in the performance of promises—their friendship so slippery and unsound?" . which God. but what was the cause? Exasperation against the royal decrees. Now they cry out to us. for their loyalty to the Catholic King was sound and lively. has ever been our first desire. The sedition of the Guaranies dwelling near the banks of the Uruguay. believe ourselves sentenced to exile by the will of our gracious sovereign? Our grandfathers. and which we have cultivated for upwards of a century with the sweat of our brows. monuments of our loyalty and courage. in some measure. What man in his senses will believe the faith of the Spaniards. worthy of excuse and pardon? They erred in understanding. though no one can approve the repugnance of the Indians of the Uruguay. or seek a precarious livelihood among the other colonies. by whose ancestors so many thousands of our countrymen have been either slain. and deserving every good return for our services. if compelled by the command of their sovereigns to relinquish their native land to enemies? For dear to every one is his country. a punishment most grievous. which the Spanish sovereign himself had yielded us. and in like manner all our brothers have frequently fought under the royal banners against the Portugueze—frequently against the armies of the savages. though guilty of no crime. French. embracing Christianity. which delivered up seven of the finest towns of Paraguay to the Portugueze. that the Guaranies are not only obedient to the Catholic King. who does not think it. unoffending subjects. (which were read to us at his command. our houses.) we were instructed never to allow the Portugueze to approach our territories—that they and theirs were our bitterest enemies. or Germans would act otherwise. great grandfathers. Hence. may perhaps be objected. our handsome churches. the royal governour. those spacious tracts of land. or forced into cruel slavery in Brazil?—We can neither suffer nor believe it. the survivors. What! do we think the Spaniards. with our free leave.) and the Spaniards be desirous of gratifying the Portugueze. Who shall persuade us that Ferdinand. (for both times and disposition do often change. When. indeed. But if this be really true. and spacious farms? It exceeds belief. from the pulpits of our churches." (said they in their letters to Joseph Andonaegui. nor have we spared our lives in its accomplishment. the priests and royal governours with one voice promised us the friendship and protection of the king: now. these enmities be changed into friendship. their enemies. to a perpetual and miserable exile from their native soil. exceeding the other American nations in the extent of their—from a perusal of them you may learn. rather than in will. to defend them against invaders. we are constrained to expatriate. let them grant them the spacious plains void of inhabitants and of colonies. fields. day and night. particularly so to the Americans. so dutiful a son. but love of their country. in favour of the Portugueze. Long and vigorously did the Indians oppose the mandate. but especially prompt in their repulsion of his enemies. which nature. and obliged thirty thousand of their inhabitants to migrate into solitude. that the monarch wills our ceding to the Portugueze those noble. or in the repeated sieges of Colonia? We. still bear about us scars. and almost intolerable.

unmindful alike of their promises and intentions they would not endure even the mention of the migration. was sent in the king's name from Spain to Portugal. when he saw their letter. that the pestilent falsehood never gained credit. much less compliance. but we seldom gained attention. the Indians would not acknowledge him as a Jesuit or a Spaniard. while the Guaranies repelled force by force. men of so hardened a conscience as to whisper in the ears of the Indians. who urged the migration with more fervour than prudence. in Brazil. but the remembrance of their birth-place soon after recurring. and lastly. for his venerable age. that the king had never enjoined the delivery of their towns. undertaken for the purpose of persuading their minds. and the author of all these calamities. (who could believe it?) among the herd of Spaniards. that the major part promised conformity: nor did the matter end in words. but it was not . it was broken off. in the city of Santa Fé. being a well-wisher both to the king and the Indians. crowned with thorns. because they saw him differ in dress and diet. in a mournful voice exhorted the by-standers. the united body rolled onwards like a mighty river. he consulted his safety by flying in the night. There were. to mark out the limits of the new towns. however. you would have thought there was a second Hannibal at the gates. the business would have been happily effected without disturbance or delay. To shake off the Spanish yoke—to injure the neighbouring colonies of the Spaniards. Thus. of the Guarany towns. some suspicions. for his authority and favour with the people. in which a priest of our order. to my great amusement. for maddened by their rooted hatred of the Portugueze and the love of their country. governour of Rio de Janeiro. as it is called. superior. out of danger. and thought he had prevailed. Father Ludovico Altamirano. visited the seven cities. to hasten the delivery of the towns. A journey was undertaken by the missionaries the next day. The public supplications in the market-place. Had the Indians shown as much alacrity in yielding to our admonitions. When the Jesuit. Father Bernardo Nusdorfer. Many of the missionaries. Terrified at a report that the Indians were approaching him in the city of St. Such convincing proofs. to arms was the immediate cry. however. they were hurried blindly on wherever their passions impelled them. he never ceased urging the execution of the royal decree to the utmost of his power. exhorted them again and again. in fact. were engrafted in the minds of the least wise. of pity than of punishment. and hastening to the Abiponian colonies. and soon after I found him. They even dared to pronounce him a Portugueze disguised in the habit of our order. to proceed with the emigration. and each being forced along by the common impulse. to respect the injunction of the Catholic King. when the time for executing the decree arrived. had entered their territories with his forces. but that the Jesuits had sold them to the Portugueze. in defence of their churches and fire-sides. and conspicuous for the magistracies he had held. with every kind of argument.To this effect wrote the Indian chiefs to the royal governour. these supplications had so good an effect. as the Jesuits evinced in endeavouring to inculcate obedience into their wavering minds. but as the Indians are of a versatile and unsteady disposition. who. they are proclaimed rebels—worthier. but suppressing pity through military obedience. with threats and groans. could hardly refrain from tears. his thorough knowledge of the Indian tongue. Thomas. had nearly been slain by the Indians in the phrenzy of their patriotism. Meantime. had the fathers given of their good-will towards the Guaranies. and threatening those who refused to obey it with all extremities. never so much as entered their thoughts: their ancient love towards their monarch still burnt in their breasts. it being reported that Gomez Freyre de Andrade.

is agreed on all hands—that the Europeans could never have penetrated to these seven towns. to avoid his expulsion from a land he could not fail to love. the inhabitants of the Uruguay assembled on all sides. the seven towns were delivered up to the royal forces. and famous for its magnificent churches and famous row of buildings. for he was as ignorant of military tactics as I am of the black art. no place was left them undisturbed by fear and anxiety. Corregidor of S. yet. ditch. could they not have effected more against the royal forces? Destitute of the counsels and presence of the Fathers. as often as they were assailed by the equestrian spearmen. whose party he embraced to ingratiate himself with Barbara. though a strenuous favourer of the Portugueze. S. On both sides the war consisted of long marches and skirmishes. Their books are as many as they are dangerous: for although they allege nothing but falsehoods. to deliver up to Portugal this town. with specious arguments. Rude and undisciplined. S. an active and courageous man. and with plains of the greatest fertility. then. they seek to extort that credit which would be exploded by all Europe.—"Surely our people at Madrid are out of their senses. attended with various success.) in his astonishment at the size of the place. and the affairs of the Uruguayans gradually declining. (a place inhabited by seven thousand Indians." This he said. and examined through a telescope the city of S. Under his conduct the war was poorly carried on. About the beginning of the disturbances. the ridicule rather than the terror of an European army. which is second to none in Paraguay. Queen of Spain. Nicholas. with rivers. Nicholas Neengirù. by the exertions of the Jesuits. many years Corregidor of the city of Concepçion. Lawrence. To defend these. can wonder that the weak-minded Indian left no stone unturned. This was repeatedly mentioned in Gomez Freyre's journals. both to the Spaniards and Portugueze. gentle reader. and lastly. governor of Monte-Video.powerful enough to extinguish the innate love of their country. however. Judge from this what opinion must be formed by those who have impudently stigmatized us as the authors of the sedition. This. a word in your ear! If the Guarany insurgents were indeed encouraged by the Jesuits. and S. the envy of the Spanish cities for its churches and other edifices. behaved like a good soldier but an execrable general. and without a general even tolerably versed in military knowledge. one Joseph. and the leaders of the rebels. Who. Borgia. more noise having been made by both parties than blood spilt. had all the Guarany towns come to the aid of the Uruguayans. and pretended testimony. addressed to the Portugueze commissioners of the demarcation. exclaimed to the horsemen about him. No time. though neither of them was fortified with wall.—a land pleasant in its situation. when you utter the . a circumstance mightily advantageous. Miguel. On his falling in a chance skirmish. And now. This Joseph. But. Miguel. whose victory was owing to the bungling management of their opponents. were the characters of their witnesses as well known to others as to ourselves. they did their business stupidly and unprosperously. Lewis. palisadoes. Juan. they entered the unequal lists. wide in extent. well stored with all the necessaries of subsistence? Joachim de la Viana. having leaped from his horse on the summit of an eminence. S. and thus it ended. salubrious in its climate. adorned with woods. reader. sent forward with a detachment of cavalry to explore the country. was elected general of their forces against the Portugueze. succeeded. The six other towns—those of S. were also eminent for the number of their inhabitants and the beauty of their churches. or even a gate. But those who dwelt on the banks of the Parana were happily restrained from leaguing with the insurgents.

King or Cacique. 1760. and no one could doubt its being coined in Paraguay by the pretended king. could hardly refrain from laughter. and when I considered him and his occupation. and whom they address by the title of _Ñanderubicha_. have frequently misinterpreted our letters to governors. In this manner the Uruguayan Indians called their leader. our chief or captain. uncover your head and bend your knee. our captain. they ignorantly and wickedly asserted that the Indians called Nicholas their king. Joseph Andonaegui. But let us trace the story to its source. burst into laughter. where. or to ferry on the river. which sprang from an ignorance of the Guarany language. in which he confessed—"that he was compelled by the secret stings of conscience to divulge his crime. Nicholas Neengirù." &c. At the very time when the feigned majesty of the King of Paraguay employed every mouth and press in Europe. and _Mburubicha_. of his own accord. from their ignorance of Latin and Guarany. and perhaps been torn limb from limb. He was quietly heard." If you require yet stronger evidence. sometimes chopping wood in the market-place. with naked feet. like a pestilence. This is that celebrated Nicholas Neengirù whom the Europeans called King of Paraguay. I must not here omit to mention. falsehood is the daughter of something. and continued in his office of Corregidor. soon perceived that it was all a false alarm. gave him an account of all his proceedings. sometimes driving cattle before the shambles. If any one doubt my veracity. attend to what follows. and spread over all the world. which. and appearing. have been construed . so that deeds and expressions. acquainted with Spanish only. and declared the same in letters to the king. To obtain for the base fiction an appearance of truth. This letter detected the venal wretch who instigated him to coin the money of King Nicholas. generally originate in some trifle of no consequence. a person in the kingdom of Quito was bribed to get money coined and stamped with the name of King Nicholas. where he will find these words:—"Whatever has been rumoured of King Nicholas is certified to be a fabulous invention. before the royal governour. let him examine the Madrid newspapers. and garments after the Indian fashion. there is always a chief. who was sent with an army to reclaim Paraguay. the Catholic kings themselves had no mint. _Tubicha_ signifies _great_ among the Guaranies. It is a trite proverb in Spain—_La mentira es hija de algo_. from the want of bullion. But mark the progress of King Nicholas's fate. but Pedro Zevallos. Nicholas went himself to the Spanish of Nicholas Neengirù. on March the 20th. that. from the ignorance of the Spanish and Portugueze interpreters. who speak a confused jargon of Spanish and Guarany.—he would have expiated his crime by some fearful punishment. dismissed unpunished. Those pernicious rumours which spread far and wide. entirely innocent.—locked in a horrible dungeon. The tumults in the Uruguay being settled. who directs their motions. how different would have been his treatment! Loaded with fetters. to cut and carry wood. Such was the fable of King Nicholas. Among the companies of Indians sent to plough the land. whilst Paraguay itself had not an inkling of the matter. I saw this Nicholas Neengirù. The deceit however at length appeared. the artificer of the coin wrote a letter to the King. was perpetuated by malice. or rather. published in the October of 1768. These men. The fame of King Nicholas and the money issued in his name gave reasonable apprehension to the Court of Madrid. the most unfavourable opinions of our affairs and the most execrable calumnies have often arisen. _Ñanderubicha_. This base money was issued both in Europe and America. being heard by the Spaniards of Asumpcion. Had he been even suspected of affecting the crown of Paraguay. if you know all.

and the fifth was a feeble old man. I own. "I will now show you the origin of Nicholas. and so diligent was he in the exercise of his calling. An anonymous Frenchman. Only five of this description were with us at that time. He was born in the city of Concepçion. to have aimed at the sovereign power. were offered by the Spanish Governour to the Portugueze. "if the Jesuits be wise. but not accepted. not one but shed a tear of compassion. Persons of Indian extraction were never adopted into the number of priests or brothers. they will put the government of the Indians into the hands of Joseph Fernandez. they found them destitute of the gold and silver they expected to find there. Fifteen thousand of the emigrants were received by the towns of the Parana. Let us now return to Nicholas. the third had the charge of providing apparel. whereof two were physicians." This Joseph was a native of Spain. they would not have elected an uneducated layman. by his orders. being supposed a lay-brother. where also he had held many and various offices. after exploring the lands of the Uruguay. when this Nicholas was made out a lay-brother of our order. formerly lieutenant of some light-armed cavalry of the king's. that I could swear to his never having seen the land of the Guaranies of which he was reported King. Amongst other ways of accounting for this refusal on the part of the Portugueze.—they whose former homes had been of stone. in a fit of insanity. the fourth was employed in painting churches. whom error and malice have gifted with an imaginary sceptre. a prodigious tale grew out of nothing. The Indians are none of the wisest. with a good countenance. a lay-brother of theirs. To corroborate my account I shall subjoin a few circumstances relative to this affair.into crimes. to mention the late insurrection on the banks of the Uruguay. whose maladies exercised our patience and his own. Allowing the Jesuits. Nearly the same number were dispersed over the plains of the Uruguay. another said _was_ done. and necessarily remarked by the whole of this populous town. when a young man. in a book intitled. None of them bore the christian or sur-name of Nicholas. but grave and taciturn. We never find a story lose by carrying. Some Spanish countrymen happened. was publicly whipped. he managed an estate in the neighbourhood of the city. during the disturbances of the Uruguay. Having held the office of school-master many years. From the seven towns which were garrisoned on their surrender by the Spaniards. well-built. where numerous herds of cattle supplied the means of subsistence. The towns at length evacuated. his face was good-looking. though marked with a large scar. page 18. if he intermitted his attendance for a single day. At . and a man of great military science. it was reported. and the rest giving implicit credit to their asseverations. Nicholas was a tall man. their tender infants. Among all who witnessed these innocent exiles. whose dignity and wisdom they rank so high." says one. Think then how ridiculously fable must have been added to fable." "Verily. and commodious. The vain supposition of putting the Indians under the conduct of this lay-brother was reported in such a manner that what one said _should be_ done. _Nouvelles Pièces intéressantes et nécessaires_. King of Paraguay. upwards of thirty thousand Indians departed. and their feeble old men. and he had married. but some priest of distinguished virtue and prudence. says. monarch of Paraguay. and lodged in hovels of straw. Father Ignatius Zierhaim boasts that this celebrated Nicholas. his ancestors were Guarany Indians. himself being vicar of the place. many years before. a Guarany woman in the city of Concepçion. This Joseph Fernandez. but they are not such idiots as to crown a layman in preference to the priests. that. in the course of conversation. and they were all Europeans. was master of the public school at Tucuman. if the madness of choosing their own king _had_ possessed them.

and through an overweening attachment to her own country. under the conduct of Pedro Zevallos. and on his succeeding to the throne. that the success of his expeditions was greatly owing to the Guaranies. He did nothing without much previous consideration. was handsome. as fraught with danger to the monarchy. if we may credit a report prevalent in Spain. which now. and his slender resources rendered sufficient. a Portugueze by birth. who having occupied Colonia. that the soldier and the christian never jarred. are rather to be attributed to his piety. and died in an insurrection. he was neither ruffled with anger. the courage and alertness of his mind.this crisis of affairs died Barbara. the equitable judge. His father.—to . and authoritative with his soldiers. That was not the happy time when you might think as you chose. For this. Not long after. Marquis de la Ensenada. to draw a rude sketch of the immortal hero Zevallos. He restored the Guarany exiles to their towns. alas! resembled Jerusalem after the return of the Jews from Babylon. Charles the Third succeeded his brother in right of inheritance. the sagacity of his judgment. and the soundness of his loyalty. About the same time. but being stopped by the news of peace having been restored in Europe. Whilst King of the Two Sicilies he had disapproved these treaties which settled the exchange of lands in America with Portugal. of which the Portugueze party itself did not wish their utter deprivation. His steadfast aim was to benefit rather than please his sovereign. if one man ever excelled another. though more than once disgraced from the royal favour by the artifices of calumny. So exemplary was his conduct. by way of episode. To crown his purposes with success. to the carrying on of which six thousand Guaranies strenuously applied themselves in the royal camp. argus-eyed as she is. They found their farms drained of cattle. Queen of Spain. Such was the innocence and integrity of his life. if need required. but harmonized together in one beautiful concord. During his leisure hours you might see him praying on his knees in the church for two hours together. he utterly abrogated them. could never detect a stain to reprobate. Courteous among his friends. Suffer me. a strenuous advocate for the exchange of lands in Paraguay. that envy. and both he effected. the Marquis de la Ensenada was banished.—to that heaven by which his undertakings were constantly favoured. was never at a loss to remove obstacles. Had the King believed us the fomenters of the late war he would not have committed the Guaranies to our care and fidelity. the dauntless soldier. their fields over-run with brambles and insects. than to his military skill. but had transmitted notices of it to Charles then King of Sicily. and the comeliness of his person was set off by the elegance and suavity of his manners. Zeno. and speak what you thought. This principal court minister had never admitted the exchange of lands agreed upon with the Portugueze. the descendant of a noble family in Spain. their houses either burnt or miserably dilapidated. and. he was master of the most admirable devices. testified in his letters to the King. was royal governour in the Canaries. bravely fighting for the crown. carried his victorious arms into Brazil. was recalled from banishment to Madrid by the royal letters. Pedro Zevallos. The son. but immediately declared war upon that people. tall. nor soured with harshness. _he_ excelled. The victories which have gained the Spanish hero the plaudits of his country. they were sometimes terror-struck by the dens of tigers and the holes of serpents! Charles confirmed the Jesuits in their old administration of the Guarany colonies. King Charles not only refused to acquiesce in the treaties ratified with the Portugueze. At every place and time he maintained the character of the pious Christian. nay. Ferdinand the Sixth followed his consort to the tomb. In the keenness of his wit. the consummate general. and well made.

he examined every thing. collected. but being used to running away at home. Rarely trusting to vague reports and uncertain answers. among whom the Marquis Val-de-Lirios held a distinguished place. deceived by European reports. and even created military governor of Madrid. and if they were properly guarded. to compose the minds of the Guaranies. Italians. He used to say. fresh from European battles. as Paraguay found them an enemy. he consulted principally the advantage of the Portugueze. they did not let their help be wanted. in his own person. who . while Pedro Zevallos. by a Spanish lieutenant at the surrender of Parma. but many contentions with the officers of the Portugueze faction. and this I conclude was the cause of his doing so much with such scanty resources. that vigilance in the general and obedience in the men. French. Some years after. Janeiro. and devoted to King Nicholas. yet though never headstrong in attempting any thing. This was more than enough to quiet the fears of the soldiers. who. he used to inspect the waggons. and forward the delivery of the seven towns. _Quien vive?_—Who reigns here? With one voice they exclaimed. Zevallos himself was astonished when he learnt that the Guaranies had long since been brought to submission. a maxim most happily demonstrated in his own person. and the parent of victory. they hailed them from afar with the usual interrogation of the Spanish guards. from the desire of marriage and a life of less hardship. To these were added seven companies of foot. Neither dejected by adverse nor inflated by prosperous circumstances. Equitable in other respects. for they sometimes fled in troops. but too studious of Queen Barbara's favour. therefore. and even Russians. On the eve of an expedition. and at the expense of their own and much foreign blood. from royal investment. Perceiving a multitude assembled on the bank of the river Plata. full power of determining every thing connected with the stipulated exchange of territory with the Portugueze. Poles. he would himself overlook their execution. Iago. He never charged the future with the present business—never let slip a good opportunity: did nothing from impulse. made knight of the order of St. which he imagined to be embroiled with intestine war. accompanied by five hundred regular cavalry-men. he received from King Charles the golden key. Most of these were veterans—fierce warriors. Early in the night he inspected the different stations of horse-guards. they did not forget their old propensities amongst the antipodes.—and either elude them by artifice. By kindness and good example. imagined that King Nicholas would be dethroned with the utmost difficulty. During the voyage. or overcome them by force. Rumours of the Paraguay disturbances having reached Spain. he always preserved an equal mind. regardless of sleep. Think not that such egregious merits went unrewarded by royalty: he was honoured with the rank of commendador in the equestrian order of St. carefully enquiring whether they were stored with the requisite arms and provisions. a mark of singular prerogative in the court. lest by a sudden landing he should endanger his men. chosen from every regiment of light-armed horse which Spain possesses. consisting of runaway Germans. he bound his soldiers to a prompt obedience. a few years before. or hasty in attacking an enemy. On coming in sight of the shores of Buenos-Ayres. in battles and sieges he was fierce and determined. that Ferdinand the Sixth was their king. as possessing. every thing from reason. He was not content to have given his orders. as indeed he was of every other indulgence. and should remain so as long as they lived. he despatched some soldiers in a boat to feel the way before them.anticipate dangers. he was invested with the government of Buenos-Ayres. Zevallos was anxiously devising methods to tranquillize Paraguay. were the safeguards of the army. as far as he was able. As often. and commanded to sail thither. He had therefore no fighting with the Indians.

on the West. and from that in corn. standing forth. which are bounded on every side with sand. Iago are distinguished alike for the greatness of their valour and the scantiness of their means in the wars against the savages. when stopped by opposing rocks. But the natives assured me. is frequently heard by night. I am convinced that it originates in subterraneous wind. it has no superior. and reverberated by their windings. The houses are. St. rolls down mountains of sands. to recompense them for the hardships they undergo. extends very widely in every direction: on the East it reaches the territory of Buenos-Ayres. was long the seat of a bishop. The city of Salta derives its principal profits from the passage of mules. is a place where lime is made. Iago boasts some tolerably handsome churches. makes violent endeavours to find a vent. bellows after this fearful manner. Cordoba is famous for the beauty of its houses. Iago del Estero. the mountains of Chili. The ignorant vulgar believe that some spectre or goblin haunts the streets. on the banks of the river Pucara. neither large nor elegant. and a celebrated academy. It is washed by the Rio Dulce. which they collect in their distant woods. another division of Paraguay. as for me. Having impartially investigated all the occurrences of the revolt previous to his coming. running out as far as the Magellanic region. This flood generally takes place about January. Did not the Rio Dulce yearly overflow its banks. and is called by the Spaniards _el pison_. and afterwards of a governour. It has a governour and bishop of its own. rather than the favour of his queen. supply a slender provision of grass. during its annual flood. excellent bulwarks against the cannon of assailants. a hollow murmur. on a sudden. I heard terrible noises like the explosion of cannon. Lofty rocks rise in every part of the Cordoban district. Pope Innocent the Twelfth transferred the episcopal see from hence to Cordoba. by reason of the frosts in winter and the drought in summer. without foundation. the vindicator and eulogist of those very Guaranies he had come to put down and punish. the other at Salta. Coming to the place one night. which. by the district of Tariji. From the trade in wax. and attempting a forcible passage through the chinks.laboured for the safety of his country. I have observed the horses cropping the branches of trees. he transmitted to the court a correct statement of the matter. In the city of Cordoba itself. which washes the city. The air. The fertility of the soil is at that time incredible. however. when the fields are bare. endeavoured to oppose him. for I observed the lands near the city excavated and fissured in many places by earthquakes. producing abundant crops of corn. they derive some profits. resembling the knocks of a pestle in a wooden mortar. Clouds of a . confined in the cavities of the mountain. from the scantiness of the pastures: for the plains. or the paving-hammer. and water-pumpkins of great size and sweetness. In the richness of its pastures and the multitude of its cattle. from the melting of the snows on the Chili and Peruvian mountains. the soil would produce nothing esculent. forcing its way through the interstices of the earth. if the city were ever besieged. the one of whom resides at Cordoba. and discovered that many things had been written against the Guaranies and their missionaries. the capital cities. that these sounds were common to the neighbouring rocks and happened perpetually. The city of St. Many thousand mules are annually exported from its estates to the Peruvian market. a very ancient city of Tucuman. and on the North. on the South. however. In winter. which. A few leagues distant. sometimes gnawing their trunks. The inhabitants of the district of St. inadequate. Their herds are few. and that others were basely exaggerated. when the sky was calm and the air tranquil. the number and opulence of its inhabitants. nay. This low mournful sound runs from one street to another. Tucuman. it is bounded by immense plains.

Silipica. Annually. Iago abound in the _alfaroba_. The woods around St. that it acquires a deep red colour. The little town of St. large streams. situated near the Chili mountains. wasps. Talavera de Madrid. and Socconcho. also called Esteco. The city of St. Some little villages yet remain: Matarà. a state formerly flourishing in vices as in wealth. is said to have been swallowed up. which is in daily use amongst the Spaniards. Ferdinand. a district of St. situate on the Peruvian side of Tucuman. by a violent earthquake. and the industry of the inhabitants. Lasco. in such numbers that. Rioja and St. they are uniformly destroyed by an army of ants. but even cheese. thick. Salvador. and pleasant woods adorned with lofty forest trees. for although the climate and soil are extremely suitable to vines. the ruins of which are now alone visible. Such is the scarcity of wine in the remote colonies. and generous. All the vine-yards in Paraguay scarce equal the number of fingers on both your hands. a city of some note. with all its houses and inhabitants. In the districts of Rioja and Catamarca there is very scanty pasturage. and inhabited by a very few Indians. the ill-fated pillar applied to the punishment of delinquents alone remaining in the market-place. and often is not to be had for love or money. employed in the service of the Spaniards who live amongst them. trunks. is principally brought from Chili. little towns. their houses mere hovels. though far from populous. dress ox and sheep hides to great perfection. who dry figs. though to Europeans newly arrived it smells somewhat like a drug. situate on the bank of the river Salado. and at great expense. and timber fit for the largest houses. Moppa. considering the multitude of cattle in the estates of Buenos-Ayres and Cordoba. Fareja. to be commuted for other goods. and their churches little better. but at no certain time. Their condition is miserable. and are taken by the hand. during the period of their arrival. though within the jurisdiction of Chichas . gain their principal returns from the culture of vines and red pepper. a want compensated by the fertility of the soil. the inhabitants having perished of want or the small-pox. and a pungency intolerable to an European palate. and similar articles. and wood-pigeons. shoals of a fish called _zabalo_ hurry down the river. plains. Salabina. Miguel. and taken in either form is possessed of medicinal virtues. The same may be said of all the villages remaining in the other districts of Paraguay. Mañogasta. which. that we were sometimes unable to celebrate the Eucharist. the tertian ague and wens are common. or a sweet-flavoured bread. and apply the leather to various purposes. Not only meal. In this place. and consequently few cattle. weave a kind of woollen garment in common use. The new must squeezed from the grape is simmered on the fire till it obtains a consistence. which is converted into a drink. the productiveness of the trees. buried amongst mountains. which supply the whole province with cedar planks. is seasoned so high with this powerful spice. For whatever is used at the table or the altar. Iago formerly numbered many Indian colonies within its jurisdiction.remarkable hue announce the event to the natives. Lindongasta. The Rio Dulce too supplies the inhabitants of its shores with food. is but seldom made. by a long journey. or Catamarca. The little wine that is made is deep-coloured. the lower orders need no other provision. is surrounded with hills. as saddles. in the last century. their barbarity beyond conception. a circumstance arising from the rivulets flowing from the neighbouring mountains. they are governed by secular priests. Xuxuy. is the seat of the royal treasurers for the last mentioned country.

the towns must long since have been depopulated. with not one presbyter who understood the language of the natives. Francis. an Italian. first bishop of Tucuman. savages for many years instructed by the Jesuits in religion. this bishop wrote to request Father Juan Atienza in Peru. contained 5173 families. were for some time infamously treated. and dispersed in every corner of Paraguay's immense extent. one after another. Fathers Leonardo Arminio. In each of the cities of Tucuman and Paraguay. Dominic. of the order of St. the ten towns of the Chiquitos. its latitude 21°. Manuel Ortega. The last of these was created vicar-general by Victoria. and at last exposed to the winds and waves in an open boat. who. but no where else. Juan Saloni. and being taken by the Peru. but Providence happily guiding them. Thousands of savages won over to God and the King. churches built to the Lord. always hostile to the Spaniards. From Peru. Dominic. in the hopes of civilizing the Chiriguanàs. contains Jesuits from Paraguay. The Spaniards account Tucuman the poorest country in America. the followers of St. Santa Cruz de la Sierra. because it is destitute of gold. an Irishman. Pedro de Nolasco. This is. To these have succeeded men of our order. Summoned by the bishop and royal governour. in 1581 found only five secular priests and a few religious. five of them were butchered by these savages. In 1766. were sent by sea from Brazil. though the province abounded in Indian colonies. and St. as well as the Jesuits. to send him a few Jesuits already tried by previous exertions in the Christian cause. . though many have left no stone unturned to blot out our very name. Solicitous for the glory of God. if the Europeans had not uniformly opposed every measure conducive to the advantage of the Indians. reached the port of Buenos-Ayres. founded by men of our order. had every professor of Christianity conformed his life to its dictates. however. This province has been honoured with the presence of St. many whole states were left without a single priest. to whom are subject the towns of the Chiquitos. Francis Victoria. and the useful arts. is within the dominions of Paraguay. and joined his endeavours vigorously to ours. but the number of deaths far exceeds that of births. Francis Solano. St.788 souls. and Estevam de Grao. the water. how strenuously they have toiled for God and their King. Not a savage would now have been left in America. have their own establishment. that had not the Jesuits yearly brought a multitude of savages from the woods. When he was called away to Paraguay. colonies founded on every side. let the learned judge. Whether this paucity of issue is to be attributed to the climate. notwithstanding its numerous herds of cattle of every description. Thomas Fields. Its longitude is 314°. it is not my business to relate. have neither spared their labour nor their lives. who esteemed him so highly as openly to declare that he would himself vacate the bishopric could Barzena benefit by his abdication. humanity. though bordering on the eastern confines of Peru. their food—especially the land-tortoises they use so much—or to a natural sterility in the parents. sent from Europe by their Catholic sovereigns. amid their distant woods. for nearly two centuries. with its territory. a Spaniard. Nuns of various orders dwell in Cordoba and Buenos-Ayres. Fathers Francis Angulo and Alphonso Barzena had been already despatched into Tucuman. and Joseph Anchuela in Brazil. and numbers of Spanish cities imbued with learning and piety—these will testify that we have at least done something for the Antipodes. Portugueze. I have frequently heard. a barbarous race. beyond dispute. and 23. It has its own governour and bishop.—that a far more abundant harvest might have been reaped from our apostolic labours.

The Corrientine country is accounted the southern boundary. so called from the river on which it borders. Extensive and fertile plains. the Spaniards vainly lamenting the seizure of the noblest part of their territory. though neither has any proper seat. assembled in the city of St. a third dialect arose. from fear of the Portugueze. the Spaniards miserably corrupted the Indian. and roofed with tiles. The governor and bishop have resided here since the time of Charles V. where the convenience of land and pasturage is greatest: cities. Indians. and speak neither correctly. which affords a convenient station for ships and an opportunity of commerce. the inhabitants being almost obliterated. and Yta. and exceeds the rest in the number of its herds. in which the Guaranies had previously settled. have long since been destroyed by the incursions of the Portugueze who. Whence from the original two. and all the lower orders speak Guarany. But the majority of these deserve the motto—"_Nos numerus sumus. undermines the bank and the houses situate thereupon. It has but one market-place. To say the truth.The third division. When the Spaniards first occupied this province. for the channel constantly nearing and nearing. possessing nothing by which you could recognise the church._" Some one was heard to complain of the governours of Paraguay—that many soldiers were ranged under the banners. where the Spaniards settled the Indians they had subdued with arms. Yuti and Yta. but from the dangerous vicinity of the savages on one hand. both to the west on the opposite side of the river. and all the herd of negroes. Yuti. there remain Caazapà. are contracted into somewhat narrow limits. Of the ancient towns. considering their number. mere shades of towns. Paulo. Ytape contains about twenty families. The major part of the Spaniards live in hamlets. somewhat . the finest parts of Guayra. girls. except the metropolis. though the generality have some acquaintance with Spanish. The inhabitants are almost incalculably numerous. they took the daughters of the natives in marriage. to the imminent peril both of men and horses. but none of them are above one story high. boys. but menaces destruction to the city. the inhabitants. enjoy. in use at present. takes its name from the assumption of the Virgin Mary. and little villages. Ytape. and other slaves. In regard to the laws of dominion its extent is immense. The monasteries are nearly of the same description. on the banks of the Paraguay. Caazapà contains about two hundred families. and the Portugueze on the other. for want of Spanish women. The metropolis. It is situated in latitude 25° 8´ and longitude 319° 41´. by frequent migrations. from which the whole province takes its name. Xerez and Ciudad Real del Guayra. which once boasted the name of cities. the scholars in our college pay much attention to philosophy and theology. but few who were furnished with a musket. et fruges consumere nati. are totally neglected. there is a separate priest and parish church. Besides grammar. and impeded with ditches and stones thrown out of their places. There are who assert their capability of bringing ten thousand soldiers into the field. to this day. Asumpcion. and the above-mentioned neighbours. or won by religion. For the negroes. who learn foreign tongues. on two accounts—their distance from the metropolis. Spaniards only: for if you count Indian natives. The streets are crooked. farms. The couples presently caught each other's dialect. Even matrons of the higher rank. and the Indian the Spanish language. and that covered with grass. they mingle both. which are governed by Franciscans. is that of Paraguay. you might reckon up three times that number. and still fewer who could manage one if they had it. Villa Rica and Curuquati are meagre places. Neither splendid edifices nor city fortifications are here to be found. Many of the houses are of stone or brick. and towards the north. they have none. and mulattos. but as is usual with adults.

founded and preserved by men of our order. At length. in 1723. Fè. As early as 1697 about four hundred persons were discovered in the neighbouring woods of Taruma. situate in latitude 24° 49´. To this city I devoted eight years of unregretted labour. having left their church. a town was built for them in their native soil. The Ytatines. was delighted during his five days' visit at my house with the dexterous management displayed by the Indians as well of their musical instruments. Quarambare and Jobati are both inconsiderable. In the place called Taruma. and after a forty-nine days journey of matchless difficulty. Fathers Sebastiano de Yegros. morality. But love of freedom at length bore them back to their original forests. thinking the marauders already upon them. found the Ytatines in the woods of Tapebo. where they held the Christian religion many years. where the intermediate forests could protect them against the Guaycurus. a little town was built for them. and consequently in populousness. Manuel de la Torre. contained three hundred souls. lost all sense of safety. The Fathers therefore judged it expedient to remove twenty-five leagues southwards. Cattle of all kinds. whence they were in vain recovered. after a laborious journey of eighteen months. Carlos Murphy. 150 leagues distant from Sta. . To this another distress was added: the want of water. an Irishman. increased by the accession of new families. In 1753. were sent to explore the lurking-places of the fugitives. in 1745 accident effected what labour could not. Atira and Altos together form one little town. No opposition being made on their parts. numbered 2017 Christian inhabitants. by fathers of our order. the accuracy of divine worship. and the appearance of their churches. in the year 1721. By the command of the superiors. as of their weapons. payed us his accustomed visit. In the dominions of Paraguay are three other towns. Joachim. and other arts. they spent their nights without sleep. and governor of Paraguay. partly from the disturbances raised by the Spaniards. and a few masters of music. But the bloody insurrection of the neighbouring Spaniards. When D. Fè. The Indian inhabitants are mostly employed in the service of the Spaniards. The Guaycurus or Mbayas began to devastate the neighbouring estates of the Paraguayrians with slaughter and depredation. the Ytatines were again removed to Nuestra Senhora de Sta. who. Juan Escandon. and settled on a good foundation. on the banks of the Yù. D. and Luke Rodriguez. every thing went on favourably. are accountable solely to the Catholic King. vastly inferior to our Guaranies. and universal good order established among men so lately inhabitants of the woods. and afford them a constant supply of water. compelled them. Felix Villagarzia. in 1767. which was regulated after the model of the Guarany colonies. which. returned unsuccessful. and. On the instant. and longitude 321°. Yaguaron consists of two hundred families. Alarmed by perpetual rumours of the enemy's approach. being sent from the old town. in 1734. and bore a good report. where they remained ten years. They are all governed by parish priests. But partly from the poorness of the pastures. exempted from private servitude. Bishop of Asumpcion. axes. Fè. St. he beheld with admiration the rigid Christian discipline. which. and the wasting pestilence of the small-pox. Father Sebastiano de Yegros began the search. clothes. household furniture. they built a town on the spur of the moment. by Father Bartholomew Ximenez and Francisco Robles. famine. to take refuge in the forests they had formerly occupied. and the residence of the Fathers. and assembled in the town of Nuestra Senhora de Sta. named Ytatines or Ytatinguays.more. But a sudden terror interrupted the prosperous course of the new colony. and in open daylight still dreamt of peril. on occasion of Joseph Antequera's obtruding himself upon them as governour.

he persuaded them to relinquish their woods. Arduous. they were loaded with burthens. accustomed to the shade of towering trees. But. In my visits to this town. they shun the exposed and sunny plain. and related to the Fathers what he had seen and done. Struck with the unexpected occurrence. and as many long marshes. The forest through which their journey lay. though empty. with the necessary oxen. and in 1751 erected a chapel and dwellings. a tract blocked up with mingled trees and reeds. In 1767 it contained upwards of two thousand three hundred inhabitants. In a few years the town was increased by the accession of Indians. Softened by the kindness and liberality of the Fathers. were prevailed upon to assemble in one place and embrace the Christian religion. and in longitude 321° 35´. he hastened to his companions with the news. displayed in a people bred in woods and thickets. huts were required to receive the Spaniards. indeed. and Antonino Cortada. and to think of saving their lives instead of gathering the herb of Paraguay. they returned to the city on their mules and horses. in which space you will rarely find ten paces of plain land. to give the marshes consistence with bundles of boughs. won over by Fathers Antonio Planes. Father Sebastiano de Yegros lived a year in the woods with the savages. a lucrative trade is opened to the whole province by the removal of the savages. . where the Spaniards gather the herb of Paraguay. The remote forest of Mbaeverà abounds in the trees of the leaves of which the herb of Paraguay is made. where they think their lives and liberties daily endangered. I will cite a remarkable instance. and Tapiraguaỹ. they did not traverse the woods in one body. was the task of persuading them to leave their native woods. they became docile and conformable to Christian discipline. Nor do I. turned aside to the city of St. but separately. Yeyuỹ. conjuring them to endeavour by every possible means to bring the savages to their town. is the offshoot of St. Joachim. The Fathers readily began the attempt. hedges to inclose the beasts. perceiving themselves unequal to such a journey. Abandoning therefore the business on which they had come. to throw bridges over the rivers. a multitude of Spaniards.Another colony in the jurisdiction of Paraguay. For the Ytatines. whither Fathers Manuel Guttierrez and Joseph Martin Mattilla bought cattle and the necessaries of subsistence. To render this passable. Stanislaus. The necessary preparations made. which instigated them to immediate flight. Joachim and St. is full eighty leagues in extent. horses. and mules. For in seeking the trees from which they lopped the branches. partly laid cross-wise. When these things had been effected with equal labour and expense. and a frame work formed of stakes partly driven into the ground. evidently belonged to the savages. Joachim in woods situate between the rivers Caapivarỹ. it was requisite to fell trees. To prepare this. and occupy the plains bordering on the river Tapiraguaỹ. the Spaniards were sent to the woods where the leaves were gathered. and to level the declivities. at the end of which time. So that from the towns of St. Moreover from carrying no weapon but the knife they used. for. and impeded with twenty-six rivers. which. who had formerly wandered over those woods. are sent from the city of Asumpcion. quitting his associates. Joachim. to roast the leaves on. I could not but admire the gentle disposition and compliance with divine regulations. discovered by the joint efforts of the Indians and the Fathers of St. Stanislaus. Thaddeus Emis. This colony lies in latitude 24° 20´. Vilalba. they were always undefended from the assault of the savages. that of St. and when they returned home. on this account. think them to be accused of cowardice or sloth. since which the Spaniards can fearlessly traverse the woods that produce the herb in question. after arduous journeys amid pathless wilds. But their superintendant Vilalba lit upon a hovel. a Bohemian. In confirmation of this.

Each family has its own fire. and assured me of success in discovering the savages if I would only renew the attempt. I undertook a third expedition. in returning home they practised the following artifice: if they went by a southern. Lest their footsteps should betray their resorts. Joachim.dispatched a chosen band of Indians. who durst not even approach the woods. Had I turned ever so little from the east to the south. we returned to the town. alarmed for his own safety. Twenty days the obstinate rain continued. and sound their inclinations. but not a single recent vestige could we any where detect. we should have found the habitations of the savages. So that the glory of finding these savages was reserved to the author of this work. The bridges and other aids. when all the rain in heaven seemed combined to overwhelm us. At length I reached my post. they returned by a northern road. Every obstacle however being overcome. I walked the whole way. Some years after. and on returning to the town. The bones of apes. though for many days we attentively searched both the neighbouring woods. they seemed to entertain no hostile sentiments. and often barefoot. And thus the savages and Spaniards suspected one other. was also visible. and suffered what neither I can describe nor my reader credit. and antas. a wooden mortar. as was proved to me the following year. To enquiries concerning their place of abode. Not long after. Tupanchichù. I set out with five and twenty Indians. were discovered there. Conciliated by familiar discourse. I was sent by the superior to the city of St. having imprudently consumed their provisions. Roy. and Veraripochiritù. and discovered the remains of the savage hut. so that the Spaniards could not form an idea of the place where they lurked. and with it the fear of the Spaniards. on the . as no hope remained of finding the Indians. a path leading to the river side. through marshes and rivers. dictated by their fears for themselves and their wives. they replied that it was at a great distance. well trod with the naked feet of the Indians. but visited the dwellings of the Spaniards in friendly guise. over whom presided as many caciques. which the Indians were supposed to hold. to search out the savages. under the conduct of Vilalba. informed me how matters stood. they turned back before they had even approached the station. being made acquainted with my diligent search of the forest of Mbaeverà. and accordingly set out thither in great numbers. which proved successful. boars. yet we did not think our business desperate. they perceived the savages dropping in upon them one after another. I impatiently awaited an opportunity of renewing it. After having traversed the mournful solitude eighteen days. we arrived at the place in question. Under the conduct of Vilalba. opening by eight doors and containing sixty inhabitants. and contrariwise. But. After some days. which promised so abundant an harvest of the herb of Paraguay. and after eight days of misery. and other things of this kind. But scarcely had two days elapsed. and their mutual distrust increased every day. had long perished. compelled us to return. and could only be approached by crossing many marshes. Here and there hung nets which are used both to sleep and sit in. The Spaniards. the improvement of our patience being our only recompense. interwoven with dry grass. The first hut we met with was built of palms. prepared to secure the passage of the Spaniards. persuaded themselves that the savages had migrated elsewhere. and presents of beef and other trifles. and the banks of the river Acaraỹ. The rumour concerning the Indians of Mbaeverà continued to spread. I undertook the journey without delay. Vilalba. lo! in the course of their business. from the certainty of still greater wretchedness. a cunning answer. a few grains of maize. discovering three tolerably populous hordes. if visited by the Spaniards. if we proceeded.

with a white garment manufactured from the bark of the Pinò. which he devoured with all the avidity of hunger. but the women are covered from head to foot. Like other Americans. and receive in arms. The magicians. when they saw us coming. that his father was occupied in hunting. "Come then. and insert a reed of the thickness of a quill into the hole. with which they shoot even little birds on the wing with great dexterity. that their breakfasts may be ready when they awake: for at earliest dawn. but they pay him no adoration. a circle of hair being left on the crown.hearth around which stand a multitude of pots. repudiation is frequent among them. Marriage with the most distant relations they shun as highly criminal. not far distant. joyfully. serving both for meat and drink. and. _poti_ the _flower_. Their arms consist of barbed arrows. They often lurk in thickets. though the neighbouring Indians reckon it a delicacy. They harboured the same suspicion with regard to me and my Indian comrades. Captain Roy. as also of tobacco. They inclose their dead in large vessels of clay. is _Tupà_. which they inveigle by a skilful imitation of their bray. believing every other race their enemies and designers on their freedom. of transforming themselves into tigers. Indian. when they travel in the woods. "conduct us to him as . nor are they wholly averse from agriculture. they never trouble themselves to enquire. The men go almost naked. of predicting future events. In these woods there is an amazing produce of maize. or the morning: for in the Guarany tongue _ara_ signifies _day_. The spirit of evil they call Aña or Añanga. in the Guarany tongue. At seven years old they have their under lip pierced. and other fruits. presented him with a piece of roast meat. and performing I know not what other preternatural feats. on which they must subsist for the day. His name was _Arapotiyu_. Spaniard. For whatever questions I put to him. they suspect of hostile intentions. but of that God and his commandments. according to an old Guarany rite. And from this _morning_ we discovered that the _sun_. They do not feed on human flesh to my knowledge. and carry them on their shoulders. was the youth's father. they think polygamy allowable. I approached the astonished youth. wearing nothing but a narrow girdle round their loins. They are as ignorant of the worship of idols. These savages ornament their heads with crowns of long parrot feathers. This unexpected breakfast dissipated the alarm which the sudden appearance of strangers had excited. gourds. particularly the youths. for the purpose of shooting or ensnaring antas. Their name for God. and _yu_ whatever is _yellow_ or _golden_. They maintain themselves and their families by the chase. who arrogate to themselves full power of warding and inflicting disease and death. traverse the woods with a bundle of darts. the principal cacique of the vicinity. The males of every age shave their heads. from never being exposed to the sun their faces are fair. The first whom we discovered in the woods was a fine young man holding a bird like our pheasants." said I. disposed with considerable elegance. What their fate after this life may be. they collect quantities of most excellent honey. On going to bed they put their pots full of flesh or vegetables on the fire. as gifts prevail more with the Indians than fine words. but rarely avail themselves of the license: from which circumstance. From the hives with which the trees abound. as they are of the Supreme being. from seven years old and upwards. they care little to know. and mugs. they religiously venerate. Every stranger whatsoever. complimented him upon his singular skill in archery. of raising floods and tempests. expiring in his hand. so that by the golden flower of day they express the morning. All of whatever sex or age hang a common triangular shell in their ears. They are generally handsome. he quietly answered. The mothers put their babies in wicker baskets. or Portugueze. in search of that game. and said. the males. or more properly imposters.

slay all strangers. Three rivers. how could they fail to produce ill health? But though we are thus debilitated. brother! See. "that my health is not very good. supposing us to be Spanish or Brazilian Portugueze Indian-hunters. "My residence. on approaching him. "that St. St." answered I. His hunger appeased. And this father-priest. the steep mountains which I ascended. we are come to visit you as friends. Having proceeded through the woods for the space of an hour. but pushing it from him with both hands. With you. armed with an immense knife.quickly as possible. "_Aquihiye_. wrapped in a white cloth." "Though your countrymen. "is very far distant from hence. slay. "when I am daily made sensible of my own ailments." answered the old man. father-priest: we don't want a father-priest. he chaunts over us. All kind of fruits grow in plenty here. to testify friendship. and such woods. My countrymen are of an evil disposition. "Granting. To win the good-will of the surly old man. after a journey of so many days. he answered. and the continued walking from day-break till past mid-day. one of the more aged of my companions kissed the left cheek of the cacique. is the minister of God himself. who. we that are infirm will follow slowly after. his jealous mind began to soften." I replied. Thomas long ago prayed enough for our land. bless me. but he argued it to be impossible. which is out of the swamp?" Accordingly we sat down. accompanied by two youths (his son and a captive) furnished with a bundle of arrows." "By this argument. which I crossed up to the knees in water. supposing it magical powder. yet whatever he taught your ancestors of the Supreme Deity and his laws has long since escaped your memories. He teaches us." says he." "I can easily believe that. as a sign of peace. he angrily said. The Indian Christians who were with us bent their bows and the points of their arrows to the ground. the copious rains. and that I feel myself unequal to the journey. and creeping at a snail's pace. I need feel no apprehension on that account. why do we stand talking in the mud? why don't we sit down on the trunk of the tree. But. for our friend and protector. for we think you akin to us." answered I." I fear it." By ." "But you must know. I am ready to repeat his instructions. but the old man interrupted him with an ironical and angry exclamation of _Hindo!_ repeated several times. whom we attend. we beheld an emaciated old man. the terror of the vicinity far and near. and I detailed to him the occasion and the hardships of my long journey. they want to slay. I then opened to him my design of visiting his horde. and I tried all ways to find an entrance to his heart. He vehemently denied that any relationship existed between them. with one so illustrious for valour and great deeds as you. the wet forest. the long marsh. clothes and tenderly loves us." For the rude savage thought the presence of a priest useful only in procuring fertility to the soil." "You would keep away from my dwelling. and regarded us with the most wrathful aspect. To this end. said." was my answer. as many marshes. "you can never divert me from my purpose. I ordered a choice piece of roast meat to be brought him." My Indian would have spoken more. have succeeded in overcoming so many rivers and marshes. I offered him some snuff. good old man. where we can rest ourselves. "God save thee. "resemble your portrait ever so accurately. the want of food. the muddy roads. feeds us. We will take it easily: let those who are stouter go before. and explaining the reason of our coming. what mortal durst attempt to injure us? With you at our side we will fear nothing. which he greedily seized and devoured. for when he buries our dead. yet I think we have strength enough left to carry us to your home. Then addressing himself to me. possessed of the power of charming. and the worst possible roads intervene." opposed the old man. "You are come in vain. Thomas was formerly in your territories. laughing." To this the youth willingly assented. "if you knew the peril that awaits you there. keeping close to my side the whole way. And no wonder: the badness of the weather.

The women returned to their stations. according to my particular desire. that I might address them. Not one of us harbours an evil thought towards you. restored our exhausted strength by a draught of cold water. the vast hut I described appeared in view. that I wished to see all the inhabitants of the place assembled in one spot. Now. because they are disturbers of sleep. now that I see you well and kindly disposed towards me. though I think myself the very worst of musicians. there arose a mighty trepidation amongst the women and children. and. except that which they produce with rattling gourds together. fitted out with bows and arrows. "There is nothing at all to be afraid of. I spent three days and nights in the open air." said I. As I was standing with some of my companions at the door of the house. "You will never persuade me to that. the troubles which I have undergone. thought I to myself. I care little. who had never heard a better or a worse performer than myself. and returned with it on to greet me. "You see before you your relations. but that the savages might possibly take it into their heads to discharge all their quivers of arrows upon us." About sweeping the house. and whilst the majority of Europeans were feasting luxuriously. No one present is evilly disposed towards you but myself.this apparent confidence. About sun-set. that was indeed a reflexion that disturbed me not a little. yet in these woods I was pronounced an Orpheus by my auditors. and with one accord entreated me to enter the house. I then addressed the assembly to the following effect: "I do not repent the long journey I have taken. A crowd of the natives. your friend I am in all sincerity. I am resolved to station myself. though the weather was occasionally rainy. the descendants of your ancestors. beguiling the inclemency of the weather and the asperities of the journey by familiar conversation. and present them with suitable gifts. and a company of Indians who affirm that they are of our blood. he exclaims "It is well!" and orders the two youths to hasten home forthwith. I am a terrible fellow. dear sisters. The old cacique and I pursued their footsteps at a slower pace. after the fatigues of a long journey. sitting on the margin of a river." says he. but to sweep the house diligently. My errand is to render you happy. The same evening I hinted to the Cacique Roy. In this open spot. "Tell our countrymen. by these praises. attended our arrival and addressed us with the usual salutation _Ereyupa_." And truly. and where dogs are there must fleas be also: now there is nothing I dread so much as fleas. Now I am come. Suffer me then to declare . "that a father-priest is here." said the eldest of my Indians. (for it was the third day of the carnival. To awaken their attention I played for some time on the viol d'amour. Now thou art come: to which I returned the accustomed _Ayù anga_. the rivers and marshes I have crossed. for the sake both of decorum and security. "is perfectly true." replied I. for" (putting on a fierce countenance and uttering a hiss) "at one mouthful I intend to devour two or three children. as if angry with himself for having forgotten his crown. Charge the women not to be frightened at the stranger's approach." "What the old man has told you. "I see you have dogs and whelps amongst you. ran back for it." This pleasantry changed all their terror into laughter. or indeed any other music whatever.) _we_. I won the old man's heart. They sat around me in such modesty and silence that I seemed to behold statues instead of men. which. Away went the messengers like the wind. who makes much of me. I am the chief and director of them all. One of them approached me. and crowned with parrots' feathers. My wishes were immediately gratified. where I may see and be seen by all. and found him my friend. But I will not go far from your residence. I feel myself sorely in want of. In a cheerful tone.

as occasion requires. A suitable portion of beef is every day awarded gratuitously to each." Here I briefly explained the principal heads of religion with what plainness I could. what wonder then if continual solicitude about your maintenance harasses your minds? Not to mention the constant risk to which your lives are exposed from the claws of tigers. which has buried you amid the shades of woods. "Thou sayest well. like one astounded. who. for many years back. glass-beads. To propose this . as I find yours to be. such marriages are abominable. and you have it in your power to be what they now are. Consider whether it be expedient to immure yourselves in dusky woods. They have been what you are now. the bites of serpents. miserable while ye live. far from medicine or medical advice? For those whom you call physicians are impostors. and without delay make you our fellow townsmen. and bring on a premature death. With open arms we will receive you as friends receive friends." From which I discovered that incestuous connexions seemed more execrable to these savages than murder or robbery. "Alas! in all this numerous assembly I see very. I know you pronounce the name of God. the Indians your brothers are almost free. assembled in one town. and think themselves most happy in every point of view. see before you stand Indian Christians. but this we know already. the chase at last often fruitless. I lament and pity your lot. but fortified against the vicissitudes of the weather. a soil always damp. of the highest efficacy in prolonging life. the prey of successive calamities. axes. who carefully provide them with food prepared in the father's dwelling. what he ordains. of whom the greater part were born and brought up in woods like yourselves. but how he must be worshipped. what he promises to the good. and similar ornaments. fitter for cheating than curing you. How many old men might you meet with there! Nor need you wonder that the majority extend their lives to the extremity of age. your brothers. and final death. Just as I was about to finish my speech. Cast your eyes on their garments. The old man also. and the weapons and teeth of enemies. With naked limbs you daily suffer the injuries of the weather. except that the boys laughed a little when I made mention of hell fire. ignorant alike of the beauties of the world and of God their creator. unless taught by a priest. must unquestionably prove the nursery of diseases.candidly what I feel with respect to you. but the reason is manifest. and cried out. Your roofs. and what threatens to the evil. and now. very few of an advanced age. Enquire from them the mode of life which exists amongst us. not indeed always the most splendid. As I discussed these things. I eyed the congregation more attentively. In the town separate dwellings are marked out for each. that ye know not: nor. fruit and vegetables they are commonly well enough supplied from their own land. and my companions and clients. setting aside these things. exclaimed. It rests with you to act conformably to my good instructions. Every year new clothes are distributed to each. when he heard from me that marriage with relations was forbidden. The daily miseries which surround you ruin your constitutions. what he forbids. and most miserable hereafter when ye die. can ye ever learn it. And what hope can the invalid entertain of recovering his health in this your solitude. how little do they defend you! Whole days you traverse the woods like famished wild beasts. they all listened very attentively. father. have lived under my authority in St. If any of you think I have made a greater boast of these things than truth warrants. Knives. Do not deny yourselves this felicity. swarming with gnats and other insects. are given as presents. conform their lives to the commandments of God and the regulations of the priests. Joachim. pervious to every wind. and with fit medicine. From such inconveniences and perils. With corn. Nay. when such and so many assistances are supplied them in the city. Skilful physicians are night and day in attendance on the sick. You will quickly learn that they are contented with their lot. your subsistence fortuitous.

We spent our nights in the open air in the middle of the dwellings of the savages. and bring its flesh to make a feast for the savages. be read without a smile. scissors. my Indians could not refrain from laughing. To conciliate therefore his confidence and good-will towards me. the prettiest girl in the world. by his old wife.—little knives. Now I have a daughter. prepared." says he. with Arapotiyu. which had the utmost effect in tightening the new chain of friendship and good-will towards me which bound their savage minds. than when their stomachs are full of beef. He told me ingenuously. the Cacique told all his hordesmen that I was neither of Spanish nor Portugueze extraction. The old man approved my counsel. and should like to enjoy his company as long as I live. and I am resolved to marry her to the father. As the Cacique was smoking tobacco through a reed. Nevertheless. always to be feared." To add weight to my oration. I praised the skill of the baker. I know not. on the breaking up of the assembly. for the Americans never rejoice with more heartfelt glee. to testify his gratitude. nor can it. On the following day. so disagreeable that their very sight would disgust the most hungry European. "what strange thing is this you tell me?" His . that it would please me highly if his children would feast on these dainties to celebrate my arrival. thin. I declared that I was neither a Spaniard nor a Portugueze. that he may always stay in our family. which they resembled in colour. and are interdicted from marriage by the most sacred law. because I had mingled my oration with a copious largess." On hearing this foolish speech of the old man's. and necklaces of glass-beads. rings. In a little while. to temporize as much as might be. "_An eyrae!_" he exclaimed. yet during the three days we spent with them. in a word. urged by my love and yearning towards you. he passed the night in that vast dwelling I have named. I think. offered me some loaves. I have taken a long and. hooks. on my you. adding." The old man was thunderstruck. lest we should be surprised in our sleep by the designs of many. a most difficult journey. These loaves were round. Cacique Roy had a little house for himself and family separate from the rest. nor pay a more prompt obedience. and their great disposition to gratify me. I sent four chosen men of my associates. I seemed to have borne down all before me. as regarding other tribes with an hostile eye. ear-rings. The Cacique had a pleasure in spending many hours of the day in familiar conversation with me. Strangers must indeed be cautious how they receive food offered by savages. Which circumstance being strongly urged by me. he said. each retired to his quarters. and. But there was not a symptom or occasion of fear on either side. baked under the hot ashes. and taking them in one hand. "that the fathers always live celibate. and she is of the same mind as myself. Nothing could have been devised better calculated to raise their spirits. For it passes belief with what significations of joy and good-will towards me. which I had left at a distance. seeing for certain that he is not a Spaniard. and though officious. who are very skilful in mixing it with poison. to slaughter an ox. and being asked the cause. with his tobacco reed suspended in the air. mirrors. I presented each of my auditors with trifling gifts. replied. Cacique Roy. and took back the loaves with the same joy as he had brought them. as you know yourselves. This intention I have just broke to my wife. and persuade you to accept it. I cautioned my men to sleep and watch by turns. "I have conceived an affection. whether anxious for the safety of his own subjects or of us. that both he and his distrusted the Spaniards and Portugueze in every thing. returned them pleasantly with the other.—but no more need be said on this subject. he opened at once his intentions and his ignorance to my Indians who were sitting with him. I must here relate a circumstance which I cannot write without a blush. made of maize. "for our father. axes. though the suspicion of danger never left us.

I pray you. When he had heard this he redoubled his astonishment and his declarations of affection. but you have disfigured it most wretchedly. and very frequently with their Cacique Veraripochiritù. Some friendly interrogations having passed on both sides. Come. I presented them all with the accustomed trifles. that it behoved them long ago to have known and understood what pleased and what displeased him." said he. but dissembling my knowledge. no one answers. who appeared with his troop. that this barbarous Cacique. conversed familiarly with each. and. he should always find me his most sincere friend. At that time I learnt from good authority. seemed transformed into a Daphnis. I had asked them to despatch messengers to acquaint the neighbouring Caciques of our arrival. "to adorn your face with these stars. had just before come to me a perfect Pyracmon. and entreated me to get a colony founded for them in their native land. Immediately on my entering the savage horde the preceding day. "that God was the supreme creator and ruler. had all his face painted with small black stars. and to instil into him a horror of human slaughter. a portion of the herb of Paraguay. who was called Veraripochiritù. and he." To this I returned. thefts. "You think. in an imperative tone. lies. crafty. I thanked the Cacique for his kind intentions towards me. a man scarce forty years old. interrupting me. but destitute of that fairness of face and candour of mind which the others boasted. however. handsome and well made. he hastened to some water to wash it." I endeavoured to convince the fanatical casuist of his error. The other Cacique. a handsome boy of ten years old. It is observable amongst the Guarany Indians. "and terribly punishes adulteries. his companion and instructor in Christianity." "Tell me. Two Caciques led the troop. and designing. "We already know. like those which the other . His son. but that though I could not be his son-in-law. under a placid countenance and a perilous suavity of speech. partly by poison partly by violence. when he had wiped off the soot. who related to me the whole conversation. whom I found particularly disposed to our worship." Having looked at his face a little while. At last the Caciques made a final resolve. was Tupanchichù. and blushing held their peace. who with his naked limbs. asked my Indians. but they were ashamed to repeat to me the Cacique's absurd proposal. most worthy of our hearts and adorations." "What. whose former possessors he had taken off. what the sudden laugh meant." "He abhors. The next day about noon the armed savages arrived in great numbers with their families. I seized a favourable opportunity of discoursing on the Deity. and demanded. he contrived to cover his cherished purpose of slaying us." I rejoined. homicides. On coming up he seated himself with me. and exhort them to visit us there." said I. a man remarkable for nothing but gentleness and docility. behold yourself in this mirror. displayed in his tent an heap of sculls. "does not God permit us to slay our enemies? Should we be such fools as not to defend ourselves against those that seek our lives? Such has been my custom if any one threatened mine. "that there is some one who dwells in heaven. Arrogant. that he was a tender loving father." he observed. who was feared by the whole neighbourhood as a formidable juggler. uncleannesses. "what _does_ displease God. equalled in height and fullness of body the length of his name. The first." he enquired. if he wished it. I therefore asked one of them separately. calumnies. for he grieved that he could not accomplish his wishes. that if many are asked at once. This ridiculous conversation I overheard walking behind among the trees. with a haughty look. with what success I know not. discovered by others. and told him that I and all priests professed that kind of life which excludes wedlock altogether.astonishment was mingled with sighs. which was.

To these were added some married men. when they saw me accompanied by so many naked savages. and other necessaries for building and preserving the town. so that. by means of two of his agents. clothed. and behaving so well that his conduct obtained him baptism and Christian wedlock. a young captive of the Cacique's. This woman. associated with me his wife's brother. attended by some of my Indians. had attempted the life of his widow. The mother having been well instructed in the rudiments of the . not content with the murder of the old Cacique. that the jugglers. as from the number of their adherents. altogether. Avarendi. and adorned with crowns of parrot feathers. the eldest. The hypocritical Tupanchichù having no son grown up. from the time when he first met me. especially Tupanchichù. united him in marriage. To testify their good-will the Caciques made their sons accompany me to my town. D. axes. alas! the devil interrupted this prosperous course of affairs. He cunningly therefore pretended to assent. in order to inspire them with a hatred of the Christians. The captive Gatò also remained with us in the city fully contented with his situation. endeavoured to persuade the ignorant multitude that this pest was introduced by us. and he might have been taken for an old disciple of Christianity. But not many months after he died of a slow disease. according to the Christian rites. Having for some months tried his constancy and his acquaintance with every thing pertaining to Christian worship. the inhuman Tupanchichù and an opulent Spaniard. but that when I had procured cattle. though averse to the worship of Christ. that he might the more certainly overturn the design of founding a colony. An unexpected messenger arrives from Mbaeverà with the news that Cacique Roy had died of eating poisoned potatoes. Tupanchichù. glass-beads. Finally we entered St. Our Indians. armed with bundles of arrows. His lamentations knew no end. after their first panic had subsided. from perceiving the opportunities of seeking out other savages in the remoter forests. and two who were yet boys. Though a new inhabitant of our city he surpassed in every kind of virtue. administered by Tupanchichù. despairing of safety in the forest. Four sons of Cacique Roy came with me. This youth. in which I informed him of my journey. and requested to invest me with the power of founding the colony. the savages I had discovered. who. Joseph Martinez Fontes. eighteen savages accompanied us on our way. He approved my design. supplied my room in the town of St. and. After resting fourteen days they were sent back to their woods. returning from the woods of Mbaeverà. men of more weight than himself as well from their age. the second. also attended us. and were hailed by the festive acclamations of the inhabitants. Arapotiyu. I would immediately return. I baptized. brought news that the quinsy was raging among the savages. not long after. would never suffer himself to be separated from my side. After having spent three days with them. amid the tears of all the Indian colonies. a youth of surpassing comeliness. Joachim with another father. But. paid me liberal applauses and congratulations. and the intended foundation of a settlement. Attend and shudder at the detail of their villainy. Joachim in triumph. whom we met advancing. I consented to their wishes with the more pleasure. that he might possess himself of the knives and other iron implements which her husband had left. durst not oppose the other two Caciques. I immediately despatched letters to my provincial. The Spaniards. Arapotiyu excepted. The royal governour. betook herself to the town with her family. when by the royal summons we were recalled to Europe. Gatò. I told them all that I intended to depart the next day. and other trifles. also. was made acquainted with what had been done and what was further intended. and largely gifted with knives. Our Indian guests were liberally treated. which a settlement in the woods of Mbaeverà would afford. and when my return to the savages drew near.Indian Christians had obtained.

I set out thither with forty Christians. my joy can scarcely be conceived. we effected nothing: and having traversed the banks of the rivers Mondaỹ and Acaraỹ and the interjacent country. He had a number of hired men employed in the woods of Mbaeverà. awaited the mules which were to convey it to the city. Though the iniquitous deed of Tupanchichù is worthy of universal execration. kindled by the savages. scorched and roasted. but they were almost dry. having amassed great riches. The same evening thirteen miserably perished. an edifice situated on the banks of the river Acaraỹ. the next day three more. Some leapt into the marshes. actuated by the base desire of self-aggrandizement. in order to extinguish the approaching flame. in general. we were forced to remeasure our sorrowful and weary steps: which circumstance filled every honest breast with unspeakable grief. to persuade the savages to that which he desired. Meanwhile it was kept in the hut of the Spanish labourers. they at length resolved to change their quarters and seek a retreat as distant as possible from their present abode. whomsoever words failed of affecting.Christian doctrine. he selected men. to his estate that he might use them instead of negroes who stood him at a great price. Being informed of this flight of the Indians. the other two came to a . directing them to gain over. but without prevailing on a single man. among whom was Arapotiyu. versed in the Guarany tongue. with large presents. should sometime despatch an armed troop of soldiers to drive them into slavery and exile.—as for _me_. principally from trading in the herb of Paraguay. But after doing much and suffering more. yet still more detestable appears the memory of that man who. The Spanish and Indian Christians burnt with indignation against that man who had dared to devastate an harvest ripe for the shearers. They were not absolutely burnt. and ready for the granary of the church. yea the very shadow of the Spaniards. But divine providence took vengeance on his crimes. and who. dared to frustrate the colony we had in agitation. These arts they put in practice. to the great comfort of the by-standers. To this end.—some plunged into the mud. which were covered with reeds and tall grass. they all migrated like runaways rather than travellers. now that their settlement had been thoroughly explored. upon the preparation of the herb tea. remaining unhurt. their garments. a great quantity of which. who was thoroughly acquainted with the circumjacent ways and woods. And truly it was madness to expect it of the wood Indians. The superintendant. and when he understood that numerous hordes of savages were discovered by me in the woods of Mbaeverà. but all their endeavours were vain. without detecting a trace of man. a Paraguayrian. for a sudden blast of wind inflamed the whole surface so quickly that the Spaniards beheld themselves encircled with fire without an outlet left for their escape. was baptized on the same day with her eight children and a single captive. In endeavouring to make these savages slaves he hindered them from becoming worshippers of the Supreme Being and disciples of Jesus Christ. and that a colony was to be built there. These were suddenly seized with an immense conflagration. This danger being daily and nightly before their eyes. having burnt their hovels to ashes. already prepared. but not of Spanish extraction. but suffocated. by some means or other. required a multitude of slaves to manage his concerns. fearing for his magazine. began to despair of their safety—to fear lest that Spaniard. from the dread of slavery. who. whose service they were unwilling to embrace. and accordingly. This man. he conceived a design of transferring these savages. shun the neighbourhood. despatched eighteen of his comrades—to perish in the same conflagration.

from having perceived the fewness of the Spaniards. The trees from which these leaves were plucked failing. we traced it to a little dwelling. leaving. one. To save his life. ran off. and to remove them. for I myself have traversed these woods far and near in search of a wife. and discovering at length. garments and other trifles within his reach. I shall here record another excursion to the savages. the mother replied that no mortal besides herself and her two children survived in these woods. If. to its own fate. he offered. I applied myself to the task without shrinking. "you have dared to enter these woods. "I have. "depend upon it I shall treat these dear little animals with due kindness. to which there was only one objection." replied I. when found. axes. she agreed to go with . they will immediately perish. rivers. When the sun is hot. where an old woman with her son and daughter. like snails in their shells. a messenger was sent to St. which. "So. unless they would be the cause of their own deaths. and spent day and night in dread of hostile aggression.—haste away. the son observed. from which they falsely conjectured that the wood was full of savage hordes. with a trembling hand. Joachim. Lakes. you are wise. This occurrence affected them all with such fear. therefore. which were never yours! Know ye not that this is our hereditary soil? Are ye not content with having injuriously usurped immense tracts and innumerable woods. that all the rest. The Spaniard. deeming any stay in these quarters extremely perilous." "Pray be no longer anxious on this account. we carefully explored all the woods and the banks of the river Mondaỹ-mir̂i. or marshes will be always at hand to cool your favourites. stole into the Spanish hut where only one man remained. and I am afraid. a human footstep. Having taken a guide from the Spanish hut. though completed in less time than the former. Being asked where the other Indians were to be found. requiring us to search for the savages abiding there. we will find shade wherever we are. but could never meet with a single human being. "You may credit my mother in her assertion without scruple. John the Evangelist commenced my travels." During this menacing speech the Spaniard remained silent. on the third day. who had occupied this neighbourhood. The spies of the savages witnessed this destruction of the Spaniards. but afar off. because a more protracted end. promising that both she and her children should be more comfortably situated." says she. pacified by which the savage returned to his comrades who lurked hard by. A company of Spaniards were employed in preparing the herb of Paraguay on the southern banks of the river Empalado. They follow us wherever we go." Nature had taught the young savage that it was not lawful to marry his sister. She declared herself willing to accept my invitation. if life is dear to you. would he return alive? No: and we will imitate your example. many thousand pounds of ready made tea. knives. unshaded by trees. had lived many years. if they are exposed to the sun in a dry plain. they kept within their huts. armed with arrows and a club. was productive of more advantage. they commissioned three men to seek for the tree in request beyond the river. pale with expectation of the mortal stroke. lest themselves should be hurt. Perceiving me doubtful as to the correctness of her statement. accompanied by forty Indians.—advise your countrymen cautiously to shun our woods. now more daring. and on the day of St.still more wretched. "three boars which have been tamed from their earliest age. spite of the vain opposition of our ancestors? Should any one of _us_ attempt _your_ domains. and crossed the river Empalado." said the savage with a stern aspect. To deliver them from this state of fear. to our colony. I exhorted the old mother to migrate as fast as possible to my town." Induced by these promises. a youth and maiden of twenty and fifteen years of age. suspending the business upon which they were engaged. that. had died long ago of the small-pox. By accident they lit upon a hovel and a field of maize.

and we. The mother and daughter had no ear-rings. the fragment of some old broken knife. at _her's_. and did not seem at all alarmed at our arrival. My three wood Indians wore their hair dishevelled. At first sight I asked the old woman whether she used this jingling necklace to frighten away the gnats. And setting out the next day we reached the town in safety on the first of January. which abounds in the hollow trees of the forest. reaching from his shoulders to his knees. The girl had seen no woman but her mother nor any man but her brother. There being no clay to make pots of. on the other hand. perforate trees which seemed likely to contain honey. who catered for his mother and sister. Their hut consisted of the branches of the palm-tree. I made the youth. maize. but at the desire of the Indians wrapped it round her. though the former wore round her neck a cord from which depended a small heavy piece of wood. and I afterwards substituted a string of beautifully coloured glass-beads. through the reed to which was affixed a little wooden vessel. The mother and son were tall and well-looking. and bound round with wax and thread. and wood for fuel. vexation. and without a bandage. The youth. and various birds. cropped. a cloth woven of the leaves of the _caraquatà_. about as broad and long as a man's thumb. their drink of muddy water. A net of coarser thread was the mother's bed by night and her only garment by day. but his bandages impeded him like fetters. experiencing the rigours of ancient anchorites. on roasted meat instead of boiled. too. mention must be made of their clothes. his middle being girded with little cords. antas. like a pan. but rather enlivened. night and day. She laughed heartily at _our_ Guarany. To gather the fruits that grew on the ground or on the trees. from which hung a gourd full of the tobacco dust which he chewed. I gave her a cotton towel to cover her more effectually. without discontent. the dexterous girl ran over the forest tangled as it was with . wear some linen wrappers. With this instrument he used to fashion arrows with great elegance. The girl in like manner wore a short net by day in which she slept at night. nor his head crowned with parrot feathers. They delighted in honey. And now it will be proper to give a cursory account of the mother and her offspring. in place of these wooden weights. In such extreme need. placed it on her head to defend her from the heat of the sun. The son constantly chewed tobacco leaves reduced to powder. so that he could scarcely move a step. and any European might safely call her and perform other things of this kind. having no vessel to boil it in. they had fed. The smoke of tobacco the old woman inhaled. all their lives. but the daughter had so fair and elegant a countenance. which in my journey I had worn round my head as a defence against the gnats. The youth wore a cloak of the thread of the caraquatà. The youth neither had his lip perforated. of a pyramidal shape. and the roots of the _mandiò_ tree afforded them food. nor any male but his father. The leaves of the herb of Paraguay they only steeped in cold water. their language was most ridiculously corrupted. To show how scanty their household furniture was. he had climbed the highest trees like a monkey to pluck from thence food for his pigs. For as this insulated family had no intercourse with any but themselves. inserted in a wooden handle. make wooden gins to take antas. This appearing to me too transparent. She united a becoming cheerfulness with great courtesy. so that by their mutual collision they made a noise at every step. their bed and clothing. fawns. carried in his belt two pieces of iron. her father having been torn to pieces by a tiger before she was born. Fruits. in such penury I found them. or disease. rabbits. that a poet would have taken her for one of the nymphs or dryads. The youth had never seen a female except his mother and sister. The girl folding up the linen cloth into many folds. Shells sharpened at a stone or split reeds served them for knives. Before this.

to put his perseverance to the proof. takes away his sleep. "Well. but says that sleep has deserted him. as I think. in a friendly tone." he replied. Mindful. that dreams have often been divine admonitions and the oracles of God. Nevertheless. she at length followed her mother to the grave. she commonly had a little parrot on her shoulder. to Heaven. and. and that they. had received this catechumen into his house. however. he says. who. I thought it best to delay his baptism a little. it seemed advisable. and a small monkey on her arm. not long after. is the probable cause of these dreams. accustomed. that this prevented him from getting any rest. Suspecting there was something in it." answered I. and found him sitting. her bones hardly holding together. and of his acquaintance with the chief heads of religion by previous . and. I thought it probable that this was a mere dream. "and entirely free from pain. deafness. "to be of good heart. to moist. to which they had been accustomed. reeds. Her brother still surviving was attacked by the same malady that proved fatal to his mother and sister. at my orders. 'Suffer thyself." "Tell him. Lowness of spirits. the old mother. withering by degrees like a flower. A few weeks after their arrival they were afflicted with a universal heaviness and rheum. was gentle and compliant to all. giving the same account as before. He was of a cheerful disposition. and brambles. the same Indian returns. unterrified by the tigers that haunt that neighbourhood. to be baptized. Enfeebled. Not to go unattended. At this time an Indian Christian. that savages removed to towns often waste away from the change of food and air. The same was the fate of the mother. We shall return to take thee away. which made great havoc in the town. by which she had her feet wretchedly scratched. and disgust to food at length wasted their strength to such a degree that an incurable consumption followed. The girl. and daughter in our town. to consult both the security and tranquillity of the catechumen. to enjoy the shade and pleasant freshness of the trees. soon lost all resemblance to herself. and with confirmed suspicions respecting the fearful delirium of our new Christian.underwood. and worthy. of neglect. on that account. I immediately hastened to his house. in a matter of such moment. I also took care they should take frequent excursions to the neighbouring woods. came to me and said.' This vision. and threatening to take him away unexpectedly. shady groves. He told me over and over again. but seems to have gone a little astray in mind: he makes no complaints. for that the melancholy remembrance of his mother and sister. For we found by experience. learnt the doctrines of Christianity with diligence. with a mind so calm. cool. Being assured of his constancy. smiling. but being of a stronger constitution overcame it. which powerfully affects their frames. The new proselytes were quickly clothed in the town. so acquiescent with the divine will. delivered up her spirit. and in every thing discovered marks of future excellence. saying. with whom he has lived all his life. who had been properly instructed in the Christian religion and baptized. are gone to Heaven. "My father. that he got no sleep at night owing to the appearance of his mother and sister. a good man and rich in land. if I be not much deceived." A few days after. our wood Indian is in perfect health of body. as appears from Holy Writ. his mother and sister appearing to him every night in a vision. I pray thee. On my enquiring how he felt himself. son. and from the heat of the sun. After languishing some months. when thou dost not expect it. admonishing him to hasten his baptism. who had entered the town full of health and beauty. left him so confirmed in health that there seemed nothing to be feared in regard to him. to which succeeded a pain in the eyes and ears. that I cannot doubt but that she entered into a blessed immortality. and served with the daily allowance of food before the rest. as they have been from infancy. The measles. went to church regularly." but added. and have nothing more to do with this world. with his usual unreservedness.

they never formed any design hostile to the Spaniards. These last. having been certified by me. elated by the daily victories they had gained for many years. promised mountains of gold for the maintenance of their colony. The remembrance of my expedition to the river Empalado. with those things deemed necessary for living in a town. than in preventing them. called Guaycurus or Mbayas. or at least tardily. The most recent colony in the jurisdiction of Paraguay. On the evening of the same day. astonished every one. The savages. let the reader be told that I have passed over many memorable things in silence. large and generally tall. Would that the Father's diligence and patience had obtained a corresponding reward! The little grandson of the Cacique Epaguini. and now discomfited by their powerful assaults. whilst they feared the Mbayas as enemies. without a symptom of disease or apoplexy. during the three years they stayed. War. the desired peace was at length brought about. To the exceeding compassion of the Almighty I attribute it that these three Indians were discovered by me in the unknown recesses of the woods. and which I am ready to attest on oath. If on this subject I appear to have written too much. they laid waste the lands of Paraguay. To found and govern this. but when their fears subsided. They are very expert horsemen. both by daily instruction and by kindness. not a vestige of the savages remained. but the rest did little else than wander over the plains. and. to the north of Asumpcion. John. with exceeding pertinacity. is situated on the banks of the Ypaneguazù. ignorant of the very name of modesty. In 1745. from which they derived an amazing profit. that. and that they closed their lives after receiving baptism. and a colony founded in the place above-mentioned. that they so promptly complied with my exhortations to enter my town. now unexpectedly surprized by their designs. received baptism. It was built in 1760 for Indians of the savagest kind. many hundred thousand pounds of the herb of Paraguay. is the occupation they reckon most honourable. inasmuch as it proved highly fortunate to the three wood Indians and advantageous to the Spaniards. and in bringing them round to civilization and christianity. The greater part of the province was more employed in regretting the slaughters and the rapine.interrogatories. At last. about the hour of ten in the morning. He spared no labour in learning the difficult language of the savages. however. but in my mind I could never deem the circumstance merely accidental. or more correctly pillage. and. the eve of St. and remembered the slaughter they had sustained. upon the immense tracts of woodland here mentioned. for. This I did on the 23d of June. after the conclusion of the peace. so that the proselytes would have died of hunger had not the fruit of the palm-tree and wild animals supplied the want of beef. who. Father Joseph Sanchez Labrador was happily chosen. Thus much on the Guarany towns of Taruma. seems above all praise. could neither be restrained by the arms of the Spaniards nor appeased by fair words. though attended with so many hardships and dangers. Countless and incredible are the . some adults whose lives were despaired of. they began to supply them sparingly. I leave my reader to form his own opinion. Their only care is that of their horses and arms. called Belen. I soon after baptized him with the name of Lewis. many infants. full of the absurdest superstition and arrogance. in the management of which their skill is admirable. as appears from their clothing and manners. a fact well known to the whole town. who presided over the colony. and embrace Christianity. he quietly expired. is still most grateful to my heart. Their fidelity. This event. collected. nor could they devise any remedy for the evil. hostile in the highest degree to the Spaniards. The soldiers were now baffled by their swiftness. in the sixteenth year of the present century.

mules. tamanduas. and Manuel Duran. subject to the Mbayas. after which the leaves. _Caà-miri_ signifies the small herb. The tree _caà_ grows no where spontaneously but in woods about two hundred leagues from the city of Asumpcion. tobacco. capibaris. are spread on the ground. if pulverized very small. and other trees. stags. The countless myriads of serpents. both those that bear fruit. After parching the leaves at a slow fire. with a calyx composed of five leaflets. partridges. evidently noxious. and parched at a slow fire. nature. crocodiles. was intended to begin a new colony for the Guañas or Chañas. it thrives best in a moist swampy soil. The production peculiar to this province. were harassed for many years. and their fibres. houses. emus. maize. Duran. for they carefully separate and throw aside the leaf-stems and larger fibres. is the Herb of Paraguay. But he who had long employed himself in the foundation of the colony. and those that serve for building of ships. are parched for some time on beams laid cross-wise over the fire. they pound them gently in a wooden mortar. and sheep. Its flowers are small and white. The _caà-miri_ is sold at a double price. in the city of Asumpcion. Having now mentioned the Indian colonies within the domains of Paraguay. dogs. from the expense of carriage. with more labour and accuracy. oxen. The boughs. preparation. was summoned with his associates back to Europe. When prepared by this less laborious method. and beat to powder with sticks. and price of which I am now going to treat. Being skilful agriculturists. but far exceeds it in size. which are in a certain degree woody. except that three or four small whitish. palms. There is no vestige of metals or precious stones in this country. the leaf-stems and all the . ants. and lions: choice fish. so opportune for the discovery of new nations. mandioc. the soil of Paraguay abounds in the most useful productions: cotton. like itself. The seed is very like American pepper. snakes. it resembles the orange tree. the person last named. For the more entire they remain. An _arroba_ (which is twenty-five pounds) of this herb. Juan Garzia. Notwithstanding the heat of the climate. the sugar cane. he had collected the necessaries for its preservation and completion. the price is double. Parrots. it moreover abounds in horses. potatoes of different sorts. from a sort of resemblance to the herb tea. and huge tortoises. hardships. we will proceed to the other peculiarities of the province. colours. which. we shall fully treat of hereafter. as the early Spaniards imagined. towering cedars. antas. they have already begun to cultivate the grounds and to raise themselves crops on the eastern shore of the Paraguay. tigers. except that the leaves are softer. In form and foliage. use. when. and consequently by much the most profitable. because it is composed of leaves and leaf-stems. cares. which are cut off from the trees with a bill. got the name of the Herb of Paraguay. taking care not to beat them too small. deer.labours. various kinds of pulse. Like reeds. is drunk infused in boiling water. frankincense. of the production. The leaves cut from the tree _Caà_. being prepared by our Guaranies. being made by the Indian Guaranies of the tender parts of the leaves. with which Father Joseph Sanchez and his companions. divers species of gums. and waggons. balsams. with incredible labour. is sold in the forest for nearly two German florins. with the smaller twigs. a pedestrian tribe. honey. it is called _yerba de palos_. and populous nation. oblong kernels appear beneath the skin. medicinal plants. they lose both. and other reptiles and insects. exceedingly numerous on both sides the Paraguay. great progress in the Christian cause was expected from this docile. are every where to be found in astonishing numbers. monkeys of various kinds. In a soil so fertile. the more taste and smell they possess. and perils even of their lives.

with other diseases. and deprived of juice and virtue. who are not in the habit of straining it. the odour is doubled. If his stomach appear in want of an emetic. is sold at its journey's end. and is to them what chocolate. and then pour the hot water upon it. from the difficulties of the journey. and. that by the immoderate and almost hourly use of this potation. reduced to powder. The herb. there are no fewer in America who drink away their fortunes in potations of the herb of Paraguay. it is drunk with sugar. it cannot be doubted. many thousands of men are employed unceasingly . For when taken with caution. and assuages both hunger and thirst. when properly prepared. he has only to take the same herb in tepid water. but to the Peruvians and the inhabitants of Chili. Add to this. and in parching it. If any one wishes to perspire freely. when they would try the quality of the herb. Others use a narrow wooden pipe or slender reed for this purpose. or of a gourd split in half. drink it unmingled with any thing. at a greatly increased price. cannot be drunk with safety to the health. provokes a gentle perspiration. Many drop in the juice of a citron or lemon. Merchants. especially if the herb be drunk with cold water without sugar. annexed to which is a little globe. speedily counteracts the languor arising from the burning climate. which send great returns to the royal treasury. The Indians. Into this vessel they put a common table spoonful of the herb. care must be taken that it be not over-dried. and sex. should slip down the throat with the liquor. In consequence of the bitterness natural to the herb. The Indians. However this may be. This nectar of Paraguay is relished by every rank. that the herb is of a gummy nature. exhales a very pleasant fragrance. In the remotest forests. put a little of it into the palm of their hand. it acts as a diuretic. The herb thus prepared is strained through a silver pipe. amongst the higher orders. without the admixture of any thing else. and blow upon it. this is done lest any particle of the herb. age. which is noxious to the stomach. and the heavy tolls. If many topers in Europe waste their substance by an immoderate use of wine and other intoxicating liquors. green concrete balls of which are sometimes said to be found in the bowels of the deceased. brought on. Though the _caà_ is only found in the remotest parts of Paraguay towards the N. Chinese tea. he needs no drug: let him drink an infusion of this herb. I have known many of the lower Spaniards who never spoke ten words without applying their lips to the gourd containing the ready-made tea. coffee. as hot as possible.particles of wood being excluded. but if it be sprinkled with a little of the leaves or rind of the fruits of the _quabira miri_. and is only used by ink makers to deepen the blackness of their ink. On the other hand. however. E. the flavour improved. but when it adheres to the hand as if glued there by a natural gum. often swallow unintentionally a quantity of the herb. finely punctured.. the stomach is weakened. after having been conveyed on mules from the remotest roads of Paraguay to the distant kingdoms of Peru and Chili. like that of the Spaniards. Water of this kind grows black. and the lower orders amongst the Spaniards. it affords a beverage not only to the Paraguayans. The moderate use of this herb is wholesome and beneficial in many ways. and the price increased. however. that the warm water in which the herb has been steeped too long. they judge it to be too high dried. improves the appetite. and spirits are to other nations. The vessel in which it is taken is made of a hide. plated all round with silver. when much of the herb flies off. it is not. and then lie down. and continual flatulence. The herb. stir it up for some time with sugar and cold water. who never cease sipping it from morning to night. they value it highly. it is most certain.

but many other profitable commodities. these being. which if you neglect. any sign of germination appear. mules. it is used by the Paraguayrians to die cloth black. and many thousands of oxen are annually consumed in these labours. only crop the superfluous and luxuriant boughs. The ground in which you mean to sow the prepared seed must be copiously drenched with water. If. the tree itself being left alive and uninjured for succeeding years. and gradually of forests. which swallow with great avidity the seeds of the herb-tree. Those however which are planted and cultivated by us. they might export not only this herb. moreover. The Indians. and your hopes frustrated. If the Spanish agriculturists would but imitate this piece of industry. so that the labour attending artificial woods is sufficiently repaid by the after-profit. and their gains are immense. seldom grow rich. not only occupied in transporting the herb. in a very short time. when in this state. As long as the plants are tender. and almost rendered muddy. must be washed in water till that native gluten be thoroughly removed. the largest forests have arisen. become the daily origin of new trees. and from them. who supply oxen. and falling into moist ground. indigestible. that in a few years it spoils. more provident. but I must own their lamentations always appeared to me very ridiculous. The marketing of the other Paraguayrian productions is attended with infinite labour. In the first place. pass through them. are few. and in mules. they must be defended against the hoarfrost and cutting south winds by a little thatched tent. by reason of their natural gluten. expense. but destroyed by the asperities and the length of the journey? Hence they who hire the labourers that collect the herb. their security none. they ought only to cut off the boughs. and patience. For when. the trees are yearly diminished in great numbers. never grow so high as those of nature's own setting in the forests. after the usual manner. Woods are likewise sown by various birds. very little more is prepared than suffices the Americans. to receive and retain the rain-water. which they export into Peru and Chili. The merchants who import it into Peru and Chili are the only gainers. lest one impede and injure the other. the Spaniards of Paraguay gasped after commerce and gain. how much would their fortunes be benefited! But the planting of woods of this kind requires art. this being very generally done. While the plants are yet young. moreover. they must be transplanted. and labour. and they who are hired for this business live amidst constant wretchedness. that the trees which are planted and reared by human care. Their ships. If in all Paraguay there are a few opulent men. when they themselves are the occasion of it. for the sake of a readier profit they fell the trees themselves. But who shall number the multitude of mules. the seed being sown very deep. and I have answered. and losing its original fragrance smells like Russian shoe-leather. I have often heard the Paraguayrians complain of the scarcity of the _caà_ tree. you may think yourself fortunate. why the herb of Paraguay is never exported to Europe. and set at great and equal distances. especially in time of war. having never . in three or four years time produce a plenteous crop of leaves. and in the middle of each ditch the plants are to be placed singly. on many accounts. These premises having been cautiously attended to. if. The seed of the _caà_ being exceedingly glutinous. at the end of four months. I have often been asked. To spare time. and little or uncertain profit. A ditch. two feet deep and as many broad. your time will be lost. they have amassed their wealth from dealing in the Herb of Paraguay. and the labour of many hands. The Europeans. and the various iron implements. This is moreover the preparation of this herb during every part of the year. we planted the _caà_ within sight of the Guarany Reductions. must be dug. Add to this.

only make the herb _caà-miri_. Santa Fé. thence to be transported. and succeeds equally well in either. are chewed by some. The Spaniards smoke their tobacco with more cleanness and less cost. How many and how ridiculous are the clamours that have been raised against the Portugueze Jesuits by these lying pamphlets. cut small. Light one end of this. without distinction. As the preparation of it is much more laborious. selling it for the use of the higher orders. and often still more in Paraguay. if acquainted with its virtues. to the length and breadth of the middle finger. The smoke of the tobacco is generally inhaled without any tube or vessel. those which are plucked afterwards decrease more and more. The Indian Guaranies. or in a maize leaf. For the founders of the colleges did not leave estates paying rent. The productions of the estates and plains are there in the place of money. either ignorance or malice has designated trafficking. This is sown both in the plains and woods. to sell as well as to drink this much spoken of herb. Certain it is that the Paraguayrian tobacco in fragrance falls short of that brought from Virginia. and other natural productions for the herb. instead of money. was absolutely much as tasted the herb. though some prefer the tobacco grown in woods. inhabitants of the thirty-two Reductions which were under our administration. put the other into your mouth. carrying about with them a deposit of several of those folds. in which the soil of Paraguay is very fertile. which. in fact. unless we preferred dying of want. be justly accounted herb-merchants. which are highly ornamented. and Chili. called _zigarros_. but that this smoke injures the human . In the middle of this is laid another little leaf compressed by the finger. often exceeding an ell in length. or the island of Cuba. Its leaves. Nor can the superintendents of colleges. and by a very few taken in the form of snuff. This exchange. and the quantity of herb annually sold by the Spaniards exceeds that disposed of by the Indians as much as the whole hand does the little finger. it is entirely neglected by the Spaniards. in the following manner:—A leaf. many thousand pounds of it. have no desire to fetch it from America. But of this trade we pay an annual poll-tax in the Guarany towns. they had received no other means of subsistence from the founders of their college! We must now say something of the tobacco plant. together with the exterior and larger one. in Paraguay. Oh! how I burn with resentment whenever I read that the Jesuits monopolize the herb of Paraguay! It has ever been free to all. is squared. but plains and cattle of various kinds. The first leaves that ripen. and light it. with which necessaries are to be procured. and that again for implements. nor sums of money put out at interest. when. to the different ports of Tucuman. The common people roll up the tobacco. There is no part of the year that the Spaniards do not despatch to the cities of Corrientes. who confine themselves to the coarser herb _caà de palos_. as is usual in Europe. and the herb is the usual medium of exchange. and draw in the smoke. not one of the Jesuits daring to arrogate the right of opposing them. who exchange the cattle of their estates. for the support of the members and the repairing of the dwellings and churches. and lighting them at their pleasure. and rolled up. Peru. For the higher ranks use the snuff made at Seville only. but the Spaniards are under no such restriction. are very large. which they would certainly do. not perforated in any part. In most parts of Paraguay there is no currency of money. in huge vessels. and fastened into bundles with a twig. For the Guarany towns are not permitted by the laws to sell above a certain quantity. and are besides obliged to fit out our churches. in a paper. because they sold sugar brought them from Brazil. smoked by others. and procure for our Indians the necessary iron implements. and Buenos-Ayres. when dried a little in the air. though the price of a pound is at least four Spanish crowns.

but still more impediments. The king's order was universally. the lowest part of the tobacco nearest the first cylinder is transferred on the next to the surface. it was provided by the Catholic King Charles III. This cylinder. exudes a black. which. Lenguas. and in like manner is daily poured again upon the folds. that the Spanish and Indian Paraguayrians should henceforth prepare their tobacco in the manner of the Portugueze. This juice flows daily through. which. Tobacco prepared in this manner is chopped by the Portugueze into small pieces. By this method. The Spaniards themselves every year consume an astonishing quantity to provoke saliva. it must be kept in a moist place. as being no wise inferior to the Brazilian. and how eagerly it is sought by Europeans. apart from every thing which might taint it with any other smell. as being moister at that time. The stem which runs through the middle of the leaf is either beaten down with a bat or removed entirely. From the very infancy of this province to the present time. and the abundance of different fruits. bloody seditions. Add to this. It is incredible how highly this Brazilian tobacco is extolled by medical men. They are then suspended from reeds that they may dry a little. Abipones. and wither. the new manufacture costing them much labour. and when the whole mass is thoroughly penetrated by the liquor. To effect this. reduce them to the finest powder—the future delight of every nose in Portugal. Thus. the whole profits accruing to the royal treasury. glutinous juice. To prevent its drying. and the sprinkling of the tobacco. prepared in different ways. They have many means of wealth.head is beyond a doubt. though unwillingly complied with. The leaves thus prepared are twisted into ropes. that the savage Guaycurus. in the year 1765. must be diligently continued for many weeks. wretchedly wasted the province with massacres and pillage. and then rolled upon a cylindrical piece of wood. being . Mocobios. or chewed or smoked. it will be necessary to roll the spiral folds daily back again from one cylinder to another. thus compressed spirally upon the cylinder. the translation from one cylinder to another. and stirring them with a round stick. and remain some hours under the shade of a roof. is placed under the shade of a roof in such a manner that it may receive the heat of the sun. but even the higher orders. as in Germany. Not only the soldiers and sailors. contentions. The tobacco. and the common people. the sole venders of an article in such demand. yet very few opulent men are to be found. in tobacco. In Brazil the Portugueze twist the tobacco leaf into ropes. and grows rich like lard. civil wars. fitted up with a single cannon. or the means of resistance. To restrain so great an annual exportation of money to foreigners. and are plucked before noon. I will give you an account of the whole process:—The tobacco leaves are accounted ripe when their ends turn yellow. which they roast in a new pot placed on the hot coals. have miserably diminished the riches of the Spaniards. though the trade in the herb of Paraguay. The sweetness of the smell will mark the completion of the process. and pernicious enmities to the royal governours and bishops. with its tobacco. blackens. with little or no gain to the labourers. without leaving the miserable inhabitants a place to breathe in. might offer to the colonists of Paraguay manifold opportunities of acquiring wealth. To elude their designs. many millions have been lost by the Spaniards to the Portugueze. and that it should be sold at the price fixed by the royal governours. are either used as snuff. Tobas. By the traffic in tobacco alone. and yet not be touched by any of its rays. little fortlets are every where erected on the banks of the Paraguay. and sugar. often smoke tobacco. by means of a wheel. which falls drop by drop into a hide placed underneath. imbibes the juice equally. and Mbayas. cotton.

or the priests. during frequent and long absences. On their neck. a narrow one indeed. of which their living quietly on the shore of the Paraguay within sight of the city of Asumpcion. For many years they have kept to the convention. the settlers themselves are ordered sometimes to watch in these fortlets. One of them had brought fish to the house of a Spanish matron to sell. who is ignorant of the calamities brought upon this province by the barbarous Payaguas? These atrocious pirates. which is perforated. sometimes of wood. Their velocity is owing to their structure.discharged whenever the savages come in sight. The fortlets not being very far distant from one another. in a state of complete nakedness. and fly at the slightest impulse in any direction. They are tall. but no persuasions of the bishops. he should be punished at the pillory in the market-place with fifty strokes. their families. Alarmed by this consideration. in exchange for which he received a fruit called _mandubi_. or with the blood of oxen. and joyfully carries them off. the repeated explosions of guns quickly signifies the approach of an enemy descried from afar. funeral. was a principal condition. sometimes to march against the savages. On departing. to the metropolis itself. admonishes the neighbours to fight or fly. At length Raphael de la Moneda. puts them into the hind part. repressed the audacity of these pirates. and having let down the fore part of his garment. are decently covered with woollen garments woven by themselves. if he should hear of it. and in the absurdest superstitions. As this province is destitute of a regular soldiery. that if any of them thenceforth entered the city naked. They abound in nuptial. The keel touches the water for little more than three palms . but very long. which being considered offensive to Christian decency by the governour Raphael de la Moneda. They paint the whole body from head to foot with a variety of colours. could ever prevail upon them to embrace our religion. obliged them to crave a peace. the majority can stammer a little Spanish and Guarany. with this edict. Having no sack to put them in. The males think themselves handsomely arrayed if they be elegantly painted. They use their own language. Their weapons are a bow and arrows. from their constant intercourse with the Spaniards. he returns to the matron. reaching down to the breast. pointed at the end like a sword. according to circumstances. their agriculture. In this you may see the chief origin of their poverty. and the calves of their legs. to neglect their substance. their arms. In the under lip. though. Their hair is stained with a purple juice. he held them in the bottom of his garment lifted up as high as the loins. long spears. they fix a long tube. repeats the word _Moneda_. and the Spanish city and houses. or conveying them from thence. and extremely muscular. They are managed with a single oar. Being every year pressed for some months with the burdens of the militia. he provided that a quantity of coarse cotton should be distributed amongst the adult savages. To the flap of one of their ears they tie the wing of a huge vulture. and of massacring the crews. thinking that by this method he might walk through the market-place decently and unpunished. The females. natal. sometimes of shining copper. Besides the equestrian savages. and formerly frequented both their own settlement. but their craft is more formidable than their arms. and their commerce. infesting the rivers Paraguay and Parana. and after repeated successful excursions along the river. The frightful appearance which nature has given them they increase with adscititious ornaments. of every age. had for many years been in the habit of intercepting Spanish vessels freighted with wares for the port of Buenos-Ayres. with his finger in a threatening attitude. the royal governour. pours the fruit on the ground. and military rites. he began to think within himself that this mode of proceeding would be punished by the governour with a public whipping. when he had reached the door of the room. the governours. and a club. they are forced. Each family has its canoe. they wear strings of glass beads.

But the Portugueze who dwell in Cayaba are sometimes taken. This territory. from the city of Asumpcion. . which enables them to lurk within the shelter of the lesser rivers. and sometimes slain by Payaguas still practising piracy. and all kinds of precious furniture carried off. Tucuman. or sand. and either serves for poop or prow. the Payagua gets astride the boat. Many tribes of Payaguas yet remain. pebbles. enjoys a salubrious climate. to the vicinity of Buenos-Ayres. on my coming into Paraguay. which the Spaniards seldom visit. These savages. the remainder. till a favourable opportunity presents itself of pillaging loaden vessels. and fishes present themselves to the eye. or of disembarking and attacking the colonies. and churches laid waste—these are the monuments of the barbarous ferocity of these pirates: documents of their deceit yet fresh in the memory of man. wares. Its length is 300 leagues. till it shortly becomes navigable for small ships. The most considerable stream in Chaco is the Rio Grande. To the royal jurisdictions of Buenos-Ayres and Rio de la Plata. and thus pursues his way. crowds of boys and girls driven away. When the river is stormiest. forty leagues southwards. Santa Cruz de la Sierra. who. thence to Santa Cruz de la Sierra. emerge at an immense distance. cause them no apprehension. without fear. which has its source in the Peruvian mountains. where they terminate. They have two sorts of canoes. towards the prow and poop. and expected every moment to see him swallowed up by the eddying waters! They plunge into the lowest depths of the water. from the shore. Heaps of dead bodies. washes the cities of Guadalcazar and Concepcion. because they live remote from the city of Asumpcion. though you dig to the depth of fourteen feet. or Vermejo. or islands. and rises out of the water. If ever the boat is upset by an unusually strong wave. To the cities of Asumpcion and Corrientes. loaden with fish. Towards the south. the lesser for fishing and daily voyages. I appeal as witnesses. and a rich fertile soil. though more like beasts than men in their outward appearance. of Tucuman and Asumpcion. and on the shores of the rivers flowing into it. For many years they continued to pillage the Spanish colonies. is curved like a bow. cover immense tracts of land. and all the ships that came in their way. How often. the larger for the uses of war. it is utterly destitute of stones. stones and rocks that seem to threaten the skies. On the Peruvian side. houses reduced to ashes. do nevertheless in the contrivance of their designs discover amazing the middle. throughout its whole extent. as seems good. the ground is watered by noble rivers. to its waves. These latter will hold forty warriors. there sinks into fertile vallies. birds. on the northern parts of the Paraguay. must be added a region named Chaco. though bound by no tie of friendship to the Spaniards. Besides lakes and rivulets. and the rivers De la Plata and Paraguay surround Chaco. and a variety of excellent trees. If their designs be against the Spaniards. many of them join together in one fleet. the region De las Charcas. It flows down in a very deep channel. and is increased by the accession of many rivers. Here it gently swells into pleasant hillocks. with the most rapid course. which happens but seldom. It is adorned with woods. they trust themselves and their families. which overflow the banks and inundate the sloping plains to a great extent. its breadth 100. have I beheld the Payagua struggling and laughing amid the foaming waves of the tumultuous river. and after remaining under a surprising time. Incredible multitudes of strange beasts. on both sides it is bounded by the mountains which stretch from Cordoba to the Peruvian silver mines at the cities of Lipes and Potosi. affording rich pasturage to horses and cattle of all kinds. Both ends of the canoe are sharp alike. amphibious animals. and are the more dangerous from their drawing so little water. and to the Guarany and Spanish towns. and lastly to the lake Mamore.

is called by the Guaranies _Araguaaỹ_. The rivers and streams of lesser note which belong to Chaco. especially to those who labour under a difficulty of urine. The waters of the Rio Grande. rather than to skill. tributary lakes and rivers corrupt with such filth and saltness. for the most part. for the space of many leagues. its waters are not only sweet. it splits into two arms. which enter rivers sweet at their source. The second place to this river is occupied by the Pilcomayo.long since devastated by the savages. Its channel is deep. the ashes of which reduced to a calx are employed in the making of glass. The first of these arms which flows into the Paraguay. under this name. which. after proceeding a little southerly. they are pellucid. contracts a saltness. The _vidriera_ resembles the juniper. it must be attributed to fortune. a little before its junction with the Parana. In sundry places it changes both its channel and its name. which retains the name of _Pilcomayo_. are pronounced by authors to be salubrious. (Laguna Blanca. presently Rio Passage. so that both branches of the river coalescing into one channel. the Ocloyas. however. Beyond the city of Santa Fè. the Rio Negro. The Rio Dulce. through which it quietly flows. loses itself in the mighty waters of the Parana. it assumes the name of Coronda.) where the Indians and Spaniards affirm that howlings. If I remember rightly. and contained within narrow. and miserably taint them. which abound in fish. which also flows from the Peruvian mountains. mingles its waters with the Paraguay. being in place both of boughs and leaves. and afterwards. nor tainted with salt. are perceptible at the bottom. that. the Malabrigo or . as of bulls. unites with the Paraguay at about the distance of nine leagues to the south of Asumpcion. as it is neither interrupted by shallows. Iago. The Rio Salado derives its origin from the mountains of Salta. unnavigable. The palm tree (_carandaỹ_) under which salt-petre is produced. and finally. nor in all places. the very beasts refuse to touch it. and at about thirty leagues distance from thence. and in the deepest parts the excellent fish. It may be worth while to notice the origin of its saltness. it bears no fruit. and flowing down the country. or the wise river. Nearly eighty leagues from its junction with the Paraguay. For a length of way. the Atopehenra Lauate. Not many leagues distant is the white lake. The waters of the Pilcomayo are. has the same effect as the _vidriera_. The other arm. which. if any pilot pass over the opposing shallows. nearly transparent. even in the driest weather. the Rio Verde. and is finally received by the lake of gourds (Laguna de los Porrongos) between Cordoba and Santa Fè. are heard in the dead of the night. The rain falling upon these shrubs. with which this river abounds. But though the waters of the Rio Salado be salt. the berries are small and cylindrical. The neighbouring plains abound in the shrub _vidriera_. but very famous for their salubrity. communicates it to the lakes and streams. It is not navigable at all times. or any disease of the bladder. overflows its banks. extremely foul. The distance between it and the Rio Grande is reckoned at thirty leagues. possibly because the greatest sagacity is requisite to effect its navigation. within sight of Asumpcion. At first it is called Rio Arias. which is the Nile of the territory of St. the Sinancas. green. and the meanders of its waters in safety. in the neighbourhood of the castle de Val Buena. though lofty and precipitous banks. are the Centa. It is not far distant from the little Indian town Salabina. affords plentiful and sweet waters to the traveller. The whole island is annually flooded. Between the Salado and Dulce flows the rivulet Turugon. and joined one with another. Rio Salado. except near Santa Fè. the Jujuy. being girt with woods. forming an island of as many leagues in length. the Rio Rey or Ychimaye.

Yapitalakas. who are in great part Christians: the Mataguayos. and the rivers seas. but of these the names alone. For there they had mountains for observatories. the Eleya. Natekebits. in the hope of security. Vilelas. and other formidable wild beasts. and hostile to the Spaniards. tigers. when we had to contend with water. savages speaking various languages. Churumates. but who always proved indocile: the Payaguas. when they are almost innumerable. You may often travel many leagues where not even a bird could discover a drop of water. &c. Yooks. after a long drought. before we reached a situation where we could obtain water for ourselves and our horses. when the Spaniards first laid the yoke on the inhabitants of Peru. To escape the dreadful hands. for the most part. Several of them lighted a fire there to heat their water. the brooks seem rivers. formerly very numerous. or the small-pox. and if so. The Mbayas dwelling on the eastern shore of the Paraguay call themselves Eyiguayegis. or Lenguas. I think. besides lions. Ocoles. the rest having long since fallen victims to war. Guaycurus. Mogosnas. and Pazaines. prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. that these lurking-places in Chaco were tenanted by indigenous tribes. Several tribes formerly existed in Chaco. or Zapitalakas. It appears very probable. Amokebits. The equestrian nations remaining in Chaco. who shall number them all. or very slender relics remain. On the other hand. for many leagues. were added to the colonies of the Chiquitos. and plantations of fruit trees for storehouses. without resting day or night. fierceness and obstinacy. and the savages as their Palestine and Elysium. At other places. and the Chiquitos. Tradition reports. But the calamity was far more intolerable when we had to ride. Mataras. under a burning sun. a nation very famous for number. nay the very sight of the Europeans. famous for military ferocity. and Oekakakalots. Tobas. The pedestrian tribes are the Lules. the Guanas. whole plains being inundated. The Chiriguanos. and still formidable to the Spaniards. and deep marshes. Ojotades. converted by us. &c. The Spanish soldiers who were with me sometimes ascended high trees. which is somewhat remarkable. trackless woods for fortifications. those on the western Quetiadegodis. Their language. Mocobios. rivers and marshes for ditches. This is the face of the province called Chaco! which the Spanish soldiers look upon as a theatre of misery. Orejones. become almost dry. During many journies of many weeks. Aquilotes. Palomos. the Inespin or Naraheguem. Ygaronos. to wit the Tonocotè. &c. when the sky is prodigal of its hoard. a no uncommon occurrence in Chaco. can scarcely. there was often not a palm of dry land where we could rest at night. as the majority of them inhabit the territories of Tarija and Peru. be referred to Chaco. and have been. Wherever you turn. that they formerly migrated from the . Tanos. the Ysistines Foxistines. and noxious insects. and perching there. very little corrupted. serpents. enjoyed some portion of rest during the night. Caypotades.Neboque Latèl. mud. who speak the same language. whom we have so often attempted to civilize. you meet with an army of gnats. are the Abipones. Chunipies. and there a numerous population still eludes the attempts of the Spaniards. Of this number were the Calchaquis. By the annual excursions of men of our order to the woods. Nearly the same fate has swept away the equestrian tribes of the Malbalaes.. it is indubitable that the new arrivers joined themselves to the natives. Hither the Indians fled. Quamalcas. you might traverse immense plains without seeing a twig to light a fire with. is a dialect of the Guarany. they betook themselves to the coverts of Chaco. as the Zamucos. a very few survive in a corner of the territory of Santa Fè. like birds. At present. and settled in towns: the Homoampas. and often unnamed? Most of these.

Ygatimi. all horsemen. who. the difficult recesses of the Yguazu. as also on the shores of the Mondaỹ-guazù. whose flesh they infinitely prefer to that of any beast. called by the Spaniards Guaycuruti. still hidden in the coverts of woods. from the fairness of their faces. dwells a race of savages. and the Pacific Ocean. but brief. Other little towns. in search of honey. for having murdered their countryman Alexo Garzia. therefore. the first place is held by the Guenoas. and Acaraỹ. or cut them off by massacre. Monday. but not vanquished. have ever given the most trouble to the new arrivers from Spain. and being. without the limits of Chaco: the Guaranies. often at the peril of their lives. inhabiting thirty-two large towns. may in general be referred to the Guarany nation. constantly intent on the chase of men.southern shores of the Parana and the Paraguay. have assumed these names from the mountains. and use the Guarany tongue. are inhabited by Christian Guaranies. entirely different from the Guaranies in language. On the craggy rocks overhanging the river Tebiguarỹ Miri. as dwelling nearest the Rio de la Plata. also. Curyi. without. and the little city Villa Rica. to these northern tracts of Peru. The Guayaguis are a populous nation. though differently named. except a few who now profess Christianity. In 1750. but always in vain. and fairness of complexion. This very numerous nation comprehends the Charruas. transport them on their shoulders. they pass their lives without injuring any one. most certain. and arrows. rivers. it was unanimously agreed to examine the lurking-places of the savages. customs. They leap from tree to tree. that the Chiriguanos. or forests which they tenant. and with their missiles or clubs kill the mules and horses of the Spaniards. by the Inca Yupangui. as it were. . to whom they are hostile in the highest degree. These savages. through fear of the vengeance which threatened them from the Portugueze. men tall of stature. abound in hives of wood Indians. this carnage of horses and mules had brought devastation on the Spanish estates. as also the Ytatinguas. who wander in the woods between the rivers Parana and Uruguay. Tapes. the Yaros. administered by secular Presbyters. Troops of these occasionally descend into the plain beneath their mountains. to revenge their frequent violation of the stipulated peace. and contend that near a hundred years before the murder of Alexo Garzia. and feast most luxuriously upon them at home. by far the most numerous of all. hostile to the Spaniards. and cutting them into pieces. however. &c. and of the most barbarous manners. They wander over the remote forests on the banks of the Mondaỹ-guazù. the forest labyrinths. and armed with a club. at this day. a timid race. but are in reality Guaranies. When. To these horse-eaters I join the Indian man-eaters. This is. and the Catholic Faith. I shall here cursorily mention the other nations yet remaining in Paraguay. and other provision. little birds. Paraguay. who occupy two colonies in the woods of Taruma. or Franciscans. the door-keepers of all Paraguay. like monkies. and formidable to the whole neighbourhood far and wide. They have been sought after by men of our order. the soldiers of Santa Fè. at any rate. Carema. surprized the perfidious Charruas. The Tobatinguas. For on the very first day. Among the equestrian nations out of Chaco. Acaraỹ. some unaccountable panic induced them to return. according to the places where they reside. and Costeros. Destitute of clothing and settled habitations. and all of them sincerely attached to the King. they had been attacked. Bohanes. and Uruguay. are. This cause of their migration some reject. on the shores of the Parana. and Caayguas. who reside between the rivers Uruguay and Plata. The expedition was weighty. The extensive plains. and either lead them away captive. having any fixed settlements. Minoanes. often with great hardships.

or Serranos. arms. enemies. Santa Fé. For the former by their licentiousness do more harm to the women. knew that he should lose both cost and labour. The horse supplies them with food. In reality. Peguenches. Andrew. and wash their heads. Horrible names!—but far more horrible are the dispositions. collected in a little town dedicated to St. By the Spaniards they are either called Pampas. a village was built for them. It is our fixed resolve and pleasure to enjoy our old liberty of thinking and acting as we like. and a guard of soldiers added to secure his personal safety.—mountaineers. but we dreaded the coming of the soldiers. boots. they flock to their burying-places. not without many ceremonies. medicine. a priest given them to instruct them in religion and humanity. For a single flagon of brandy." The massacres committed by these worst of savages. clothes. desired that the soldiers might be removed. men of our order. for pity that . as he found their presence totally useless to himself. Multitudes of emus wander over these solitudes. or rebels. Muluches. for the purposes of sewing. who form a large part of the Quenoas. first with the blood of these animals. The sinews of the horse they use instead of thread. They drink melted horse-fat.—dwellers in champaigne country. bed. Being asked the cause of their flight. more than that of the savages. to sell this pestilent liquor was a crime. as they were sleeping in their tents. and afterwards with water. they are divided into Puelches. the Charruas applied themselves to agriculture. is almost destitute of wood and water. They have not all the same name or language. who was a Franciscan. utter the tenderest lamentations. about twenty leagues distant from the city. and sprinkling them with this beverage. Tamed by hunger and misery. and prevent their flight. alike exceed belief and calculation. the masters of the Chili Alps. but at the instigation of a certain famous juggler. that. the absolution of which was reserved for the Bishop alone. manners and opinions of those who bear them. who. On the western shore of the Parana. When I resided in Buenos-Ayres.) Sanguelches. in the territories of Corrientes. if the Indians observed the manners and discourse of the soldiers incongruous with the precepts issued from the church.about morning. The savages were chiefly supported by the flesh of wild horses. and that of the colony. to wit. tents. From the Indians of Peru. and expend their whole property in purchasing brandy from the Spaniards. than the savages could do to the colony with all their weapons. The country tenanted by these savages stretches an hundred leagues from north to south—from east to west full two hundred. and what not? Of the hide they make their couch. soldiers are sometimes sent from the city for the defence of a new colony. and the rest led into captivity with their families. Thuelchùs. They twist horse-hair into ropes. About the end of the last century. On the fear of hostile aggression. in the idea of its strengthening them. and yielded conformity to their priest. and Araucanos. saddles." said they. the young maid is often sold by her parents as a wife to some savage suitor. so far brought over the barbarous Yaros. by their eloquence and kindness. and thongs which serve alike for bridle and weapons. for some time. "We don't like. and extremely prejudicial to his proselytes. with which the neighbouring plains are overrun. "to have a God who knows and sees all we do in secret. and Monte-Video. lodging. but abounds in wild animals. to be instructed in religion. they suffered themselves. clothing. fearing nothing farther for his own security. is inhabited by equestrian savages. That immense plain which stretches out to the south west of Buenos-Ayres. This good man. they returned to their old haunts. Many were slain. thread. As soon as the first potation is prepared of the alfaroba mixed in water. however. deeds. (whom we call Patagonians. They are terribly addicted to drunkenness. they receive the general name of Aucas.

They compose the corpse in such a manner.those entombed beneath cannot enjoy their nectar. about sixty leagues distant. though never to be vanquished by the arms of the Europeans. when wrought to the highest pitch of bitterness. The greater part of them were in a state of slavery to private Spaniards. In this place we may add. they are wont to bury their dying ere the breath has left them. alarmed by these rumours. and weapons by no means to be despised. Itapurus. moreover. owe much to the Guaranies educated under our discipline. as could neither be gained nor expected from the other Americans. No time can erase the memory of such benefits. and three stone balls covered with leather. and such submission to God and the Spanish monarchy. They believe that the souls both of men and emus inhabit subterraneous tents. and suspended from as many thongs. to the tortures of a protracted death. And doubtless so great a number of rebels must ultimately have triumphed over so small a band as the Spaniards. Timbus. are their weapons. to the town of Arecaya. They have been partakers in all the wars which the Spaniards have waged in Paraguay against foreign or domestic foes. Of this number are the Caracaras. Agazes. The royal Governour Alphonso Sarmiento. had not our Guaranies. that within the ample confines of Paraguay. that the knees touch the face. whenever it was permitted. and that they have protected them against envy and calumny by their royal letters. mutilated in both feet. Hastores. embracing the royal party. His horses. a sword. and have had a great share of all their victories. the nation of the Guaranies. for a certain number of times. situate on the banks of the Yeyuy. This is their most familiar threat. Actuated by an irrational kind of pity. Ohomàs. See! what multitudes of nations are yet remaining in Paraguay! numerous others. and adorn him with blue beads. which they hurl with great dexterity. to shorten their pains. Frentones. glass beads. Caracoas. like a worm. on the other hand. however. and emu feathers. the Indians almost universally harboured designs of expelling the Spaniards from the whole province. after which they kill them. whose names exist alone in histories and maps. &c. Pretending . that they have ever sent them Jesuits from Europe to teach them religion. you may judge of the rest. will deny that the Spaniards. At other times. In war. a place of the inhabitants of which he entertained some suspicions. these savages are extremely formidable to the neighbouring Spaniards. have perished long since from various causes. From one instance which I shall produce. The bodies of the horses are fastened to the grave with stakes. Perabazones. and but little content with their lot. The Southern savages. when they see a man struggling in the agonies of death. when angry. with a little band of soldiers. evinced such docility and obedience to the instructions of the Jesuits. from which are suspended many coloured garments. leave their enemy. they lead round the tent of the deceased. The Guaranies owe it to the exceeding benevolence of the Spanish Kings. a colony was not founded. Those whom they despatch at a single blow. No one. In the years 1665 and 1666. Urtuezes. a spear. Fleet horses. strenuously opposed the arms and purposes of its opponents. there is scarce known a single nation upon which the Jesuits have not bestowed their labours. Aguilotes. that the annual tribute exacted from them has been lightened. The same fate awaits his dogs. they think kindly and humanely treated. that they have liberally supported them. ornamented with small copper bells. Napigues. Above all. Already were the torches of sedition and tumult scattered in every corner of Paraguay. hastened from Asumpcion. and writhing on the ground. they paint him with various colours. Again and again have all the Indian nations secretly conspired to the destruction of the Spaniards. and for which.

On this very account they were exposed to the hatred of the savages hostile to the Catholic King. whom the Catholic King honoured with gracious letters. with a view to the destruction of all the Spaniards. manners. the inhabitants of the Magellanic territory. all dedicated to the most holy mother of God. After travelling incessantly for twenty-four hours. named Concepcion. sometimes from the inconstancy of the Indians sighing for their native land. took up his quarters on the skirts of the town. sometimes from the malevolence. whenever commanded by the royal Governours have uniformly proved brave and faithful fellow-soldiers to the Spaniards against the savages. The . and he.friendship. or inertness of the Europeans. they are all. Chiriguanos. Vilelas. who presided over both these colonies. set out immediately with about two hundred of his Indian horsemen. one of Tobas. their gunpowder was exploded. At last. warlike and equestrian nations. and what steps must be taken for his own safety and that of the province. and acted as a defence to the inhabitants of Buenos-Ayres against the incursions of the savages. for the southern savages. by much labour of the Jesuits. To these add the pedestrian nations. in huts of boughs and straw. Out of the company of Guaranies three horsemen were chosen to carry the Governour's letters to Asumpcion. they differ amongst themselves. most of their clothes were burnt. Father Joseph Labrador is my authority. the avarice. The holy water was converted into a remedy for their thirst. But destitute of meat and drink they must have perished of thirst and famine. suspecting no turbulence for the present. and the Spaniards brought forth to freedom and security. Ignacio and Nuestra Señora Santa Fè. Concerning the ten towns of the Chiquitos I have spoken before. and cast fire upon their huts. These Indians. In the trepidation excited. would have broken out had they not stood in awe of the strength and immutable fidelity of the Guarany nation towards the King. however. where they thought for a little while to remain in safety. they had no opportunity of escape. Some of the Spaniards were slain and more wounded. have been the four cities of the Abipones. that seventy-three towns of various Indians perished in the province of Chaco. but highly consequential to the tranquillity of the whole province. and another of Mbayas. the soldiers betook themselves to the neighbouring church. and even against the Portugueze. at an immense expense. and religious observances. In the present age. is inhabited by the Pampas. formidable from their warlike courage and mortally poisoned arrows. &c. In the dead of the night the Indians surprized the Spaniards with every species of weapon. and compelled them. converted by us to the Roman rites and discipline in their own colonies. The Guaycurus for many years harassed these two towns of the Ytatinguas. no means of obtaining provision. Very many Indian towns have long since ceased to exist. attached to agriculture. In language. they entered Arecaya. The first. the Lules. where the Indian rebels were slain or taken prisoners by the Christian Guaranies. to exchange their station for one surrounded by the rivers Parana and Paraguay. Homoampas. which are still preserved in the register of Nuestra Señora a Santa Fè. where yet remain the posterity of those who aided the Spaniards endangered in Arecaya. at length. they received the Governour with honour. Father Quesa. three towns have arisen. Less in point of number. It appears from sufficient authority that a sedition raised by factious and warlike nations. and some of their guns were taken by the enemy. The enemy blockading the walls. Chunipies. The court of Madrid was immediately apprized of the fidelity and zeal of the Guaranies. in the view of assisting the Governour. the danger of the Governour and his comrades being told to the Guarany Ytatinguas in St. the two of Mocobios. however. in which he informed them of what had happened.

travelled to their savage wildernesses. the innocence of the imprisoned Cacique at length appeared. itched for the journey. Though daily vicissitudes occurred. Both my feet. incredibly retarded the conversion of the savages to a better way of life. accompanied by fifteen persons of both sexes. settled therein. was carried off on the suspicion of this murder. and on my playing to him in my chamber. who knew a little of those languages. who was growing aged. as an assistant to Father Matthias Strobl. But men of our profession cannot go where we will. and the witnesses being heard again and again. soldiers were sent by the Governour to detect the assassins. On hearing this he immediately caused himself to be led into our provincial's chamber.rulers of the newly-built town. they were immediately granted their liberty and the power of returning to their friends by the equitable Governour. was removed thither by the mandate of the Superior. The life of Father Matthias Strobl was placed in the most imminent danger. where there was plenty of spirit and of bad example. The provincial replied. of the slender forces he had to oppose to so numerous a foe. against the Spaniards if he should refuse. "In this very house. on the viol d'amour. Cacique Marike. however. and accompany you to the Magellanic lands. Father Matthias Strobl from the province of Austria. pray. prudence. of whose innocence they felt assured. I answered. fell in with the soldiers. and with importunate but vain entreaties. begged me for his companion. won by the kindness of the Father. with four-and-twenty hordesmen belonging to them. but promised to send me in two years to . Cacique Yahati. This threat filled Joseph Andonaegui with distracting cares. "Pleased indeed should I be to mount my horse. began earnestly to desire a little town of this sort in their native soil. about the beginning of the year 1748. and having felt the pulse of the people. in travelling to the city. and kept closely confined in prison with his people in the city. that at the very time when the murder was committed he was engaged in a certain shop in the city. and fortitude. (the provincial. conscious. was immediately delegated by the infuriated people to make the just demand of their captive's liberty from the Spanish Governour. the one an Englishman of great skill in medicine. a Serrano. The neighbourhood of the city. At length the town was built. Their wishes were immediately gratified. who came backwards and forwards to visit the Pampas.") "Where. and taken by the conveniences of life which the inhabitants of the colonies enjoyed. possessed the greatest authority among them. in the name of the whole nation. he took such a liking to me. Through an Indian interpreter I had a good deal of conversation with the blind Cacique Marike. Father Matthias Strobl. and Manuel Querini. The Serranos and Patagonians. Which being proved. These things fell out on my third visit to Buenos-Ayres. Thus it was: a murder happening to be committed in the territory of Buenos-Ayres." returned I. and the Caciques Marike and Tschuan Tuya. who. a Venetian of noble family. With how incensed a mind the inhabitants of the town bore so great an injury done to their countryman. and of the Spanish estates. Both Fathers possessed singular dexterity in managing the minds of the Indians. wherein to establish the intended colony. and without any foundation for the conjecture. and to declare instant war. I confess. as he was. But an unforeseen event almost proved fatal to the new raised colony. it was named Nuestra Señora del Pilar. looked about for an opportune situation. the other a Spaniard. To govern this colony. were men of distinguished piety. yet hopes of the happiest progress shone through them. does your captain dwell?" eagerly inquired Marike. Fathers Falconer and Cardiel. that I was now appointed to another station. except we be sent by the command of our captain. some credible Spaniards asserting. can scarcely be expressed. after a causeless captivity of four months. and a man of an ardent and intrepid mind. The examination of the murder being resumed. that he earnestly entreated me to go to their colony. though blind in both eyes.

five. and often more heads. famous for large crops of wheat. should be buried together in their darkness. to the Governour. so tractable. four leagues distant. by the assaulting savages. were often despoiled of their treasures. the Father eluded the enemy—eluded since he could not subdue. On the departure of the captives from Buenos Ayres. In the circumjacent estates and plains very many were despoiled of their substance. Thus having suffered a repulse from the Spaniards. great accessions were reasonably expected to Christianity. and an expedition was at length undertaken. A horde consists of three or four families. But this colony being daily harassed by hostile incursions. a severe loss to the city. is indeed a reflexion worthy of regret. the estates for two leagues distant from the city were presently left destitute of their guards. Those who went southward in great numbers for salt to the salt-pits. and the banishment of the Fathers who taught the strange religion. with eighty of their hordesmen. who were commanded to keep watch in the country and repress the enemy. and polygamy is very common amongst them.his colony. but never supplied one. and their life. was entirely deserted on the 3d of February. fled with the Fathers to the city of Concepcion. Through them he thought that friendships would be formed with the Spaniards. the potentate of that region. and of so gentle a disposition. whose interest it chiefly was to maintain these towns. but I cannot commend the young men of this nation either for honesty or modesty. and his own power in these parts gradually diminished. of their cultivators. by flying with his people. In order to effect these purposes. The light-armed cavalry. the town was restored to its former tranquillity. and named Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados. and the provincial would have stood to his promise. being made acquainted with the route and immense number of the enemy. a bay of the Rio de la Plata. at others from the suspicion alone of an enemy. their flocks. That so many thousand Indians who dwell in the southern parts. long beheld these Christian colonies with gloomy and envious eyes. and ultimately suppressed. The government of it was committed to Father Lorenzo Balda of Pampeluna. and shortly after increased by new supplies of Patagonians. for military succours from Buenos-Ayres. and to Father Augustino Vilert a Catalan. and but lazily defended by the Spanish guards. for the Patagonians have many children. but Satan confounded all these fair hopes. sometimes from real danger. Scarce any commerce is carried on between the Spaniards and Patagonians. were sometimes slain to a man. after they had irrecoverably lost them. Hence he turned his whole heart and thoughts to hastening the destruction of the new town. In the city itself the most disgraceful trepidations often arose. as many savages as possible were associated in a contract of arms. Who will not deplore the infinite miseries . For the savages being now at full liberty to ravage where they would. The towns. Each family generally numbers four. The same savages have often proved fatal. suffered repeated losses. the soldiers who guarded and transported them being miserably butchered. all who were sincere in religion and friendly to the Spaniards. From a nation so populous. Cangapol. They are docile beyond all the other southern tribes. Then at length the Spaniards perceived the utility of the southern colonies. occupied this colony. to the inhabitants of Barragan. and the lands around the village of Magdalen. always formidable. The neophytes and catechumens. Waggons laden with silver from Peru. Matthias Strobl. Three of the Patagonian Caciques. had not my labours been needed amongst the Abipones. and their herds were left. both having fled to safer quarters. For these a single town was prepared. where vessels are often drawn out and refitted. the freedom of the southern nations endangered. which city promised seventy provincial horsemen. made a timely request by letter. their cattle. and make less opposition to baptism. sometimes of more. 1753.

traversed the plains remote from the shore. a colony and religious instruction were to be awarded them. both of Chili and of Paraguay. after having proceeded four leagues without seeing a man. attended by a certain number of soldiers. every thing dangerous or favourable to the navigation of the Spaniards. Nothing daunted by the ferocity thus manifested in the savages. the sandbanks. taking a divided route. and sent a soldier to tell Father Cardiel. in the last century. who laboured for many years upon this people. and the greatness of their labours. that of Nuestra Señora del Pilar was distant from Concepcion seventy leagues to the south west. examined the harbour. had he not been awakened from his deep sleep. and Father Matthias Strobl. or convenience for the same appeared. having no plate of pewter or wood. and rescued him from the conflagration. and in latitude 36° 20´. Omitting the rest. From the military guard of the city of Monte-Video. and us Jesuits. Not unfrequently they receded many leagues from the shores. but the attempt was ever vain and unrewarded. baptized before their death. 1745. or any sign of man's habitation. as also not a few adults? At first. and the straw roof being already in flames. our companions.—labours almost fruitless. from Buenos-Ayres full an hundred and ten leagues. and was quite spent with so . and whether any sign of human habitation. the Fathers lived on horse-flesh. it was to be fortified against an enemy. in short. on the 17th of December. Father Joseph Quiroga. in place thereof. left no stone unturned to enlighten these uttermost corners of South America with the torch of the gospel. If any post or commodious station offered itself. the daily perils that threatened their lives. in various directions. therefore. The town of Concepcion was situated in 322° 20´ longitude. Every method was vainly tried to unite them to Christ and the Catholic King. and the neighbouring land. save by the immortal glory which their apostolic magnanimity and fortitude gained them. This business was taken up by the Catholic kings. Fathers Strobl and Cardiel. was diligently explored. and carefully noted in the journal of the voyage by Father Quiroga. their want of necessaries. unmanageable disciples. were murdered by their cruel. If they discovered the quarters of any savages. Three Jesuits. often ascending the steepest mountains with this view. Fathers Nicholas Mascardi and Joseph Quilelmo. the lakes. in the hope of finding Indians. Father Matthias Strobl's hut being set on fire by some villain or other. except indeed their sending to Heaven a considerable number of infants. Whatever land or water came within his observation. before oxen and sheep were sent for their subsistence. the hardships of their journeys. from the town of Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados only four. and accurately examined their nature. abandoned all hope. on foot. meantime. the daily food of those Indians. in a boat. Father Joseph Cardiel. twenty-five soldiers were chosen for the defence of the ship and the crew. They weighed anchor in the port of Monte-Video. which grew at length so greasy. always. and the rocks between them. the rivers. were destined by the King for this perilous expedition. for the purpose of inspecting the shores of Magellan. the depth or shallowness of the water. who had travelled many leagues. Father Thomas Falconer. who. that it was devoured whilst he slept by the wild dogs with which the plains are over-run.of the Jesuits. made use of his hat. he would doubtless himself have perished. In the year 1745. Nor must you think that the care of taming and instructing the southern nations has been neglected till our time. by one who continued faithful to him. a ship was despatched by Philip the Fifth from Cadiz to Paraguay. indefatigable teachers of the holy religion in that place. who wandered over all the plains with his Indians to kill horse-flesh. Father Strobl. and set out with prosperous gales and minds full of hope.

much walking, that he thought it highly imprudent to prosecute the
journey they had begun—that they might not improbably fall in with a
numerous troop of savage horse, by whom they, a few wearied footmen,
would undoubtedly be all cut to pieces—that he had himself long wished
to fall in the cause of religion, but that he neither could nor would
place the lives of others in such peril—and that even were they free
from this danger, and were no enemy to meet them, yet, as their
provisions were already consumed, if they prosecuted their journey, both
themselves and their companions must perish of hunger. Father Cardiel
however, always intrepid, dissuaded the return, urging that the
habitations of the savages must be near, principally on this ground,
that he saw a whitish dog barking at his men, but which soon after ran
away, hastening, as might be believed, to his master. In spite of these
arguments, both Fathers returned with their companions to the ship.
There the matter being prudently discussed, and all the officers
consulted, it was finally resolved that Father Cardiel, at his earnest
desire, should be permitted to repeat the journey, on this condition,
that he should set out with four and thirty men, soldiers as well as
sailors, who were willing to follow him of their own accord, and with
provisions sufficient to last them eight days. The journey was begun on
the 20th of February, and each day they travelled about eight leagues.
For the most part, they walked in a narrow and almost obliterated path
of the Indians. Drinkable water was every where at hand. Except emus,
and a few huanacos, no beasts were any where seen. On the fourth day of
their journey, about evening, they perceived a high hill, from the top
of which they beheld a plain, entirely destitute of grass and trees.
They all thought the cold of the night air intolerable; for though
shrubs were at hand to supply their fires, yet when the side nearest to
it grew warm, the other, being exposed to the most piercing wind, seemed
frozen. Amidst all this cold, the courage of the soldiers daily inflamed
more and more, but their bodies were observed sensibly to fail and break
down. Their shoes being worn by the roughness of the roads, many of them
crept along with naked, and not a few with wounded feet. Father Cardiel
too was first afflicted with nephritic pains, and afterwards with such a
debility in his feet, that he could not advance a step without crutches.
With all this, however, the ardent desire of discovering the habitations
of the savages never cooled. But their provisions, which were destined
for an eight days' journey, being now, after five days, in great measure
consumed, they were obliged to hasten back again to the ship. One effect
however was produced by this calamitous journey—it was now finally
determined, by ocular demonstration, that the hordes of the savages were
at a great distance from the sea; and that immense tracts of land
bordering upon the shore were uninhabitable, as destitute either of
fresh water, grass, or trees, or of all together; so much so at least,
that, except a few emus and huanacos, you could find scarce any sort of
beast. All things, therefore, having been considered, since there was no
opportunity of erecting a colony for the Indians, or a fortress for the
Spaniards, they unanimously resolved upon a return; to be conducted,
however, in such a way, that they should repeatedly disembark and
explore those places they were obliged to pass by in coming. At length,
on the 4th day of April, about sun-set, they cast anchor in the port of
Buenos-Ayres. The journal which Quiroga had made of the shore and
harbours, soon after printed and published at Madrid, with plates of
whatever seemed remarkable, will be of the highest use to Spaniards
hereafter in navigating this turbulent sea. I may here add, that Father
Joseph Cardiel, not having discovered the savages of the coast of
Magellan, either in his naval or his pedestrian journey, set out on
horseback in search of them, with a few companions. But their pains were
as fruitless as before. After wandering much and long over these
solitary plains, and consuming all the provisions he had brought with

him, he was reduced to such straights as to be obliged to feed on grass,
unless he preferred dying of emptiness, the extremity of which obliged
him to return to Buenos-Ayres, his business left unfinished, but
himself, for his signal fortitude, his magnanimity, and apostolic
ardour, truly deserving of honour and imitation.
In the year 1765, a large merchant-ship freighted to the value of some
millions, destined to Callao, a harbour of Lima, was stranded and lost
off the island of Terra del Fuego. The crew fortunately escaped, and
reached the island in a boat, the ship gradually foundering. Part of the
provision, the cannon, and other necessaries for supporting life, were
providently got out of the leaking vessel. A hill, neighbouring to the
sea, was occupied by the shipwrecked Spaniards, and fortified by I don't
know how many cannon. These being discharged, a troop of the Indian
inhabitants was seen advancing from afar. They were entirely naked, and
each kept rubbing his belly with his hands. On a second explosion, they
all fell on the ground, still continuing, however, to rub their bellies.
This ridiculous action of the savages the Spaniards were in doubt
whether to construe into a sign of friendship, or of hostility. As no
one understood their language, they were invited by gentle tones,
friendly nods, and little gifts displayed to them, till at length they
approached the station of the Spaniards, still rubbing their bellies
without intermission. Which custom surprizing the Spaniards, they now
call them _Rascabarrigas_, or the belly-rubbers. To conciliate the minds
of the islanders, elegant weapons, food, and various other little gifts
were offered them; except, however, some strings of glass beads, nothing
was accepted by the savages, who feared some fraud from the strangers.
They were, however, peaceable and quiet, so that the Spaniards mixed
amongst them, without fear of injury or hostile designs, and solicitous
only respecting the means and opportunity of sailing back to their
friends. It was resolved to build a vessel after their own model,
sufficient for the number of the shipwrecked. Trees adapted for
ship-building abounded in this island, nor did they want workmen or
carpenters' tools. The Indians themselves faithfully indicated the
places which supplied the hardest and largest wood, and with more
good-will than usefulness assisted the Spaniards in cutting and sawing
the beams; but after three or four strokes of the axe, or lifts of the
saw, they retired fatigued, being utterly unaccustomed to labour. The
Spaniards, however, longing to revisit their native soil, made up for
the deficiencies of the Indians, by their own sedulity. And now when
every thing was ready and prepared, iron nails were wanted to fasten the
joints of the ship. But the sea, bringing up various chests from the
foundered ship with the tide, one was found amongst them full of the
requisite nails, a circumstance looked upon by all as a signal favour of
Providence. Some of the tackling, which they had prudently taken from
the lost ship, proved of great service. With these aids the finishing
stroke was put to the little vessel, in which, after a prosperous voyage
of about a thousand leagues, they arrived safe at the harbour of
Monte-Video. All this which I have written on the shipwreck and
navigation of the Spaniards was related to me in the city of Santa Fé,
by an old Biscayan, builder of the foundered ship, companion of all
their perils, and architect of the vessel constructed in the island. In
the year 1788, when with my companions I was awaiting my passage to
Europe, at Buenos-Ayres, a ship set sail from that port, for Terra del
Fuego, with two priests, who being liberally provided with every thing
from the royal treasury, were ordered to establish a settlement in that
island, and to teach the natives religion. But not long after, they
returned to Buenos-Ayres in the same ship, without effecting their
business. What was done, or attempted, and what was the occasion of
their hasty return, I know not: but I heard the groans of the noble

Spaniards, who earnestly desired the Jesuits for this momentous
expedition: they, however, were recalled, God knows why, that same year
to Europe. In succeeding years the Spaniards have wished to subdue and
instruct that island, which lies near to the Maloine islands, in south
lat. 51° 30´, and west long. 60° 50´ from the meridian of Paris. This
isle, named from St. Maló, a town of Bretany, was taken possession of
with the labour and expense of Louis Antoine de Bourgainville, then
colonel of foot, and of Messieurs de Nerville and de Arboulin, his
relatives, and in the year 1763, or more probably 1764, delivered to
some loyal and industrious families of Nova Scotia, to be civilized.
Three years after, to wit in 1767, it was sold for eighty thousand
Spanish crowns to the Catholic King Charles, who thought that this
colony of strangers, as neighbouring to the provinces of Peru and Chili,
so rich in gold and silver, might prove dangerous to his monarchy, in
case of war, and cause a disunion between the Spanish and French
monarchies. The French families being transported to Europe, their
places were supplied, for the most part, by Spanish convicts, scarce one
of whom did not prefer a prison, or speedy death, to the constant and
lasting calamities of this province. Philip Ruiz Puente, of the king's
war-ship _La Liebre_, who brought out new settlers, warlike implements,
and provisions, was appointed to the government. He was accompanied by
another ship of war, _La Esmeralda_, commanded by Matteo Callao.—This
captain, returning in the same, from the Maloine islands, to
Monte-Video, transported me, with one hundred and fifty of my
associates, back to Europe. We had with us the Frenchman Nerville, who
had just discharged the government of that unhappy island; from him, as
well as from the Spaniards employed there, I learnt most of what I have
written on this subject.
On sufficient grounds have I bestowed the epithet unhappy on an island,
which is, nevertheless, by some Frenchmen pronounced equal to the
Fortunate Islands: and no wonder, for do we not always cry up the goods
we want to sell? Attend to what I have learnt on good authority,
respecting the island of St. Maló. It was never habitable either by
Indians, or beasts, so destitute is it of every thing pertaining to the
support of life. Rushes instead of trees, moss instead of grass, marsh
and mud for earth, cold always the most severe for air, and night almost
perpetual, with darkness and clouds, instead of sun, are what it offers
to the new inhabitants. The longest day lasts but a very few hours. From
its propinquity to the antarctic pole, it generally rages with furious
south winds, whirlwinds, and tempests. The frost, joined to almost
perpetual snow, is on this account the more intolerable, because
throughout the whole island, which is far from extensive, there is not
wood sufficient to make a fire, or build a hut, unless it be brought
from Terra del Fuego, which cannot be done without danger. The goats
which the French had brought, either from the want of pasture, or the
noxious qualities thereof, soon perished. The corn, from the ooziness of
the soil, never attained maturity, the stalk being always stunted, and
the ear seldom formed at all. Hence, the European supplies being now
consumed, frequent famine was added to their other miseries. Provision
was afforded them by the water-fowl called by the English, Penguins. In
place of bread, powder and shot were given to the Spanish soldiers and
others to shoot birds with. These, though at the coming of the French
exceedingly numerous, yet partly from being constantly shot, partly from
being scared away, were so diminished, that the succeeding Spaniards
were deprived of this solitary benefit of that most sterile island.
Nevertheless, it must be confessed, that this island, though calamitous
to its inhabitants, is of service to the Spaniards, as affording a
refuge to vessels in distress, an harbour capable of containing a
moderate fleet, and convenience for procuring water. The places open to

of St. Christopher on the opposite side of the Ỹgaỹ. subdued the lands and nations bordering on the Parana and Paraguay only: as for those more remote. under the illustrious name of St. but by the sweet eloquence of the Fathers. Father Marcello Lorenzana. of the holy Apostles in Caazapaguazù. By their incursions. Joachim in the same place. and of successors. celebrated for skill in shooting and robbing. Antonio Catani. In the same year. rendered them unequal to the harvest which lay before them. a city of Tucuman now destroyed. Within the limits of the cities Cordoba. and. for they are slaves to Spanish individuals. then few in number. but alarmed by their numbers and ferocity. where they discovered many thousands of Guaranies. of Santa Barbara. led by the Fathers into the freedom of the children of God. they did not want courage to explore them. on the western bank of the Paraguay. explored the province of Guayra. and the causes and periods of the fall of each. but the want of associates like themselves. and of St. I might almost say that innumerable colonies have fallen to the ground. Italians and Germans. Francisco Solano and Lewis Bolaños were famous for their apostolic expeditions in that age. French. to embrace the Roman Catholic religion. St. Let me now return to the straight road. a Spaniard of Paraguay. Paulo. and thence distinguished by the foreign name of Mamalukes: for it was their constant custom to carry off the Indians. These rapid progresses in the Christian cause have been miserably retarded by the Mamalukes from Brazil. Near about the same time. The . and Brazilian women. Not a few of the Guaranies were enlightened by the torch of the Gospel. It appears on record that upwards of four hundred towns. fresh arriving from Spain. on every opportunity. and Asumpcion. Ferdinand Arias. Diego Boroa. who were assembled in colonies. a bordering country. if circumstances permitted. in the large town which he had built for them. of Todos Santos in Caarõ. consisting of a few miserable inhabitants—miserable. The Mamalukes are a set of people born of Portugueze. were fortified by a mound and a tier of cannon.. St. utterly perished. commanded the small garrison. Rioja. as also those forest and mountain coverts toward the river Uruguay.the attack and ascent of an enemy. repeated for a number of years. into the hardest slavery. and brought over to God and the Catholic King. at length prevailed upon the Guaranies who wandered between the Paraguay and Parana. to the Spaniards. Roque Gonzalez. marched out with numerous forces against the Guaranies inhabiting the banks of the Uruguay. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya. and infinite was the number of Guaranies which lurked within the coverts of the woods and shores—a multitude hostile. Italians. not by fear. Pedro Romero. ready for any daring enterprize. a Spaniard. all Jesuits. placed in colonies. Those which remain are mere shadows of towns. Carlos in Caapi. of St. allow me to make a few premises. chiefly by the Franciscan Fathers. and principally from St. they overthrew the towns of Asumpcion in Ỹeyuỹ. were the Guaranies vanquished. But in discoursing on the devastated cities of Paraguay. Not by the fire-vomiting arms of soldiers. which had proved inaccessible to the Spanish soldiery. were a task of infinite time and labour. returned to the city. Dutch. I have suffered myself to be carried away into the lands of Magellan. Before I relate the devastation of many of our Guarany towns by the Mamalukes. St. Ignatius Loyola. In 1610. Corrientes. but means. in after years. inhabitants of Brazil. Miguel of Tucuman. an American Spaniard. To record every Indian town which has been overturned in Paraguay. the governor both of Buenos-Ayres and Asumpcion. &c. The soldiers. Iago. and master of our college at Asumpcion. which formerly stood around Guadalcazar. Fathers Giuseppe Cataldino and Simone Mazzeta. then colonel of foot. by love. and their successors.

and flee. for. which were administered both by the secular and regular clergy. St. with the exception of a few who escaped by flight. 16th Sept. It appears from authentic letters. Many perished by the way. were removed to safer places. nor others in the lands of the Spaniards. many of the Brazilians being either killed or wounded. in this town alone. at Rio Janeiro. forsaking their camps and their boats. equally inhuman in both. Three only of the victorious Guaranies were slain about the . such as Loretto. and tobacco. The same fate attended Xerez. in his sight.) Villarica. chained and corded. and that six hundred thousand Indians were sold. and collected companies of Indians in the woods. assaulted the army of Guaranies in the rear by surprize. and partly slain: and indeed they would all have been massacred. when the people were assembled in the church at divine service. Ignatius. was that victory which four thousand Guarany neophytes obtained at the river Mborore over a numerous flotilla of Brazilian banditti. Who can describe all the devastation committed in Paraguay? Hear what is said on this subject in the collection of _Lettres Curieuses et Edifiantes_:—"It is asserted. They frequently disguised themselves as Jesuits. Others. sometimes craft. left the wretched inhabitants no way of escape. All whom disease or age had rendered imbecile were either cut down or shot. Memorable above the rest. and covered with wounds. cities of the Spaniards. lest they should take advantage of the darkness." Pedro de Avila. a chief of their nation. in three hundred barks. and with incredible labour. blocking up every street and corner. crosses and a black gown." say they. hastened home in great trepidation. and. headed by Ignacio Abiazù. The Indian towns settled on the banks of the Yeyuỹ. but were bravely repulsed on every side. as far as the river Amazon. the most ferocious savages in Brazil.) that in five years three hundred thousand Paraguayrian Indians were carried away into Brazil. and many others. mines. (sent by the Catholic King —— in the year 1639. (Ciudad real. Paulo. overturned three of their boats. were entirely destroyed by the Mamalukes. both of the Fathers and of the Indians. and cruelly dashed upon the ground by the way. Most of them. in sound health. Four hundred of the inhabitants of St. in herds. from the year 1628 to the year 1630. like cattle. were led away to Brazil. Many towns that were liable to the treacherous hostilities of the Mamalukes. Paulo were present. was stripped of inhabitants. as being unequal to the daily march. Governour of Buenos-Ayres. Guayra. &c. and chastised with bloody slaughters. and that more than one thousand leagues of country. were often thrown by night into trenches prepared for them. Nor did the Mamalukes spare our colonies of the Chiquitos and Moxos. in Curuquati. and despairing of success in a naval fight. they sometimes employed open violence. had not night put an end to the fight and the victory. terrified at this unexpected salutation. But this their rapacity did not always remain unpunished. after the Guaranies were permitted by the King to carry fire-arms. went to meet the enemy in five ships. by a journey of many months. leaped from their boats on to the shore. and firing the cannon upon them. that the very few who remained alive. &c. or carried into captivity by the Mamalukes of Brazil. declared that Indians were openly sold. "that in the space of one hundred and thirty years. They generally rushed into the town in a long file. they were frequently repulsed. Next day they pursued the remnant of the enemy through the wood with such success. In this hunting of the Indians. either from hunger or the hardships of a journey protracted for many leagues. cotton.Guarany inhabitants of these colonies. by the inhabitants of the town of St. with two thousand seven hundred of their allies the Tupies. The sucking babes were torn from the bosoms of their mothers. and there condemned to perpetual labour in the working of sugar. wearing rosaries. two millions of Indians were slain. The Guaranies. mandioc.

in a decree issued on the 6th of July. were accustomed nevertheless to make use of them as slaves. The Lules. in many cities of Paraguay. or to do the aforesaid under any pretext whatsoever of lending them counsel. or teach it to be lawful so to do. in the words of the Roman Court. was every where greatly forwarded. For innumerable persons. perceiving that. that many millions of Indians were destroyed. threatened to excommunicate all who should presume. relating to the Brazilians. when his persecutors had turned him out of the province of Maranham. to reduce the Indians to a state of servitude. and equally few inhabitants. but on account of it the savages were forcibly deterred from embracing religion. in opposition to the commands of the king. and Christianity. contrary to the laws of Portugal. who preached on this subject at the Court of Lisbon. He adds. under pain of excommunication. by repeated laws. or service. who profit by the captivity and services of the Indians. who had formerly been baptized by St. his predecessors. This event rendered the men of St. prohibited all robbery. and at the river Plata. fled to the woods which they had . to the ancient recesses of their forests. in the year 1662. Many governours of provinces urged. The Pontifical and Royal letters against the oppression of the Indians were intended also to correct and intimidate the Spaniards. The Most Faithful King Joseph I.. who. and that. Francisco Solano.beginning of the conflict. Paul III. For from this traffic of the Indians many thousands of crowns were yearly collected. oppression. aid. returned. orders the captives to be set at liberty. The barbarity of these men towards the Indians was pourtrayed in lively and faithful colours by the Jesuit Father Antonio Vieyra. The Indians. &c. as well as in all other regions both of the western and southern Indies. Likewise other pious kings of Spain and Portugal. but almost banished. It is incredible how wickedly they strove to disturb the colonies of the Chiquitos and other savages. The Spanish historians complain that the Indians were hardly treated and oppressed with labour by their masters. or in any way whatsoever to deprive them of their liberty. the King found it necessary to have recourse to the threats and penalties of the Pope. in order to eradicate this abominable custom of enslaving and ill-treating the Indians. whenever they could. they must be eternally enslaved and miserable. or give them away. to sell. in favour of all the Indians then dwelling in the provinces of Brazil and Paraguay. All this was prohibited. and forty wounded. under the severest penalties. and cruelly enslaved by the inhabitants of the city Esteco. Peace and security were restored to their towns. but rarely brought about the observance of these decrees. very few Brazilian towns remain. at the present time. or to declare. or retain them in servitude. Nor should you imagine. and persecution of the Indians whatsoever. because they feared that no Indians would be left in the woods for them to take and sell. that these things. Paulo afraid of the emboldened Guaranies. Urban VIII. care more about riches than about conscience and honour. to separate them from their wives and children. which the perpetual incursions of the Mamalukes had not only disturbed. As the royal laws were disregarded in Brazil. favour. buy. and inserted into the new code of Portugueze laws. on account of his defending the liberty of the Indians. if they became Christians. that this was occasioned by the depriving the Indians of their liberty. in the year 1755. himself confesses. sale. He declares the Indians free. though they had formerly been less eager in captivating the Indians. exchange. and the friends of the Spaniards. wearied with miseries. are calumniously represented or exaggerated by Spanish writers. or to effect it in any way whatsoever. and Benedict XIV.

and scorning miserable servitude. By which means. is perhaps the greatest in the world. In the year 1509. a Sardinian. it is invariably distinguished by the Guarany natives with the name of Parana. and robbed from them. Solis. Sebastian Cabot and Diego Garcia called it the Silver River. But after nearly three centuries had elapsed. Hence vessels that have sailed through the Paraguay and Parana rest here as in port. brought from Peru by the Portugueze. For those small vessels which are sent from the cities of Asumpcion and Corrientes and from the Guarany towns. as far as the Pacific Ocean. not inclination was wanting. Rio de la Plata.formerly inhabited. The Indian towns. though destitute of silver. brought them back. which has already received the waters of the Rio Negro. Some mention has been made of the rivers which flow through Chaco: yet much remains to be said of the Parana. which it received at its rise. and with incredible labour civilized them in Valle Buena. because they found among the Indians dwelling near it some plates of silver. retains to this day the name of the Parana. have long since been reduced. were all destroyed by the Indians whom intolerable slavery had exasperated. and loaded afresh before their return. the Parana is augmented to such a degree. that at Las Conchas it is ten leagues in width. the inhabitants of which were subject only to the Catholic Monarch. From its distant source. It first bears the name of La Plata at the river Las Conchas. whilst. a little beyond which place. The warlike Calchaquis. but suspected by the Spaniards to have been taken out of the bosom or shores of this river. on the other hand. whence sallying forth. The Jesuits. sailing from Europe. and the origin of its name. The citizens of Concepcion. For the river La Plata is in reality the vast Parana. This river. But alas! those few with grief beheld themselves unable to correct a multitude of barbarians. and to aid the progress of religion. and gave it his own name. and left no stone unturned to restore and protect their liberty. named Encomenderos. or resembling the sea. no silver had yet been discovered there. where appears a remarkable rock. continually increased in population. on the banks of the river Bermejo. the inhabitants of which were subjected to private individuals. Estevan. they afflicted Tucuman with frequent and bloody slaughters. and that this latter comes from the lake Xarayes. which word signifies something akin to. intent upon disseminating religion. who execrated the avarice and cruelty of their countrymen in regard to the Indians. Ability. deserting their Spanish masters. and innumerable other streams. enriched in its course by the Paraguay. Historians have made many mistakes respecting the source of this river. to such wretchedness. which at Buenos-Ayres obtains the splendid but inappropriate title of La Plata. or of the royal authority. But in both these conjectures they are wide of the mark. For they think that La Plata takes its rise chiefly from the Paraguay. Juan Diaz de Solis. In the year 1527. and always remained and flourished under our discipline. six leagues distant from Buenos-Ayres. which. Uruguay. and smaller ones of other nations. as I said. returned to the caves of their native land. La Punta Gorda. I do not pretend to say that Paraguay and Brazil were at all times utterly destitute of Portugueze and Spaniards who paid strict obedience to the laws. by those who had their own private interest more at heart than the augmentation of religion. that they rather seemed shadows of towns. often with calumny and abuse. the chief and receptacle of them all. the thirty-two towns of the Guaranies. from whence the Jesuit Father Antonio Machoni. it absorbs the Uruguay. and are here unloaded. they endeavoured to vindicate the liberty of the Indians. on the western shore. discovered the river Parana. were often punished with exile. and they have remained to this day in the town of St. could . ten of the Chiquitos. than the reality: whilst.

But now listen attentively whilst I give you some description of the place where the city Corrientes is situated and which lies in lat. amid such a labyrinth of streams. are of lesser note. On the western shore the Parana receives the waters of the Ỹgayrỹ. It is certain that. the Acaraỹ. The source of the river Parana has afforded as much matter of controversy as the native city of Homer. which. which I have mentioned. flowed westerly. The Mondaỹ. such as the Ỹhu. might be transported along this river to the Parana. here becomes the prey of the greater Parana. For the herb of Paraguay. as large as. 27° 43´ and in long. It is joined on the way by thirty rivers of various sizes. about three miles apart. The Brazilian Indians think the Parana originates in an immense lake arising from the Peruvian mountains. For on the shore itself I measured it to be full six fathoms deep. Joachim. which has a narrow but very deep channel. about the 11th degree of latitude. by a huge mouth. with a great saving both of time and expense. In this long journey it receives the waters of many rivers and innumerable brooks. Who can enumerate this crowd of confluent streams? I will mention the principal ones which occur to my memory. and afterwards other moderate-sized rivers. and thence to the city of Buenos-Ayres. were it not impeded by rocks. the Yuguirỹ. perhaps that called Lauricocha. are said never to have been able to arrive at its source. following its course from lands situate between north and south. and is dangerous to swimmers by reason of its water monsters. with more appearance of probability. after travelling for the space of full five hundred leagues. But who would pay any attention to what the Indians say? Many rivers flowing from the Peruvian mountains vary their course every now and then. . a little before. a noble river. the Yguairỹ. you may perceive the waters to be different both in colour and taste. (the Yaguaro. and are mingled one with another: now who. at the same time. But they are blind to these advantages. could so exactly distinguish the Parana from the rest as to leave no room for doubt? It has been ascertained that this river. and would certainly be navigable to large ships. which abounds in the woods near its banks. which might perhaps be removed could the Spaniards be brought to perceive the advantages of its navigation. the Cambay. the Ỹgureỹ. the Amambaỹ. either on the stream itself. the Monicỹ. navigable to middle-sized vessels. For that vast body of water formed by the junction of both rivers is never called the Paraguay but always the Parana. which springs from the Tarumensian woods. &c. You must know that the great Paraguay. the Tarumaỹ. the Guirahemguaỹ. It flows in a very wide channel. All these. 318° 57´. and. and that not during the time of inundation. they are quite ignoble streams. the Ygatimỹ. for some time refuses to mix entirely with it.not safely proceed farther. travels more than eight hundred leagues before it disgorges itself into the sea. near the Guanuco. The Spaniards who first went to subdue Paraguay. But though both rivers flow within the same banks and in the same channel. or on its banks. often devours horses and mules as they are swimming in this river)—the Atingỹ. swelled by the waters of so many rivers which it has received in its progress. Others. the limpid Parana. augment it to such a degree that it becomes navigable to larger kinds of skiffs and boats—the Caapivarỹ. loses the name it has hitherto borne. derive the river Amazon from the lake above-mentioned. the Aguapeỹ. the Ỹmuncina. but so quietly that you can hardly hear it. though the Indians insist upon it that the Amazon and the Parana both proceed from the same source. scorning the muddy waters of the Paraguay. perhaps larger than the Danube at Vienna. because the former brings a far greater quantity of water than the latter. The Parana. near the town of St. in its various turnings and windings. a kind of water tiger.

St. abounds in immense trees of various kinds. Blanco. the saltness and bitterness of it.) in fertile pastures and tracts of land. for if you build a colony on the shores of the Parana. In the city of St. The city was forced to be changed also. which washes the city. the Atopehenra-lauatè. in ignorance of the future. the Parana-panè. or. All that part of this province which looks towards the west. beginning at the north. In the country of St. and by that of the vast Uruguay. the Carcaranal. which being done. flowing from Brazil. The event verified the prediction. the Areco. the Alcaray. the architect Solano. now sinking into plains. the river Dulce. that what they now desired. would some day really happen. extending for two leagues beyond: if you remove it two or three leagues from the shore. Iago del Estero. not content with its own magnitude. which unite with the Parana. on the contrary. the door of the church fronted the market-place. swelled by the accession of so many rivers. from having devastated Africa. The eastern shore of it is. and the equally vast Rio Negro. the Salado. the mother of streams. The more considerable rivers which join the Parana. is low. called by the Abipones Neboquelatèl. the Rio de los Arrecifes. Iago. after its junction with the Paraguay. (fit for building ships and waggons. who was famous for the gift of prophecy. and more uncertain duration. which comes to the same thing. both the inhabitants and the beasts will perish of thirst. for here the Parana. This river is of no inconsiderable size. for his companions. But just as the Parana does really show itself akin to the sea. it seems to me to possess some probability. The most noted of them is that by the Spaniards called Riachuelo. the Inespin. Rubeo. and subject to floods. However you may despise this conjecture. or river of tortoises. which the native Spaniards related to me when I was there. We have now reached the port where vessels. either from the superfluity or deficiency of water. the Cayman. yet you can scarce ever meet with a situation fit for human habitations or fixed towns. called by the Abipones Ychimaye. What is the reason of this? Has it any silver in its bosom or on its shores? Nothing is to be found there but mud. However. along with the ships that contained it. the Matanza. and the same has been the case with regard to some other rivers. the Rio de Martin. Verde. by the same right may the Parana be called La Plata from the Peruvian silver which it has often swallowed up. in great measure. changed its channel. the Rio del Rey. steep and stony. the Saladillo. Some years after. the Lujan. saying. But let us now return to the Parana. as it does at this day. it will be inundated with water on the next flood. and a handsome church. the Tortugas. as Scipio received the title of Africanus. the western shore. the Embalzado. but towards the plain. The rivers of lesser note. are in danger. hastening towards the sea. the Malabrigo. are the rivers Negro. called by the Abipones. the Rio de las Conchas. by which the Mamalukes formerly came to plunder the Guaranies. are the Añembỹ. muddy. the Eleya. it suddenly receives the name of La Plata. coming from the east or west of Paraguay. Narahaguem. it joins with itself the other ignobler streams which flow towards the west. or the place of Capibaris. yet. in such a manner that the door of it did not look toward the market-place of the city.following the Paraguay. beyond the Parana. Francisco Solano built a dwelling-house. now rising into gentle hills. takes the appearance of a sea. and will . Here the river is ten leagues wide. changes its course. the Rio de Gomez. the Iguazu. bade them wait a little. on the eastern side. The brothers not approving of this plan. the rivers Dulce and Salado have frequently changed their channel on this very account. the Guitaỹ.

the Aguapeỹ. the Vaccaretâ. as places of concealment. the rocks and cataracts with which it is here and there impeded render navigation extremely difficult. of which these cataracts are composed. the Piguirỹ. the Yabebirỹ. said to be about four miles in length. Oars. the Rio de los Astores and the Rio de Sta. In the midst a little reed hut is erected. submits to the Parana.) and flows for the space of full two hundred leagues. the Pardia. the Guanumbacà. much celebrated for the victory I related to you gained by the Guaranies over the Mamalukes. are chosen at this time by Indian runaways. happily attacked and conquered them. covered with bulls' hides to defend it from the inclemencies of the weather. in the last century. These are the names of the other rivers which join the Parana. and we learn that. However. Vicente. under Juan de Garay. which rises from the neighbouring lake Yberà. so that the sailors are obliged to carry them on their shoulders by land. peaches and various other trees. But all those streams are of lesser importance. The Ybiraytỹ. and denies a passage to skiffs coming from the port of Buenos-Ayres. covering the place like a cloud. from which the river falls headlong. The Corrientes. There is. but of inconsiderable and varying breadth. the Alcaràz. Four leagues from the bank of the Parana you meet with a cataract thirty ells high. which flows past the Guarany towns of St. and which in the Spanish language is called _balsa_. serpents and other wild animals either dangerous. need of many rowers. the Rio de los Topes. but which abound likewise in tigers. or fit for food. and Nuestra Senhora de Loretto. between the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth degrees of latitude. All these rivers are joined in . Ignatius-miri. is narrow but very deep. both in going up and down the stream. flowing from the lake Ỹbera. Many islands which it contains. and slay the inhabitants. and almost invincible. the Espinosa. The Guanguilarò. in all directions you meet with islands rich in palms. or Pepirỹ. may be seen at four leagues distance. As this cataract is utterly impassable. It rises in the mountains of Brazil. to the Spaniards. the Miriñaỹ. (according to Bourgainville. sometimes seventy feet long. they were inhabited by the Caracara Indians who proved very formidable. for some time.bear tolerably large vessels. at the command of the Governour of Buenos-Ayres. a party of our Guaranies. The most considerable rivers which flow into the Uruguay on the western shore are the Yapucà. and drag their boats along with their hands. navigators travel by land. moreover. the St. the Mborore. the Rio de los Charruas and the Pacu. The immense rocks. were indeed hurled aloft into the air. with more security than despatch. a river of the first magnitude. the Timboỹ. It is proper in this place to describe that kind of vessel in use amongst the Uruguayan Indians. but falling back again into the river. in the Captaincy of St. a moderate-sized river. not sails. being blasted. the Yaguarỹ-guazù. are firmly joined together with cross-planks. Three leagues from the cataract the river is only one league in width. Lucia. Ambrose. citrons. the Gualeguaỹ. the Hernand Arias. formerly called Lago de los Caracaras. most of the enemies being either slain or taken captive after an obstinate defence of all the islands. in order that they may proceed on their journey. the Acaranà. even to middle-sized skiffs. Through these last-mentioned rivers we have often known those cruel pirates the Payaguas come to plunder the estates of the Spaniards. are made use of. with a frightful noise. obstructed the passage of even the smallest vessels. Thus remedies are often worse than the disease itself._ We have now arrived at the place where the Uruguay. and over them they strew reeds carefully matted by way of a pavement. and such a foam proceeds from it that the thick vapour. Two very large boats. The largest of all the cataracts blocks up the whole river at the Guarany town Yapeyù. _Jam paulò major a canamus.

that is little Paraguay. This I boldly affirm on the authority of Father Joseph Sanchez Labrador. Neither the Portugueze. the Tebiguarỹ. from which the Parana receives its chief augmentation. did not originate in the Jesuit geographers. this collection of waters. the Ỹcabagua. at almost an equal distance from the North and South Seas. I must now discourse upon the Paraguay. and the 319th degree of longitude. but presently separates into three branches. a curious naturalist. In the midst of this imaginary lake they placed an island called De los Orejones. the Rio San Salvador. or great Paraguay. enters the Uruguay a little before that river unites with the Parana. the Mbutuy. after its junction with the Ybicuỹ.their course by lesser streams. Bourgainville asserts that the Paraguay takes its rise between the fifteenth and sixteenth degrees of north latitude. The town of Corazon de Jesus. the Yyuỹ. the Yaguarapè. lying. and red Uruguay. were acquainted with any such . "The Paraguay. In this neighbourhood. in the 16th degree of latitude. and the fabulous island De los Orejones. However this may be. it has been clearly ascertained that the Paraguay does not take its rise from the lake Xarayes. European strangers have mistaken this frequent inundation. to which they give thirty leagues of length and ten of breadth. The Chiquito town dedicated to St. These three branches of the river are swelled by the usual floods. Juan. for some time flows to the north." says he. for there they rested for a short time after their mighty labours. It is. neighbouring places. famed for the excellence and abundance of its waters. nor the more recent Spaniards. and has in the present age been detected: for it is certain that the Spaniards their successors have sailed on the river Paraguay sixty leagues beyond that lake. the Guaraỹ. the Toropỹ. for a permanent lake. inundate the plain country for the space of two hundred leagues. with good leave of Bourgainville be it spoken. the waters of the Uruguaỹ-mir̂i. the Piritinỹ. which generally lasts for some time. the Uruguaỹ-pîtà. situated in the 16th degree of latitude. This opinion of the Frenchman I willingly leave to be examined by the later Portugueze who have dwelt there. now established beyond all doubt. as such a lake exists no where but in geographical charts. such being the degree of space occupied by the Parana when it overflows. the Ñucorà. and. and the 313th degree of longitude. one of which the Indians call Paraguay-mir̂i. who repeatedly traversed both banks of the Paraguay. and by them arrived at the towns of the Chiquitos. The Uruguay receives. one hundred and ninety leagues distant from the city of Asumpcion. This ancient and universal error. lies nearest the shores of the river Paraguay. but was brought into Europe by the Spaniards who first subdued Paraguay. and the other two Paraguay-guazù. however. the Rio St. that those persons who have written that this river comes out of the lake Xarayes are quite mistaken. the Lechiguana. who inhabit Cuyaba and Matto Grosso. on the east. the Ỹribobà. This was called the Island of Paradise by the Spaniards who first conquered Paraguay. the Rio Negro. "collected into one channel. From such a number of uniting streams you may arrive at an idea of the magnitude of the Uruguay. Some have thought that it proceeds from the fabulous lake Del Dorado. Now let geographers hear what the oft commended Sanchez declares to be his opinion respecting that imaginary lake Xarayes. as the same Sanchez observed. overflowing their banks. at La Punta Gorda. The origin of this river has occasioned as great a dispute as that of the Parana. but the offspring of it. Xavier is situated more towards the north than the rest. which proves that we must seek for the source of it in the more distant mountains situated towards the north-east. nor the native Indians. or the little. for that collection of waters which is sometimes seen is not the parent of the river Paraguay.

The following are the names of the rest of the rivers: the Mboteteỹ. which flows into the Paraguay in 16° 29´ of south latitude. the Mboymboỹ. who must be hired to go before the ship in a boat. The shores of the Yeyuỹ. which are formed by intervening lands. and to which also the rivers Cuchipò-guazù. with provisions. the Yeyuỹ. where they gather little bits of gold out of the sand. It is intersected by many islands. they mistake an assemblage of waters caused by many months' rain for a river. and 320° 10´ of longitude from the island of Ferro. impeded by many rocks. and even more distant places. about twenty leagues before that river enters the Paraguay. well acquainted with the river. and supplied the Portugueze. the Pilcomayo. the Mbaerỹ. and augmented by many rivers. Andreas Alvarez. Lower down the river Taguarỹ. or by the melting of the snow on the Peruvian mountains. formerly the Guarambarè. in the land of the Guarany Ytatinguas. with no inconsiderable profit. for whom the Jesuits formerly founded two colonies in this place. a Portugueze. and abounds in rocks. the Timbò. the name of a Portugueze town. and diametrically opposite to the river Tebiguarỹ. Europeans travelling in unknown America are frequently deceived. and sound the depth every now and then. that you often cannot see either bank. and other necessaries from the produce of his land. and Matto Grosso. called Pratico. who was better acquainted with the controverted territories than any other person.lake. the Paraguay is joined by the river De los Porrudos. and quicksands. whereas it only proceeds from an immense flood created by continual showers. on the banks of which the Guaycarus settled. But alas! spite of every art that can be exerted. took up his residence with a number of negro slaves. most worthy of credit. At night you must rest in a safe situation. which had before received the waters of the Cuyaba. as on the sea." These are the arguments made use of by Sanchez. In Camapuâ. in the same ships which had borne them on the Ocean. It is dangerous to sail on it without a pilot. and consequently. The Paraguay receives into itself the following streams: the Tobatỹ. for fear of being wrecked. The principal rivers. to prove the non-existence of the lake Xarayes and its island. who travelled backwards and forwards. the Rio Verde. enters the Paraguay by three mouths. On the eastern shore. a vast quantity of which is carried from the town Curuguati to the city of Asumpcion. navigable to middle-sized vessels. vessels often stick in shoals. the Ygarỹpe. by the other Spanish inhabitants. shallows. an intermediate place. and Manso had previously united themselves. or Vermejo. which falls into the Paraguay in two branches some leagues apart. the Yabebirỹ. At this time no one dares attempt that. the Tareytỹ. in my opinion. and quicksands. a very large river. for this river swells to such a breadth. out of which they must be taken on the shoulders of the . beginning at the north. augmented by the waters of the Camapuâ. and of the Caapivarỹ. that the old Spaniards used to sail through it to the city of Asumpcion. the Guaycuruỹ. formed of two other lesser streams in the place called La Herradura. Cuchipò-miri. and the Tebiguarỹ. are surrounded by immense woods. enters the Paraguay before its junction with the Parana. which mingles its waters with the Yeyuỹ. the most important of which is the Caapivarỹ. the Mandiỹ beneath the site of the feigned lake Xarayes. the Ỹpane-guazù. the Corrientes. nurseries of the herb of Paraguay. Here I founded the Abiponian colony of San Carlos. the Caañiabê. and anxiously seek port on an approaching storm. the Paraguay is increased to such a size. join it on the western shore: the Jaurù. Through these and other rivers the Portugueze sail in boats to their colonies Cuyabà. But let us proceed. and where they remain to this day. waggons. or a constant lake. The Rio Grande. which is at the other bank of the Paraguay. from the port of Cadiz. with the waters of which the Paraguay is enriched. navigable to large boats. and such considerable tributary streams. By the accession of so many.

this cataract easily obtains the first place. in Guayra. whilst I was residing in the town of Loretto. load their vessels with so much merchandise. Nor is this incredible. and dashes. and indeed I know not whether the whole terraqueous globe contains any thing more wonderful. causing stupendous whirlpools. in great part unloaded. and are concealed from the view: then. For many persons. This river is likewise rendered dangerous by two whirlpools—places where. leap up to a great height. near the ruined city of Guayra. which sucks up whatever comes near it. but almost every hour a loud noise arises. dated Rome. there lurks many a hidden whirlpool. again break forth. therefore. that. leaping down. a whirlpool. they are swallowed up in the waves. For it often stagnates there by day. a number of Guaranies began to sail in boats up the river Parana. on account of the exceeding roughness of the rocks. rush into the rocks themselves. full of projecting rocks. and then meet together again. of lat. as if they had sprung from various fountains. Fish of immense size are seen there: and Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya. in the year 1626. swimming on the river. unless the sailors are extremely stupid. declares that he saw a fish. the credibility of which opinion I will endeavour to prove to you. they are covered by a perpetual foam.. I must now speak of the cataract of this river. In the year 1756. as big as an ox. with the assistance of a skiff. if the wind blows violently. where the river hurries along like lightning. with the utmost violence. and dashes vessels upon rocks or shallows. may easily be heard at four leagues distance. falling down and dashing against the rocks. describe this prodigy of nature in the words of Father Diego Ranconier. In other places also. Lastly. and swallow up vast masses of rocks. and as the channel is in many places intersected. Also the sound of the water. so great is the violence of the waters in the descent of the stream. for when I visited the Guarany Reductions. "Amongst all the things. in consequence of which. that you can scarce see two palms of wood above the water. the water seems inclined to rest on the bottom. in the centre. I have no doubt that in the long course of the Parana. which." Between the Guarany town De la Candelaria. to gather the herb . From these things you may judge that the navigation of this river can never be effected without danger. In sailing against the stream. "capable of exciting admiration in these provinces. reflecting the rays of the sun. and afterwards ejected whole on to the bank. who gave a most accurate description of it in the name of the Jesuit Father Nicolas Duran. the water twists into circles. in its downward course. the waters are separated into various paths. the Parana throws in the way of navigators another smaller rapid. and 325th of long. a Fleming. down an immensely high rock. in his annals of Paraguay. and forms. from which the waters. being reverberated. and occurs about the 24th deg. against huge rocks of horrible form. I myself never saw it: I shall. which is called by the Spaniards El Salto Grande.sailors. then missionary of the Guarany nation. or. The river precipitates itself. then Provincial of Paraguay. There is more danger in various other places. twelve leagues in descent. during the whole course of twelve leagues. through greediness of gain. but it may be passed without danger." (he means the new colonies of Indians. from some hidden cause. dazzles the eyes of beholders with its brightness. even when there is no wind. by relating a recent event. oars alone will not suffice." says he. sails must be made use of likewise. This rough descent being ended. in smoother ground. and reasonable alarm. the waters.) "they wrote me word that an Indian had been swallowed by a river-fish of this kind. with only half his body above water. and the city Corrientes. after having remained hidden for some time. and the water leaps up to the height of many cubits.

and still oftener in the wide ocean. continues during the whole of January. it spreads to the space of many leagues. The tide of the sea spreads full a hundred leagues up the Parana. wild beasts. Las dos Hermanas. like a pillar. places destructive to ships are discovered. all perished. I remember sailing near the town of St. are so entirely covered that the tops of the very highest trees are alone visible. which had. the announcer of this unfortunate catastrophe. by swimming. The greater flood generally commences in the summer month December. draw to land by the river Riachuelo. the river placid. now distinguished by the unmerited appellation of La Plata. Wait a little. though in strangers. when it is augmented by the tide. Other islands are gradually destroyed by the violence of the waves. amid palm trees. For the annual floods heap up the sands. Ships rest in the port of Buenos-Ayres. The waters of the Parana are muddy. whilst we were awaiting an opportunity of sailing to Europe. "About noon. but not to the danger. Ferdinand. The Parana abounds in innumerable islands of various sizes. It often demolishes the old. but are ignorant of the cause. The most considerable islands are Martin Garzia. light ships. some of which are three leagues in extent. and La Isla de Lobos. and put an end to the sudden terror excited. but its waters are fresh about six leagues from the mouth of the sea. When they had got a very few leagues beyond the town of Cuerpo de Cristo. and placed in extreme danger by it. exposed to all winds and storms." One alone escaped. and announced the sad fate of his companions. except one man. Gabriel. on the plain which. Often in vast rivers. the Island of St. at other times. which are very numerous. and turf. other trees. and sometimes does not subside till the end of February. The south wind. unless the anchors and cables be very strong and firm. in the city of Buenos-Ayres. I. When the river is not contained within its very high banks. it is too . threatens immediate destruction. and the ship and all the sailors were swallowed up in a moment." said he. which are liberally supplied with seeds of willows wafted thither by the wind. and lasts thirty days. was confined to my bed. as I told you. the air tranquil. called Lanchas. For soon after the prow was again elevated by some hidden impulse. Long. whither we had assembled from different parts of the province. which are much used in this river. but it fell back into its former situation. we have seen some of them sunk under water. escaped the observation of skilful navigators. The lesser begins about the middle of June. but perfect security is to be found in neither of them. others rocked like a ship by the wind and the waves. which rages most in those parts. and the poop proportionably lowered. also. The Parana. and you will see the island covered with willows. and creates new ones. for when the sea ebbs. and borne up and down till they are dissolved and swallowed up. for many ages. which proved fatal to fourteen of my companions. three leagues from land. Tigers and stags like those of our country. We know the fact. I used to gallop over on horseback. especially when the south wind blows violently. has five havens for sea-vessels. in a ship. these soon take root and quickly grow up with the aid of abundant moisture. In both floods all the islands. La Isla de Flores. Almost every body agreed with me in attributing it to a hidden whirlpool.of Paraguay in distant woods. come out upon the shores. not unwholesome for the natives of the town. when suddenly the prow of the ship was lifted straight upright. The sky was serene. which had remained till then undiscovered in this frequented river. The Parana overflows twice every year. but if suffered to settle in a pitcher. they occasion diarrhœa. and amphibious animals. and haunted by birds. "they briskly rowed the boat to the sound of pipes and drums.

and almost circular. being somewhat defended against the wind by high banks on one side. about nine leagues distant from the mouth of the sea. and one nearer to land. it consequently threatens navigators with an hundred dangers. The best. and almost fifteen leagues distant from it.shallow to bear those vessels. As the river La Plata has but a few ports. as well as the hidden rocks. are great causes for apprehension. and. captain of a war-ship named La Esmeralda. is protected against all winds. which are the more dangerous on account of their being less easy to be seen. on account of the sand-banks. that it rather deserves the name of a castlet. is that of Monte-Video. and lies exposed to all winds. La Isla de los Conejos. Pedro Ceballos. fortified this bay as well as he could with new works. opposite to the city Buenos-Ayres. the bay Barragan. The harbour is indeed of wide extent. though this very circumstance of the island's being so near. If the pilot is not thoroughly acquainted with the river.) affords a safer station for vessels. This bay. both of which are many leagues both in length and in breadth. but. On the opposite shore. the only port on the same shore." Who would not have been terror-struck at the remembrance of so many vessels which had recently perished there? That very ship in which we sailed from Lisbon had nearly been added to the number of those unfortunate ones. The little island of rabbits. and I shall think myself already at the port of Cadiz. The Governour. wind. For it is every where surrounded by low banks. a shipwreck is inevitable. when he brought us back to Spain from Monte-Video. and is commodiously defended by artillery. E. which is very formidable here. The danger is increased by some hidden rocks near La Isla dos Lobos. if the river be so much disturbed by a strong south wind. The most remarkable of these are two named El Banco Ingles. for during a tempest the waves rise mountains high. and the violence of them is incredible. or will spring a leak from being dashed against the rocks. and might be made very important to the security of the province. Gabriel. affords a convenient situation to ships of every size. This may the more certainly be expected. affords an opportunity for repairing ships. which is about one league and a half long from the port. and those not very safe ones. if nature were assisted by art. because mournfully signalized by not a few shipwrecks. and still more by huge crags in the neighbourhood of the port of Monte-Video. and on the other by the neighbouring island of St. (for such the width of the river is reckoned to be. to say truth. Three or four anchors will scarce hold a ship at such times. The place has no fortifications of any kind. The castle of the place is so small. twelve leagues distant from Buenos-Ayres. the larger ships remain two leagues from land. as to render it impossible to make any use of the rudder. It is also navigable to ships of war. which lies on the eastern shore. and as many from the sea. towards the west. was often heard to exclaim in the river Plata. The entrance itself is not devoid of danger. "Let me only get clear of this devil. and a defence against the S. and by a lofty mountain visible at eight leagues distance. Colonia do Sacramento. I . and La Isla de Flores. betwixt La Isla dos Lobos. by high shores. The vessel will either be buried amid high heaps of sand. and shoals which occur here and there. but little security for them. an experienced man. considering the immense sums expended upon it by the court of Madrid. consisting of a very few wretched huts of hides and rushes. Matteo Callao. and El Banco Ortiz. Men skilled in these matters have declared it as their opinion that this post is excellently well situated. or if he neglects to make frequent use of the sounding-line. and by a castle which contains five hundred guards. The island Maldonado. which is situated thirty leagues distant from the colony. except the south. and La Isla de Flores. and about as many from Monte-Video. called Las Carretas de Monte-Video. occupies the port. being rather shallow.

committed the entire management of the ship to this man. we pursued our journey. and that this man might go before us in a skiff and conduct our ship. a Brazilian mulatto was hired at a great price by Feliciano Velho. perceived that we were steering directly towards the English Shoal. the sailors were forced to toil day and night in pulling away the anchors and strengthening the cables. though he was. and suspecting the truth of the matter. because he professed himself well acquainted with the river La Plata. In crossing this river. and floated once again. the captain of the ship. or upon the English Shoal on the other. He took the ship to such a distance from the east shore. who. ascending a mast as quick as possible. We all vainly wished for some one from the port. About evening we cast anchor in very shallow water. so that the ship hardly floated at all. that it seemed every moment as if the joints of the planks would be loosened. which was fastened to a muddy bottom with a very bad anchor. drove such a force of water from the sea into the river Plata. which is about fifteen . well acquainted with the river.will relate the affair as briefly as possible. I observed that the water in a certain place was unusually disturbed. The poop remained immoveable. But after a few moments sail we were suddenly forced to cast anchor. we entered the port of Colonia. in safety. and near to the rocks named Las Carretas de Monte-Video. and the latter on our right. After remaining there for two days. Thinking that we had now left behind us the shoal named El Ortiz. Carried by the same wind. "you will lose my ship before the sun sets!" This sudden speech proved prophetic: for leaning over the side of the vessel. that for two days no industry or nautical skill was sufficient to remove it from that place. disclosed the circumstance to the captain. which it ought to have kept in sight. Stephen's day. On the second night there arose a most violent tempest. about noon. at no great distance. for the former were on our left. About day-break the ship stuck so fast upon those very shoals from which we thought ourselves long since escaped. according to custom. we were removed to the city of Buenos-Ayres. But. a violent south wind raised huge billows in the river. as I suspected. About the same time a strong south wind. that we were in a dangerous situation. that early in the morning the ship was extricated from that abyss of sands. Joseph Carvalho de Pereira. Consequently. After sun-set there came on a furious tempest. from the neighbouring quicksands. accompanied with continual thunder. by the sounding-line. Him we expected next day to show us the way. who came by night in a skiff from Monte-Video to spy us. we sailed. In Portugal. This formidable storm lasted two days. extremely ignorant. While the sky bellowed with thunder. but as he did not make his appearance. for. and created much alarm lest the ship. but more ignorant than a brute. should be either dashed upon the rocks of La Isla de Flores on one side. We learnt from the Spaniards. without suspicion of danger. he made a dangerous error at the very threshold. On perceiving which. blindly wandering up and down. next day about noon. at about two o'clock in the afternoon. sands were discovered to be close at hand. On St. but that a Portugueze captain was going next day to the port of Colonia. alas! the greatest danger is in security. now favourable to us. even at night. being probably afraid of the stormy wind. in reality. and being much tossed about. to show us the way. They said there was no skiff for such a person to make use of. being thrust into the sand. At the entrance of the river the captain. the captain thought fit to remove from this dangerous neighbourhood. whilst the other parts of the ship were tost about with such violence. and immediately ordered the prow of the ship to be turned towards the east: for that repercussion of the waters arose. that nothing but water and sky was to be seen. "Holloa!" exclaimed the captain.

and frequently perish. fresh heaps of sand. many Spanish grenadiers. into which the waters of the Parana. We gave ourselves up for lost when the rudder was thrust into the sand. Wherefore the wider this river extends on each side. But who could even guess at these new shoals. but at length when the ship strikes upon shoals.leagues wide. these later shoals are indeed discovered. being dashed against a shoal by the force of a stormy south wind. But Egidio Gonzalez de Avila. and we stuck for some time with the prow lifted up in the air. of a little boat. In this one channel the river La Plata flows between the promontories of Sta. But who can describe the joy we felt on beholding the shore. worm-eaten. I write this on my own . and one whole side of the skiff lay under water. knowledge. skill. except one captain of the grenadiers. for as it blew against us. Antonio. but must own I never measured it. that the north channel of the river is narrower and deeper. and ruinous. in his work intituled _Fasti Novi Orbis_. with a boy of ten years old. ten Jesuits destined for the province of Chili. I have crossed this channel twice. and all the rest of the crew being drowned. had its keel split like a nut. "What we call the river La Plata. in order to show you that successful navigation in this river depends not upon skill alone. the Paraguay. or want of skill. seized hold. or at least undergo much danger. was divided into two parts. which age had rendered rotten. For it appears from nautical tables and documents. Should a violent south wind arise. the very best skiff in the port of Buenos-Ayres. affirms that the river La Plata enters the sea by mouths eighty leagues in width. Scarcely did one part adhere to the other. and the south channel. at full ten miles distance from the place of the shipwreck. were wont to heap up? By continually making use of the sounding-line. Every one was aware that the foul tempest which had arisen in the night alone occasioned the shipwreck. lay concealed. with the other well-known rocks. and arrived in safety at the opposite shore. The priest Cyriaco Morelli speaks thus concerning the mouth of the river La Plata. The fury of the raging wind increased our fear and our danger. It is certain. the waves baffling all art and industry. and entering the port which we had vainly sought for three whole months? I have spoken the more fully on this subject. For want of a better. and the nearer it approaches to the sea. wider but of a shallower bottom. Maria and S." Different authors give different accounts of the width of this river where it enters the sea. and without consulting the sounding-line. others fewer. commanded by the most excellent captains in that city. perceive too late that they are in the river Plata. so much the more is it to be dreaded. many of us endured more apprehension. and experience all of no avail. and the Uruguay flow. and utterly perished. who. they think themselves sailing on the ocean. in the "_Ecclesiastical Theatre of the Indies_. than in the whole ocean. which prevents them from seeing both shores of it. or the sea rushing impetuously into the river. the ship will be driven into places where it will either perish. I leave you to form your own opinion on the subject. All knew whereabouts El Banco Inglez and El Banco Ortiz. and felt more sickness. But all this was nothing. In the year 1766. Many Spaniards at this day give it sixty leagues. by chance. our sails were too much bent. and boldly proceed with spread sails. we went in a skiff. that incautious or too credulous captains are often deceived by the wideness of this vast river. and some say it is seventy leagues across. ii. is in reality an immense bay of the sea. which latter is also called Cabo Blanco. Not a single person offered to accuse the pilot of stupidity. but upon great good-fortune. on the contrary. which either the river with its inundations. but often when it is too late. Trusting too much to their own fallacious calculations." vol.

and Quito. you will say. silver. We represented these circumstances over and over again to the captain. and openly declared that he should pursue his present course. We observed little birds. but if the calm lasted we must stick fast in the shallows. At length the sun being fully risen. Our alarm was increased when. or on to the shoals. and the waters momently decreasing more and more. Two hours after noon a gentle gale arose. a short-lived but violent gust of wind sprung up. full sail. is prevented from proceeding. we proceeded very slowly with but one sail. though in other respects a worthy and prudent man. we should have been becalmed. Lest the ship should be driven to the neighbouring promontory of Sta. many of the Spaniards flew to Paraguay. which enabled us to quit the shallows and that threatening shore. We should have perished had he acted according to his word. Thomas's day the ship proceeded full sail. it was not without terror that we beheld ourselves scarce a gun-shot from the lofty rocks of the promontory of Sta. where. and was somewhat pertinacious and opiniated He insisted upon it that we were far from land. But this short-lived joy was saddened the same day with all those wanderings and perils which I have just related. The name of the river Plata being spread throughout Europe in former times. the sailors discovered that. flying about. then at the meridian. thought fit to put in practice the maxim _festina lente_! We stuck between the hammer and the anvil. which abound in gold. by which we discovered that the bottom was but a very few cubits deep. and the . they have never hitherto endeavoured to dig for gold and silver. therefore. The testimony of the seals was also confirmed by the sounding-line. the wind abating a little. Some of them might perhaps be discovered. where they expected riches.experience. and about dawning got sight of La Isla de Lobos. a Portugueze. it being their daily custom to quit the water and go upon shore. and the colour of the water changed. to the imminent danger of the ship. For the sea being at ebb. as. never at other times seen on the ocean. till seven o'clock at night. which were the means of saving our lives by proving that we were in the perilous river La Plata. For about sun-set. From all this you may conclude how formidable the width of the river La Plata is to captains of ever so long experience. Maria. gems. bits of grass floating. and precious stones. or at least in the entrance of it. The wind becoming more favourable after sun-set. About the middle of the night. if properly searched for. the bottom was but six fathoms deep. For you will never see these amphibious animals in the main sea. relied too much on his own observations. The captain convinced of his former error. At dusk in the evening unknown tracts of land presented themselves to our eyes. from all which it was easy to conclude that we were near land. neither of which is to be found in Paraguay. or have been unsuccessful in the attempt. and to re-enter the main sea. when that first squall was succeeded by a tempest accompanied with thunder and a furious south wind. Paraguay is surrounded by the provinces of Chili. and with a wind as favourable as could be desired. after repeatedly casting the sounding-line. We derived safety and incredible consolation from the sun. floating in the same place. the sails were placed in such a manner that the wind when it falls into one is repelled by the other. and after all found nothing but poverty. who. Maria. and consequently disenabled from receding from the neighbouring rocks. All sails were lowered as usual. On St. Peru. we should be dashed to pieces. we stole into the very channel of the river. We perceived that the ship was surrounded on all sides by seals. if the south wind returned. but this I do not believe. knowing how sagacious and quick-sighted the Spaniards are in seeking for treasures concealed in the bosom of the earth. from observation of which we at length discovered whereabouts we were. by which means the ship. I am firmly persuaded that there are none to be found.

and remained ever afterwards indigent and derided by all. and took up that of a physician. to obtain from him a right to dig for gold. for he swore that silver mixed with iron lay concealed in this place. in which he was never properly instructed.longer I remained in this country. Not a stone or even a pebble is to be seen in the whole vicinity. and consequently that it was of no use whatever. immediately becomes noble. and slay the rich with impunity at all hours of the day. or spread a plaster. apply cupping-glasses to the skin. An European smith. forsook his gallipots. Finding his purse no way filled by the diseases and deaths of others. Hoping to become as rich as Crœsus. he flew into a rage. To obviate this objection they apply themselves to merchandise. He spent immense sums upon workmen. But understanding that he had been cheated. give themselves out for Galens in Paraguay. he thought himself the happiest of mankind. or hold any magistracy. will never find a wife in Paraguay. from merchants they suddenly become physicians. but was at that time reduced to ruin. which he had eagerly snatched up. was a place named Hierro. who in Europe hardly know how to shave a beard. Whoever has his shop filled with tallow-candles. breathe a vein. he directed his whole thoughts and faculties towards discovering mines. Deserters from the army and navy. Emissaries were hired to search in those places which were thought to contain metals. He knew that about eighty leagues distant from the city of St. to a smith to be melted in the city. I will tell you another anecdote of the same kind. cut the nails. needles. administer an injection. except that by its shining it bears some sort of resemblance to silver. who had formerly been opulent. These ignorant quacks. and threatened the authors of the deceit with every thing that was dreadful. except spending the riches that he already possessed. and being universally dreaded. he had still to learn wisdom. that no art would be sufficient to bend or reduce it to any kind of form. mules. and some flagons of brandy. and cajoled. Reduced to ruin. he at length changed his mind. is esteemed superior to the vulgar. cheese. who lived at a great distance. Here and there appears out of the turf a plank. if they exercise any handicraft trade. after carefully trying that exotic metal with fire. the last anchor of his hopes. he beheld the melted mass. Yet deluded by his hopes. I will fairly relate whatever occurs to my memory relative to the attempts that were made to discover metals. informed me that it was a sort of iron. I was intimately acquainted with a merchant in the city of St. the more was my opinion on that head strengthened by convincing proofs and experiments. but they served rather to drain the purses of the more credulous Spaniards than to enrich them. and turned his thoughts towards metals.—a metamorphosis by no means uncommon amongst the Europeans who reside in America. Such an one was Bartholomew. provision. and other instruments necessary for searching the bowels of the earth. which runs out into an extensive plain covered with rich grass. In many places signs of hidden metal were sometimes discovered. linen or woollen neck-handkerchiefs. A certain merchant of Cordoba was involved in very great pecuniary difficulties. to extricate himself from which he forsook his old calling. with no reward for his pains. The good man now thought he had reached the summit of his wishes. having the appearance of iron. but so hard and so brittle. He gave a little piece of this metal. therefore. The Spaniards who were present privily slipped some pieces of silver money into the furnace. Iago. A vague report . consisting of silver and that kind of iron flowing from the furnace. or the trunk of a tree. scissors. At much expense he undertook a journey to the Governour of Tucuman. to the great amusement of all that heard him. and the ridiculous ideas that were entertained on this head. is styled a merchant. When. and fit to make any marriage connection. knives. without obtaining those which he promised himself under ground. Iago del Estero.

They had not yet learnt that all that glitters is not gold nor diamonds either. as we all know. the bowels of the earth. for though I have travelled over the greatest part of Paraguay. The first Spanish inhabitants entertained a thorough belief that the province of Guayra was rich in metals. That small pieces of gold had been discovered in our times in the mountains near the city of Monte-Video. cities formerly accounted fountains of metals and of riches. their surface is rough and hard. and perhaps no reality in the matter. but with no success. Having consulted those persons who were best informed on this subject. but I thought that they either were not genuine. burst with a noise as loud as that of a gun. which produce genuine jewels. than in the subterranean caverns of the Cordoban mountains. and terrible expense. have all proved seminaries of indigence and misery. I never saw a stone of this kind.had been spread that in the mountains near Cordoba. What was called Villa Rica. They say that the _cocos de mina_. and of a dark colour. particularly the shores of the Parana. The foolish credulity of certain persons. hired men to dig. rubies. before the coming of the Spaniards. These stones in shape are sometimes round. that the Indians. amethysts. which his hopes of discovering gold had led him to contract. as no one was known to have taken the pains to seek for more in the same river. A report was spread amongst the common people. Jewellers rate them about as high as Bohemian stones. hoped to gain riches. sometimes oval. that I know of. &c. this wretched man served to teach others that it is safer to seek for gold on the surface of the earth. and purchased cattle to maintain them. I was informed by Andonaegui. But they are deceived. or the Rich City. but I boldly deny that any inhabitant of Paraguay was ever enriched with one. they found some stones which they called _cocos de mina_. obtained leave of the royal Governours. or had been brought thither from some other place. but only so in name. from that time forward ever thought of seeking there for mines of gold. when what they consider the noble burden which their womb contains is mature. with eyes attentive to nature. was never opulent in reality. On the shores of the Parana. solely on the promise of reward. Some one reported that amethysts had been found in the river Rosario. had dug gold out of the mountains which surround the city Rioja. near the city of Monte-Video. with great loss. for some time. as it was necessary to convey both wood and water many leagues on the backs of mules. who take them for crystal. Finding no gold and silver in those parts of Paraguay which their feet had traversed and their eyes beheld. I do not pretend to say that the _coco de mina_ may not have its value in the other provinces of America. and great value in the eyes of ignorant persons. and Villa Rica. Though the Catholic King was made acquainted with this circumstance. no pains were ever taken to examine and excavate those mountains. In size they are equal to a pomegranate. was punished with extreme poverty. they promised themselves to find abundance of precious stones. Within the outer shell they contain little stones of various colours. signs of hidden gold had manifested themselves. pregnant with these kinds of pebbles. it being thought that there was little hope. From . Overwhelmed with debts. But every attempt of the Spaniards to find this noble metal in those mountains was uniformly unsuccessful. and sometimes to a man's head. with what truth I know not. from this fallacious resemblance of jewels. Xerez. whom the Jesuits had undertaken to instruct in religion. and the hopes it held out of discovering metals. This appearance and these properties are attributed to them by the vulgar. Governour of Buenos-Ayres. Ciudad Real. who. he explored. they persuaded themselves and others that these metals were concealed in the native soil of the Guaranies. and there too. And indeed no one. emeralds.

Certain Spaniards. Governour of Paraguay. These explorers were attended. were reported to abound in the land of the Guaranies. Every thing that was found on the Guarany soil they took for gold and jewels. whilst the Spaniards annexed them to Paraguay. which must be discovered next day. who had thus falsely accused the Jesuits. fearing the punishment of his falsehood. "They write from Brazil that the Jesuits of Paraguay have brought their diamond mines to such a degree of perfection. nor indeed that any one. out of which they pick very small particles of gold. I will fairly describe the liberality of nature towards Paraguay. by the gifts and liberal promises of some enemy of the Jesuits. and was. and when they were a very few leagues distant from that _golden_ spot. The one abounds in gold and silver. warlike machines. but being taken in the town of Yapeyù. gathered up all the little worthless stones they met with on the way. the other is absolutely destitute of both. and which. The Portugueze in Cuyaba. The Indian was punished for his perfidy. and the phantoms raised by falsehood and calumny disappeared. You shall see and laugh at its treasures. and a numerous garrison. in Matto Grosso. But the province of Chili differs as much from Paraguay. a town of the Guaranies. a man of bad character. to cut the glass for the various uses of the church. to the Spaniards from whom he had deserted. the knavish Indian. who many calumnies launched against us! By the royal authority and at the desire of the Jesuits. by a Guarany deserter. there were sent men commissioned to search diligently if any metal existed in the Guarany territories. In the Gazeta de Madrid. I would have bought the smallest particle of a diamond at any price. punished with confiscation of their goods and public infamy. who visited the Guarany towns. by the missionary himself. amethysts. after which they unanimously and publicly declared that no mines existed in that place. This rogue had been induced. collect sands from various rivers. and that this place was strengthened like a fort with strong holds. always obliged to make use of a flint instead. in the capacity of guide. For the Portugueze always contended that the above-mentioned territories were comprehended within the limits of Brazil. or rubies. and in the fortlet of Sta. fled away in the night. in the land belonging to Concepcion. dated London. and I cannot tell whether it excited his laughter or his indignation the most. could rationally expect them to be produced there. Rosa. Thither they directly hastened. was sent back. but could never meet with any one who possessed such a thing. formerly with the connivance of the Spaniards. I read this article. to declare that he had seen gold mines at the banks of the Uruguay. yet the ridiculous suspicion that mines were buried amongst the Guaranies was not yet extinct. Diamonds. and pronounced incapable of holding any office in the state. I have often laughed at beholding the eagerness and solicitude with which the Spaniards. which nature has denied to every part of Paraguay. who considered the nature of the situation. they must have got it from the mountains where every one knows that metals are found. . consequently. By these royal fulminations calumny was for a little while repressed. they thought to be emeralds. it was even propagated amongst the more credulous Europeans. how many lies have been coined. chained and guarded. If the savages at the straits of Magellan have any metal. The cheat respecting those gold mines and fortifications was thus brought to light. on account of their various colours. or their own Peru. were declared calumniators. as Austria does from its neighbour Hungary. That you may perceive the truth of what I say." I submitted this paragraph to the perusal of Charles Murphy. and since the last declaration of peace with their open consent. that it is greatly to be apprehended the diamonds of Brazil will decrease in value. The Spaniards examined every corner far and near.this false conjecture.

in 1748. very light. mottled with black spots. in that country itself. But he had scarcely any imitators. may be seen in many places. At the banks of the greater Tebiguarỹ. with immense labour. instead of a glass window. a quantity of glass was brought thither in the Spanish ships. Out of the Cordoban mountains. for that article was extremely scarce and dear. All the Guarany youths. For the south wind. some six or seven. I sometimes saw marble of a black colour. The Guaranies. where they look towards the south. but even now it is sold at a price incredible to Europeans. breaking enormous masts of large ships. It consists of slender laminæ. are of a dusky colour. Whether Paraguay produces alum. and the price being reduced. the priest of the town. but instruments to cut them. when I arrived in Paraguay. The shores of the Paraguay and other rivers afford gypsum. Many have committed mistakes who have written concerning Paraguay. Out of the numerous leaves of which this stone is composed. they place a hard. a sort of softish white stone. and is brought at a great expense from Peru. in whitening their houses.At the close of the last century. somewhat more iron has been brought in the Spanish ships. I know not whether any other marbles or remarkable stones are concealed in the bosom of the earth elsewhere. by dint of a very hot fire kept up for twenty-four hours. I could not see one glass window in the chief colleges of the province. sulphur. especially at the banks of the Uruguay. a common knife to use at table. as some of the towns contain four thousand inhabitants. which is excessively violent in South America. its native soil. but they are not found in the territories of the Abipones and Guaranies. in proportion to the labour and firewood spent upon it. and mercury. for the quantity of iron obtained was so inconsiderable. make use of burnt snails' shells. I do not know. and extremely fit for muskets. which is a kind of alabaster. and fit them for the use of muskets. that it was not thought worth the trouble. it assumes the softness of paper and the colour of silver. nor in the towns of the Guaranies. Stones fit for making lime are to be met with in almost any part of Paraguay. often levelling whole houses. for most of them are darkened with black or yellow spots. containing plenty of fire. so that it may be divided with a knife into small plates. and is used to make little images and other figures to adorn poor churches. which are composed of a number of very small pebbles. When slightly burnt. who dwell at a distance from these shores. you will find few entirely white and transparent. In our times. not . they sometimes dig _talc_. This donation is more expensive than Europeans may imagine. These stones. and the married people at the beginning of January. at the first gust breaks all the glass that opposes its fury. the houses and churches shone with glass windows. and tearing up lofty cedars by the roots. Father Antony Sepp found out a method of extracting a small quantity of iron from stones named _ytacurù_. receive from the Jesuit. or of a chalk like fuller's earth. In the churches. which they call _tobaty_. and as these substitutes were torn away by every shower or boisterous wind. spotted with green. notwithstanding the dearness of iron. Yet. and of no firmness. or linen cloth. They have liberally bestowed treasures upon it. but of very small dimensions. white. The better ones supply the place of glass in windows and lanterns. was continually under the necessity of making repairs. But in the last years of my residence in Paraguay. Red and black flints. and is sometimes dipped in water. on their marriage-day. none of us ever thought of procuring a trifling quantity of it. from the stones named _ytacurù_. (which is difficult to procure. and transparent stone. are wanting.) of paper. Every one made his own window of the stone talc.

the _peso fuerte_. and the Portugueze. mules. But all that gold and silver was not created in the bowels of Paraguay. This I do not deny. In a very few towns. oxen. in his poem intituled _Argentina. and the same nuptial rings. and by him to the bride. but the people of Chili supply them with brass. Silver vessels are seen in the houses of the Spaniards. would not they have grasped eagerly at pearls. the skins of animals. and he dreamt of what he desired. but sometimes the very ceilings are gilded. but because they have dreamt of them in a country utterly destitute of all metals. In the Guarany colonies. with these all necessaries are purchased. You never see any gold or copper money. as amongst the ancients. with glass beads brought from Europe. If liberal nature had there created gold and silver. may serve over and over again. not only the altars._ To this number belongs Martin del Barco. which is equal in value to a Spanish crown. and cultivating the celebrated herb. if at all. both irksome employments. sugar. in public weddings. Excepting a few cities. we find only three kinds of silver coins. with one accord. money is used very rarely. or as many rials. and legs. Horses. and had dwelt there for many years. cotton. The prices of all natural productions are regulated by the magistrates. The blind man dreamt that he saw. dubito_. and are diligently learnt and observed both by the seller. The oldest of the Indians. De Moribus Germanorum: _Argentum et aurum propitii. that the same money. if art and industry had discovered those metals. or _medios reales de plata_. and the purchaser. in every town. are given by the parish priest to the bridegroom. a mere fable. The Indians. but are afterwards returned again to the priest. all answered. _El çiego soñaba que veia. according to the custom of the Spanish church. namely. _peso de plata_. with the seeds and kernels of various fruit and the claws of birds. as a dowry. and the _medio real de plata_. Would not these savages. the Spaniards would long since have left off breeding cattle. priests and governours. with little round globes made of cockle-shells. who continually adorn their necks. or of any other person. had they ever met with any? We may therefore safely pronounce this lake. y Conquista del Rio de la Plata_. especially in the district of Asumpcion. and the usual stipends and taxes paid to the bishops. I think that you may aptly apply to Paraguay what was said of Germany by Tacitus. would have shunned both the . fruits. but brought from the provinces of Chili or Peru. its place being supplied by the exchange of commodities. that they had never seen any pearls. an irati Dii negaverint. and Chili. the most distinguished for experience and veracity. or _patacon_.because it really possesses them. salt. &c. who. y soñaba lo que queria. tobacco. near which the Abipones inhabit. or for those of the Spaniards. which are naturally so bright. and the Jesuits likewise. No money is coined in any part of Paraguay in the name of the King. or to two German florens: the _real de plata_. where money is used. affirms that pearls are formed in some lake. The Guaranies make very large brass bells for their own churches. and silver utensils in the churches of the cities. the herb of Paraguay. as the Spanish proverb goes. or with the neighbouring people of Peru. who must then have been occupied in digging metals. various kinds of grain. vegetables. sheep. the other to seven _cruitzers_ and a half. said to produce pearls. who were born in that neighbourhood. the first of which is equivalent to five German _groschen_. which carry on commerce with European ships. except that we had fourteen silver pieces. are used instead of money in Paraguay. The Indians in the towns entrusted to our charge are entirely unprovided with money. arms. For these pieces of money. nor heard any thing about them from their ancestors. Archdeacon in the city of Buenos-Ayres. long since expunged from history by all sensible persons.

in a place where the fresh air is admitted. thousands of cows and bulls from the country. then. This labour. as is customary in Europe. (a _real de plata_. and generally surpass them in the size of their bodies. leaping on his back. for the cows are very seldom milked. It is incredible . A butcher and shambles are words unknown to the Paraguayrians. by driving away the beasts which stood threatening them with their horns. for thirteen or. Every one slays his oxen at his pleasure. though not of the same. An ox-hide. ten. and for four amongst the Spaniards. thus the ox falls. Two or three young men are sufficient to kill the most furious bull. butter scarcely ever. both on account of the richness of the pastures. at every time of the year. yet it can by no means be called a poor country. Sometimes the mothers are sent with their calves to the pastures. One throws a noose of leather over his neck.religion and friendship of the Spaniards. and we Jesuits should never to embrace our religion. every ox yields such a weight of fat. when all the plains were covered with wild oxen. and is called by the Spaniards a legal hide. and in the course of two hundred years increased marvellously. unless their milk has been exhausted by the calves—on which account milk and cheese are very seldom used in Paraguay. or more. It abounds in things necessary for human subsistence. fixes a knife in his neck. and are separated at night. on account of their ferocity. the taming of them is a long and laborious process. with slavery. which was often continued for many months. which they generally owe to the liberality of the rich. but a part of a slaughtered ox. The whole world does not contain a country more numerously supplied with oxen. The poorer sort do not buy pounds of meat. is bought by merchants at six German florens. which were formerly brought to Paraguay. the dust which ingenders these insects must be diligently beaten from them with a stick.) as appears from the old books of valuations. despatched at one blow. and especially in all kinds of cattle. another casts one round his hind legs. to be dried. within a few weeks. travellers were obliged to send horsemen before them to clear the way. Every Spaniard who intended to enlarge his estate hired a troop of horse. is rated very high by the Spaniards who sell them. who brought him eight. both by day and night. under shelter. Though Paraguay is entirely destitute of metals. and almost equal them in swiftness. but of various colours. Fifty years ago. unless their feet are tied and their calf is standing beside them. even before they are dressed. which measures three ells from the head to the tail. for the labour employed on hides. eight days. though a whole live ox is sold for only two florens amongst the Guaranies. at least. When tamed. mules. Do you desire to be made acquainted with the shape of the Paraguayrian oxen? In height they equal those of Hungary. they will not suffer themselves to be milked. no wonder that at that time a full grown ox was sold for five _groschen_. that two robust men are sometimes scarce able to carry it. and lest moths should gnaw or strip them of their hairs. and sheep. With a sort of ferocious arrogance they imitate stags in the manner of holding their lofty heads. increases their price. The quantity of kine which exists there is scarce credible to a European. and the unbounded liberty they possessed of wandering up and down the plains. return home at evening of their own accord. It is. They are carefully fastened to the ground. horses. with wooden pegs. and cuts the nerve of one of them. and consequently odious to the slothful Spaniards and Indians. Unless a long drought have impoverished the pastures. so that the want reckoned amongst the divine blessings and since they found them coupled have induced so many savages or ignorance of metals may be advantages of Paraguay. The fat of oxen is always used instead of butter in culinary preparations. therefore. whilst some thousands of them were disposed of.

You no longer saw those public and immense herds of innumerable oxen. For this purpose. and so continual the slaughters of innumerable oxen. Some furnished with swift horses attack a herd of oxen. that in the Paraguayrian estates the number of oxen is still so great that Europe may envy. The Spaniards.what art and industry are employed in stretching hides. This custom of hunting and slaughtering oxen. fixing them to the ground with pegs. but might be appropriated to the use of any. others throw the halter on them whilst they are staggering. you will agree with me that Paraguay may be called the devouring grave. disable the older bulls by cutting the nerve of the hinder foot. which is also the case with an innumerable crowd of negro slaves. The horsemen employed have each separate tasks assigned them. were possessed with a blind rage for killing all the oxen they could lay hands on. and taking out and carrying away the tongues. building hedges and houses. It must be attributed to the extensiveness of the plains. and with a long spear. I have known Spaniards who possessed about an hundred thousand oxen in their estates. and two amongst the Guaranies. before he lies down to sleep. after fasting but a very few hours. and wrappers for the herb of Paraguay. and the fertility of the soil. and sometimes forty. wheat. wild dogs. Add to these the oxen which are privily slain by the Indians. contained fifty thousand. and the rising and the setting sun will behold him with his jaws at work and his mouth full. on account of whose complaints this stretching of hides has long since been prohibited. An Indian. cotton and other things? The common people amongst the Spaniards have no other bed than an ox-hide stretched upon the ground. lasting several weeks. either in the town or the estate. but with an appetite still unsatisfied. conveying them to an appointed place. In an expedition of this kind. and those which are daily consumed by hostile savages. The town Yapeyù. daily. A Guarany. to the usual size. finding that the trade in hides was by far the most profitable to them of any. wild dogs and ravens. tobacco. ox-hides into Europe. Such being the voracity of the inhabitants. . but not one superfluous. Every merchant's ship transports thirty. that of S. The rest are employed in stripping the hides off the slaughtered animals. Moreover that quantity of meat which would overload the stomach of a European is scarce sufficient to satisfy the appetite of an American. and worms which are bred in the navels of calves. At this day a fat ox may be bought for four florens amongst the Spaniards. is left on the plain to be devoured by tigers. The rest of the flesh. being continued for a whole century. and almost only food of the lower orders in Paraguay. to which is added a sharp semicircular scythe. the price increased in proportion. as well as the seminary of cattle. and making trunks. and indeed one might almost fear lest the air should be corrupted by such a quantity of dead bodies. which was dedicated to the three kings. saddles. though when made as thin as paper they are totally useless to European curriers. sugar. exhausted almost all the plains of wild cattle. and others follow behind to knock down and slay the captive bulls. the person at whose expense it is undertaken is supplied with some thousands of hides. and fat. places a piece of meat to roast at the fire. will devour a young calf. but cannot hope to equal them. Who can reckon the number of hides daily employed in manufacturing ropes. At least forty oxen were daily slaughtered to satisfy the appetites of seven thousand Guaranies. but as the number of herds was daily decreasing. Miguel many more. Place food before him. which belonged to no one in particular. which come a little short of three ells. In the first years that I spent there one floren was the universal price. which would suffice to feed a numerous army in Europe. that he may eat immediately when he wakes. Beef is the principal. suet. troops of horse were perpetually traversing those plains which abounded most in wild cattle. by tigers.

are selected from the rest. unless spurred by the rider to a gallop. not according to their colour. which strikes his legs when he attempts to trot. scarce raising their feet from the ground. Some horsemen. but more certainly if both parents have been of that kind. Much are those historians mistaken. all sprung from seven mares which the Spaniards brought with them. by slightly cutting the nerve of the hinder foot. after they have been confined for some time.Besides this incredible multitude of oxen. The colts of the mares are given gratis to the purchasers. wrapped up in a skin. Their fore feet are fastened to their hinder ones in such a manner. of which any person may catch as many as he likes. and hard clods. by striking their hoofs against stones. bring home more than a thousand horses from the plain. violently shaking the rider's body: yet as they tread firmly. within a few days. and no spirit. The young horses that are most remarkable for beauty of form. is sometimes bought for ten or thirteen cruitzers. into the inclosed space. through fear of the pain. In long journeys. so that the rider might hold a cup full of liquor in his hand. when brought from the country. it is best to make use of those horses between the amblers and the trotters. in company with other tame horses. especially through rugged places. or the contrary. but move very gently. and not spill a drop. which is so unpleasant to the rider. and the Germans _trabganger_. The whole of that plain country. Paraguay breeds an infinite number of horses. A hunt of this kind is performed in various ways. and are not so apt to stumble. There were some who secured the mares that were taken in this manner. Horses in Paraguay are valued. are surrounded on all sides. they cannot practise their natural method of leaping. Others tie to the feet of the young horse a round stone. Sometimes a part of the plain is burnt. nor can a common horse keep up with him. roots of trees. An ambling nag goes two leagues in the space of an hour. Others construct a hedge with a wide entrance like the sleeve of a garment. and they are easily led away wherever the owner chooses. through which they drive a herd of horses. A horse of this kind of either sex. and lift up their feet at every step. and for strength. and make them his own property. that. The most esteemed are those which have not the common trot. and taught that easy and swift manner of moving. the Abipones _nichilicheranetà_. are not so soon fatigued themselves. Some catch every horse they come near with a leathern cord. or are taught it by art. for they lift up their feet like pestles. they stumble seldomer than the amblers. as they approach more nearly to the human method of walking. which is of four different kinds. and when spurred begin to amble. is covered with droves of wandering horses. the colt will generally prove an ambler also. to prevent their running away. If the mother be an ambler. and that they are mere dwarfs and spectres in comparison with those of . especially when there is no beaten path. unless impeded by the roughness of the road. extending from the river Plata full two hundred leagues in every direction. fatigue the rider less. hunger and thirst render them gentle. and makes him endeavour. This method of teaching is practised in all the Guarany towns. and uniting the greatest swiftness to gentleness. and before it is accustomed to the saddle and bridle. The horses crowding eagerly to crop the new grass. but chiefly according to their natural method of going. which. though the father may not have been so. They are either born with this kind of pace. to walk gently. which. and forced away by the hunters. separated from the rest. is very unpleasant to the rider. though still able to walk. who have persuaded the celebrated Robertson that the American horses have small bodies. more frequently fall and throw their rider. where. But the natural pace of those horses which the Spaniards call _trotones_. or the conformation of their bodies.

or very plentiful. the whole year round. with black manes and tails. with that confidence and security which I feel in mounting an European one. importing that they will die before they are fatigued: _Alazan tostado antes muerto. at another to continual showers. frequently found white horses sprinkled with black. as on a table—a common saying in regard to very fat horses amongst the Spaniards. and almost all are startlish and fearful. are as rare in Paraguay as comets in the sky. During the winter months. and defended in a stable against the inclemencies of the weather. are almost always distinguished by very black. and at all times and places to the stings of flies. or dry wood. if . and good qualities. or fling him to a distance. barley.Europe. Pygmies. You meet everywhere with horses of lofty. and all day. are to be found in those of Paraguay. and hay. nor in sufficient quantities. every day. We have. when a south wind is up. and remain there. White and chesnut-coloured horses are indeed very pleasing to the eyes. than black or bay. or of middling stature. but at the return of fine weather. and seldom possess that strength which we see in horses of a black or reddish colour. que cansado_. and travelling. and possess great gentleness and docility. by which horses are distinguished in Europe. abounding in grass and nitre. but experience has taught me that they are much sooner fatigued. especially those in which the red resembles the colour of toasted bread: the patience with which these horses endure labour. and find it neither good. huge limbs. and others for a man armed cap-a-pié. that you might count money upon their back. some well fitted for a vaulter. for many of them are apt to wince. They are oftener. whether of European or American parents. nor are they slandered in this respect. is expressed in an old Spanish proverb. as I have frequently found to my cost. or the sight of any strange object. white. it never gives them that strength which European horses derive from food composed of oats. sometimes to hoar frosts. The same may be said with regard to the darker bays. gad-flies. Being constantly in the open air. (which is not always either very good. however. as men born in the same climate. But were they fed like those of Europe on oats and barley. of whatever colour it might be. although I may truly say that I never bestrode a Paraguayrian horse. to stumble and throw their rider. the former grow lean from feeding upon poor grass. I boldly affirm that the Paraguayrian horses differ nothing from those of our own country in size. a circumstance which gave me much surprize. They fatten so much in fertile pastures. Holsatian. I attribute it to these causes that the horses of Paraguay never attain to the size of the Styrian. they would very probably grow to the same size. are fed upon any grass they can find. and chesnut-coloured. which almost resemble elephants in their immense back. and Neapolitan horses. and be stubborn. if the bridle be neglected they will stand with their head lifted up to the breast of their rider. whereupon. The horses of Paraguay are born out of doors. coarse hair. and their hair becomes darker. Danish. they are exposed at one time to the scorching sun. they often seek in vain for water to quench their thirst. or rear. All the different colours. night and day. But though the richness of the grass greatly fattens the Paraguayrian horses. and to draw a cart. which have manes and tails of a blackish colour. infinite swarms of which flit up and down. shape. and broad hoofs: this country produces slenderer horses. which enables them to bear a rider. to possess a great deal of strength. Pybald horses in Paraguay are thought crafty and dangerous. better adapted for riding and racing than for chariots and waggons. being terrified at any sudden noise. like Corsican horses. and gnats. however. I allow that Paraguay is as yet unacquainted with horses like the natives of the Styrian mountains.) and upon leaves of trees. straw. they regain their strength and natural colour. and throw him off. to bitter cold.

like pepper in a mortar. it is also thought an insufferable insult for one man to call another _un rabon_. Those born in rough. it is of much importance that they be kept extremely clean. and vainly offered to give for it whatever price the owner chose. those which. The owner. and moreover because blacksmiths are not even known here by name. are esteemed superior to all others in Paraguay. But a horse bred on a soft soil. stony situations are preferred to the natives of a soft. This horse the old man made use of. The Indians think we are jesting when they hear us say that in Europe there exist men who cut off the tails of their horses. A certain Spaniard had long wished for the horse. wherever they are born. and. and walk slowly and timidly for a long time. is a bitter and not uncommon kind of revenge amongst the lower orders of Spaniards. by degrees. but he will at least be secured from thieves. Even the meanest negro slave would think it an indignity and a punishment were he ordered to ride on a horse that was deprived of its tail. This fear is occasioned by the earth's yielding to their hoofs. You will see some handsomer. to soft. and reckon it an improvement. The experience of many years has taught me that horses. like a comb. wide nostrils. said to his servant. a wide round back. and gravelly roads. When deprived of his tail he will be laughed at by all who see him. To keep horses in good condition. Horseshoes are never used in Paraguay. Those which have a broad breast. which increases their beauty and value. that if you remove a horse accustomed to such places. a large and long tail. for if their skin is covered with dust. he should steal it from him. who had long been in a bad state of health. with playful alacrity. not indented. he dared to threaten that. and their hair matted together. there is necessarily great variety. cross marshes quickly. their mane uncombed. but likewise his instrument of defence. of an advanced age. grow lean and . for this reason. as soon as they are released from the saddle and bridle. a small belly. A horseshoe would cost more than any horse. straight slender legs and hard hoofs. clayey soil. In such a vast multitude of horses. with which he drives away the swarms of flies and gnats. provoke the rest to fight in the plain. for they think that a handsome tail is not only a great ornament to a horse." To mutilate the tail of another person's horse.he be not very firmly seated. or make them so. Impatient of repulse. "Go. in a few months grow accustomed to any soil. the perspiration is obstructed by the pores being stopped up. you will find him slacken his pace. as in Europe. and even made bloody by the roughness of the stones. large and black eyes. by any other trotting beast. in preference to innumerable others that he possessed. that they may fatten sooner. I would rather be derided myself for using a horse without a tail. in all his necessary journeys. than have all my bones and limbs jolted to pieces. short and pricking ears. their tail full of scurf. But horses kept for riding are adorned with a long bushy tail. joyfully roll themselves on the ground. will often stumble and get lame—his hoofs being bruised. a small head. Mares kept for the purpose of breeding have their manes and tails shorn by the Spaniards. a horse without a tail. stronger. marshy plains. and cut off the tail of that horse of mine: it is better to lose a part of him than the whole. as well as of a quick and easy pace. a bushy mane. leap ditches without the least hesitation. unless the old man would sell the horse of his own accord. had in his possession a horse of an extremely gentle disposition. and swifter than others. fearing that he would have very little difficulty in accomplishing his threat. and consequently they. though that country abounds in rocks and stones. hairy feet. on account of the dearness of iron. when brought to stony places. for I know of no other reason. A Spanish priest.

the Spaniards and Abipones. It has a tall stalk with a yellow blossom. washing. Those that are made of dressed leather are stuffed with two bundles of rushes. they leave that untouched. in the place of which. though they have no other stable than the open plain. day and night. and the frequent droughts produce the same effect in the summer season. but with a thong of cow's leather. After performing a journey. are likewise made of wood. devour it with impunity. which terminates in death. Horses after feeding upon it are seized with a feverish trembling. The saddles are fastened on the horse's back. and covering. for in the winter months the cold air makes them lean and mangy. though less solicitous than Europeans about combing. On this account. or get the mange. stirrups of this kind are very dangerous. entirely inclosing the rider's feet. serpents and worms. who are most careful of their property. But alas! there are many other instruments of death. during every part of the year. and defending them against the injuries of the weather and the road. and unprovided with instruments for those purposes. For though they eagerly crop the rest of the grass. or an ornamented horsecloth of sheep's wool. thorns. for some time. make use of. folded up together. But if the horse fall suddenly. they place the horsecloth of softish leather. The Spaniards use the following method to prevent their horses from tasting this deadly food. so that the smoke arising from thence is conveyed by a contrary wind to the troop. The commonest of these is that which the natives call _nio_. is placed a sheep's skin. take great care to prevent their growing dirty. that it may not hurt the horse's back. in use amongst the better sort of people. which abound in cattle. not with a hempen girth. where the horses may drink and bathe at their pleasure. All this is placed beneath the saddle. who never wear shoes. They are quite unprovided with cushions. they carefully extricate them by anointing their hair with tallow. baskets. and the smell of it inspires them with a horror of the pestilent herb. present themselves to their hungry jaws.scraggy. and set fire to them. with a horsecloth. by which an incredible number of horses are yearly destroyed. but the opening is so small that nothing but . and on this. they daily send forward some of their companions to explore the whole country round about where the horses are to feed. which is bathed in perspiration. Moreover the health and liveliness of horses are best preserved by taking care that their pastures be not situated very far either from clear lakes or limpid rivers. but even many herbs. Horses born in places which produce this poisonous herb. and lest the coldness of the air should cause it to swell. unless they have an opportunity of laving and swimming. not only are numerous snakes concealed in the grass. are called by the Spaniards _baules_. tie them into a bundle. tigers. so that there is no need of buckles. Whenever they find any of those poisonous herbs they pluck a few. and throw his rider. when the harness is taken off. they wash and wipe the back of the horse. that the rider may sit the easier. If thistles. variously embossed and adorned with figures. died of various colours. which lie upon the ribs of the horse in such a manner. In the plains of Paraguay. The stirrups which the Spanish peasants. for they really are little baskets. as it is more difficult to extricate the foot quickly from them than from those of Europe. but are always contemned as feeble and incapable of enduring the fatigues of a journey. more noxious than the most deadly snake. the back of the horse is covered with four ells of woollen cloth. The worms which gnaw the horses are occasioned by the saddles made use of in Paraguay. and plated with silver. and other prickly plants of that kind stick to their tails. but contains a deadly poison. keep it covered. by way of harness. on which. curiously carved. When marching against the enemy. and rubbing down their horses. The wooden stirrups. that the saddles do not touch the spine of the back.

The same author advises the application of a white onion. and whilst they wound his back with their bills. whilst he is still smoking with sweat. and spurs him to a full gallop. though perfectly healthy in other respects. This is the whole furniture used for horses. We ourselves have seen many horses preserved by both remedies. differ from those of our country in size and shape. Nor is there any occasion to repeat the operation. and in a few days removes the swelling. the eggs and filth of which ingender white worms. in Paraguay. for many weeks. immersed in water. a Hungarian. From a book of Father Martin Szentivan. or dysury. The Indians make use of a bridle composed of transverse spikes of cow's horn. but even injure the horses. the bitterness of which kills the worms. do not use stirrups. and prevents the progress of corruption. instead of physicking him. The spurs of the Spaniards are very large. keeps off worms. and renews the skin and hair. as it cleans away the blood. like a hurdle. and furnished with pegs. which was in a . and if. than prick. it is swelled by the sudden admission of the cold air. till he is covered with sweat. The Paraguayrian bridles. not only molest. It frequently happens that the friction of a rough horsecloth. according to the custom of their ancestors. with which they rather bruise. also. the sides of the horse. The ulcerated and bloody flesh is quickly infested by swarms of flies. and are deterred by no kicking from taking away the blood and the worms. drives away the flies which breed them. after long fatigue. Hence. for they perch upon their ulcerated backs. Salt. I learnt a remedy much superior to any of those American ones. If you wish to save your horse. or with melted tiger's fat. that being unable to stand on their feet. The scar must be anointed with tallow every day. create a gentle breeze by the continual motion of their wings. lulled by which the horse makes no resistance. and to seek pasture. and most of them are unfurnished with saddles even. also. well masticated with their teeth. Sometimes horses labour under strangury. The savages. necessarily deluge the whole plain country with water. and of the vulture kind. and the remedies for them. or the hardness or compression of the saddle galls the back of the horse. on the treatment of animals. The Indians smear their horses' backs either with the root _guaycuru_. They abhor the small sharp European spurs. their hoofs are softened to such a degree. though with their sharp beaks they very often enlarge the wound. is applied to the horse's back once a day. and by degrees becomes ulcerated. of various colours. well ground. from feeding so long. till the tumour by degrees grows into a wound. soon swells. and stop up the cavities where those insects lay with chewed tobacco leaves. They sit upon the horse. and which has been successfully adopted by many Paraguayrians. that fresh hair may grow there. carnivorous. they perish. his horsecloth be taken off. Certain large birds. Delay is dangerous. Showers continuing day and night. A Spaniard saddles a horse afflicted with such a disease. I will now give you some account of their diseases. and mixed with vinegar and yolk of egg. or with the shell of the _armadillo_ burnt to ashes. Vast numbers of them fly up and down the plain. may aptly be called horses' physicians. The wound that remains. you must immediately dig the worms out of his flesh with a small stick. or of rain. but these remedies seldom effect a complete cure. greatly exceeding those of Europe in number and size. A horse. pretty well roasted. which clearly proves that bats are in some measure venomous. Bats. with which they think that horses are easily wounded and infuriated. and suffers his blood to be sucked by the bat. and creep to the interior parts of the animal. and the horses can find no dry land whereon to place their feet. unless it be sprinkled with hot ashes.the great toe can be inserted into it. for the worms increase rapidly every hour. which fills the whole mouth of the horse.

wander up and down the plains at will. but being extremely wild. during the greatest part of their lives. so that they cannot stand on their legs. are taught to carry burdens or to bear a rider. and trackless plains. and kick them several times with their heels. You will see many of them equal in height to horses. with both a firmer . What if I should say that. feed on the fresh grass. fetch ten and often fourteen in Peru. Broken legs. and endure frequent and long hunger and thirst. cut hands. on the other hand. and many more thousand mares kept for breeding mules. valued.dying condition a little before. when untied they mount and compel them. However docile and obedient they may have appeared in times past. and even the pain frequently inflicted on them in this operation from the awkwardness of blacksmiths. Who can reckon the number of mules. sometimes through the dishonesty or laziness of servants. with no inconsiderable advantage. two years of age. because they generally enjoy their full liberty. like thieves. where horses are scarcer and more valuable. attended by the desired effect. and numbers are yearly sacrificed both to the roughness of the road and the cruelty of their drivers. employed either in bearing burdens or in carrying a rider. and are consequently more healthy and spirited than European horses. This violent. I found. breathe the pure air of Heaven. rocky places. though accustomed to traverse woods. heads dashed against trees or stones. or with rheumatism. Mules in company with horses fill the plains of Paraguay. we cannot wonder at their having many physicians and many medicines. with hay dryer than a stone and straw harder than a board. but speedy method of healing. drink and bathe at pleasure in running streams. on such occasions the Spanish soldiers tie their feet with a rope. sometimes through the avarice of their masters. mournfully confirm the truth of this adage. in as great number as insects. at three Spanish crowns in Paraguay. are chained. which. The young mules. occasion their instructors continual trouble and danger. both are unnecessary? For there it is plain that horses are afflicted with less frequent and less heavy complaints. For as the Spanish proverb goes. a mule will serve his master seventy years. soon recovered. For mules. but. who are more anxious about employing than about feeding their beasts. nor shall they be separated in my relation. not to mention the continual annoyance they undergo from the putting on and taking off of their iron shoes. and other accidents of the same nature. taste oats seldomer and more sparingly than country people do cakes. in dark stables. then throw plenty of urine on their legs. that Paraguay yearly sends about eighty thousand to Peru. at two years old. are obliged to fill rather than refresh their stomachs. As Paraguay swarms with horses. that he may kick him to death at last. to run. however unwilling. in return for which she receives all the silver to be seen in her churches and houses. you never can entirely trust to them. instead of wondering that the horses of our country are subject to so many diseases. and lay them on the ground. For unbroken mules. are never employed in bearing burdens and drawing carts. for he inundated the plain. You may judge of the multitude of them from this circumstance. which resemble dungeons. All these circumstances considered. I rather feel surprized that one remains alive. she cares very little about curing them when they are sick. the major part are less than those which Italy or Spain produces. generally speaking. in Paraguay. I have known estates which contained four thousand mules. bodies dragged along the ground. in the cities and estates of Paraguay? Many thousands of them are constantly occupied in conveying the herb of Paraguay from the woods to the cities. though stronger than any horse. to my surprize. Sometimes horses are seized with convulsion of the nerves. In Europe.

No American ever accused asses of pusillanimity. In a word. The female asses are less prolific than you would imagine. but being here. By the right of relationship asses should be spoken of between horses and mules. for at such times they become unmanageable. whilst no industry in the horsemen. Mules are contented with the readiest and coarsest food. are often driven. either throw him on the ground or drag him along with his feet sticking in the stirrup. is sufficient to bring them back again. or an unusual agitation of the leaves occasioned by the wind. and seem as if they had lost their senses. in journies of many months. The uncommon colour of a plant. scorning the most excellent horses. which they prefer to the common sort. One mule is sufficient in a long and difficult journey which would fatigue four horses. on account of the exceeding timidity of these animals. with their heels. Many have been ruined by mules running away and being lost in this manner. At the slightest alarm they all take to flight. prick up their ears to listen. They wander by crowds in the plains of Paraguay. fills them with suspicions of the approach of a tiger. for they are accustomed to carry almost four hundred weight. or at dark night.and gentler pace. by a few Spanish guards. on account of its being so quickly and frequently repeated. hurry over the plain. by which means they always tread with safety. as I have often observed in the races of the soldiers. entirely free and without bridles. The kicking of mules is very dangerous. when laden with the herb of Paraguay. and defend themselves more pertinaciously than horses. though horses are better for crossing deep marshes and rivers. and with eyes wandering in every direction descry the most distant objects. . though generally fat and sleek. a strange smell. and unless he be possessed of great presence of mind. are never more to be dreaded than when they are themselves afraid. whether they have to ascend rocks or to creep over marshy places. In the town of S. nor swiftness in the horses. As the trade in mules is lucrative in Paraguay. which would bear a rider. Asses continually fall a prey to tigers. the rustling of trees. I am unable to determine whether the virtues or vices of mules preponderate. in one drove. In the larger estates great numbers of asses are maintained for the purpose of breeding mules. they run away with their rider. on account of their being constantly suspicious of danger. and sometimes contrive to kick him off too. on account of their height. Ten thousand mules. especially those kept to breed mules. through very rough roads. These animals. Moreover they are possessed of athletic strength. and though less liable to hurt their feet. would never travel on any other animal. and with their braying prevent the neighbouring inhabitants from the enjoyment of sleep. In Italy and Portugal the ass is a very much employed animal. I have been acquainted with men. resolved never in their lives to ride on a mule. for mules. who. though fearful and treacherous. warned by the danger of others. Joachim I had mules more than thirty years old. it is also dangerous to the merchants. Their pace. Many of them surpass the swiftest horses in speed. and used both for the pannier and the saddle. Presently. but we were never able to discover the cause of their sterility. is easy and firm. smell the grass. whom they see approaching. and hide themselves in interminable deserts. in other respects brave and intrepid. therefore. seized with sudden terror. especially that of the amblers. possess many good qualities which do not belong to horses. Neither is this preference to be condemned. I have known many more. are much more to be dreaded by their riders. All of a sudden they halt on the road astonished. the piping of birds. for they bravely repel any tiger. They are longer lived than most other beasts. especially at dusk. who. In Paraguay they enjoy a perpetual exemption from labour.

peaches. pomegranates. By these arts the estates of the Guaranies daily gained such accessions of sheep as an European will hardly credit. which is included in Paraguay. and to assign to each separate folds. they will certainly be crushed under foot by the old sheep. demand greater care than the larger cattle. the herb of Paraguay. In this vast abundance of horses and mules which Paraguay rears. for too much moisture affects sheep with a mortal cough. which being furnished with a roof. the neighbouring mountains are constantly covered with snow. situated in the 34th degree of lat. into lesser companies. as soon as they are yeaned. commodiously defended them against the night dew. I never saw any snow beyond the mountains near the province . which are often bred in the wool. The wool was used chiefly for the clothing of the male Indians. and shepherds. wholesome grass. each may perform his own office more easily and completely. apes. and the former wool for clothing. An Indian is never content unless he has his belly well filled. though not with walls. to deprive them of the dangerous opportunity of wandering. carefully to keep them from marshy places. and dreadfully agitate that sea. on account of their tenderness. The Spaniards also kill a great number every year for the sake of the fat which they have in their necks. the sugar-cane. from the dewy grass. is too cold for tobacco. lastly. not to send the sheep into the plain till the sun and wind had dried up the dew. Persons of both sexes made use of their own asses to carry home the produce of the neighbouring fields. In the Magellanic region. &c. so that a number of sheep and oxen seemed requisite to the preservation of these colonies. Some of the Guarany colonies have counted thirty thousand. no ways differing from those of our country. figs. the south winds are extremely violent. The territory of Buenos-Ayres itself. and the attacks of lions and tigers. Shepherds should take great care to collect the young lambs. to subsist there. would not the most needy of the Spaniards or negroes be ashamed to ride upon an ass? But in the territories belonging to Rioja and Catamarca. for the women covered themselves with a piece of white cloth made of cotton. and remove them to a safe place. others fewer. cotton. to dress and soften stags' skins. It is also proper to see whether they are afflicted with worms. the cold is generally intense. pastures. Something must now be said of the climate of Paraguay. It conduces much to the enriching an estate to distribute the whole flock. The temperature of the air varies in different places. where horses are not so abundant. Should this precaution be neglected. and from thistles and thorns. the lower orders of Spaniards do not disdain to saddle asses. stupid and dilatory. that the care being divided amongst many. and his body well covered. consisting of ten or thirteen thousand sheep. according to the number of inhabitants and the size of the pastures. and. Paraguay also abounds in numerous flocks of sheep. Hence we were extremely solicitous to supply them with diligent and faithful shepherds. Sheep. and plenty of water. to look about anxiously for pastures abounding in nitre. and thorns tear their wool. if the diligence of the agriculturist answer to the fertility of the soil. the latter supplying meat for food. are generally vanquished by the swiftness or cunning of tigers. where they may be suckled and licked by their mothers. quinces. and various kinds of every where else. whom we frequently admonished to bring the flock at stated hours to the folds. by tanners. always had horses and mules prepared and in readiness. and which is used. which is dreaded by all sailors. Those which are nearest to the south are colder. and for other purposes. But those charged with guarding cattle and other offices in the town. though it produces plenty of wheat. By a useful edict we took care to prevent the Guaranies from possessing horses. as well as citrons. the heat of the sun.

They are all marked with black spots. The tiger appears first on the scene. spring. The shortest day with the Paraguayrians is in the month of June. hot: hence we often had winter and summer in the same day. Their longest day is in the month of December. March. Nor is the difference of winter fixed and certain. and not be hurt by the asperity of the air. 25th. or fresh ones to spring up. the north. December. For with them November. but in different order:—whilst the Europeans enjoy summer it is winter there. it is autumn with the Paraguayrians. plants. The sun rises at the sixth hour and fifty-second minute. and October. and that the animals remain out of doors day and night. whilst others are distressed by long droughts. and April. will be free from thunder. lightning. In the winter there is no snow and very seldom frost. the African tigers yield in like . The heat of the sun is excessively painful to horses in travelling. that of others yellow. as in Europe. I do not deny that the Indians sometimes use cloaks made of otters' skins to defend them against the cold air. to the summer season. than in Austria during the hottest part of the summer. The temperature of the air varies according to the wind. 28th. In the month of August the trees bud. The air of so extensive a province is necessarily various. birds. by a tempest. September. killed by the frosts. and sets at the sixth hour and fifty-second minute. and 29th degrees of latitude. and January. The sun rises at the fifth hour and seventh minute. The south wind is cold. autumn. as is the case with the territory of St. and torrents of rain. and hail. are afflicted with continual rain at that season. We will begin with quadrupeds. about noon the same day. amphibious animals. our winter solstice. 27th. lightning. three frosts succeed one after another. is always followed. but the skin of some is white. if it do not slightly touch upon what is most worthy of note in the wild beasts. though a winter one.of Chili. and no other clothing than a thin piece of linen. the summer solstice in Europe. For some countries. and July. the birds build their nests. A history may justly be called defective. August. That the cold in winter is not very intense you may collect from this circumstance. and calculated to induce longevity. As the African lions far exceed those of Paraguay in size and ferocity. and sets at the fifth hour and seventh minute. uncovered heads. which are the food of these beasts. June. May. with naked feet. which is much severer than the other two. the swallows return from their places of retirement. lasting many months. and their fruit. so that melons and vegetables will grow up. Brazil for instance. accompanied with thunder. which causes the herbs. to revive. whenever one wind succeeded to the other. Thunderstorms are not peculiar. The year is divided into four seasons as in Europe. Paraguay abounds in tigers from the number of its cattle. The third. Iago del Estero. that the Indians of both sexes and of every age are accustomed to endure it. but often more endurable to them when resting in the shade. 26th. but for the most part extremely healthful. trees. But in the mountains of Taruma. are summer. fishes. I speak of that part of the sky under which lie the Guarany colonies situated in the 24th. February. but are common to every part of the year: nor can it ever be said that this or that month. winter. From which it appears that there is no day in Paraguay so long or so short as in our Germany. THE TIGER. without danger of any bad consequence. whilst it is spring in Europe.

Travelling with six . after he has fired his musket. and attacks the aggressor with rage proportioned to the pain of the wound. But the largest tiger is much slenderer than any ox. we found the skin of a tiger. a gun's shot distant from my house. the heart. an Indian. they kill without difficulty. a very stinking piece of flesh is placed. many men armed with spears unite together. and almost hollow tree. He. In the town of the Rosary we spied a tiger not yet full grown. which belongs to the Cordoban college. but never eat till putrid. In the estate of St. They devour stinking flesh in preference to sweet. goes accompanied on each side by two spearmen. Ignatius. to deprive the tiger of all egress or means of escape. as the following facts will clearly prove. and cunning. like a mousetrap. very large. or failing to inflict a mortal blow.proportion to the Paraguayrians in the size of their bodies. horses' carcasses streaming with liquid putrefaction. It is incredible what slaughters they daily commit in the estates. asses. which. that had been killed the day before. and pertinaciously repulse assailants. for as they soon tire. for Negroes' flesh they reckon a dainty. in a wood. it is scarcely safe for one person to pursue them in the open plain. run extremely quick. and supported upon four wheels. Tigers will devour. he contrived to get out of sight. who pierce the tiger as it advances to attack him. an active horseman may overtake and kill them. could be made no use of. and tears the man that inflicted the wound. for unless the tiger is knocked down by the first ball. that the lurking beast might be put to death with arms. because it is most stinking. this powerful beast does not fall. sheep. than the door of the chest falls and shuts him in. which I at last effected without the least danger to myself. the tiger will reject the Spaniard and Indian without hesitation. fastened to the ground with wooden pegs: it measured three ells and two inches in length. You cannot conceive how the tiger leapt up and down in the hollow of the tree after receiving a few wounds. In the woods they defend themselves amongst the trees and rocky places. by way of bait. whenever any of those beasts are to be destroyed. But a Spaniard or Indian is often torn to pieces by a tiger from the spear's thrust missing. but menacing and formidable to all he met. the use of the musket alone is almost always dangerous. but gets infuriated. They construct a very large chest. which is no smaller than the dimensions of the hide of a full grown ox. In the farthest corner of the chest. we strewed about with pieces of wood. swiftness. making a hole in the side of it. and he is killed by a musket or a spear put through the interstices of the planks. But as tigers are possessed of singular strength. he leaps furiously to the place whence the fire proceeded. therefore. Tigers. by flying here and there amongst the trees and brambles. Taught by the danger of others. whether springing out like cats or in the act of flight. The skin. for unless the interior of the head. mules. and a Negro sleep together near the same fire and in the same place. or the spine of the back be wounded. horses. though living horses be at hand. composed of immense pieces of wood. which is no sooner laid hold of by the tiger. and rush to devour the Negro. Oxen. On this account. though the flesh afforded the Abipones a sumptuous supper. and drag it with four oxen into that place where they have discovered traces of tigers. on seeing us. by a Spaniard or Indian alone. but not for a long time together. to the last morsel. that does not choose to run the risk of his life. Should a Spaniard. Both Spaniards and Indians conspire against these destructive beasts. I found that bullets must not be rashly used against tigers. I do not deny that a tiger may be sometimes pierced or strangled. which was pierced with shot and the sword till it was like a sieve. Myself and three armed Spaniards flew to kill him. Following his footsteps we found him lurking in an aged.

but to shelter themselves from the rain and from the cold wind. we met two tigers. as usual. had begun the journey unarmed. In the town . and fired it off without a ball. which they hurl at the tiger. bounded on one side by a lake. alarmed at the horrid thundering. The beast. The Spaniards have mastiffs which are very formidable to tigers. But as the darkness deprived me of all hope of killing the tiger. had I not myself witnessed it. If you cast this into the eyes of the tiger. from the city of Santa Fè to the town of St. The fire. The Pampas wound the tiger's back with a slender arrow. I loaded my musket with plenty of shot. and drag him. yet those are most to be dreaded which have already tasted human flesh. you are safe—the beast will immediately take to flight. I passed the night on the banks of the round lake. to their den. which. On rainy and stormy nights they creep into human habitations. they will procure it by fishing in the water. Innumerable tigers are yearly caught with leathern thongs by the Spaniards and Indians. My Indian companions. at noon. At other times. If the wood and the plain deny them food. Sometimes a tiger. in a narrow path. How great their strength must be you may judge from this. when he is threatening you at the foot of the tree. Meantime I loaded my musket. Tigers of this description have an intense craving after men. Dogs also are dreaded by them. they will attack and slay the one. If you climb a tree to avoid falling into the clutches of a tiger. the hungry fishes eagerly devour as food. In the middle of the night a tiger crept towards us. It will be proper in this place to give account of some methods of defence against tigers. that they might not appear distrustful of the friendship of the Spaniards. Xavier. quietly watches a troop of horse passing by. that if they meet two horses in the pastures tied together with a thong to prevent their escaping. swimming on the surface of the water. As they are excellent swimmers. I had neglected to load my musket. after being swiftly dragged for some time along the ground. and are strangled. which would have been caught with a noose by the pursuing Mocobios. along with the other live one. and we lay down to sleep again. and spout from their mouths the white froth. instantly fled. shone for a while in the midst of us as we slept. Next day. In the night a blazing fire affords great security against tigers. not in search of prey or food. in order to devour them. Their cunning is equal to their strength. and kill him instantly. on horseback. They also catch tortoises. and tear them from their shells by wondrous artifice. in the open air. our nightly defence against tigers. though these they sometimes cruelly flay and tear to pieces. but at length grew very low. for the same purpose. they plunge up to their neck in some lake or river. more threatening than before. or three round stones suspended from thongs. had they not fled and hidden themselves in the wood. and rushes with impetuosity on the horseman that closes the company. rejoicing in our success. They will follow a man's footstep for many leagues till they come up with the traveller. but resumed courage. and continually lie in wait for them. At each throw he leapt back roaring. Though the very shadow of this beast is enough to create alarm. and returned again and again. In this case urine must be your instrument of defence. and are quickly tossed on to the shore by the claws of the tigers. he will ascend it also.Mocobios. the sky our covering. I should not have believed this. Anticipating no danger. firebrands were dexterously hurled at the approaching tiger. lurking unseen under the high grass or in a bramble bush. Iago. when travelling in company with the soldiers of St. they use very strong arrows. and on the other by a wood. At my direction. the earth was our bed. and left me only the desire to escape.

and leave the mark of their nails in the bark. repel the assailant. but smaller. sucked their blood. Cows. and go out to hunt tigers. In Spain. anta. One of them is called by the Spaniards _onza_. lay down in the midst of the flock. from this trade in skins. I knew a Spaniard at first indigent. and tamandua. imagining that those tender kinds of food engender sloth and languor in their bodies. and courage are increased. and not so ferocious. is eagerly craved after by the equestrian savages. who. armed with pistols. and tortoises. by going round and round. a number of Spaniards join together in Paraguay. and for wrappers. These. To the tiger kind belong two other wild beasts. at the approach of a tiger. durst not approach the sheepfold. within a few years excited the envy of others by his opulence. On the other hand. stag. aware of the circumstance. This audacity at length appearing to us no longer endurable. To search him out. armed with a gun and bayonet and some pistols. who also drink melted tiger's fat. unless they save their lives by speedy flight. ready to strike whenever the beast appeared. and in order to relieve the pain. either from the smell or hearing. occasion excessive pain and burning. for carpets. though horridly ill-savoured even when quite fresh. At length. but innumerable tigers are devoured by the Abipones. without ever being caught by the Indians who lay in wait for him. A vast quantity of tigers' skins are yearly sent to Spain. boar. all the Abipones that were at home set off on foot. but in the open plain they seldom obtain a victory. Tigers' skins are used by the Abipones for breastplates. asses. At the request of the Indians. when the tiger returned and tore to pieces ten sheep. they rub them against the tree _seibo_.of St. Another. their strength. which no time nor medicine can ever relieve. defend themselves and their calves with the utmost intrepidity. boldness. and unless the spear misses. and leaving their bodies. every skin is sold for four. if we may credit the testimony of the natives. fish. after the wounds are healed. on the contrary. at sun-set twenty Abipones armed themselves with spears to kill the mischievous beast. trusting to their horns. to tear away part of the carcass of a dead horse. and sometimes six German florens. they eagerly devour the flesh of the tiger. the other by the Guaranies _mbaracaya_. Ferdinand a tiger often stole by night into the sheepfolds. Though the men were silently concealed in the court-yard close by. But the very same tiger at sun-set daily approached the town. from continually feeding on these animals. but with various fortune and success: for horses and mules. After diligently exploring the vicinity. I closed the company. though seldom offensive to other . The Abipones have continual contests with tigers. desert their foals and take to flight. carried away their heads. bull. and kicking very quickly for a long time. when they can gain a place where they may defend their backs. eggs. The scars. are uniformly victorious. In the hope of gain. In repeated battles with tigers many persons are wounded by their claws. despairing of his arrival. having an idea that. as no tiger appeared. about night-fall. are generally overcome. The tigers themselves are tormented with the heat of their own claws. Hence an Abipon is very rarely devoured by a tiger. Antas lie down on their backs. returned to their huts. They all detest the thought of eating hens. The tiger spares no living creature. and saluted by the hisses of the women. yet the tiger. and immediately on his assault squeeze him to death. esteeming it nectar. and cowardice in their minds. for horsecloths. await the advancing foe with expanded arms. and even believing it a means of producing valour. and placed themselves in ambush. armed on both sides with spears. killed the sheep. Scarcely had they turned their backs. the watchers. we returned home without effecting our business. Mares. In the city of Sta. sheep. all it attacks. Fè. Their flesh.

oxen. examined the heads of the lions and tigers. The Indians eat them roasted. a pig. if you except its eyes. Their whiskers are composed of long hard hairs. That the danger might not increase as he grew up. both Spaniards and Indians.animals. their eyes sparkling. They are also of various colours. or _La gran bestia_. very sharp teeth and lips. You can scarce distinguish their flesh from veal. observed their eyes. as testimonies of their vigilance and courage. head. differing from the domestic ones in our country in no other respect except that the extremity of the tail is flatter and more compressed. THE WILD CAT. but being extremely swift and shy. but though destitute of its arms. como se pinta_. foals. born of a tame mother and a wild father. and would certainly have crushed and strangled them. he was forced to be shot. and are dreaded only by calves. as they reckon tigers' whelps a dainty. The guards of the estates. for I have handled them myself. Their head is large and round. and men. of which there was an immense number. for they are quite unlike those of Africa in form. to prevent it from doing any mischief. were thick at the root. or one more ferocious and fugitive. size. The Paraguayrian lions suit well with the old Spanish saying. but hear on what occasion. like bristles. it used to rush upon children and calves. They never attempt any thing against horses. which the Spaniards call the Anta. Before they are full grown they give proofs of their native ferocity. had they not been instantly rescued. THE ANTA. and that they are superior in size. In most of the woods you may see wild cats. especially in the heat of the sun. and endued with a kind of elastic property. I cannot understand why the Abipones do not rear the whelps of lions. The Paraguayrian lions seem unworthy of so great a name. Their skin is tawny and spotted with white. We had a young cat in the town of Conception. _No es tan bravo el leon. OR THE GREAT BEAST. The more secluded woods towards the north are the haunts of this animal. inclining towards the forehead. and teeth. One man deprived a tiger's whelp of its teeth and claws. THE LION. though they are never procured without danger. so that the Spaniards and Indians devour it with avidity. but are seldom seen by day. the lion is not so fierce as his picture. the upper part of which . and with their little tender claws and teeth fly upon all they meet. and tore some hair out of the whiskers of the tigers. which resembled wire. they are not killed without difficulty. than which I never saw a larger or handsomer. and disposition. often depopulate a whole henroost by night. and nose flat. In a certain estate I got up upon the hedges. ears. and feet. like those of a calf. It has rather short ears. in the same manner as the heads and hands of criminals are seen fixed to a pole in the place appointed for their punishment. had a custom of preserving the heads of the lions and tigers which they slew. fastened with stakes to the folds of the cattle. In size it resembles a full grown ass: in shape. and sheep.

to drag along with him in his flight both horse and rider. However tis m y be. they rub the left ear with the nail of the fore foot. when caught with a rope. not ony unnown but most in ccessibe bot to orses nd st gs. Tis c nnot be im gined for moment of te P r gu yri n nt s. This beast flies the sight of man. and receive immediate relief. The truth of the fact must be looked to by those who have affirmed it. he replied—"Whenever we are seized with a malignant heat. and that. These are thought by physicians superior to the bezoar stones supplied by other beasts. to defend them from noxious airs: they are said to be sold in the druggists' shops in Europe. to catch the antas. Arapotiyu. feeds upon herbs. nd by te L tins _ x_ or _ ce_. but polygonous. the hind feet into three. we rub our limbs with these antas' stones. on which account it is dried in the air by the Spaniards and Abipones. But in reality it was called by the old Germans _elck_. small-pox. mongre cre tures born of st g nd m re. as remedies for ill-health. the miserable beast. THE HUANACO. to relieve the pain. and measles. I beg n to doubt weter tey were not different nim  togeter. I dvise giving credit to tose wo. A smooth unhairy appendage supplies the place of a tail. nd s I mysef s w.somewhat resembles a proboscis. father. for various medicinal purposes. as is related by Woytz in his Medico-physical Thesaurus.  ve written more fuy on n tur  istory from utority. in te present ge. The nails of antas are much esteemed by the Spaniards. but is penetrable to shot and to spears. for it must be confessed I never made trial of its virtues. I do not gree wit tose wo c  es _equi-cervi_. by the Greeks αλκη. Te nt s coose p ins fu one undred e gues dist nt. is continually eaten by the savages. and how they were used in the woods. "these most salutary little stones." said he. and used for a breast-plate to ward off the blows of swords and arrows. where he affirms that antas are often afflicted with epilepsy or the falling-sickness. it frequently betrays itself by the rustling noise it makes in breaking the branches of shrubs and trees as it walks about the woods. . the young Indian whom I brought from the woods of Mbaeverà." On my inquiring what virtue they attributed to them. t t tose in P r gu y  ve no orns. and pierce the beasts on their arrival with arrows. The fore feet are cloven into two hollow nails. and is thrust forward by the animal when he is angry. imitate the sound of their voices. The Indians who inhabit the woods lay traps. and have hazarded the assertion that the anta is called by the Germans _elendthier_. or concealing themselves in some thicket. The skin is of a tawny colour and extremely thick. for their flesh. because it is subject to epilepsy. especially for persons afflicted with epilepsy. In the stomach of the anta lies a pouch. which the savages call the country of the antas. As it ppe rs from  writers. which I have collected from the antas I have killed. wandering up and down the recesses of the woods. and by night. which is often found to contain a number of bezoar stones. and of the colour of ashes or lead. not oblong nor oval. t t es re orned in te nortern countries of Europe. were tey c n never meet wit eiter of tose nim s. gave me a heap of these bezoar stones:—"Take. It generally sleeps in the day-time. though its toughness renders it rather unpalatable. after warming them at the fire. wic in bit te rougest nd most rugged forests. made of stakes. and more efficacious as medicine." This use of the bezoar stone I submit to the judgment of physicians. nd ony bore te s me n me on ccount of some simiitude. though possessed of such extraordinary strength as. scarce bigger than a hazle-nut. and worn by them as amulets. either fresh or hardened by the air.

its  d. d sizs. r i ts  c m. ppid . i wic t bz r  v rius curs. im s qu  i siz t g t i ur cutry. A m  w  d gt disrdr i is ys. d p itd. t p sur. wvr. wic is t ud i tir isids. r t u  cs. is  v u. THE PERUVIAN SHEEP LLAMÁS. is ud:  my. ty  dw up t rss s ty p ss udr t. t buc  its b c. but vry swit rss r css ry r tis busiss. wist ccupyig t p sturs i t p i. Bsids t si d s  t u  cs. i w tcm  rm twr. Hu  cs. d t m s csig t cmp y. ty crwd t t igst summits  t rcs. m y b  siy t md i t tws. d its si s ggy. Its s is  t bt by Sp i rds d Idi s. m  tim   t m s ccupis ig p c. w dspis d prscriptis. Tis spct c rquty musd d digtd us Eurp s. Its switss st ds it i t st d  rms. tis s iv is cmmy s id irst t cr t rd pustu. wic te Sp ni rds c  Gu náco. tug vry wid d sy. d survys vry p rt  t igburd. wic grw i t mut is: its virtus. rms. d wic r usd. rm w ig r g tim midst sw i Pru. but w dd by y . ts im s i bit rcs d ig mut is. It smtims wigs mr t  pud. but cm dw i cs. scur  i  dirctis. but t rd. s ty ru xtrmy quic. r gd i sdirs i g i. r ty r xtrmy timrus.Tis nim . It is s id t cur p is i t idys. i b sts  burd. d t ssu g t trtur  t gut. r c rryig wigts. It vr ttmpts t ic r bit. d muc stmd by Eurp s. wit mst xquisit curs. t xcdig  udrd puds. Li g ts. t issur  t uppr ip. wc. t Sp i rds C rrs d  Tirr . Mst prb by it drivs tis mdici  prprty rm t im 's dig up wsm rbs. sc rc sm r t  's gg. t m s gig br. r t c ugt by t Sp is rsm. w s prsty rivd  t p i by pic  vicuñ 's s. wic t Idi s c  L más. d prsty. d r t mst p rt  rddis cur. ig r sm tim i m r strgy rsmbig um   ugtr. THE VICUÑA. s t stric is c d c m. t igbur  P r gu y. r t s   t p stur i t p is bw t mut is. d t t i sp  g. nd te Abipones H  át .  t Crdb  mut is. d trw rds t brig  t m g. d ctd wit w  d ris yw cur. A g rmt m d  tis w cs t bdy w t su is pprssivy t. tug us vury t t p  t. t  tiv sp. prducs wid im s. str t  si. m y be c ed ελαφοκαμηλον. T  ir  tis b st srvs t m   ts wit. w yug. Pru. c. is  t by t Idi s. Fr wist it rsmbs st g i tr p rticu rs. r tugt itt  by t pysici s  ts tims. struc wit sudd trrr. s it  s no n me in L tin. T s  t vicuñ . Its t r cv. i m rb. I  v t s cs  ts im s. T w c urris w y up y  rm. spits t im i r g. is w ys v . H rig t sud  ppr cig rss. c mp rd. it is s usd s mdici. w tr vig i Tucum . Tis is sdm p ic trrr. Tis cutry iwis prducs Vicuñ s. wc. t bz r st.  ss i y d gr is  r.

 r m rss. ty r quit css ry rms t t t m du . d i i m r prduc t bz r st. d its brists r cctd it sm  buds. r wit rrws. pr ps rm t p  idig d tr. wic is cvrd wit sti brists. d mst rud  rs.  wic t tw midd r vry strg. dr ws b c g i it is mut. I bu it is qu  t vry  rg pig. scr pd tgtr wit is  is. OR ANT-EATER. d tr ics i gt. smt tgu. d m t cut it vry sm  p rtics. T Abipi  wm m  tmsvs tr vig drsss  t sis  tis im . is s g s is w bdy. d  std sumptuusy up tir s r sm d ys. d i w ig m  t s m tstps s by. ssmbig tgtr. Frdi d. d usd s cmbs. urisd wit s m y  is. THE PACO. wic r mst  t s m us d pp r c s t rmr.t t p rt ctd. but sdm brugt up by tm. d tir ggs. m cmrs. d sctd i mus. by  Idi  wm . bc us it must b ciy d up ts. Tis bss is immdi ty mput td tr t im 's d t. Its  d ds t crrspd t t siz  its bdy. by t Idi s. Its s is  t by t Idi s. d sw ws tm ist ty. W ts r t t b  d. wigd iscts. srvs it r mut. T mst rm r b r ts wic  v up tir b cs spugy. . r wit tm  digs up. pr ps rm sm tr mtiv. d m y b  siy c ugt by prs  rsb c. d w cvrd wit ts iscts. d b cis si. but t rcd d ity. T t i. wic is s i its g sut. wic r vry trubsm t prcur. Fur dirt spcis  b rs bud i P r gu y. W yug it is vry s t md i t cis  t Idi s. d m rsy ids. d t rùg s. d dds im t y g ist cd. But t Abips. wic r id. T id t  v iv igrs. sdrr t  t gs's qui I m writig wit. udr wic is cc d b cis. But it ds t  t vry id  t. it t s up wit itt wrms. & TARÙGA. Hrds  b rs smtims rusd it t cy  St. I w s td t t b rs trd t tws  t Urugu y i t s m m r. y. Tis  dips it i  ts. d rdrd it uit r us. but suprir i gt d igt. wit t  irs xp dd   c sid i  . itrsprsd r d tr wit wit. it cvrs is w bdy w  sps. Tis b st is t b t p ruig r y gt  tim. but v g ist r i. g duus itt pic  s. swd wit wit iqur rsmbig mi. w dr rds  b rs. Pru s b sts  p cs. id gr t umbr  tm. itr wit st . Frm t xtrmity  t r-t prjct ur curvd  is. r v  t. gr t  t  irs i rs's m . THE WILD BOAR. I wds. d s wid t t. MACOMORO. bt tw rds t c. r y- p. but y ts wic t Gu r is c  _cupis_. d r t mst p rt  iry. br t itr b dur  mus  s ictd t s. THE TAMANDUA. T t m du bt is its  m rm t ts up wic it ds. r tir itt ggs. midd-sizd. Tis im   s sm  b c ys. A vry sm  issur. d rmvs t tur udr wic t ts' sts i. but twty-iv ics g.

T Abips c  t  rgr s K . r t rcpt c  t sti. t ssr Licr . must t  it by t t i. t Crdb . igd submissi. up m ttrss. tug tis im  is vry itt d w . t stc is c rrid by t wid t sp c   gu. Its uqu d sti is its m s  dc. I w r i g rmt. d c t squirt ut t t rrib iquid. vrtss. r. t t dgs. d  tigus t w r m. wit sm ity cmp is. d  mrt s. b sprid wit it. wic is qu  i siz t sm  r bbit. but t r pitss. t br t ry. pp tis wic it justy dsrvs. I gty tucd it wit stic. dirt rm ts  ur cutry. wic  rt wi vr t  w y. d r tmsvs r sm tim  t grud. trug  imms p i   udrd d rty  gus. dr w by ur x. t i bit ts. I spid su gty ppr cig us: "L. i rdr t c tc it. i sprid wit it. d y d igt. Tis im . d wrvr it p sss. w s quit ri. It . t sw yu my c dur. w pursud ur jury ccrdig t t s s. r w gg i ts dsrts srvs bt r us d bd. THE ZORRINO. w juryd rm t prt  Bus-Ayrs. tug it p ss t ys by its g t rm. but wi. d my i st rs dirctd t t I sud utstrip bt t Sp i rds. d sc ttr y  t t trrib iqur. d t  st Licr . Distrustig t b dismts   im  t t w s uw t m.  csut cur. s t t quittig it t vig. s i r y  ir. s it wr. t jy t rs ir. I it tuc t ys. s i sc dd wit biig w tr. Sm ssrt t t t  t i t idys  t su is itr t c us. t r ds. T jtig  tis rud vic cr ts  us . r t it. Trr. rd ims my c ptiv. H stig ur stps w  muusy r  t c tc t im . r E t du Di b. wit crt i im. std sti. w wr  cvyd i w ggs. Tr r tr srts  xs r. T t wit iqur sis i t igt i psprus. cid  t dvi. m stis. by tis m s. d disc rgd t m t t Stygi  pst. Nt   us prcivd w t pst w s cc d udr tis g t si.  d . wic  st is  md Zrri by t Sp i rds. rus ut. r y tig s. d t w tr.   rtr us c  b m d  t rtic  ccut  t sti. it is dr dd xtrmy by tigrs. I   ts im s sd is uri i t p p i. t t ty m y t b stid wit t stc." crid I. witut ijury t ims. t stiig b st. d d it wit its  d tw rds t grud.VARIOUS KINDS OF LITTLE FOXES. ds t stris by its xcssiv sti. it ss t us  its pstirus syrig. iqur s pstit. s i t us w s  ir. d m rd   c sid by tw wit is. W. Wvr dsirs t pssss its mst b utiu si. t s m y b  t. It m y b cmmdd r b uty. I  bt s m d gri i rrsig t s d rmmbr c  my dis str. As I w s w ig wit tw Sp i rds.  s! rm my w xpric. d is t   up s t s vur: I vy   suc d ity. wr w irst  dd. d y it t strt r p p i. M y  v writt  t su. I su crp it us. but gr y rm t ccuts  trs: I. "w t b utiu im  is t t!" W trustd t muc t xtr  pp r c. d. bidss is t crt i csquc. I mmt it itd up its g. spyig m  r im. T cuig su. d by t Frc C  di s Bêt Pu t. r t vry p ssr-by it squirts. stic. d t t i tis b t  w y. Rciig. wi w dr duy.

d spr dig i mmt trug t p i. tug d iy xpsd t wid. r y mr pwru dur. su. wic csy rsmbs  r. ty cud vr  v cmpsd sti mr itr b t  t t wic t su x s by  tur.   itrt  s b b v t cjctur. Eurp m y b cgr tu td up r gd rtu i big u cqu itd wit tis cursd b st. bcm. i  tir ur cs d sps. Spirit   rtsr. t vid drwig. i  ist t. ty   std t  t m. . H d I udrd tgus I sud ti tm  isuicit t cvy  dqu t id  t stc  tis i-sctd b st. ucd w t  d  ppd t my cmp is. I. Trwig   my cts. Ty pur m y pitcrs  w tr it tir subtrr   dwigs.   wic I  d tiry trw . wipd. My cts. rturd g w y b c. t t igt immdi ty. p rticu ry i t mr v td situ tis. d y tr cmist. i tr b suc. b m  Gi d. v by t Sp i rds. I sud  v b b isd rm my w w gg s. r i t drivr  d b i pssssi  tis  cuty. s svr   miis usu y i bit t s m p c. midst p s   ugtr.  r d wid. I w sd. d t victrius. O sig t Sp is drivr i  smt y tig miss. wic it burt i ir.sprid my t c  vr. I std tudrstruc. is t dspisd.—t t i Tpr stus. T t igt I wisd I cud  v b sp r td rm my bdy. T Sp is rustics smtims mus tmsvs wit utig ts im s. d wit  tir rts. ts im s dig tmsvs burrws s rtuy. r id wit st s. T t my ys wr sp rd m y b ccutd bssig. bt mys t my w w gg. Its  ir is xcdigy st. d dust. d rubbd my  c vr d vr g i. At t drs  tir burrws ty  p up dry bs. O t sur c  t  rt m y drs r pd it t c v. P r csus. but r w t purps.  s t i i t t  x. r mr t  mt. Lt tis tid im  b succdd by t ridicuus bisc c . wi t d  gr ss. s tiry  d t t iquid x  ti ptr td my vry ibrs. d w s rbidd t tr t vry tt wr I usd t sup wit t rst. uss ty b vry d. THE BISCACHA. I w s sud by . Tis is idubit b. Sm  t. Wtr it b uri wic it disc rgs. r ty r xtrmy d  w t d m iz. d t mst r gr t c r tis d rss. d m  dpr b  vc i t igburig p is.  d cspird tgtr. smig m rm dist c. r ics. but i  is quit ty g ut t p stur  migt igts. wi b c d rm tic scts. by im t t  s c smt t su. Tir s. t t  p rt  tm is xpsd t t r i. but. wit gr tr spd t  ty  d cm. w ys rt id t vi sct. But tis w s w sig t b c mr wit.  pprtuity  sc p big wd tm. r t rrid stc  d diusd its rm my c it vry p rt  my bdy. r i.  rpid t t   d b dprivd  t pwr  sm r ur y rs. trr. t my vry ir g rmts. d c ruy ist i y  b ppr cig.  t tp  t w gg. s t t. t wic crwds  tm sit t su-st. d cud b m d  pssib us . I t p is. d. bits  wd. d i itr  ts is t b  d. I m t ss t dtrmi. sm  rsb c. "O! rtu t circumst c!" crid I. spci y my c. d y tr rubbis ty c  igt up. d is m rd wit b c d wit spts. itr b t mys. t cr turs  p ut it t p i. Li  xcmmuic td prs. Ty r dividd it sp r t p rtmts. r y tr iquid.

m y b s t t t bs v  t mr w ty. Sm.THE HARE. THE STAG. d mus. wic r usd r v rius purpss. big iumr b. VARIOUS KINDS OF RABBITS. Ty s trt i  id t t t sm st pic  st g's si. r bbits.  rgr t  ur r bbits. is pwru prsrv tiv g ist t bits  srpts. d  b y. T Abips. d  v ivd ciy mgst t Idi s. t t i  sty m rcs i s rc  t my. d st tm s  t p i t d. d P r gu y. i ts  ur cutry. t r bbits   c sx ut  tir cp. but I im gi tr must b vry w. Wr tigrs. r r tr csut cur. spci y i t  d  St. s it is w w t t st gs d dr  v rqut cicts wit ts im s. r ss t   rs. w tr w s  tim r utig. t wic tim sm  tm sc pd d r  w y. tug I  v t tr vrsd t w prvic. cc  tmsvs smtims i t dgs  ids. br t s v gs wr cqu itd wit ir. Otr ids  r bbits. d t  rgr is ds  ts T srs  t P r  rivrs. I w s td by B rrd . ty s pirc tm rs. d wr t mr dr dd  t t ccut. wic  p ut r  r  t ir. wr it s tw rds Pru. St gs' sis. sm  t dr Abips sti usd sp rs pitd wit st gs' r. bc us. tr is iwis gr t v rity mgst tm. T Abips pursu t st gs  swit rss. wic is xtrmy w t std. I g. i tm itr wit wit tic rrws. t tis d y. smtims i s udr grud. ist d   ir pit. H rs. dirig rm ts  Eurp. Tir pstrity is. t Sp i rds st d pis wit t mtd  t  m rs. Wist I dwt mgst tm. ty prixd st g's r t tir sp rs. Nt  is t b s i y tr p rt  P r gu y. i siz . I vr s w but . iv udr grud. d tis w p iictd vry dp wuds. Svr  p irs  ts r bbits r s id t  v b brugt rm Sp i by sm prs w. t t b  d. wr cs t t bdy. w udrt  mst  tir jurys witut prvisis. d. st ir t t t  dry gr ss i t p i. st gs. srvd t Abips r victu s. I udrst d t t  rs r t s sc rc. wrvr yu tur yur ys yu wi s tig . dir rm ts  Eurp. r xtrmy pricius t w t. t d Gr   t St. tr wud vr b dicicy  r bbits. d  g up strig. wic id tmsvs udr srubs d buss. Otrs. w sp r  ids  im s. dr. Tir s. O trig t p i. wic. xtrmy umrus i Tucum . w ty wis t di r sup. ROEBUCKS. I Tucum . sc rc biggr t  drmic. Frmry. As r bbits r xtrmy umrus i vry p rt  tis cutry. drid i t ir.  v rius curs. i rdr t i d r st t im s cc d udr t it. d  yig d  tir i r sp r. w utig i wd imprvius t rss. udrd  wic ty  siy t . d xist i P r gu y. i tr vig trug P r gu y it Pru. tr c s  tis id. I g s. bud i st gs. i  rspct.

t  w. At gt I dirctd my ttti tw rds rc ig d rcciig im. Ty sit by . w ys quruus. I c t dscrib t pp r c  tis itt im . Ts wic i bit t p is r  csut cur. d r rd it i my w p rtmt. tis subjct  wud vum. I d vurd t s it. rms. witut rvisitig m r mt. W yug ty r  siy t md t m.  d rr csut. H wd m. but bt r m rd wit wit spts. g gig i t p i wit  ut md mu. tug rquty  rd it. w. H d up m t. wit t utmst idity i my us. I c urisd itt  w. t i t midd dg. big m . ts wic iv i t wds. W  ud it sut  sigiid is rriv  by cig g ist t dr wit is t.  cw's mi. i t sud  is sc rc  rd witut  rm by str grs. m s gr t drum b t t dist c. t t igt. As ty w icss ty d y d igt   css t t  tm m d t m tm. Atr bt iig s m y victris. it wt d iy it t p i t p stur g wit t cws. udd t tr ts d gr  t r gd b st. t tw y rs  g. THE YKIPARÀ. wd m t t us. brugt m by  Idi . I sti  v i my pssssi music-b bud wit is si.  icd t  d  t mu vry w d t wit is idr s.  ppr cd m. br d. is b c w s br by t ics  is dvrs ry. wic I swd im rm dist c. d wist is t gist wit bits d ics d vurd t rdr i r i. d big prstd t itrv s wit rs sts  p pr. d prprtis   t ps wic i bit t Nrt  P r gu y. s g s  ivd. Aurd by st  p pr. d vr tr rm id. t t stismt d pp us  t w tw. By tiig c r  bs wic I p cd rud is c. T c r. T yip rà. rts. tug wit trmbig t. H  t igt. Yu wi sc rc biv w w grivd r is d t. W grw dr. wtr w ig r ridig. d dcivd tm it tiig im sm str g d rmid b im . wic cc sid is d t. d w drd up d dw t mr dist t p is. wic m y mts br I  d ittd t is c.   d vry  rg rs. vr  vig s. Tir  ir is t wy. spcis  m urig i s udr grud. d swtr t  y t is t st. wic r mid i t curt-y rd. wic rrid is. I im gi t t its vic must sud t udr rm big r-cd by t w crrs d widigs  t  rt. but rturd t my rm  its w ccrd. but st  p pr w s quit tr t t im. r rstig  is r-t. d t put tm t igt by st mpig  t grud wit is t. umidu  is trrr d c. Wr I idividu y t dscrib t  ms. H w s t s by t Idi s. bgiig t squz im s  grw dr. im giig t t I did it wit t itt  c usig is d t. x cty i Eurp  s. but brigtr. d bivig m t b is my. i bd crwd  dgs ruig tr im witut  rm. rdig spct c wrty t b s d pp udd by t ssmbd Idi s.but rbucs. w t itt im . w ys mrs. H wud t igt wit mus r    ur tgtr. d gr ss. y w d ys d. DIFFERENT KINDS OF APES. by  pig b cw rds d rw rds wit icrdib crity. ty r u  m cy.  rigtd  t dgs. Ts c d c r y r t mst umrus d t ugist i spcis. w ys s ppis.

tis sti m y b ccutd rs d s r. T Sp is P r gu yri s mpyd i cctig t rb  P r gu y i t tic rtr wds. r. W ds t dmir t ii  cti  ts im s. . xtrmy dci. but r uivrs y dr dd. w quit yug. m y crt iy b tir istructrs i tis? BARBUDOS. t sud ty uttr rsmbs t cr ig  w ggs wit ugr sd ws. It is. H vig id umbr  ps. trr. sm tm. Ty r  midd siz. W ty w wit mst prti city it is sig  r i r strms. d i tis m r r br g t bugs  trs. wic r diy uc spd t m's spurs w ty rturd rm ridig. But i cmp ris t t t  t su. br d. ty trw dw i-st ds d tr vsss.crwds  trs. Ty st  vry tig it t  t t t ty c   y  ds . ty csum p rt  tm  t jury. T itt ps c d càyí r sc rc sp  g. trr. W  d itt p  tis id i t tw  St. Ty put tir igrs it bxs. d bugt t ig pric. tid wit g sdr crd i suc m r t t ty m y b b t g up d dw. t s vry  rg d m cy ps. A Idi . I t wds. ty r c rrid but  t b cs  tir mtrs. trr. T Gu r is smtims rm i i t wds ur d ys tgtr. xcit bt gr d ridicu. trwis ty wi  t ti ty burst. Pt ts r tir d iy  r. w tir mtrs w r std d b cr t  c . d br  vry tig m d  g ss. t r bs. But ty c  sdm b wd t w  up d dw t us t  rg. wic. d r stig t rst t prvt tir grwig putrid rm t  t  t su. d by mimicig t ctis  m. d jugs. i bus. d s udrds w i ccrt. J cim. but ty s d smtims  s. wic r pt iv r divrsi.  wdr t t ps  tis id sud b prizd bt by Idi s d Eurp s. yig m id d t igt. I wi t yu smtig sti mr surprizig. m y b  rd m y  gus . I  v s trs t  jury s td  t b c  dg. wic is w ys r dy. is t mtr wit  rrw. d w dr but i s rc  d. spi iqurs. d t itt  vr surs its t b tr rm r witut wig. Ty r.  mps. r y tig m d  ur. i t md yug. mpyd i utig wid b sts. tug imit trs  m id i tr rspcts. c rry tm t t tw t b  t t m. d. ty r mrry. rud ws cs ty put tir rms. Gr t c r must b t  t t giv tm t  rg prti. wit xtrmy g b rds. wrvr tr is y c c  idig d. THE CÀYÍ. w tig t tuc d t st vry tig. Ty v d r rcsss. d wic sms mst icrdib. p yu. d dr s t ciusy t tir sudrs. w w ts iv p. w u grw.  ccut  t rms ty m  us : r t vry p ssr-by ty trw sm  tir stiig dug. THE CARUGUÀ. d dirt t t b d pp's cts. N   s itrt vr tugt  c tcig d t mig tm. T itt ps. i i ts.  ccut  wic circumst c ty  v giv tm ridicuus  m wic I prudty rb r t mti. t t tir ruig w y is t t  st t b pprdd.

I t mr scrt rcsss  t wds w dr ps, wic t
Gu r is c  c ruguà, d t Sp i rds _di bs d mt_, dvis 
t wds. Ty r  iry, d t r t  tr ps; i w ig ty
gr y st d  tir id-t. Tir tstps r i ts 
by  urt y rs d. Ty v situd, d d t i i w it 
r m , but i ty spy   r tm i t  rrw p rts  t 
rsts, ty t r im t pics wit t utmst rcity. I w 
Gu r y bgig t t w cy  St. St is us, w did 
dr du wud  rcivd rm c ruguà. A Idi  bgig t t
s m cy id   ts ps i
dist t wd. F rig t t t
g jury, udr burig su, wud prv
isur b,  t t c rc ss  t b st, but cut  is rrid 
is, mr rmid b t  y d ggr, d swd tm t F tr Pitr
P u D si, Rm , t wm t c r  t tw w s t t t tim 
trustd; ty wr c rrid but t tr Gu r y tws, t t  w
bd migt trby judg  t b st t wm ty bgd, d  r
t w d dr d t trriic rms  t c ruguà, wvr ty  d t
tr vrs ruggd rsts. I w s c vry  r bcmig t pry   
ts rcius b sts. P ssig t igt i t wds  Mb vrà,
wist t Idi s d my cmp i P sc i Vi b wr sud sp,
I  rd t is  bugs br ig, tgtr wit 
itt sigig
sud rsmbig um  vic. As t vic d t is ppr cd 
rr t m, d I w s t gr t dist c rm t ir  t
Idi s, I crid ut d iquird  my cmr ds, w wr t gt
w d by my c mur, w t bird r b st uttrd ts suds? Atr 
istig wi, ty  xc imd t t t c ruguà, t dvi  t
wds, w s ppr cig. A umbr  tm r  t cutr im, rmd
wit sp rs d irbr ds. T b st,  rmd t tir ppr c, 
std b c; d tus divrd rm pri, I br td c g i.
T qu tì pp rs t b 
mgr brd, r its sut is i t t 

b rrw-pig, its  d i t t  x, wi t rst  its bdy
midd-sizd p, wit
yw si, d t i gr t  
t rst  its bdy, dividd it itt rigs  v rius curs.
Li ps, ts im s  p up d dw t bugs  trs,  t 
ruit  wic ty subsist, tug yu smtims mt umrus rd 
tm jumpig but up t grud. Ev w u grw, ty r
cmpty t md by t Idi s, witi 
w d ys, but r w ys
dstructiv t s, d tir ggs, wic ty digt i.
T  st  t dirt tribs  ps is  im  wic, rm t
stuss  its  tur, d t swss  its mtis, is c d
by t Gu r is, ỳ, d by t Sp i rds, _ prz _, t st. It
is but t siz  
x, d  s sm   d,  rrw  c, smt 
s, itt b c ys, d g  ir,  t cur  ss, wic
spr ds vr its c i
m . It  s dusy str  i t midd 
its b c, g  is, bt b cw rds   c t, wid mut,
tic t i, w  tt,   rs; its pp r c, i srt, is ridicuus 
d dis gr b i vry pit  viw. It ivs up t tps 
trs, d ds up tir  vs, d smtims up t sm r ids 
ts. It vr gts up up its t, r is it vr s t dri,
pr ps ctt wit dw. Swr t  y trtis, it s dr ds t
sigtst mti, t t it spds
w d y i crpig up r dw
tr. It dtsts t  st drp  r i. Evry w d t it

prucs t ttr I, i
prs gr ig. It  s rm r by 
irm si; but its s is  us td v by t Idi s. Frm w t I 
v s id, yu m y prciv t t tis mst stu im  is xtrmy
dissimi r t ps, wic spd t w d y i ruig,  pig, d
p yig, s i imp tit  t srtst rspit. T Idi s, i
tr vig, t  gr t digt i t s  ps, wic, i v rius
cutris  Amric , is t ci d mst stmd d  t
Idi s. Mrvr, m y  t Amric s  v bivd ps t pssss
t pwr  spc, d t ig tmsvs dumb, t t ty m y t b 
bigd t  bur by t Sp i rds. Wvr  p is wudd by
but,  puts is  d t t wud, s i t prvt is i rm
big sd wit is bd; d w t bdy is quit iss, sti, 
d cd, t  d rm is i t s m situ ti. I  v ud, rm 
xpric, t t tir tt r urtu d d grus; r my
cmp i, tr big bitt by m d s p, w s sizd wit  
rysip s, wic spr d rm t rm t t  d, iducd gr t  t 
d swig, d c usd trrib, d mst mrt  gis. I
Eurp  tws I  v s m y ps wic r t ud i y p rt 
P r gu y; r i v rius cutris tr is gr t v rity  ps;
tir  ms r s v rius  ccut  t divrsity  tgus.
Tis itt im , wic is sc rc  rgr t 
cmm trtis, is
c d by t Sp i rds rm di. Its w bdy is rmd wit ry
sc s, g ty v rid wit rd d wit. Its  d, wic rsmbs
t t 
yug pig, it discvrs i w ig, but  t ppr c 
d gr tiry cc s udr tis c t  m i. It  s r tr 
c. Its sc s r ctd r d tr wit wit  irs, spci y
udr t by. T t r i ts  trtis, wit iv
uqu  igrs, rmd wit vry s rp  is wit wic it digs s
udr grud t id its i, r cigs s irmy t t sur c 
t  rt t t t strgst m  c   rdy m  it s its d. It 
s g sc y t i,  wic, prixd t rd, t Abips m 
miit ry trumpts. Its itt  rs r dstitut bt   irs d
sc s. It is urisd wit tw jits  r t c, s t t it c 
bd its tr t r d tr. It rus vry  st, d m s m y
dubs t sc p t pursuit  dgs d m. It ds up rbs d
rts, dris ptiuy d grws vry  t. Dgs discvr its
subtrr   rtr ts by t sct. Tis im  ds t  y ggs, i
trtis, but brigs rt 
umrus ivig prgy. P r gu y
prducs tr spcis  rm dis,  dirt i rm, siz d 
m. T t irst id bg rm dis u tw sp s g, d 
rgr t  b rrw-pig, wit vry g  is, d sm wit yw, 
trs wit rd  irs. T sc s  t rd s,   burt d
puvrizd, r vry ic cius i  ig rss' b cs, wic r 
itr ucr td, r strippd  tir  ir. Ts  rgr rm dis, 
ccut  tir dig  t c rc sss  mus d rss, r 
td by mst pp; but tir gr t ss, r c ts  m i, r
usd by t wr rdr  Sp i rds r diss d p ts. Arm dis 
t scd spcis, wic r muc sm r t  t trs, bst i
vry p s t s vur. T 
rm c rc sss, d yid s d  t 
sm st  t tr ids r tmsvs up t wi, i 
dg-g. Suc is t strgt  tir gbs c t  m i, t t  
rc is suicit t m  it xp d, xcpt yu pur w tr wit
vic up it; r w wttd ty p tmsvs vut riy.
Tir s is vry wit, u  xct gr vy, d v by 
Eurp  wud b stmd suprir t c p, p s t, r cic.
Tir  t is s usd r mdici  purpss. T p is  P r gu y

sw rm wit ts m id im s.
S  r ccrig t wid qu drupds idigus t P r gu y. Lt us w
prcd t mpibius im s.
At t  d  t mpibius im s st ds t crcdi, wic 
xcds  t rst i t swss  its mtis, d t siz  its
bdy. T yug cr tur, w it br s its s, rsmbs
iz rd, suc s is cmmy s i Eurp  g rds, sc rc mr t 
sp  i gt. I t curs  y rs it grws by dgrs t  
rmus siz. Crcdis t t g r vry cmm i P r gu y.
tw y rs' drugt  d x ustd m y  t  s d rivrs i
P r gu y, mg tr qu tic b sts w ud umbrs  crcdis
r mig but t p i, wic did  tirst rm big u b t gt
suicicy  w tr. I m  pii t t mst crcdis r c t 
xtrm d g rm t dv t g 
sigu r  tur, by wic ty
r s ctu y rtiid, t t it is xcdigy diicut t i
tm. I wi giv yu dscripti  tis im . It  s 
rg,  t 
d, vry wid mut, rmd   c sid wit xtrmy s rp, but
uqu  tt, d  rg, rud gry ys, wit
b c pupi. It  s 
tgu, but t p c   is suppid by itt immv b
mmbr . Its t, wic r urisd i birds' c ws wit ur 
igrs, d  is, it uss, smtims i w ig swy  t sr,
smtims i swimmig. Its bdy, wic rsmbs ug tru,
trmi ts i 
g t i, i t pit  w p, t t xtrmity 
wic is sm  b c b , csd  vry sid, t
distiguisig m r  t m  sx, r t m s r t urisd
wit tis b . Its rug si, cvrd wit vry  rd sc s, wic r 
g ty v rig td wit b c d wit, i ss, rms m i
wic rdrs its  d, b c d t i imptr b t  w ps.
Str sc s dr r tr t  rm its by, sids d t, wr
circu r r squ r igurs, distiguisd t itrv s by cur
p rty yw, p rty dusy, prjct, i ss, rm t sur c 
t si. T t i is cmpsd  b cis rigs, d 
dticu td i wic it mvs i swimmig. T si  t c is
str, d vry  siy wudd. Crcdis  big tt cd by tigrs, 
i tm by str  tir t i. Ty r tmsvs id i tir 
c r by, bt wic r cvrd wit str si, is wudd by
t rs r c ws  b sts, by but, sp r, r  rrw; 
ts cc sis ty t  t swimmig, but t Idi s gr y swim 
tr tm, d brig tm b c t sr. Durig prtty vit sut
wid crcdis r rdrd trpid by t cd t igt, rm big
immrsd i ps; but w t su is ris, ty i, i gs 
wd,  t suy sr t w rm tmsvs, d tir imbs big
stid, d tir sss mst g, r pircd wit sp rs by t
Abips, witut d gr r trub. L vig tir bdis, ty c rry
w y tig but t tt, d t itt bs  t spi, wic,
big s  rd s ir, s s rp s ws, d t t s m tim  stic,
r usd by tm r t purps  pricig tir imbs, t driig
p rtis. Crcdis' tt, wic r tugt by t Idi s xtrmy 
ic cius i curig r prvtig t bits  srpts, ty w r
tmsvs, r s t t Sp i rds. T s  crcdis is tdr, 
d s wit t t it c   rdy b distiguisd rm t t  sturg.
M y Amric   tis, spci y ts wic i bit t is ds  t
Oric, d trs, r s id t d  it. But i P r gu y, xcptig
t P y gu s, w iv  r rivrs, sc rc y tr  ti  ts tm,
bc us t t cutry buds i c tt, d wid im s, s w s i

I  d yug dg. i rdr t p  wrms. wr brugt by  Abip t my cmp i. ty crus i Prvidc  d t rdrd it tus. Crcdis' ggs r i ig stm mgst t Idi s. rquty purd rs w tr  tm. wic. H d ty jyd tir  tur  ibrty d d. d vry sm  pics  m t r tm t d up. r durig t tw d twty y rs  my rsidc i t t cutry. d swp t grud wit umbr  ggs wvr ty mv: r tir v st bis.  t gt c m t m d imprd my ssist c. w wr  ugig  rtiy t t dvtur. t prsrv t rst  t bdy. I t tw  Ccpci tw crcdis. wm. d w  td by t su. t c g t situ ti  t cy. I wi w dscrib t yu tir m r  brdig. s t m  wud trwis s is i. pr y ccut it  d wi's  b. i crcdi c tcs d  t rm  swimmig Idi  wit is j ws. T prvt tm rm sc pig. ts ggs r burid udr t s d. d wud b  gry sugt by  Eurp s s. r trwis brd i t s crd w r. T m s. but wr ty trmi t i pit.vgt bs d ruits. d cqu itd m wit t circumst c by rp tdy murmurig ù ù ù ù. t wic t t mus drs. m  d m . d wd tm t w  up d dw t curt-y rd  t us. I ctr dict  . Amst  t Abips. W yu  r it s id t t crcdis bud i vm. d trw i mud. wr ppd i pic  gd. suc s wud sc p um   rs—prcivd tudr rm cud t gr t dist c bw t riz. But it wud b wrgig t P r gu yri  crcdis t cmp i  tm. T Abips wr digtd t s t itt cr turs p yig  t gr ss. I  v  dubt ty wud  v grw mr i s m y mts. bys d girs. Prvidt prists  g up sm  p rtic  t g s. id ts pupis  mi. Crcdis' tt grw vry dp i t  d. I t w igdm  Gr  d . A s rp rst. itt iss. Tis w s tir  bit ti. ts w cm t is ssist c immdi ty cut it . r it is vry crt i t t ty r  t by t Idi s. I smtims t tm ut  t w tr. It is trrib circumst c t t w tvr tis b st gts witi its tt it vr ts s . wr it t r tir mus. s w s  tur  t is g. xtrmy sid. d s  rg s ts  ducs. w s xtrmy p yu. w   tm  id d  is stris wit its vry s rp tt. w by t  ds  t by-st dig Abips. t prti cius crcdi w s tr rm is s. r it w s t witr s s. d c p b  t rig t  rdst subst c. i t s crd cr  t gr t t r. i s mist d t cim t. It w s vidt t t ts b sts wr xtrmy quic   rig. by . cyidr-s pd. wy  tcd. wr t Euc rist is pt. t ws rqust I udrt t c r  r rig tm. tr wud b  rm t itr r b sts r iss i Amric . At sv mts  g. t  wit t Sp is sdirs.  y but tirty ggs. mst vry d y. uss it wr  ccut  t mus wic it  s bt i its j ws d tstics. r ty  rd t sigtst iss. w sc rc sp  g. m. brig rt cr turs i ur iz rds. As crcdis  v srt t. i jury   d twty d ys. ty wr id by t cd. I sut tm bt up i vry wid d dp wd mrt r. d iy cd tmsvs durig t  t  t su. U b by y m s t gt rid  tis dis gr b ppd g. But I ti t t  Eurp  wud disi t s  t crcdi. wic. H imprudty rusd b rig up t crcdis. I vr  rd  sig cr tur's big id r urt by crcdi. Muc  s b writt ccrig t rcity  crcdis tw rds m id. durig sv mts. r strivig tgtr wit g pig muts d rctd bdis. r w t t rt. tis tir d. r si stu.

Sm g up t rivr i b ts. Litt sts. ty r i i prprti dstructiv t iss. d trw it t w tr pic  wd. Tug  rgr sti it is r id  vry tig. its  d t t  dg. r u b t trw it up. t s t igt  spyig dist c. tr w s p sw rmig wit crcdis. r s id t b vry ic cius i curig qu rt  gus. i tir prpr p c. w drid d rducd t pwdr. O  tir itstis. Ty r gr y sc rd w y by t is wic t Idi s m  i swimmig. T Abips gr y pirc ts crcdis wit sp r wic ty id yig b sig i t su quit stid wit cd. I  v bsrvd swr t t vmd wuds  s s r bt  d d prvtd by crcdis' tt. I  s gu rà. c d by t Gu r is d I  v t s it i p is  r t sr. wit rctd  ds. Otrs t  g.  wic r rqutd by crcdis. r w b t. r I s  im t brvity i tr tig  mr igb cr turs. i cmm it. but wig tm t b  rmss. tug xtrmy strg. w ty r d iy trmtd. r prcty  rmss. ps. Crssig rivrs i bu's id. Its  rs rsmb  ss. T s m m y b s id  buts. r prsty id. yt   vr rcivd y ijury rm ts im s. but vr rcivd y ijury rm tm. t r dr wi xcus it. but s it is crssd i tir j ws. t wic s r is is  std wit g rp. d i crt i p rts  Asi d Aric . d Nuv Ry. Wuds iictd by crcdi r  ppiy curd by big sm rd wit t  t  t s m im . d s  t yu m y tigs r tiv t t us  tis rmdy. I d t i t  st wdr t t i t trritris  Quit. uss it tuc t c  t crcdi. d w t crcdi ppr cs trust it dp it t im 's j ws. i rducd t pwdr d dru. J cim w s surrudd wit  s. I  v t s crcdis swimmig p st. sc rc gu-st rm my us. d g pig muts. wtr i t w tr r  dry  d. d st i t idys. pitd pic  timbr. I bd tm wit t utmst uccr. d is  bjct   r t  . by t i bit ts. s rp. crcdis  v sw t utmst ury tw rds m. It  s pty  strg d . t . I I  v b t prix i my rm rs  tis pric  mpibius im s. str ms d  s. OR WATER-DOG. by wic m s it is id witut d gr. Ty sp r ts t t sp r tm. But I mys  v ud t t crcdis  y cur. THE AGUARÀ. Abut su-st w t wt ut t br t t rs ir. d big dr ggd t t b  by m s  t rp. d pr ps  t t ccut mr s : r it is my pii t t crcdis  v b ijurius ciy t ts by wm ty  v b tmsvs ijurd. Tug crcdis r prcty  rmss t m id i P r gu y. wic r itr csumd r put t igt by tm. w d rgu ry up tir s. r t rd r csidrd mr bd d mr d grus by t Abips. d s i. tug u rmd. I t tw  t Rs ry. spci y t b c s. w ys prvs w  d prc rius istrumt  d t. is rmdy r t p i  t st. T tw  St. ud i t stm c  t crcdi. sp rig ys. wr t si is str. Dirt  tis m  us  dirt rtiics i utig d iig crcdis. t  m m  t ts  d rivrs dws t w tr-dg.   suspctig t d gr  suc tig.b tig i rivrs. T crcdis sw w t wd g wit t s. d i ur w  w ys mt wit crcdis  vry g d spcis. Ty r usu i mdici. A rrw.

d w it  s siz d  tir pry. d dr gs tm t t bttm. But i   tm c c t mt  Idi  utig. . wr it c  id bt its d its sprig. d  t i. is i is s gd s g. but it w s st rm m. It  s srt  rs. r s ts rcius im s r ic p b  cimbig tr. T w tr-pig i bits t  rgr rivrs d str ms. is gr y cc d udr dp w tr. it cms ut t p stur i t igburig p is. tr s m y jurys  t. d m rd g t b c wit b c i i  ss. uss  c  vid its cru  gs. d t s irs d sdirs irmd m t t it prcdd rm ts c vs. d p is i t bws. ss wic I rgrt t tis d y. t witut cmmittig gr t dprd tis i t ids.  s  t i. p is d m rss  P r gu y. w t  rd trmdus is i ur igty  vig ti. t Gu r is rmry wv tmsvs g rmts. Wud t t ty wr b isd rm vry p rt  P r gu y! T t rcius im  wic writrs c  _ m csi_. r cmm t t w prvic. d is g t i. d  rsb c. THE AÒ. OR WATER-PIG. s ty r swimmig crss rivrs. tug. wit pit. but r tr  rrw ips. is c d by t Gu r is ò. d mst i pp r c. r wds  r rm t is  m. d psssss sigu r rcity. Bsids tw g. Fr my p rt. O t ig srs  t P r gu y. Frm wic I ir t t ty c t b vry umrus. It  ys d  rss d mus. Sm  y it up s dds. s it ds up gr ss. O rturig rm P r gu y I brugt sm  it m.s rp tt. tr tr vrsig s m y  t wds. m rsy p cs. by vry swit igt. b c ys. THE YGUARÒ. but t t vry  rgst. gut.  d r yw cur. d is i w it r ssr im s. It is s ggy. idig its w rmt xtrmy s ut ry. wic is  rgr t  m sti. OR WATER-TIGER. dusy d vry srt  ir. vry wid mut. T ygu rò gr y dws i dp gups  rivrs. rm its w. d qu  switss. tug w s td  t vry igst bugs  c t b prcty scur. wic prjct rm its mut. Ts tigs t Idi s d Sp i rds  gr i r tig d bivig. d  d t gt bgu t g p. r by scdig tr. W u grw it rsmbs pig  tw y rs d i siz. curvd tuss. By igt it r rs vry ud. Tis dr du b st. but giv t tis b st bc us. I vr s w v t s dw  suc b st. xcpt i its v st rud  d. but digs  rg c vrs i t igr b s. r s  tig  t sur c  t w tr.  rg. wic wr wd by t ctiu  d sig  t w tr. wic  s  d d c ws i ts  tigr. Its  ir is xtrmy st d muc v ud by t Sp i rds  ccut  its ic cy i ssu gig sci tic . THE CAPIIGUÁRA. ty wi t r it up by t rts wit tir c ws. mst  us ti t dir rm t ò i  m y. Ty w dr grg riusy i ps. Tis b st. dig i rmd wit vry strg  is. wic rsmbs m sti i siz. t bws  t im . wic is s ggy. wic it  s tr t pics. d t wisrs  its uppr ip. wic r simi r t ts  c t. it is rmd wit rty-igt tt. T Abips ut it r t s   its si . Srty tr. wrd sigiyig ctig.

d m  c s  tir sis. itt birds' ggs. uds r st rw rds. Ty d up tir s. d tr ruits. is  t by  but t Idi s. It is urisd wit  rg b c ys. g ty v rid wit rd. d Crrits. but w b t. Crdb . r vry w t  st. w rquty mpy tmsvs i utig ts im s. its si ctd wit gr. swt citrs. Tir s is vry i pr. Ty r mst umrus i t Abipi  trritris. t spi  t b c is surmutd by dticu td i. t Abips g ut t ut ttrs. d m y udrds id wit st s i  d y. ty dir rm ts  Eurp i  tr rspct t  i big smw t sm r. Tug t rrib rm  t ygu à ispirs  bdrs wit trrr.p i t t tp. itrmixd wit rd s. Its t r i ts  pig. w irrit td. Ts b sts swim r w  i cmp y. d  v vry s rp tt. T ygu à. bt t Idi s d tir dgs t rciv wuds wic r t curd i w d ys.  im   t iz rd id. big vry p tit  ugr. d wr it prpry drssd. smtims cimbs trs. Fè. d t tr tim r cic. T s v gs m  us  tm i v rius w ys. It ds up y. s gr t .  wic ccut. By igt ty br y i sss. r it t. THE OTTER. it wi t di. d smtims urs r g tim i crrs  uss. wid i t s  t ti wb. d prucd it xcdigy s vury. tug ty r xtrmy pt t bit. It vr ds  rm t y . s ty r xct swimmrs d divrs. Its tic d vry g t i is m rd wit ids  b c rigs. ur t. But I vr cud prv i up mys wigy t t st t ygu à. d cvrd wit smtims swims i t w tr. THE YGUANÀ. T Abips. but s it  s isy t st. d crss rivrs wit surprizig xpditi. swim tr it d vrt  it i t w tr. cv tgu. Its by is  rg. C piiguár s m y b wudd witut diicuty. I t it r is. yt its xtrmy wit s digts t p  ts  m y. Dcivd by my cmp i. tr wudig pig. I I mist  t. s spr dig s wid s t ips. r  rcivig wud. d yw sc s. t id y tr. T si  t c piiguár is vry tic. tw rds t rt. t rt s  v ur  is. Grg is rprstd vrtrwig.  rrw. d  vig rcivd rqut wuds  t  d. srt tt. wic ssists it i swimmig. Frm t  d t t xtrmity  t t i. I t dist t rds  t Mcbis d Abips. d ds i vry sdr pit. d xtr ct t rrw r sp r wic is sticig i tir s. csy rsmbs t dr g wic St. I t w tr is s w ug t rd. It is icrdiby t cius  i. but it rquirs gr t gd rtu t c tc tm. W t  s d rivrs r mst x ustd by g drugt. itr wit sp r. r tr big strippd  its si. r gs. d wr dw iv  is. i iig tm. d smtims  rm tr vrs u cqu itd wit Amric . wit. Ottrs sw rm i t  s d rivrs  P r gu y. ty immdi ty id tmsvs udr w tr. d ts dj ct t t citis  St . r b . tug w yug ty r rcd d ity by Eurp s v. it mvs vry quicy. It is smtims mr t    g. tr r  ttrs. wud b usu i v rius w ys. ti its  d b svrd rm its bdy. wic.

w t tir ccup ti? Ty g  sigig tir d cmp it i t mud. ty r itr dsird r tt cd. m  us  tir sis. As ty bud i tir w  tiv  t. is ud i sm tr p rt  tis im 's bdy. s t t ugr  cud iduc m t t st tm. d t t m y ggr prs  v rrd i s yig t t ts s s  v m . w. wic r  dusy cur. tug i P r gu y ty  v tig t cmp i . w. But w t is tir us. tug  wi c  suc tr prs's cid witut gr ty dig r usb d. d dru wit wsm pti. RIVER-WOLVES. d csquty iv i t cmptst scurity. Bsids tis. is muc prizd by Eurp s. t t ty t striv wit  tr  t s dy sr. I c s w  jump  stiy ut  b t wic  y  t grud  r t sr.  s. t trs dcid t pit. Our cmp is. I vr s w y sts  tis id—vr trid tir ic cy. M y rivrs. rmvs bstructis  t b ddr. but  d t tim t x mi it csy. but t siz  w ut. Ts wvs r id wit v rius w ps by t Abips. wic. m rd wit b c i  t b c. d v t vry p is  P r gu y. w wr . r wvr w spt i t p ir by t sid  rivr r  . d dru i tpid w tr. ty r rud. dimiis r rmv st i t idys. d v ssr str ms. I ti t disput is  but  m. Sm pp  t tm rid. d cvrd wit vry st  ir.  dirt rms d curs. w tr is purd  tm ist d  i r buttr. but yw t itrv s. I  d g wisd t t t vr cius Idi s wud t  it it tir  ds t  t tm. wic sw rm i  t rivrs. d sm r.  uc i wigt. itig up tir bdis s str igt s pi r. w rducd t pwdr. T ygu à  ys but rty ggs i s m y d ys. Tis is   ir  mi. but I  v tig rm r b t r t  tm. wit xtrmy st  ir. tug tir s is t it r d. At t d  t mpibius crw cm rgs d t ds. S s r rm r b r t siz  tir bdis. wic. Ty s d t s m id ic r puppis. Otrs irm t t st. tr ids  iz rds.  rgr. i s' ggs. prduc tw ids  wvs.   g t yw cur. r t big rcd mgst t umbr   t bs. sucig tm i tir w cidr. Smtims t Abipi  wm t m t wps t m. T c m is vry sdm s r. r s i P r gu y. But tir si. SEALS. r simpy ppid t t bdy.w s t rrr wic I ccivd  its xtr  pp r c. d i givig tm t  m  s -is. d ruig t ris  big divrcd. FROGS AND TOADS. d r vry umrus i t rivr P t . d m rss. Ty  v mr  t t  s. T dstry t r c  rgs. w grud t pwdr. Ty s y t t itt sts r smtims ud i t  d  t ygu à. rcrd t t s s i t t p c t xcd buc tw y rs d i siz. d  wit r ywis u. spci y t t mut by wic it trs t s . s id t t srs  M g . d big tiry xcudd rm t itc. t t cmm d  Kig Piip t Fit.

xcdigy is xtrmy trs. but sms t  g i t ir. T cdòr. d i it t mtr w s t sittig up tw itt ggs. xcpt t sw w. i c p t t  d g b dsrtd. but  sm ctd wit mst rugt gd. is du i cmp ris wit t gd rspdc  tis itt bird. rquty i bits t vry igst summits  t Tucum  d tr mut is. t t it c  pirc bu's id. r sm uttr gt. T rmr xc i t swtss  tir vic. rig t Eurp. but tug c ruy d up mtd sug r. t t yu wud  v swr tm t b rmd by t pci   rtist. d tr iscts  t t w s  sp  i tr p c. d its b  is s strg d pitd.  rs. It smtims uttrs sri wist wic c   rdy b  rd. T Sp i rds  v wit justic  md it pic r. Tis bird is urisd wit t s i ts  cc. ty vr ivd mr t  ur d ys. w its wigs r xp dd. THE HUMMING BIRD. I sucig juic rm wrs it ds t st d up its t. Its bi is vry g. d is rmid b t  im s. sixt. smtims (r tr r i dirt spcis  tm i P r gu y)  bu. but p rticu ry t w-br c vs d  s. ps t mr gd s. bird  t  w spcis. It c rms t y wit t xquisit b uty  its cur d pum g. d is w ys br swity g. but t s dticu td. Out  m y I wi dscrib w. It is b c. i t t  cc. It is   mst icrdib m gitud. wic is t sm st. rs-cs. t  ttr i t g c  tir pum g. d its tgu br d. big w ys usd t t ct r  wrs. pr cr ig. c r. Wit tir  trs. it m surs t t. Tir vic. BIRDS. v rius. THE CONDÒR VULTURE. its ys xtrmy ivy. s rp sud. but tir t  si tr d. rug. T w p rt  t qui is qu  t m 's igr i widt. d tigd wit gd.) rm t xtrmity   wig t t t  t tr. It is pssssd  m zig strgt. ccrdig t sm. T t brii t u wic sis i t xp dd t i  p cc. dis gr b t ds. r it pucs t wrs ut  wic it sucs juic i b. T mst curius is bird. Its  trs r smtims  brigt gr. s w s cur. O dscripti. smtims  iry rd cur. wic  tur  s p itd wit t mst xquisit curs. but it buds i  tiv s. O its  d it  s itt crst. t Pruvi  Idi s r s id t  v drd suc g t itt im gs. Frm t  st  birds. I ud t st    ts birds. t us prcd t t  rgst. yd by tir cr ig. sc rc biggr t  cmm w ut. but sdrr t  d. d gidd. d t . P r gu y  s sc rcy y Eurp  bird. T w  its itt bdy is sc rc biggr t   iv r utmg. r i dr 's c. wit its  trs suspdd d trmuus. I t cutry. wc it is dw t t v is b t t pry up c tt. it ug suspdd by rs- ir rm tw crrs  t w . r it t rs ut tir ys wit its b . (r. Sm  v c ugt birds  tis id d brugt tm m. sprid r d tr wit wit  trs. d t t s m tim t mst b utiu   t wigd trib.

t t tir  cs m y t b t d wit t  t. wic. wic bt t bttr srt  Sp i rds. i ridig. bird xtrmy cmm i P r gu y. d mpy tm i dig t cics r dy  tcd—tus brtrs ubr r dvurd by ts t t  v but just s t igt. T Abips m  tmsvs b gs. ty r c t t  d  t t st m . bc us it is wigd. r t ctts  . r tir  d is vry sm . d s i wit stics d sts wist cursig up d dw t p i. i s is d  rs. THE EMU. T dv st ti ts birds d iy cmmit mgst t rds d cs xcds bi. wic y t vry s dw  m . itr rid r bid. srv t driv w y g d-is. wic   wi disi t b m d cqu itd wit. Emus. Ty s r s ig i t ir s t sm rm bw  biggr t  sp rrws.  s. d t scrup t tt c v u grw b sts. r it t y rus wit t utmst switss. T mu is r d mgst birds. T pursu tis bird is xtrmy diicut.  vig rquty bsrvd tis circumst c. d big rdrd rmid b by tir umbrs. O gg is ug t s tisy m y prss. wic ty  gry dvur. T Sp i rds. Tir s is muc sugt d pr isd by t Idi s. wic is wig t t gt  tir gs d c. rts. w br  t ggs t t r sti u. m  trmdus is by c ppig tir rmus wigs. p c i t w y  t cdòrs b sprid wit pty  s t. r sdm c ugt by prss  t. t t y wit. At tr tims t cdòrs. but sc ps by turig d widig but. W s ti td d  dd wit m t ty r u b t y b c g i. W st dig uprigt. T Sp i rds w gu rdd t st ts. d cusis  mus' sis. d r  t bt by Sp i rds d Idi s. T t idr p rt  tir s dds. r rdrd ic p b  yig. but t big b t vmit. d t  tm s it wr i t tis. t t trrr   t t  r tm. t Idi s  vry  ti  st t gr mu  trs. Ty t rdd m sumptuus b qut i tr vig trug dsrts. is s w w i Eurp s t rdr dscripti  its igur ucss ry. d t cics r  tcd by t su's  t. T si wic cvrs t rump ty us r itt  ts. d ti tm t bst p rt  t mu. I  v  t tm mys smtims. uss ty b i suc umbrs s t surrud ts birds. gctig t rst  t s. Gr t d v rius r t uss  tir  trs: r  tm r m d y- ps. It is s id t c rry w y  mbs i t ir. wic r t w  r t wigt  s  rg bdy. but r digstd swy d wit diicuty i wi b t ddd t t rp st.  gry dvur t wigs. mvig s t rs mvs. d try t riv tir stm cs by vmitig. t t ty m y b igtr d mr xpditius i yig. A t m  mus   igburd dpsit tir ggs i  p c. I wi wvr briy r t its pcui ritis. d t Abipi  wm. r w it is ctr ry ty rt rd its curs. d g ts. p c br t su. crwdig tgtr. purss. but  us wic ty cr td i my stm c g v m disgust t t t d. Svr   tm w ys y tgtr t r pi. witut y tr c r. spci y w t wid bws i  vur b dircti.[1] T mu. T yug s r d by t m s. Tir bdy is qu  t t t   mb i wigt. tug it m s us  its wigs. d srs. but t ssist its i w ig. Smtims mr t  sixty r udrd ggs r ud i t s m st. d is gr y vry d  ts tm. Ty  v itt ys vrs dwd wit  rg ybrws.

t t mus dir i siz d  bits. It is but t siz  pig. d r tr  rg ys. but s ts sds r t gutius t b digstd.  citr cur. d  v b c. It  s vry g tgu. but sm r bu ist d  b c. It ds  t rip sds  t tr c à. Emus d  gr ss. ruits. Its  trs r. w t. Ty r but t siz  it. d tr  rgr   yw. W t  yug ty r  siy t md. xcpt  t c. big qu  i siz t st rig. b c. t pr cr bird. . I biv  ccut  t udss  its vic. tug t p i b cs by. d gry  trs: ts  r t t str its  M g  r sm r d mr b utiu. wr ty b t tri i tm. s. i rdr t rdr ims mr trrib t t my. Tr is sc rcy y Idi  tw i wic yu d t s t m mus  tis id. i dgs d s. i itt  t. r t mst p rt. i my pii. d t t i. d m y b usd r v rius purpss s pttr's vss. w wi giv yu ur r iv c rdi s i xc g r sig d. wud  r xcd t c  ry birds  ur cutry. w gig t igt. ty trw rd vid it quit udigstd. wic is b utiuy rd t t xtrmity. THE CHOPÌ. d vr ru w y. Ty y i crwds t t mst b rr ids. THE CARDINAL. but muc  rgr. T tp  t  d  is drd wit sm  b c crst. it vids tm w. i i m r. gr ty priz srs m d  ts  trs. d i sigt. w ys tid t ug b   tucà t is s. r tir wit  trs r tippd wit b c t t xtrmity. I  v s c rdi s rsmbig t rst i tr rspcts. wr tr r mr tists t  gr ss. but i ty imprudty sw w ir r b.tirty s' ggs m y b purd it t s   mu's gg. wic is wit. Yu wi sc rc vr s tis bird i cmp y wit y tr. mrvr. T cpì. i dirt tr cts   d: r ts t t i bit t p is  Bus-Ayrs d Tucum . T igr rdrs mgst t Sp i rds. d. trmi t i wit. r  rgr. T s  t mu's gg is strg. I w Y uc ig Abip. T tucà is rm r b  ccut  its bi. d tir b c s. wic is s g s its w bdy. Ftt 1: T Amric  stric dirs itt rm t Aric . w. THE TUNCÀ. is s igt s p pr. d b c spt. d  s dusy  trs. surrudd by circ  gr. sur cidr t p y wit tm witut  r. d w  up d dw t strts r y rds. d dticu td t t dgs. d ty prduc w trs. t t gr t prit  t i bit ts. wic is but t siz  sw w. r y tr s ty mt wit. m rd t t xtrmity wit rd i. d m  xct r mts r t  ts d mts  Eurp s. C rdi s r rm r b r t xtrm swtss  tir sg. Frm t siig purp  tir  trs ty  v bt id t  m  c rdi s. d i  w y trd. Yu must w. wit. d r  siy c ugt by bys. T tucà is c d by sm. d i tim wds. i t city  Crrits.

but i s up by t su. w dr but i cs. Frm tir wdru v rity  curs ty r p sig t t y. drd wit v rity  curs. wic ty us r brid. Tis bird i bits vry p rt  t p i cutry. . Its s is xtrmy wit d w t std. but p sss quicy rm tr t tr. sigiyig t tiig bird. d   gr b s vur. d b utiu crst. wic csists  tw g d vry wit  trs. Sm vry sm  birds. THE TIÑINI.) but sm r. VARIOUS KINDS OF WILD DOVES.  s vry b utiu ys. w t  it r sm my r spy. T bird tiñii imit ts t um  vic. MARTINETES AND GALLINETAS. w bid r r std.  wic ccut it is vry sdm. bc us it smtims ps d suts its t i. d wit gr t diicuty. i trs qu i. d digts t  r wit its p sig sg.  t rst r sit. wic is sm r t  ur sp rrw. d wist t bird gs rud i i m r. Numbrs r d iy brugt t t city  Bus-Ayrs. gs i cs i Eurp  sp rrws. Otr birds  t s m  m. but vry dry. t scissrs. wic r  rgr t  cmm . THE TIJERAS. d tiry wit. d tr ids  wid dvs. It vr st ys g i  p c. r wit sdr rd. Tr r tr birds s. T quîr pù. Tis bird. yruti. wic is i td w t bird cris. A m   rsb c smtims gs rud d rud it. p rticu ry t igt. THE IÑAMBÙ. d gr tr t.  bu cur. Yu wi sdm s stupidr bird. cs it dw wit t g pic   tr. Gu r y wrd. It is  gry cur. dig gr t misci t ids d g rds. spci y t gr ps. d w t ids. is c d by t Sp i rds tijr s. (quîr pù miri. T pic zù. is up d dw uss.  rg  d. s c d bc us its vic is i t sud  itt b. r  mr  siy d mr rquty c ugt. sig swty i g rds. d sd t vry w pric. rsmbs pig. c ugt. y i cmp is. but w t  ty c t g b r t cimt  c g. THE QUÎRAPÙ. but sti mr s t t p  t. i p ir  scissrs. tugt t b  t p rtridg id. d  wit cur mixd wit dusy. t  ms  wic I m u cqu itd wit. I sm rspcts it rsmbs p rtridg. d wist  uttrs ud suds. d t urquty  rms str grs spig i wd.

and even whole sentences. I t  rgr c ss  p s ts. Next day when I mounted my horse again. At su-st r su-ris. in the Spanish. The paracauteè signifies the true and legitimate parrot. When tired of his noise or his weight. but y rcd itt  rtr  t bug wic ty r sittig up. the tuî. Moreover he could imitate violent coughing. It is rmd wit g. T v rity d mutitud  p rrts I migt mst c  iumr b. like fowls. and learnt to sing a little Spanish song admirably. admonished me to stop the journey.DIFFERENT KINDS OF PHEASANTS. barking. or quacamayo. yu m y id W  is brugt dw by gu. and Abiponian languages. When I stayed . VARIOUS KINDS OF PARROTS. He laughed very loud for a long time at an old Indian woman. by clapping his wings.  . Its t i is g d gr y xp dd. and. Whenever I travelled on foot or on horseback. laughing. d its s xtrmy w t std. but yellow. the quaà. and can imitate the sounds of men and beasts with greatest ease and success. d s it is s dsir b r t t b. It is equal in size to a young pigeon: its feathers are green. and which articulately pronounced many words. which excels the rest in sense and docility. and an hundred other things so dexterously that you would have sworn it was a man you heard. THE MBITUÙ. d b cis b . bird wic mst rsmbs tury-cc. t rst d t y w y. and flew back to me. O t tp  its  d it  s crst cmpsd  b c d wit  trs. I gave him to one of the Indians to carry—he angrily bit the man's ear. vic. its  trs r  vry b c cur. he sat upon my shoulder. Its tdr s is uivrs y cmmdd. weeping. I had in my possession a bird of this kind. It msty rquts wds  r rivr r umbr  tm   tr. I wis it wr mr cmmy mt wit i t wds by t Idi  utsm. the catita. and repeatedly biting my ear. Birds r ud i P r gu y wic. Evry dirt spcis dirs disticty i rm. always chatty. d tr rm i ti ty r  id by rp td irigs. s st s si. d pum g. Its b utiu  d is drd wit  rg brigt b c ys. rsmb Eurp  p s ts. d. the aruaỹ. Tis bird is qu  i siz t u grw . and did nothing but sing and laugh. the iribaya. wings. w m y wit justic p c t mbituù. he was extremely delighted. T cmmst spcis is t y cù. Its vry g gs r supprtd  ur c ws i ts  . red. t p r c ub ỹ. Tis I  v t witssd. Guarany. wic it rcts w gry. and tail. always playful. I will relate what is most remarkable respecting those which I know most of. Though he reposed all day long on my shoulder. and others whose names have slipped my memory. and blue on the head. which I called Don Pedro. or kikilk. r impd t igt by t d ts  tir cmp is. Its vry b c  trs r wit t t xtrmity. yet about sun-set. the caninde. but t by is v rid wit cur pcui r t p rtridgs. began to grow angry. whom we met riding on an ass. the mbaracana. Ts wit wic I m bst cqu itd r t p r c utè. he felt a desire for rest. i sm rspcts. d wdrd muc t t t birds wr itr sc rd by t rprt  t gu.

Africa. brought by Englishmen or Dutchmen from the remotest parts of Asia. perhaps with too much prolixity. wings. or any other language. leaving them the full liberty of their legs. My companion had one which could repeat the Lord's Prayer in the Guarany tongue. or America. I have. for when full grown we have found them quite indocile. in order to show you how great is the power of education. snatched. and . repeating those words again and again. or red feather here and there on its head. repeating the words Don Pedro. or crying—being extremely attentive to every thing. The paracaubaỹ is of the same size and form as the paracauteè. I often wondered to hear this parrot repeat the sentences that he knew so opportunely. Without delay he crept swiftly along the boughs by the help of his beak and claws. He was sought by many. The Guaranies tie all their tame parrots. but its feathers are almost all green. even upon brute animals. he atoned for this desertion by the mutilation of his feathers. relative to my parrot. The aruaỹ. no sound to their ears: though. or years perhaps. took advantage of the circumstance of his feathers having grown a little too much. or far away. the younger repeated in a slenderer one. which is somewhat smaller than the former. and perhaps a little yellow. as if he understood the meaning of them. to a long pole. or some other food was given him. and flew to my shoulder. they insensibly learn to imitate dogs barking. Seeing me caress a smaller parrot of another species. with but a very sparing admixture of blue ones. When I entered the dining-room he would fly after me. but ever afterwards treated it as a pupil. whose voices are sweeter. as we find that the females of other birds are almost mute. They are most conveniently taught at night. but without success. These particulars. to fly away and disappear. boys whistling. adorned with red. the memory of which is still dear to me. poor Don Pedro. by one foot. Female parrots learn to imitate human speech quicker and better than the males. He tasted. and whilst we were dining. after travelling about so many months. and always flew angrily to bite the Indian who came to take away the rest of the food with the dishes. which he often swallowed by way of medicine. yellow. He sometimes walked about the court-yard. These birds babble some unintelligible stuff. filled with envy he attempted to pierce the bird with his beak. This Don Pedro of mine. But though he lavished unbounded caresses on me. or in a dark room. By long experience I have found that parrots of every kind will learn better and more willingly from women and children. the town. unless they be brought unfledged from the nest. but softened by a little coaxing. What the older bird pronounced with a deep voice. but never utter an articulate sound. or rather as a son. cows lowing. he cried _pobre Don Pedro_. These chains did not please me: I therefore clipped one wing of my parrots a little to prevent them from flying long. I could have fancied I heard a child praying. till eatable roots. he sometimes walked up and down a very long rope suspended from two pillars outside the house. horses neighing. and tail. in a tone calculated to excite compassion. for when he was hungry. and swallowed any food that he could lay hold of. learn to pronounce sentences either in German or French. to prevent them from flying away. than from men. he not only suffered it to sleep under his wings. rubbing and sharpening his beak in the sand. is of a most lovely shape. old men coughing. related. whilst walking on their rope. ran about the table. At the end of three days he saw me passing through a wood. and knew me instantly. where no object presents itself to their eyes. and bright green feathers. after continuing many years faithful. when in Paraguay it is thought impossible to teach them to speak. in the court-yard. laughing. I never could understand how parrots. or on a pole. This circumstance is very surprizing.

In the town of St. nor is it found in every part of that province even. juice of any colour they like. restless. _Nec tecum possum vivere. and from thence. they are extremely merry. but of a sombre dark green colour. but always kept company together. Some woods abound to such a degree in these birds. adorned with pale green feathers. red. Guards are necessary to keep them off. God. yellow. about the size of a lark. but these wishes were vain. cunning. till it grows red. if instructed. therefore. and may easily be taught to pronounce some words. They pull the feathers up by the roots. They are kept in leathern cages. The least of them does not exceed a man's little finger in length. The greenness of their plumage is praised by every body. red. and a dark yellow colour. the Creator of all things. which yields to none of the parrot kind in beauty. red. being devoid of all beauty and docility. Joachim I had in my possession some very gentle quaàs and canindes. you must be cautious. I had often wished to have an unfledged caninde brought me from the nest. or quacamayo. feeling quite sure that I should be able to teach it to speak. Incredible is the mischief they do to fields sowed with maize. which they articulately and clamorously pronounce with a harsh voice. and has a harsh voice. are seldom taught by the Indians. At home they are tamed sooner than you would believe it possible. The mbaracanà. playful. Guaranies. or kikilk. to fly with them to the open plains. all replied with one accord. and rub the place from which they have been plucked. they then instil and press into the pores or sockets of the old feathers. The tuỹs are divided into many species. especially those composed of palm trees. and blue feathers. parrots of the largest size. The largest and most beautiful of all the parrots which Paraguay produces. yet the caninde. In the more southern regions. The iribaya. alone knows where the caninde builds its nest. and would never suffer themselves to be separated. Their tail is composed of feathers a cubit in length. according to P. The Indians know how to change the natural colour of the parrot into any other they choose. for the old Indians who were born in the woods. Their beak is so strong that it would pierce the hard bark of an almond tree at one stroke. Though so many kinds of parrots are exposed for sale at the shops of Lisbon. like the other more elegant parrots which I have described. the latter of which is adorned in every part with feathers of a Prussian blue. are the quaà. and. so that you might apply to them the words of the poet. garrulous. or blue feathers will grow there. which scarce exceeds a European linnet in size. and the caninde.capable of talking a great deal. where wander also great numbers of very small parrots. in which they far exceed a common cock. or blue colour. They are alike in form and size. They never learn to speak any thing but their own name. Though of a very lively temper. the former with very red and dark blue ones. is never to be met with out of Paraguay. and others of the same kind that are entirely green. is sparingly besprent with a few dark green. and annoying to the ears by their senseless clamours. and more apt to bite than any of the rest. for. and were always quarrelling. For it is thought to hide its offspring in the hidden recesses of the wood. and is distinguished from the rest by a white circle round the eyes. Joseph . when they are advanced in age. that no other kind of parrot can be seen there. They are merry. and called catitas. fly in crowds about the groves. in handling them. it is unable to learn to talk. nec sine te_. This was practised amongst the Brazilians. or are exhibited in the gardens of the chief people there. They walked every day about the yard. and blood flows from it. and apt to bite. it only inhabits the northern forests. If the wings or tail be imbued with a yellow. and had long dwelt there.

all times are not equally proper for hunting them. would certainly be curious objects. are bald. the feathers that they have torn from each other with their beak or claws. The same Father observed that the Indians performed the operation in the beginning of spring or autumn. knocks down the disputing bipeds. Whenever oxen are killed in the open plain. and as each strives to get the highest bough. amid horrid clamours. As birds of one feather flock together. the hunter steals softly thither. their flesh. As the beautiful colours of parrots. but spotted with yellow and white. as by satellites. . if any body approaches. are birds which the Spaniards call caracarà. with a little red crest. fly about in all directions. eyes. and their merry garrulity delight the ear and eye. called cockatoos. Their king is clothed with extremely white feathers. White parrots. remember that they must have been brought from other countries. called by other names than those I have mentioned. who live on rapine. if plucked up. About sun-set they compose themselves to rest like hens. and others of a grey colour. If ever you hear the parrots. their head and neck. which I have often seen in Germany. OR CARRANCHO. INDIAN CROWS. Why might not the experiment be tried upon European birds? A red canary. will be succeeded by none but yellow ones. smooth. and with a gun. and resemble a hawk in their head. must be beaten a little while. They are about the size of a hen. or carrancho. the Abipones. Africa. a yellow nightingale. of Asia. whilst. is extremely pleasing to the palate. and return when they return. Their flesh is of no use. Their body is of a yellowish grey colour. Crows' feathers are generally chosen for arrows by the savages. but sometimes suffer themselves to be enticed away by flocks of crows which they meet on the road. They feed upon carcasses. partake their fare. THE CARACARÀ. as they become wonderfully tame: for they accompany their masters when they ride out to hunt or enjoy the country. and allies of the crows. in like manner. but full of wrinkles. but being rather hard. one of them occupies the top of the tree. As parrots are exceedingly suspicious. that green is very easily turned into yellow. continual quarrels ensue—one trying to push the other from the seat that he has obtained. hooked bill. and long tail. they perch upon trees or roofs of houses. bring up the young of these rapacious crows at home. long claws. Indian crows are black. and exhort them to flight by sudden clamour. flies accompanied by the other crows. as far as the beginning of the wings. as usual there. which you see in the houses of the wealthy. before it will become tender. in the Guarany tongue. which we call tuỹ. During these contentions for the highest place. but much longer. and do a great deal of mischief amongst hens and other birds. When they assemble on the highest boughs. and a blue lark. that. and though very seldom seen. presently rush down upon the intestines. or America. he may warn his companions of their danger. quite destitute of feathers. have the French name perroquet given them in Europe.Labrador. A great crowd generally assemble on one tree. Kindred. carry them through the air like a long rope. like those of Europe. amongst the Mbaya savages. and one taking each end. on account of their strength. like crows. These birds subsist on the carcasses and entrails of slain beasts. or a bow. are unknown to Paraguay. and that yellow feathers. The smaller parrots.

which the Spaniards call mochuelo. have feathers of various colours. and are believed by the Abipones to be spirits of the dead. boldly attacks serpents. They are slenderer than geese's quills. which the Abipones call roakabì. and are used by the Abipones to adorn and crown their heads. and the night in trees close by it. and has very long feet. and pass the day in the water. making a loud hissing. Of owls. the goshawk. and very common. spotted with various colours. (of which not only the plume. which. Bats are of various kinds. exceeds a tall man in height.) is concealed skin. bone. though very seldom. THE HARIA. But of ducks there is such a variety and number. when removed to towns. Water-fowl are so numerous. as shall be shown hereafter. Small ducks. &c. and of such various kinds. as much as the beauty of their plumage delights beholders. different kinds of hawks. seldom become tame. but the quill. when it stretches out its neck. that it would fill a volume to describe them properly. which is about the size of a stork. but I confess that I have forgotten its name. or gerfalcon. I was often moved to laughter by another river-fowl. met with an immense number of geese like those of Europe in lakes. It soon grows tame in the houses of the Spaniards. but their natural ill smell annoys the nostrils of all who approach them. Their young. This bird is entirely white. . flit about together at night. They are most easily and frequently shot out of the water. clothed with black and white feathers. I shall therefore only speak of some of them. It stands for many hours motionless. The haria. very like European herons and storks. of a beautiful rose colour from the head to the tail. that their dung defiles the water so as to render it unfit to be drunk. Under the beautiful feathers of their wings and the rest of their body. in the water. called by the Abipones ruililiè. and is very useful in gardens by killing noxious insects. and beautifully red feet. Amongst them are the common hawk. Ducks. and a very scanty portion of most stinking flesh. THE GOOSE. VARIOUS KINDS OF DUCKS. and a lamb in the size of its body. are extremely numerous. Paraguay is not destitute of river-fowl. Other ducks. Caracaràs are followed by kirikirì. STORKS. I have. not only in the lakes but in the rivers also.VARIOUS KINDS OF HAWKS. pierces them with its bill and eats them. The most remarkable are certain middle-sized ducks. the commonest are those which the Spaniards call lechuza. which we use to write with. is tinged with a deep red colour. and the horned owl. as if meditating.

and savoury flesh. and even the lesser rivers which unite with it. Now let us proceed to the scaly tribes of Paraguay. Their young are devoured with avidity by the savages. Their flesh is hard and unsavoury. and the savouriness of its flesh. abound in this most excellent fish.WATER-CROWS. and affords solid. or chicken. though almost all other fish have their heads cut off in Paraguay. The pacù is remarkable not only for length but breadth. hens much larger. VARIOUS KINDS OF FISHES. and elsewhere. and habits. voice. but not better than the common ones. It is of great weight. yet as the south wind renders the air rather cold in winter. The Parana. I never found any European fish throughout the whole extent of Paraguay. but return at the commencement of spring. and in some of a sulphureous colour. BRAZILIAN FOWLS. SWALLOWS. . The scales are of a dusky. white. though they all detest the thought of eating birds. A few years ago. The cock is unusually large. I think proper to subjoin a few remarks upon common hens and swallows. but many in some respects resembling them. and pass the winter in some unknown retreats. Before I proceed from birds to fishes. displays a large purple crown. the swallows migrate like those of Europe to other places about the beginning of autumn. hens. The chickens are not clothed with feathers within several weeks. In the river Parana. Its head is justly reckoned a dainty. which is prized for its abundance of fat. The fish dorado has obtained the name of the golden fish from its scales. THE PACÙ. Those best known to me I will describe under their Spanish or Indian names. The Paraguayrian hens have the same form and variety of colour as the European. which shine like gold. before they are brought to table. The head seems too small in proportion to the rest of the body. the latter of which no ways differ from those of Europe in appearance. were brought into Paraguay from Brazil. THE DORADO. Although Paraguay is free from snow. and instead of the crest which those of our country wear. numerous water-crows are seen. It would take a long time to mention all the various kinds of water-fowl which swarm in the larger rivers and subsist wholly on fish.

surrounded by a circle of gold. horribly roaring at the same time and tossing itself about. and mixed up with brandy. where the fresh water is mingled with the salt water of the river Plata. but excels that fish so much in size and savouriness. Its mouth is narrow. The corvino is generally caught in the neighbourhood of the ports of Monte-Video and Maldonado. ground with the teeth. The vagre is a species of trout. but rendered terrific by a shaggy beard. THE MUNGRÚLLU. The mungrllu is perhaps the largest and strongest of the Paraguayrian river-fish. THE SÁVALO. The patì is thought almost equal to the former in size and savouriness. which are distinguished by the number. and its flesh extremely well tasted. extremely well tasted. with which it endeavours to wound the fisherman as he is taking the hook from its jaws. It sometimes weighs more than a hundred pounds. a very strong glue is made. THE PATÌ. and shielded by a very strong shell. THE ZURUBÌ. and often weighs four. and mottled with large black spots. It affords white. or more. that it is eagerly sought by distant cities. slippery. Of their bladder. The river Paraguay abounds in this noble fish. The zurubì. THE ARMADO. often six pounds. It has somewhat the appearance of a carp. and wholesome flesh. THE VAGRE. This fish is thicker than it is long. Its head is covered with a hard shell. The fish armado is very properly named. It has small bright eyes. and covered with red spots. on account of which its head must be crushed with a strong stake as soon as it is taken out of the river. Its flesh is firm and red. solid. The body is of an iron-grey colour. but with a slippery skin of a greyish colour. is not covered with scales. Its head is round. Its flesh is solid. for its back and sides are armed all over with very sharp gills and fins. and colour of their fins and gills. a fish scarce inferior in size to the former. its skin is smooth. and armed with very hard oblong scales. and carried on the back. Various rivers contain various kinds of this fish.THE CORVINO. The vast weight of this fish maybe inferred from the circumstance that when hung upon a pole. it is enough to tire two Indians. savoury. and on that account thought very wholesome for sick persons. resembling that of a frog. . size. but are all of an admirable savour.

it was not unpleasant to my taste. slender. or in the kindred streams. The dentudo abounds every where. La vieja is a very strange fish. The wound presently swells. that the Abipones use this envenomed sting as a pen-knife to open a vein. and more savoury. though less abundant.The sávalo somewhat resembles our carp. causes death. and kept a long while. and unless hot ashes be immediately applied to it. It is very seldom taken with a hook. THE PEJE REY. it is never caught with a hook. The size and form of these fish vary in various kinds. though I must say. it is reckoned amongst the delicacies of the tables of the wealthy. and its belly white. but soon putrifies if it contracts any moisture on the way. together with the shell. that it can hardly be reckoned amongst fishes. but is smaller. It scarcely ever weighs so much as a pound. it grievously wounds the naked feet of the sailors walking about there. whilst lurking under the sand on the shore. but very long tail. Its form resembles that of an oval dish with a flat surface. It is only caught in that part of the Parana which washes the territories of Sta. (for there are . that. The flesh of the raya may be eaten. which would resist even a knife. Though very common in many rivers and lakes. Its back is black. without a grain of salt. to which this fish repairs to spawn. for they gnawed the line to pieces with their sharp teeth. The raya is a fish of such singular appearance. with which. When fresh. were it not for the thorns with which it is covered. In the middle of its body is placed a narrow mouth or cheek. gets inflamed. and would be extremely palatable. but it is generally thought that hunger alone could render it palatable. I have caught and eaten numbers of them. THE RAYA. THE DENTUDO. This fish is full of thorns. It has a smooth. Hence. but have lost many hooks in the process. and rarely weighs more than a pound. The bòga differs little from the sávalo. though only middle-sized. and armed at the end with a poisonous sting. After being dried by the air only. well fried. it is sent in quantities from the above-mentioned city to others. denticulated like a saw. for its whole body is covered with a strong shell. but is superior to that fish. when caught it is laid on live coals. You scarcely ever see one weighing more than two pounds. its flesh is pre-eminently good. LA VIEJA. The peje rey means the king fish. THE BÒGA. It is a curious fact. and is destitute of fat. and eaten roasted in this manner. It has a very large head and mouth. whenever it has an opportunity. or horny bark. Fè. for in fact.

and cuts it off at one blow. and an Abiponian boy with four of his toes cut off by it and hanging only from a bit of skin. and seven sharp fins. To prove the credibility of the fact. and not eaten by the Indians.many species of them). and fit for working. I will not pretend to determine. THE MBÙZU. it is almost destitute of crabs. Whether these fishes are really eels. but not of that kind the shells of which are valuable in Europe. No sooner did we cast a hook into the river than a tortoise would bite. They appear to be viviparous. used it to cut off the heads of the Spaniards. and yellow. it is my opinion that there are none. these fish must be handled with caution. or very few indeed. wide mouth. as I never saw any other cray fish beside these. each of which is furnished with fourteen very sharp. the largest of which is situated in the middle of the back. but is smaller in the smaller rivers. Our eating one of these fishes caused a report amongst the Indians that Europeans fed upon serpents. After travelling. sailing. I must tell you that the Abiponian women use the jaw of the palometa to shear sheep with. It has a curved back. before they were in possession of iron. and fishing so much in Paraguay. THE RIVER-CRAB. for its jaws. but was always rejected by us. The body is covered with faint grey spots. were found in certain streams in the territories of the Uruguay. abound in tortoises. are its armoury. and runs towards the tail. and might be called mere shadows. thick head. and streams. like so many spears. lakes. on account of their snake-like appearance. with which it attacks any part of the human body. not like those of the sea. But there are a great variety of sea-crabs. I had long heard that some very small crabs. Although Paraguay abounds in various kinds of choice fish. triangular teeth. and a broad forked tail. you see fish very like European eels. for embryos are frequently found in their insides. small round eyes. where it scarce weighs half a pound. and embryos of crabs. blue. The flesh is firm. interspersed with red. The Abipones also. it threatens all assailants with large. but its length never corresponds to its breadth. In muddy pools. for in the greater part of Paraguay these animals are eaten neither by Spaniards nor Indians. The rivers. I myself have seen a strong Abipon with the sole of his foot severely wounded by this fish. RIVER-TORTOISES. When the hook is extracted. and even in rivers. and I myself saw some which were brought to our table in the Uruguayan town of Concepçion. but like those in the rivers of Germany. and very savoury. long gills. while in the larger ones it grows to the size of two or more pounds. but they were pygmies in comparison with ours. or of the serpent kind. The palometa is more formidable to swimmers than any crocodile. This fish is found every where in great abundance. white. THE PALOMETA. Besides the formidable jaw which I have described. otherwise they will wound you with their teeth or fins. The only useful part . I wish that it were not so full of bones.

as in the colonies of the Guaranies and Abipones. If the transparency of the water. and devour with avidity. Guaranies. and both men and women think the more they are loaded the finer they are. they dam up a river in such a way that. in the woods and rocks. when stones for making lime are not to be found. burnt to ashes in the fire. than fishers. They laboriously hunt after these animals. The Indian who has remained beneath the water such a length of time that you believe him inevitably drowned. the deficiency of pasture renders it impossible that as many oxen can be raised and killed. a spear. supplies the place of beef among the Chiquitos. In the city of Buenos-Ayres the Spanish fishers enter the river Plata on horseback. on which a net is either spread. renders the fish visible. catch it in the net. but even detest the very idea of such a thing. for the support of the Indians. The wood Indians catch fishes more usually by craft and artifice than by arms. at the same time holding the two others with their hands. The Abipones hang round their necks great heavy strings of these beads. in a few hours they carry to shore numbers of noble fishes. or closed again. but are eaten by no human being in Paraguay. which are marked with various colours. as in the river Salado. or an iron prong. as far as it is shallow. on the contrary. laden with booty. LAND-TORTOISES. After treating of fish.of tortoises in Paraguay is their great shells. perforated in the middle. filled with fish. These men are more properly divers. plains. and other Indians with whom I was acquainted. a few observations should be made concerning the various methods of fishing. The tortoise. for as there is more wood and mountain than plain country there. In other places they throw the plant yçipotingi. they are unable to get out again. which are immediately put to sale. though the fish can enter this enclosure. as you would an apron. which . and boughs of trees artfully entwined together. On the shores of the river Uruguay. Sometimes by throwing in sticks. I do not recollect any thing worth mentioning. From the white shells of certain snails. swim after it. which they place under its body. larger than a man's fist. which they sell to the other Indians. The Payaguas and Vilelas subsist chiefly upon fish. with astonishment. and the borders of lakes. near the shore. make them their chief food during the greater portion of the year. are used by the Guaranies for whitening walls. that provision may not fail them during those months in which their territories are inundated by an annual flood. behold emerging at a great distance. you will. the Chiquitos. Thus accoutred they jump from the shore into the water. SNAILS. WAYS OF FISHING. if there are any wretched ones to be found here. Innumerable snails are seen in their shells in the woods. not only abstain from eating tortoises. Empty snail-shells. which the Indians roast in its shell. the Paraguayrians pierce them with an arrow. and if they spy any fish at the bottom. there is an odd kind of snail. Two of them lay hold of each end of a rope. two ends of which they fasten before them. therefore. For fishing they use a very small net. and carry it to shore. which are used for pots and plates by the common people. in regard to shells and shell-fish. the Vilelas make little round beads. Whilst the Abipones.

and capacious stomachs to be satisfied with "such small deer. with an iron hook many pounds weight. DOLPHINS. The common. When I found this. or the leaves or fresh roots of the caraquata. The flesh of this fish. pointed at the end. which contain a triple row of serrated triangular teeth. destitute of teeth. their eyes round and big. numbers of which they caught. as soon. hats. but shining like those of a herring. and three or more wide. that they might sink to the bottom. lest floating on the surface. of a whitish grey colour. the juice of which is said to be fatal to fishes. I always suspended stones. well pounded. old drawers. for reasons known to themselves alone. LITTLE FLYING-FISH. But as men of this description have generally too large appetites. in fact. but loathe and reject the males. They are of such vast size and weight. One. or cannon balls. was tasted by none but hungry sailors. into the water. but armed with jaws slightly denticulated. Whenever a shark was taken and gutted by the sailors. It has a fierce. which try to catch them. and being again moistened are enabled to renew their flight. they should be torn to pieces by sharks. and scales of various colours and forms. to human bodies before I committed them to the waves. During nine months spent in sailing on the Mediterranean and the Ocean. its stomach presented a ridiculous spectacle. on discovering its sex. They often lash the water with the leaves of a certain tree which grows in great abundance near the river Atingỹ. with immense pupils. especially sharks. In various seas they are of various forms and sizes. though the females are despised by them even. and another larger blackish one: their mouth is middle-sized. are prepared to tear any thing. Nor should you be surprized at this. Its horrid jaws. Sharks generally follow ships. They fly out of the water to avoid the dorados. THE SHARK. but in a few moments." they prefer larger fish. The Portugueze sailors do not refuse to eat their flesh. In it we found worn out garments. it looked like a broker's shop full of all sorts of trumpery. their head large and flat. and indeed the only instrument for fishing that I used. they threw back into the sea. though very white. whole fowls. It is covered with very rough skin of various colours. which I had seen them take with immense labour. as their wings are dried by the air. The tail is wide and forked. The Indians sometimes catch fishes with hooks made of wood or reeds. and composed of a membrane thinner than paper. a bony shell. which intoxicates the fishes to such a degree that they may be caught with the hand as they float on the surface. and surrounded by a yellow circle. was an iron hook baited with a piece of fresh beef. the wings very large. their body is oblong and smaller at the tail.creeps up trees. that twelve stout sailors are scarce sufficient to drag one with a rope from the sea into the ship. for a shark is about nine feet long. Flying-fish are about the size of a large herring. during their voyage. and ever watchful look. and whatever had been thrown by the sailors into the sea. They are furnished with six small fins. whether it be dead bodies or any other filthy trash. and swallow whatever is thrown out of them. The Abipones roast and eat female locusts. . fall back into the sea. I cannot tell why they make this distinction.

and shone upon by the rays of the sun.I have frequently seen many others of the scaly tribe. Immense whales were a very terrible. and the air tranquil. woods and fruits. From the horrid pipe. and appearing as it were to dance. I doubt not that botanists have written on this subject more clearly and methodically. not far from the ship. It is of middling height. The Jesuit priest Thomas Falconer. PLANTS. which is said to be sometimes fifty feet high. I dare not determine with regard to all. OR PERUVIAN BARK. when dispersed by the wind. and die by degrees from being knocked against quicksands and shoals. who had so often found this leaping of dolphins the forerunner. and by no means fit to be eaten. looked white like the sails of a ship. Imagining that rocks or shoals must be at hand. Peruvian bark. Fearing some mischance we called for the captain. We sometimes. somewhat raised in the middle. When the sea was smooth. he spouted up a vast quantity of water. frequently and openly declared that Paraguay had been enriched by the bounty of nature with so many wholesome plants. roots. From the water let us now proceed to the woods and plains of Paraguay. and by no means uncommon sight to us on the ocean. against which the waters had been dashed. we frequently observed dolphins tossing themselves merrily about. an Englishman well versed in medicine and botany. as from a great fire-engine. or the remedy for fever. that whoever was skilled in the knowledge of those things would have no occasion for European druggists to cure any disease. which is called china chinæ. see the carcasses of whales cast on to the shore by the tide. the captain ordered the prow of the ship to be turned in another direction. though they never approached the ship. I will describe a few in the order in which they enter my mind. enormous fish. A projecting fin. . but except middle-sized fishes and sharks. with forms terrible to the sight. Whales perish in the same way as ships. and annunciation of an impending whirlwind and tempest. however. Out of many which Paraguay affords either for medicinal or other purposes. I have spoken elsewhere of melotas. On the desert shores of Brazil we thought we perceived a pirate ship. and not very large. which. gums. WHALES. who from the top of the mast by the help of a telescope discovered it to be an enormous whale. presented the appearance of a ship. had been taken for a mast. or fistula of his head. I never saw any of the family of Neptune caught by the sailors. This tree is peculiarly worthy of note on account of its bark. But an intolerable stench relieved our minds by discovering the putrid carcass of a very large whale. and bears an almost orbicular fruit. This immense animal. as it tossed itself about on the waves. CHINA CHINÆ. In returning to Europe we observed the water leaping up and breaking itself in an unusual manner. innumerable shoals of which we met during some weeks in the month of November. which abound in so many curious plants and trees. whether more faithfully also. a spectacle by no means pleasing to us.

The bark is naturally white. and Tartary. The flowers grow in clusters. and broader at the end. and the Rio Negro. on account of its thorns. but extremely bitter. but like cinnamon. on which hang four blossoms. it is also found near the Rio Tercero. The most famous is that which comes from the bay of Honduras. but white within. as well as that of Persia. which are first green. and virtue. _parrilla_. with which it entwines itself with other plants. and of a sharp bitter taste. . or _sarmentum Indicum_. Zarza parrilla is the root of a green. and have an aromatic flavour. near the city of Asumpcion. surrounded with leaves. which they resemble in size and form. in the same language. The taste is bitter. The roots of the zarza parrilla. all of them grow from the same joint or knot of the plant. by Cardinal de Lugo. then red. and give place to berries. if they arise from cold. like the leaves of lilies. In divers parts of Paraguay. taste. in the territories of Sta. The roots are long. crossed by a number of smaller ones. because the Jesuit missionaries in Peru were the first who made known its singular efficacy in expelling fevers. is preferred by physicians to that of America. They have no particular taste or smell. and when quite ripe. and wrinkled like dry cherries. tolerably heavy. whereas the leaves of the Paraguayrian are wide at the beginning. and terminate in a point. it has received the name _parrilla_ or gridiron. similar to that of Alexandria in colour. and rather spungy. but within of the colour of a nutmeg. as therefore the leaves of this plant bear some sort of resemblance to a gridiron. and gum which is the softer part of them. yellowish on the outside. being tinged with a yellowish cast. This plant is called by the Spaniards zarza parrilla. not like blood. black. When eaten they create nausea. and of a dusky colour. creeping plant. and Tapiraguaỹ. The various uses of these roots are too well known to physicians to need an explanation from me. in the year 1650. smell. that the leaves of the Alexandrine rhubarb are pointed at the bottom. RHUBARB. a little varied with pale spots: but within. though somewhat rancid. there grows a kind of rhubarb. They consist of rosin. I understand that the East Indian rhubarb. wrinkled on the surface. the waters of which are celebrated for their salubrity. especially in the mountains called La Cordillera. signifies a gridiron. The celebrated physician Woytz tells us that this medicine was first brought to Europe. It is filled with a balsamic odour of a dusky colour. It has leaves almost a span long. Rhubarb is the root of a plant of the dock kind. but botanists call it _smilax aspera Peruviana_. variegated like marble. Some call the Peruvian bark Jesuits' powder.but which contains two yellowish nuts indented all over like the rind of an almond. From out the sheath of the leaves rises a little bunch of flowers divided into many branches. head and stomach. armed at intervals with very small thorns. but the smell aromatic and pleasant. Muscovy. and bearing a triangular seed. With this balsam the Indians allay pains in the eyes. it is of a red colour. The zarza parrilla is very common on the banks of the Uruguay. but when torn from the tree gradually assumes a dark yellow on the surface. and other parts of America. as well as at the banks of the rivers Ỹpane miri. a Spanish Jesuit. from the beginning of which proceed two tendrils. Fè. and a very sweet scent. three pretty large veins running lengthways. ZARZA PARRILLA. which possess a medicinal virtue. are scarce thicker than a goose's quill. for _zarza_ in Spanish means a thorny plant. but with this difference.

&c. a tree common in the North of Paraguay. but within of a pure white. SASSAFRÀS. Without they are of a dusky brown. which grow either single or two together. and rheum. and looks like flour. but expel other noxious humours from the body. which keeps off decay and rottenness. but in the North. and bears an odoriferous and blackish fruit. but not very lofty. syphilis. The mechoachàn is well calculated for gently purging infants. may be commended for its beauty.THE ROOT JALAP. and in what manner this salutary wood is to be used. as a cure for dysentery. The rosin of jalap is prepared from them. The apeterebî. in healing maladies arising from cold. it is also found in some parts of upper Tucuman. the plant of which is called by botanists _Mirabilis Peruviana_. . For what disorders. The tree sassafràs. its plant is a _convolvulus_. it is not my province to explain. and has a sharp aromatic taste. They not only cure bile. and leaves. Like santalum it is of a dusky yellow colour. HOLY WOOD. and will last almost for ever. and resinous. The wood is exceedingly hard. aromatic. disorders in the womb. without any decay. is reduced to a powder which the Paraguayrians drink in cold water. two of which proceed from single stalks. but of a dusky colour above. and said to possess equal medicinal properties with the wood: it. and urine. for the powder to which the root is reduced has no taste. Not only the wood of this tree. when the top unfolds into branches. boiled in fennel. which has leaves like those of a laurel. as well as its salubrity. to the length of about thirty feet. as well as the gum. and small berries. and a pleasant smell. MECHOACHÀN. It has little and almost round leaves. entirely white at the beginning. The pith is of a lead colour. There is also another kind of sassafràs. where the Abipones and Mocobios dwell. These roots are long. Some call it _bryonia Indica_. This other species is said to possess the same virtue as the former. It bears yellow flowers. at the extremity or in the middle of the boughs. and are indented at the top. obstructions in the bowels. This tree does not grow in the South of Paraguay. but also the bark and root smell very strong of fennel. may not be palmed upon them by foreign traders for the real wood. Paraguay abounds in the root jalap. in provoking perspiration. The rosin which exudes from this tree is bitter. Druggists should examine carefully that the wood of the red fir. The bark is of a darkish red colour. THE GUAYACÀN. which is very common throughout the whole of America. even under water. The tree called holy wood is very broad. is also thought by some to be a species of sassafràs. Mechoachàn is a large light root. and bears heart-shaped leaves. The trunk is perfectly straight and plain. but though it resembles the bryonia. thick.

but is of very singular appearance in other respects. consists of a soft wood. The blacker the pith of the tree is the more it abounds in rosin. and composed of several little skins. The flowers are yellow and produce fruit full of seeds. or by a board. called mangaỹci. which. are agreeable to the taste. which exhale a very delightful odour. and gives it the appearance of a little skin. for the Spaniards call it _palo borracho_. In this state. It is lofty. THE MANGAỸ. is said to be very useful in cases of dysentery. which streams out plentifully. yet the two trees differ as much in form as in name: for the guayacàn is loftier than the other. which are so remarkably elastic. which produces the dragon's-blood. The mangaỹ is about the size of a cherry-tree. It has a trunk surrounded with largish thorns. and softer than silk. in the Guarany tongue. spotted with grey on the outside. that when thrown lightly upon the ground they leap up very high in the air. and equal in size to a large plum. and bears middle-sized flowers of a beautiful red colour. resinous. The zamuû is ridiculous both in name and form. but not an unpleasant smell. and is caught by the hand. It bears a round fruit like certain large gourds. is of much efficacy in healing wounds inflicted by the teeth or claws of a tiger. when ripe. lofty tree. It abounds in boughs. The zuyñandỹ. The tree caà verà. so great is its dislike to water. and resinous juice. which would be useful in Europe in various ways. and is thought to be more efficacious in medicine than the wood itself. like a barrel: on which account its very soft wood is easily made into tubs. as soft as silk. The thorns of this tree when bruised to powder. it is rolled up into balls. but within of a pale red: it has a bitter taste. THE ZUYÑANDỸ. It produces fruit of a golden colour. This liquor. It is much to be lamented that so very few take the trouble to collect this rosin. Both the tree and the fruit overflow with a kind of milky. THE ZAMUÛ. bursts open and discovers woolly flakes. and red flowers which seem to be composed of one large expanded leaf. DRAGON'S-BLOOD. The air curdles it. and bears white flowers. For the highest and lowest parts of the trunk are small. The bark of this tree is hard. and bears small hard leaves. which fruit. a thick bark turgid with copious moisture. the drunken tree. and barrels. but with so short a fibre that it is very difficult to draw them out into a thread. and almost resembles a nut-tree. and properly ground. but hurtful to the stomach. with a very strong rind. when ripe. The bark. for though the wood of both possess the same power of healing almost any disease. The farther this tree grows from rivers the wider it swells. is middle-sized . and guayacàn are the same.It is a great mistake to suppose that holy wood. tinge the water with a red colour which is said to cure sore eyes. a large. like cotton. when you cut the bark. while the middle swells out to a great width. when stripped of the rough outer skin. mangaỹci. and boiled.

will remove dysentery. are mixed with this balsam. This operation must be performed in spring. which causes it to flow freely into the vessel placed beneath the trunk. and is useful both to painters and physicians. and pains arising from cold. Two or three drops. Besides the wood. especially the inhabitants of the province of Maranham. Amongst these is the cupaỹ. it has a bitter taste. tall tree. This oil. restore the tone to the bowels. The Paraguayrian trees. of such high repute in Europe. nothing is better for painting the face. condenses into a liver-coloured rosin. and remove scars. a large. particularly. and a dainty by the apes. swallowed with a boiled egg. of a natural colour. with which they are impregnated. Physicians complain that foreign traders sell them goat's-blood. nor too young. or summer. in winter. which is of a dark red colour. but has a kernel resembling a walnut in size and form. it affords a fruit which is dusky on the surface. when applied to the belly. To effect this sooner and with more certainty apply dry burning boughs to the opposite side of the tree into which the incision has been made. Sometimes it is used as an injection with sugar from plaintain water. resembling blood in colour and consistence. which is naturally resinous and thick. I can scarce . you will hear a slight crackling.both as to height and bulk. there are none. if mixed with the colours instead of linseed oil. From the oil of the cupaỹ the Brazilians make the balsam cupaỹba. and more liquefied. THE CUPAỸ. but in my opinion they have no affinity whatever with palms. In wooden images. in colour. it eases languor in the stomach. you will lose your labour. and arts are requisite. a kind of juice flows from them. could not be distinguished from water. Soon after the incision is made. elsewhere. insinuating itself more freely into the pores of the wounded tree. To extract this most useful juice both arms. it brightens pictures better than any varnish. as the singular fragrance of the smell discovers. Within a few hours you will find a jug full of oil. or oil of roses. seems to rarefy and liquidate the oil. which are half a foot long. and every thing of flesh. for dragon's-blood. remarkable for its leaves. mixed with gum arabic. which abounds in those trees. it is said to stop the flowing of the blood. When a deep incision is made into their trunks. the oil is more dispersed amongst the fibres of the tree. it assuages colic. which I learnt from others. by their heat. and which. but never tried myself. with red nerves and veins. and to heal the wounded person very speedily. without being cut. The trunk of the tree. if you undertake it in the absence of the moon. It will cure the bites of serpents. and which is reckoned eatable by the Indians. for when mixed with garlick. If you wish to fill many jugs cut many of these trees. of which we shall speak hereafter. and will never be obscured by time. hard. when the moon is at full. hands. which are most abundant in the northern woods of Paraguay. But other rosins. though they offer their fruits spontaneously to the natives. I will now make you acquainted with its virtues. Placed by way of plaster on the breast. and fit for carpenter's work. exhales an odour neither sweet nor the contrary. chiefly that from the tree ybir̂apayè. American as well as European painters derive much benefit from the oil of the cupaỹ. or very few. is cut to the pith with a knife. which should neither be very old. do not yield the oil. bolo. caused by the oil flowing from the top and from the boughs: for the warm air. Some botanists call these trees _palmæ pruniferæ foliis jaccæ_. when boiled on the fire. and other hurtful fluxions. But this tree owes its celebrity and value to the excellent oil with which it teems. in the month of September. and impart strength. When warmed and applied to a wound. or red Brazil wood.

or purging beans. and entwines itself with certain palm trees. which at the slightest touch. like figs. in sweetness.persuade myself that the oil of the cupaỹ is brought quite pure from America to our shops. that I know of. sheds a milky juice commonly thought to be poisonous. then bruised in wine. and with regard to the strength of the sick person. _ricini Americani_. Of these seeds the Indian women make rosaries to adorn their necks with: the savages formerly knew no other use of the vaynilla. For this plant grows in no other part of Paraguay that I am acquainted with. in its leaves. I mean the _cupaỹ_. soon takes root. A branch of this tree. which must be attributed to the inhabitants. Like pulse. as it doubtless would grow in the northern parts of Paraguay. occasioned the Spaniards to give it the name of vaynilla. The little bag or sheath. and grows up very quickly. and the softness of its wood. a tree not larger nor harder than the elder. where that fruit grows. which however birds and apes eagerly devour. for fruit it bears little hulls. These kernels. purge the bowels. and small white flowers. but much alike in name. which serve it for a prop. covered with a white membrane and divided into as many separate compartments. (the caatigua. its form. which the Indians use to dress ox-hides with. _the curupaỹ_. I owe to Father Joseph Sanchez. triangular. a sweet name to those who love chocolate. PIÑON DEL PARAGUAY. who had travelled over the land of the Chiquitos. all materially different. as well as in Peru and elsewhere. The curupicaỹ. The description of this plant. The trunk and leaves. unfit for any purpose. has a spungy kind of wood. which the Abipones call achitè). is a creeping plant which grows in moist places. and whether physicians prescribe the use of them. in which the fruit is inclosed. This is a shrub resembling the fig tree of our country. they have a most delicious odour. which is produced by a . will cause vomiting. when cut and committed to the earth. and in shape they resemble almonds. There are three trees in Paraguay. THE VAYNILLA. or piny nuts of Paraguay. when pressed with the hand distil a milky juice abounding in serum. The curupaỹ affords bark like that of the çevil. and when ripe dark on the surface. and of a bright colour. and expel noxious humours. With the vaynilla we must speak of the cacaò. and are full of very small seeds. for two or three kernels. _piñones del Paraguay_. I do not know. are called by physicians. THE CACAÒ. It bears large leaves about a hand long. or sheaths. to mitigate their purging qualities. OR THE CATHARTIC NUT. which many say ought to be first stripped of their white skin. It bears fruit like dark walnuts. and roasted a little on the fire. a quarter of an ell long. that they must be taken cautiously. and that merchants do not adulterate it to increase the weight. were it cultivated there. To give them a red colour they mix the bark of the curupaỹ with that of another tree. beneath the hard black rind of which lie three white kernels. and the _curupicaỹ_. The vaynilla. which became extremely profitable to the Americans after the discovery of the use of chocolate. not to the climate. cathartic nuts. when eaten. Whether these nuts are sold in the druggists' shops in Europe. This is certain.

with a dark rind. to the trunk of the tree. THE TREE ABATI TIMBABỸ. It bears a fruit like large melons. in Mexico. which. ear-rings. they can be melted by no moisture. with admirable exactness. were accustomed to chew and suck the little skin only. In Peru. and clear as the purest crystal. They grow upon trees which resemble palms. having exceedingly tall. which is sweeter than honey. which botanists call _dactyli acidi_. The huge tree abati timbabỹ. they conduce much to allay the most burning thirst. amongst the Mojos Indians. afford excellent materials for ships. and large trunks. and cover the melons which they bear so entirely with their immense leaves. or beads. grow in the territories of the Chiquitos. The Guaranies use it not only for medicinal purposes. straight. Although as fragile as glass. as they never feel decay. ear-rings. after being steeped for some time in cold water. and have boughs and leaves long enough to cover a number of men. that you cannot see them without standing close by. THE ROSIN ỸÇICA. in the heat of the sun. of an agreeable taste. made in the same form. of which the lower orders of Spaniards and the wood Indians make crosses. and gently to purge the bowels. as by a kind of fence. as they are . containing oily kernels. Tamarinds. and with their dark shade protect them from the heat of the sun. where it flows very copiously from them in the heat of the sun. The Peruvian Indians. are a species of plum. No tree which Paraguay produces makes longer or wider beams. by the following method: they apply hollow moulds. buckles. Might it not possibly contain medicinal properties? No one has hitherto made trial of its virtues. and the gum flowing down into them is hardened by the air. and last for ever. and beads to hang round the neck. THE CEDAR. rather acid. Taken inwardly. and elsewhere. they would make knots. These trees in their native woods grow to a great size. of wood or reeds. as big as almonds. you would swear they were made of crystal. the woods abound in this most profitable fruit: both the tree and the kernel. and separated from one another by a white and very sweet skin. but larger. even under water. which. however. They never grow so large when planted in any other soil. but are unknown to the other parts of Paraguay. vary in different countries. and quickly assumes the shape of crosses. sheds a quantity of gum of a golden colour. The more northerly woods of Tucuman and Paraguay boast of innumerable lofty cedars. and little images beautifully with it. This Paraguayrian rosin is found at the roots of trees under ground. and full of a number of beautiful kernels. Were European artisans in possession of this gum. when pitch is not to be had. but also to tar ships with. and all sorts of building. which are very well known in European druggists' shops. THE TAMARIND. and other countries of America. Tamarinds. and having a kind of crown on the top. throwing away the kernels which they did not then know how to use in preparing chocolate.tree resembling an orange tree in its leaves.

it grows in such abundance in the woods. to accelerate the cure. both. and conveyed in waggons from Tucuman full three hundred leagues. form. with red veins. full of seeds. not by a water-machine. after a two months' navigation on the river. In Tucuman. When placed by the fire. and of a dusky colour. which is sometimes white. We used it in the same manner as gum Arabic. and boiled in water. Others make plasters of the quinoa. but cedars hold the first place. but always transparent. though in such cases. might it not be fit for various medicinal purposes? Water boiled with bits of cedar wood and drunk. The curiỹ resembles the European pine in its leaves and in its height. to glue things together. I do not deny that the tree timboỹ is made into shorter and slenderer planks and boats in Paraguay. and when applied to the wounded or bruised part. and is called by the Spaniards _alfaroba de la Berberia_. THE ALFAROBA. are covered with a soft yellow skin. The sheath of the Spanish alfaroba is rather wide. which are almost a span long. which is pale. and whither they are brought from the distant forests of Asumpcion. There are two kinds of cedars in Paraguay. it is given to oxen and mules for their daily fodder. but by human hands with a saw. the red rosin lurking in the veins of the wood is melted. but exceeds it in the hardness of its wood. with a great saving of time and labour. and in the heat of the sun shed great quantities of gum. they dissipate noxious humours so soon as to exceed the expectation both of the physician and the patient. The sheaths or hulls of the Paraguayrian alfaroba. after it has been pounded in a mortar. height. moreover the seed is smaller and softer. although its pulp is sweet and whitish. and colour from that which is commonly put to sale in Germany. without culture. for from Barbary it was brought by the Moors to Spain and Portugal.laboriously hewn. and also for polishing. a kind of pulse with a very small grain. and shine surprizingly. The knots and swellings particularly which grow on the Paraguayrian pine are almost as hard as a stone. that in those countries. where. sometimes red. who hate all innovation. where no woods are to be seen. that of the other rather palish. Of these large knots the Guaranies turn rosaries and images of the saints very neatly. by a sudden fall from a horse or a tree. have a very sweet smell. and straightness of their trunk. the most remarkable are those two which are distinguished by the names of the . This pulse is also a very wholesome food. the wood of the one is beautifully red. an infusion of quinoa. Sometimes out of one cedar a very large boat is made. in the docility of the materials. sell very high in the city of Buenos-Ayres. and they have a pleasanter taste. a German lay-brother of our order constructed a machine. is a remedy for extravasation in those that have been bruised by a violent blow. or large pebbles. to pull which thirty rowers are hardly sufficient. and the breadth of a man's thumb. at this day. as they excel in the width. We are now come to a tree on many accounts worthy of particular note. during the winter season. should also be drunk. by which the saw was moved to the cedars by water underneath the wheel. so that they seem as if varnished with a beautiful red colour. THE AMERICAN PINE. but it was soon after removed and destroyed by the natives. however. The American alfaroba differs in size. Of the many kinds of alfaroba which Paraguay produces. indeed. and their durability under water. the fruit of which is called by the Spaniards _alfaroba_. CURIỸ.

and fit neither . yet. No one ever doubted that both the black and the white alfaroba. but harder. and medicine. be extracted from both the alfarobas. inclosed in a pod. The white alfaroba affords not only meat. as they have a diuretic property. though not even the shadow of such a tree is to be seen in any other part of the immense tracts of Paraguay. and extremely firm. Iago. dark. It is chewed white and dry. which are called _patay_. for as it abounds in thick rosin. and fermented. and pour it. neither did we ever think fit to plant the alfaroba. of a sharp. for once in a long journey. and a difficulty in speaking. on a hide. are of much use. bitter taste. resembles the former in all respects. Immoderate use of it disorders both the head and feet. if carelessly scattered in any soil. The other species of alfaroba. and becomes as hard as a stone. and bears small yellow flowers. by chemic art. the Spaniards who accompanied me being greatly amused at my taciturnity. inhabit a vast extent of country. and are chiefly made in the colonies of St. when taken in moderation. houses and ships: for its violet-coloured wood is docile. and. except that it is smaller and sweeter. red wood. Moreover horses. even under water. a sharp. carry it home on a horse. after being strained through a sieve.white and the black. The seeds. The leaves of this tree are small. are taken. by the Abipones and other savages. I was suddenly deprived of the power of speech. The pods. mixed with cold water. and the territories of St. being distributed into thirty-two colonies. which appears little different from the acacia. and inducing uncommon longevity. with their pulp. We must not pass by a third species of alfaroba. I write this on my own experience. which serves both for tub and drinking vessel. as it falls from the tree. and in hectic fevers. lest the Abipones. create a roughness in the tongue. and exhaling an aromatic smell. but as medicine. Some say that spirits of much efficacy in diseases of the kidneys. if eaten raw too freely. woods of which abound particularly in Chaco. and sent to other cities. and when pounded in a mortar. it effervesces so much with its own natural heat. The Guaranies. will certainly. as it is naturally resinous. which grows so quickly. pound it in a mortar. This kind of alfaroba is more commonly used for food than for drink. and wholesome beverage. and last in the woods till March. when pounded in a mortar. Its dusky bark is covered with red spots. where. growing in clusters. forms into bread of itself. as to become at last. not only as food. but also excellent materials for building waggons. drink. Its hulls. it is a means of strengthening the constitution. who. happening to pluck some of that fruit as I rode along. or drunk mixed with water. are resinous. Moreover the seeds of the alfaroba. They ripen in the month of November. should turn it to a bad use. in about twelve hours. mules. are destitute of this most wholesome fruit. without addition of any thing else. or labouring under diseases of the bladder. sweet. inclosed in the pods. The rind of the pods is thick and black. and that it should cause drinking-parties and intoxication. or more robust than after feeding on the alfaroba. whether taken in a solid or liquid state. might. These loaves. and quickly grow up into trees. It is the employment of the women to gather it in the woods. like the other Indians. Iago. which. is clothed with the same sort of leaves as the other alfarobas. and oxen are never fatter. though agreeable to the palate from being extremely sweet. Some hours' silence was both the disease and the remedy. The pods. is thrown into a round wooden box. is either eaten. are reduced to a flour. which the Spaniards call the black. or are gradually collected and preserved at home by provident persons. It has very hard. especially by Europeans labouring under stone or strangury. and still more the tongue. its own dust glues it together. pressed with both hands. and from its little pale flowers grow seeds. are like pulse. to persons in a consumption.

the pods of which are of a dark red colour. quickly build a little hut. and baskets are sometimes woven. forms. and cotton of a black colour. besides dates. and with the soft spungy materials afforded by their trunks. lodging. and composed of threads extremely liable to catch fire. white bark. and clothing. but also by the length of their boughs. afford a pleasing spectacle to the eye. which generates saliva. not a drop will penetrate this hasty fabric. expands its leaves like an open fan. It produces dates which. in some respects. very annoying to travellers. and which. very light. a small tree. with the addition of alum. which consists of sharp thorns. Palms supply the Americans with meat. to dye wood. not only by their great height. flowing to the ground from their leaves. that the carandaỹ palms create the richest and most wholesome pasture for cattle. By way of wood it has a pulp as porous as a fungus. and bears sweet dates. which are not disliked by Europeans even. But though these palms are. and copperas. and St. carandaỹ. THE PINDÒ. Out of the numbers that I have seen in Paraguay. yields a very tender germ. for the rain-water. severely hurt the naked feet of the Indians. are furnished by them. will cure many persons who. The bark of the be eaten nor drunk. and deprived of the pith. by their hardness. yet in others they are equally convenient to them: for the Guaranies. when cut with an axe. properties. which is very hard. and uses of all the different species were to be described. These palms. medicine. or eaten. This tree exudes rosin like gum Arabic. Palms alone would afford subject for a bulky volume. leafy at the top. a smaller palm. when they pass the nights in the woods. falling from the trees. which they gracefully extend. according to Thomas Falconer. could not be restored to health without the aid of salivation. contracts a kind of saltness. and. I will describe a few. The fruit is used by the people of Cordoba. Of the leaves of the pindò palms. To it you may add a fourth species of alfaroba. partly another: should the rain fall with the utmost violence. The pindò is a very lofty and common palm. THE CARANDAỸ. drink. bent partly one way. on an impending storm. fill the woods. cords. and taste neither sweet nor bitter. if the names. is used to roof the houses in some cities. The yataỹ. and is the best and most agreeable seasoning of the grass for beasts. in Europe. their bark will bear age. The dates. and of a yellowish white. Of this the natives make a potion which is remarkably sudorific. are either drunk with water. with a rough. VARIOUS KINDS OF PALMS. which is . arms. THE YATAỸ. and even to build cottages with. after being pounded in a mortar. The tall palm. as of osiers in other places. Iago. with a protection against the rain. Some hew down any palms of this sort that they can find. panniers. This also is certain. as soft as butter. If the palms be cut when the moon is in the wane. and a great ornament to gardens. and cover it well with boughs and leaves of palms.

eaten raw, as it is plucked from the tree, and is very pleasant to the
taste. Crowds of parrots daily fly to feed upon the nuts of this palm.
The yataỹ guazù, which has very large bright green leaves, and a rugged
trunk, and is at least five ells high, produces oval shaped nuts, which
the Spaniards call _coccos_. The pulp is very small in quantity, but, if
boiled, eatable. In each nut there are three large kernels, as agreeable
to the taste as almonds, but more oily.
The mbocayaỹ, a tree very abundant on hills, has its trunk and leaves
armed with long and strong thorns. It bears bunches of smooth dates, as
sweet as almonds, which are eaten either raw or roasted. Oil, almost
like that of olives, may be expressed from these nuts. This palm puts
out threads stronger than hemp, of which the savage nations make cords
for bows, and lines for fishing with. In the territory of Cordoba you
see palms, the leaves of which make such strong and commodious besoms,
that they are brought to the more distant cities. The Spaniards of St.
Iago, who go to the woods to seek wax and honey, cut certain palms to
the pith. At the end of some weeks they return to the place, and in
those palms they had wounded find very large fat worms, which they fry,
and eat with much satisfaction.
Many fruits which European trees produce are unknown to Paraguay: in all
my travels through that country I never, or very rarely, saw any apples,
pears, plums, cherries, filberts, chesnuts, &c. These trees seem not to
suit the climate and soil of Paraguay; for they are either entirely
barren, or produce such ridiculous fruit as rather deserve the
appellation of abortions of nature, than delicacies of the palate. The
want of the fruits above-mentioned is amply compensated by an incredible
abundance of very large peaches, quinces, pomegranates, citrons, both
sweet and sour, and oranges which Europe might envy. In the neighbouring
kingdoms of Chili, where, on account of the vicinity of the mountains,
the air is much sharper, almost all European fruits, and many other
native ones, succeed amazingly, and are dried and carried into other
countries with great profit. But though Paraguay is destitute of various
European fruits, she boasts of many native ones, unknown in Europe even
by name. I shall cursorily describe trees and shrubs as they enter my
head, without regard to order.
The mistol, a very large tree, affords hard and heavy wood, of a red
colour, fit for making pestles of mortars and spears; it also produces a
red fruit, about the size of a chesnut, resembling in appearance the
tree which the Spaniards call _azofaifa_, and druggists _jujubes_, and
which was formerly brought from Africa to Spain and Italy. The skin is
tender, the kernel rather large and hard, and the pulp fit for food; a
sweet drink, and even a kind of bread, being made of it, which is much
liked by the Indians, but to my taste extremely insipid. The jujub is
used by European physicians for allaying pains in the breast, cough,

hoarseness and pleurisy: whether the Paraguayrian mistol possess the
same virtues or no, I cannot tell.
The tree chañar has a yellowish and very hard wood: the fruit supplies
both meat and drink, and is dried and preserved by some.
The fruit of the yacanè tree is of a yellow colour, about as large as a
middle-sized citron, and in taste like a rotten pear.
The quabỹra guazù, which somewhat resembles a plum, and the quabiyù,
which is more like a cherry, are used both as meat and drink. The
quabỹra is very abundant, and much liked by the Indians; but was always
nauseous to my taste, for it smells like a bug. Both the trees which
produce these fruits afford very good wood for turning.
The quabỹra mir̂i, that is, the smaller quabỹra, differs totally from
the former, and, in my opinion, exceeds all the other Paraguayrian
fruits, both in sweetness, and salubrity. It is a little apple,
resembling a medlar in size, and form, and covered with a hardish skin,
which is green at first, and when ripe becomes a dark red. The pulp,
which is full of tender seeds, pleases the palate with an agreeable
taste, between sweet and sourish, and exhales a fragrant, balsamic
odour, with which the bark and leaves are likewise scented. It is a
remarkable circumstance that this fruit, though naturally hot, is never
prejudicial, however freely it be eaten. The quabỹra mir̂i grows on
shrubs like the junipers of Austria; they are supported by a slender
stalk, but have a number of knotty, thick roots, spreading far and wide
in the earth. They grow no where but in sandy soils, destitute of good
grass. The quabỹra mir̂i is to be seen in every part of the plains of
Taruma, of the lands near the little city Curuquati, and of the
territories of St. Paulo, bordering on Brazil. But in those tracts of
land where this fruit abounds, you find the pastures particularly poor,
either from the grass being choked by the sand, or because these shrubs
suck up the best juices of the earth. Certainly in the rest of Paraguay,
where richer turf is found, I never beheld any thing the least like a
quabỹra mir̂i. I should not be silent on the other use of this plant; in
its little branches the ants make a wax whiter than milk, and fragrant
as the most delightful balsam; it consists of very small, white grains,
scattered up and down the shrub, which are laboriously collected by
women, melted at the fire, and made into candles, for the use of the
churches, where, when lighted, they exhale a very sweet odour. It is
much to be lamented that this wax, though excellent in other respects,
wants hardness; for the candles made of it melt quickly, and are
consumed in a short time. To render them more durable, I have often
mixed common bees' wax with the wax of ants.

The first claim to our notice after these belongs to a most wholesome
fruit, which the Spaniards call la granadilla. It grows in great
abundance in the plain, at all seasons of the year, on a shrub which
clings, like ivy, to hedges and bushes. There are many species of it,
differing only in form and colour. They all bear a middle-sized apple,
of a golden colour spotted with red, in taste between sweet and acid,
with an agreeable odour, and full of round, black seeds. Whether eaten
raw, or boiled with sugar, like citrons, and drunk mixed with cold
water, it is extremely salubrious. Its sweet juice conduces much to
strengthen the bowels, and without danger to cool the limbs, after they
have been heated by the sun. If you attentively examine the beautiful
flower of this plant, you will find the scourge, the crown, the nails,
the cross, the pillar, the dice, the gall, and all the other instruments
belonging to the passion of our Lord, plainly figured there.
On this account it universally goes by the name of the passion flower,
and was thought worthy to be brought from America to Rome, in the time
of Paul V.
The fruit guembè is the more remarkable for its being so little known,
even by many who have grown old in Paraguay; for the northern woods only
of that country are its native soil. It is about a span long, almost
cylindrical in shape, being thicker than a man's fist in the middle, but
smaller at both extremities, and resembles a pigeon stripped of its
feathers, sometimes weighing as much as two pounds. It is entirely
covered with a soft yellowish skin, marked with little knobs, and a dark
spot in the middle. Its liquid pulp has a very sweet taste, but is full
of tender thorns, perceivable by the palate only, not by the eye, on
which account it must not be slowly chewed, but quickly swallowed: for
if any one were leisurely to bruise the pulp with his teeth, his tongue
would be made to smart for a long time by the latent thorns, and would
be rendered less ready in speaking. The stalk, which occupies the
middle, has something of wood in it, and must be thrown away. You cannot
imagine how agreeable and wholesome this fruit is, and how it refreshes
a man fatigued with long walking and bathed in perspiration. This
ponderous fruit grows on a flexible shrub resembling a rope, which
entwines itself round high trees. How great must be the strength of the
_guembepi_, as the Guaranies call it, you may infer from this, that the
stoutest Indians, when they cut a high tree for the sake of getting
honey, sit for a long time with safety upon this shrub, which is
entwined about the boughs and trunk. From the above-mentioned guembepi
the Spaniards and Portugueze sometimes weave cables stronger than hempen
The tatayỹ, a tall, large tree, bears mulberries, resembling those of
our country in taste, and form, but larger, and of a yellow colour. The
saffron-coloured wood of this tree is very hard, but docile, and of it
the Indians make beautiful boxes, pipes, trumpets, and other things, as
Europeans do of box. Pieces of the same wood, boiled with alum, are used
for dying wool, and cotton, of a yellow colour.

sometimes whiter than milk. in whose language it is also called _ybir̂apayè_. abounds in soft black seeds. but is rarely seen in others. an immense tree. produces fruit like plums. The stones of this fruit are triangular-shaped. THE ANGUAỸ. and of sovereign virtue. sometimes larger. when heated by the sun. which it greatly exceeds in sweetness. defended by sharp. There is another tree which resembles this in name. in its large. Assuredly this fruit. for the savage jugglers. The bark of the tree. that they might seem to breathe of something divine. or boiled with meat. and more safely eaten. by burning this rosin. which is sometimes redder than blood. pliant bark. A shrub. insipid liquor. in its taste and yellow colour. This tree bears flowers. after being boiled in water. The anguaỹ. By way of fruit. . which is an additional reason for the name of _mammones_ being given it. round apples. the other the female. and others. and when ripe of a greenish yellow. and remarkably fragrant. The tree is named _anguaỹ_. Mammones. which on account of the acidity of their juice. and greatly refreshes the body.MAMMONES. of a violet colour. but is so much exhausted by this exceeding fertility that it scarce ever lasts above four years. about the size of a hen's egg. but very slender thorns. The aguaỹ. because mortars are generally made of it by the Guaranies. The famous Peruvian and Brazilian balsam is made of this rosin mixed with the oil of the cupaỹ tree. have the appearance of teats. and a fig-tree. The rosin which distils from the anguaỹ is exceedingly fragrant. whereof the one is called the male. There are two species of this tree. but is totally different in form and other respects. were it found in Europe. and consulted by their countrymen. in its dusky bark. and so bright that the Indian women make necklaces of them. which are also used in medicine. is used for the same purpose. angular leaves. produces the alabas. and resembles a walnut. and thickness. a liquid pulp. THE AGUAỸ. a low thorny thistle. and is sometimes eaten raw. and other parts of America. When fresh planted it bears fruit the first year. It grows very common in some parts of Paraguay. but it is not true that one would be barren without the other. The tree is of middling height and thickness. concealing beneath a thick. delights the palate with its delicious flavour. grow upon the trunk of the tree. and scarce ever seen there except in gardens. though abundant in Brazil. In some respects they differ. fruit about the size of a quince. or more properly. hard. THE ALABAS. at all seasons of the year. Mammones. OR YBIR̂APAYÈ. being impregnated with rosin. it bears hard seeds. the conjuror's tree. delighting in a sandy soil. affords wood fit for carpenters work. and fruit. and hanging by short stems. whenever they expected to be visited. are oftener. red. it is also used in churches instead of frankincense. a tree of uncommon height. Its weak wood swells with a milky. used to perfume their huts. Their pulp resembles that of melons. whence they are named. would be ranked amongst the delicacies of the desert. like almonds. are very rare in Paraguay.

and Indians. a tolerably large tree. but broader. with a pleasant. the territory.THE ỸBA POROYTỸ. and full of grains. none of whom are very fond of this fruit. a span in length. for the juice expressed from its leaves. The fruit of the tarumaỹ somewhat resembles an olive. THE CAAỸCỸ. and so virulent. especially when they are afflicted with noxious humours. The surface of them. is clothed with leaves like those of the olive. but for what purpose intended I do not know. THE GUAYÁBA. Taken inwardly it greatly conduces to stop flowing of the blood. is yellow. sweet-scented rosin. The tree is covered with very sharp and strong thorns. wherein we placed the town of St. They are both pleasant and wholesome when boiled with sugar. when they are ripe. is said to cure complaints in the eyes. though extremely dissimilar in taste. resembling a cherry. but rather acid flavour. yields a transparent. THE MOLLE. From the abundance of these trees. and possess an astringent quality. that whoever is pricked by them finds it a matter both of pain and danger. Of the tree balsam is made. Of the ybir̂a yepirô a balsam is prepared. The tree guayába produces kinds of pears of an oval shape. which some say is a species of mastic. a balsam of much service in cleansing and healing wounds is made. But the same tree also affords a medicine. Of the shrub aguaribaỹ. This tree flourishes even in soils that are not very rich. THE YBIR̂A YEPIRÔ. It bears sweet pods. THE AGUARIBAỸ. of which a beverage is prepared. was called Taruma by the Spaniards. and allay coughs. THE VINÀL. the pulp red. . which is likewise thought to be a species of mastic. Joachim. THE TARUMAỸ. The ỹba poroytỹ is a small pome. The caaỹcỹ. The vinàl. after they have been pounded. Dressed unripe they are very efficacious in strengthening the bowels.

which . like those of a laurel. with bark resembling that of a hazle. for the new germ falls from the top of the plant. when properly used. is of a pale blue. makes a sharp and sweet syrup. more wholesome than the bananà. in its place. I observed that those of Paraguay were larger than those of Europe. like the elder's. whilst. affords a pleasant. both fruits. The bacoba is. from the midst of which the germen and the fruit emerge. when bruised. on which account this fruit. taken from the crown of the ripe fruit. but. nor boughs. and not a very rich. which. but are compensated for by suckers which grow from their roots. THE MANDIOC. the rind of which. when unripe. At the top it is crowned with branches and little boughs. THE ANANÀS. and next year bears fruit. mixed with water. spungy. unless quite ripe. The flowers are yellow. It bears fruit of a black colour. OR PIÑA DEL PARAGUAY. from a sort of resemblance to the nuts of the pine. but powerful drink. must first be macerated in rich wine. which continues two days. The want of fruit is compensated by the roots. It is adorned with leaves. but are adorned with long. They are oval-shaped. Some preserve ananàs in sugar. a tree of no obscure name. The liquor of it. The fruit of the bananà is rather long. A liquor expressed from them causes intoxication when taken in excess. This liquor imparts a sort of ferocity to the eyes of persons intoxicated with it. which is about the height of a middle-sized man. Physicians use both the boughs and the rosin of this tree for various medicinal purposes. The mandioc is the root of the little plant mandiò. and restores the natural heat to the aged. is injurious to the stomach. This also is the case when it grows wild without cultivation. serve for dressing goats'-skins. the thickness of a man's thumb. which the Indians delight greatly in. which. Each plant yearly produces one fruit. The trunk or stalk of these shrubs is slender and fragile. according to its length.The molle. and full of milk. and. is placed in the ground. The fruits bacoba and bananà. relieves dysury. which is burnt instead of frankincense. when expressed by the aid of fire. with elegant. The shrubs which produce them have neither seed. and becoming exhausted. which. but liable to be moth-eaten. a soft pulp. narrow leaves. The juice of the former is as pleasant as that of strawberries to the taste. gradually dies away. and of a red colour. removes languor from the mind. however. Both trees. wide. The anana is called by the native Spaniards _piña del Paraguay_. and square in form. and from its being very abundant in the north of Paraguay. This fruit is boiled in water. bear fruit all the year round. knotty like a reed. are remedies for various complaints. They die after bearing fruit once. THE BACOBA AND BANANÀ. It is supported by a very straight. unless perfectly ripe. belong to the fig species. long. therefore. with a saffron-coloured skin. and nephritic pains. though they grow in very sterile soils. and beautifully green leaves. and for medicinal purposes. when cut into stocks. and takes root. slender trunk. The trunk distils a quantity of very fragrant gum. but not so sweet. and pith. being sweeter than the alfaroba. and nausea from the stomach. a little plant. of a beautiful green colour. but rather cold juice. sharp and caustic. furnishes solid wood for building.

when they are detained many months in the Brazilian ports. and that into small cakes. mixed with butter. thicker than a man's arm. I could never prevail upon myself to satisfy the cravings of appetite with the mandioc. find their breasts filled. and carefully cultivate the mandioc. about a span long. and laid upon the floor to dry for two days. In a short time they take root. I confess. and rather hard. so in the mandiò. been exceedingly hungry. they are reduced to flour. which. The Americans are acquainted with more than twenty species of this tree. and covered with a dusky skin like the bark of a hazle. but if taken out of the earth. and makes a kind of paste. for. and loves dry soils. Their very white pith is full of a milky. but it is quite useless in propagating the plant. glutinous. you will find roots fit for eating. they should then be cut into small pieces. deposits a white settlement at the bottom. miror magis_. which. but in reality it is a year before they are fully mature. As in the cinnamon shrub the bark is alone made use of. differing in form and virtues. however. fragile. and medicine. so that they project about the length of a span from the surface of the earth. balls. should be carefully cleansed without delay. and poisonous liquid. and sunny situations. and sugar. These American loaves are round. The roots. that the root of the mandioc properly cleaned. create good blood and juices. is relished by none but persons unacquainted with the taste of wheat. The mandiò bears seed not unlike that of the piñon del Paraguay. after being softened by lying for some days in water. the American mothers. is made into flour. for as the continual rain prevents the cultivation of wheat. drink. There is another kind of mandiò. in ground that has been well dried. I never doubted either that these roots. After being pounded in a mortar. and other things. and when they sail back to their native land. in whatever way it were dressed. are roasted on the ashes. for which purpose the trunk or stalk of the shrub is cut into stocks. at the end of which time. feed principally upon the mandioc. though wholesome. the little skin being first stripped off them. after recruiting themselves with boiled mandioc. whenever they find their milk fail. put out leaves. though insipid to Europeans. the higher ranks only eat wheaten bread. Happy are the Americans who can deceive and appease their stomachs by so many artifices! For my part. The Portugueze sailors also. They look like those cakes made of flour and honey in Germany. like the bark of the cork tree. In other places they squeeze a juice from the roots of the mandiò. that is sufficient: _haud equidem invideo. The same juice is boiled on the fire. therefore. on foot. furnished generally with no other provision than the flour of the mandioc. for this plant detests moisture and shade. flat. was by no means disagreeable to me. though I have often. It would take up a long time to relate all the different methods by which the mandioc is converted into meat. to omit other arguments. The North Americans also greatly esteem. the root is the only serviceable part. the roots of which. although they be not dug up. and eaten without prejudice. The Brazilian and Paraguayrian Indians . which is not only used as victuals.are sometimes three feet long. in travelling. the flour being conveyed at a great expense from Lisbon. barley. The Portugueze in Brazil perform arduous journeys of many months. Neither do they require to be watered. which a little while ago were quite exhausted. through immense wilds. and attain to their ordinary size. when dried. three of which are always stuck into heaps of mould. but likewise for starch to stiffen clothes with. It must be planted in the summer. and sometimes for glue to fasten paper together. and made into bread baked in various shapes. If the Americans like it. grow rotten in the space of three days. Six months after it has been laid in the earth. This. they will remain a long while under ground uninjured. but are devoid of all taste. and grow up. and most part of the natives do the same. and eaten plain with boiled beef. when prepared in other ways. when left in a vessel for two hours.

it always requires exquisite culture. Between three small leaves. it may either be safely kept for years in a leathern bag. As the mandiò is very serviceable in feeding the Americans. twisting it about with their hands. Cotton itself. should entirely destroy maize. pulse. of a sweet taste. woolly leaves. When ripe it turns black. the richer. and. for although locusts. are cut like vines. when burnt. at the approach of spring. and. If this be properly attended to. by some means. very oily. it is not gathered all at once. fresh seed is sown. tares. and leaves of this tree are. and clothed with plenty of soft. will stop the flowing of blood. The cotton daily collected is spread on hides in the court-yard of the house. and fruits. into which they insert the cotton. to clear it of thistles.account this plant one of the greatest blessings of Providence. and weeded over and over again. Drought. the roots flourish. which have been stripped of their leaves in the winter. with which the unripe nuts are surrounded. It must be ploughed. The blossoms at length become fruit of a green colour. must be dug in a right line. The oil expressed from them is said to be efficacious in cases of stone and in cutaneous disorders. the mandiyù does much towards clothing them. and laid out in the sun to dry. for when the boughs. Cotton loves a sunny elevated situation. They prefer paying an inordinate price for linen . ants. Some parts of Paraguay produce yellow cotton. grow flowers larger than roses. and another succeeds which bears fruit the first year. The furrows and ditches. and yield fruit many years. But now the resemblance of the name admonishes me to pass from the esculent mandiò. to the woolly mandiyù. oval-shaped. and pluck the fruit with a gentle hand. the thickness of two fingers. To extract those seeds from the cotton the women make use of a wooden machine. the plants. that the shrubs may not be injured. full of black seeds. destroyed. In the Guarany towns this is the business of the girls. surviving under ground. However favourable the soil may naturally be to the production of cotton. and when full grown larger than a plum. or a long drought. If any plant withers. or rather conical. resembling pistachio nuts in size and shape. is favourable and salutary to this. and of much use in allaying cough and difficulty of respiration. must be fresh ploughed every year. consisting of a couple of cylinders. composed of five broad yellow petals. but collected day by day. linen ones. and separates into three parts. as they are thicker than the space between the cylinders. into each of which three or four fresh cotton seeds are placed. pot-herbs. exposed to the winds on every side. As the cotton gradually ripens and bursts from its prison. thrusting out white cotton. they are squeezed out by them. Under the black skin of these seeds is concealed a yellowish white pith. would supply the place of all these things. for in every other place throughout the country the cotton is as white as snow. because. and full of stones. and quickly covered with new foliage. The same field. which destroys other plants. as being frequently the only support of life. melons. the mandioc alone. and grows on shrubs which are reared from seed sown in little plots of ground. but this is very uncommon. COTTON. The poorer sort amongst the Spaniards of Paraguay wear cotton shirts. streaked with red: yellow stamens grow in the bottom of the flowers. or grows old. or spun into thread as soon as you like. who walk about the field. cause the seeds to fall out of themselves. and remain uninjured. increase. and grass. THE MANDIYÙ. It is produced by shrubs scarce larger than a hazel of our country. indeed. with wood and bark like the elder. and at such a distance from one another that the oxen and ploughmen may have room to pass through the intermediate spaces.

either of a red. rice was so scarce that. I have enumerated all the rest which are useful in building. and other things. both trees are called by the Spaniards _quebracho_. The lapacho is remarkable for the hardness and heaviness of its wood. and plants! I shall hardly be able to find my way out of the wood. with great success. is by no means to be despised. and none would go of their own accord to gather or carry away rice. It was never sown. and the ashes of the trees that have been cut down and burnt on the spot. or on other accounts worthy of note. olives. with this difference only. and causes it to shine like porphyry. maize. being as hard as iron. after having described the medicinal trees. excel in hardness and size. that the seeds must be committed to the earth at the commencement of spring. In places of this kind the Guaranies used to sow tobacco. which grows at a great distance on the northern shores of the Paraguay. and _quebrar_ to break. Let no one entertain a notion that the sowing and cultivation of rice require any particular artifices. retains. the Indians preferred eating maize. and also for wheels of waggons. or _quebrahacho_. yet it is best to tarry there awhile till. During the first years that I spent in Paraguay. justly fearing the Payaguas. is red. by the Portugueze Brazilians. THE TAYỸ. The quebracho colorado. they break the axe at the first blow. it hardly ever appeared at our table. Many have affirmed positively that rice will only grow in marshy places. or tajibo. for it is sown and reaped exactly in the same manner as European wheat. as it was brought from other countries. OR URUNDEỸ QUEBRACHO. because. But. The Guaranies burn pieces of the tree tayỹ. and the crop was more than could be consumed. gives it a red hue. For a place that has been previously occupied by trees. or rather in ground that had formerly been wooded. but we found that which was sown in woods. for _hacha_ means an axe. and in a moist situation. which. and flowing to the exterior parts of the wood. when covered with its bark. or carpenter. or pale colour. RICE. to yield a more abundant harvest than what was sown in a marshy situation. we began to sow rice. and most other things except cotton. convert it into ink. who infested those places. unless dexterously cut by a skilful woodman. and the urundeỹ quebracho. THE LAPACHO. its native humidity. at length. THE VIRARÒ. which is pounded in mortars with little trouble. But as it is very difficult to take the grains of rice out of the ear. incredibly fertilize the soil. . the rosin in which it abounds is melted by the hot air. shrubs. good heavens! how have I lost myself in this labyrinth of trees.webs brought from Europe to the trouble of cultivating flax. receive the smoke or soot arising from them into a clean dish. and by pouring hot water upon it. for a long time. As soon as it is cut down and worked upon. The tayỹ. and is particularly useful in making the mills for squeezing the sugar cane. mixed with gum and sugar. Instructed.

THE NETERGE. is covered with leaves like those of the citron. which are about a span long. Of the pith of the neterge very strong spears or pikes are made. which however changes to black. as soft as that of the cork tree. a middle-sized tree. THE ỸBARÔ. For fruit. its leaves drop a quantity of water. and of a paler green. mad. adorned with violet-coloured leaves. and a spungy wood. which are pierced in the middle. which moistens the space round about . The çevil produces bark for dressing hides. This tree is called _palo de leche_. inhaling the smoke into their mouth. The large tree ỹbarô bears black. he is said to rub them against the bark of this tree to relieve the pain. but extremely durable materials. which are like oblong thorns. This tree is remarkable for the width and height of its trunk. Its leaves. a large tall tree. after the spears made of this wood have been rubbed some time by the hand. it may be cut with a knife like an apple. PALO DE LECHE. and made into rosaries. and for some time furious. THE SEIBO. and grows immediately. and is of a violet colour. and is used for small carpenters work. nose. but its indocility renders it fitter for the fire than for carpenter's work. Whenever the tiger feels his claws burn. The ỹçapỹ. and whole body. The pith of this tree equals iron in hardness. it bears pods or bags. The espinillo has very strong wood. THE ÇEVIL. because its wood is white as milk. The seibo. which the savage Indians used formerly to burn. not very hard. but smaller. which rendered them drunk. but after it is dry. It is a remarkable circumstance. consists of crooked boughs. and have a balsamic odour. THE ỸÇAPỸ. A bough of this tree fixed in the ground takes root. and so soft that it may be cut with a common knife. axes are not sufficient to hew it. so that. when fresh. by the Spaniards. and always in the night. point towards the ground. about the size of filberts.The virarò affords white. shining berries. the milky tree. together with certain pods. THE ESPINILLO. that when the air is mild.

It affords plenty of shade to fifty persons seated beneath it. This is called _arbol de hormigas_. If this be true. a kind of wild fig. for some are very large. THE TREE OF ANTS. grows pretty high in the course of a few months. and the wood white like that of a birch. are very common in the woods of Tucuman. fresh water. and the banks of certain rivers. and looseness of the bowels. and leaf. and being covered with ants. The linden trees of Europe are mere dwarfs compared with an aged umbù. The nuts are of different sorts. no ways differing from those of our own country. every part of the year. THE WILLOW. but is adorned with very large leaves. THE AMBAỸ. They say that this water possesses a medicinal virtue. and with rinds as hard as a stone. It has few boughs. the tree of ants. but so soft that it may be cut with a knife. THE WALNUT. Their wood is employed in making pistol-cases. but scarce seen in other parts of Paraguay. is not to be seen elsewhere throughout a vast extent of country. juice. though it covers the islands of the Parana. applied in various ways. others quite dwarfish. but of what kind I do not know. one of the Canaries. So wide are the boughs and trunk of this tree. on which account it is well calculated for making stirrups. being incredibly scarce there. but not moist. and will cover both you and the tree itself. The ambaỹ. for if you do but touch the tree. that the sun never sees its foot. The wood and leaves of willows. THE UMBÙ. the bark such as is peculiar to figs. they found a very large tree which dropped water day and night. with a soft rind. The body of the tree is slender. and for other kinds of cabinet-maker's work. were often vainly sought by us. The whole tree is full of holes like a sieve. which. It consists of a weak spungy wood. John Verkens of Leipzig. The wood of the tree is very soft and flexible. stop running of the reins. in his account of a journey taken by the Dutch to the East Indies. and that the inhabitants hung up large pitchers to receive it for their own use. Walnuts. for the lively verdure of which it is greatly commended. I suspect that it must be the same tree as that which the Guaranies call ỹçapỹ in Paraguay.the tree and renders it muddy. The willow. a host of ants rush out of their lurking-holes. and perforated like an elder. he says. used both medicinally and for other purposes. relates. and that of their cattle. too copious discharges. . handles. and completely defends them against the rain. should be avoided by all passers by. that in the island of Ferro. as well as for the salubrity of its bark.

and sprinkled with water. variously prepared and mixed. and grows spontaneously in the plains of Paraguay. and well-tilled soil. and round leaves. and a silvery white on the other. or other things. to prevent the colour from flying. supply the place of vermillion: when pounded. and turned about in a pan of tepid. That mass of blue colour which the Spaniards call añil. I never had the least doubt but this plant might be cultivated in those countries of Europe where the climate is milder. and cabbage. but plain on both sides. and hollowed here and there into ditches. The flowers. and painters and dyers use for other purposes. the nearer they approach to that colour which we call Venetian blue. The leaves of the plant. COCHINILLA. Its leaves are rather large. cold water. mixed children's urine. or añir. pounded in stone mortars in the first place. coagulates. instead of alum. and next steeped. for the dryer they are. and immediately dyes the hands of all who touch it with that colour. After the water has escaped. and are loaden with small boughs. but is generally neglected. each containing about forty grains the size of peas. and ropes. burst open of themselves. either dry or fresh. which the women in Europe paint their faces with. full of an olive-coloured seed. and hardens. the industry of the inhabitants seldom answering to the liberality of nature. adheres pertinaciously. resembles a hazle in the whiteness of its wood. like an open helmet: and are succeeded by pods. about the size of one's little finger nail. the thicker part of the colour settles into those ditches. are about the size of a common rose. Those who dyed webs. and of the colour that settles at the bottom cakes are made. and afterwards red. steeped in water. with it. or garments with that colour in Paraguay. which is half shrub half tree. they are used by the savages. which are composed of five white petals. on one side. tinged with red. They are red on one side. THE AÑIL. The urucuỹ. with flowers like a husk of corn. is made of a plant. and other Europeans. The young plants must be removed. These grains. vessels. of a dark green.THE URUCUỸ. but have no scent whatever. This scarlet colour. are gathered in bundles. when ripe. and heart-shaped. branching out into a number of shoots. The pods. indigo. The solid particles are then taken out. Of the bark some weave cables. The little blossoms of this plant are of a palish red. be mixed with alum or urine. and partly stand upright. when a thing is once tinctured with it. The plant añil is sown in other places. The same grains are thrown into boiling water. They are used also both as food and medicine. or as others explain it. on which account its long stalks partly creep on the ground. OR INDIGO. and with a white pulp. . or as others say. and dried for many days. The seed must be sown in a soft. The surface of them is of a deep bright red. and the blackness of its bark. like the seeds of apples. sometimes for painting their bodies. They use them poured out on a wooden table. For fruit it bears pods. cords. sometimes for dying or staining cloth. surrounded with a high wooden brim. hanging from the stalk. stronger than hempen ones. like lettuce. with a long slender root. which are green at first. when perfectly mature. if the grains of the urucuỹ. very like rape seed. and placed at proper distances: great care must likewise be taken to prevent their being choked with weeds.

The Paraguayrian cochineal is produced by winged insects, which sit
continually on certain little thistles, and suck their juice. There are
many kinds of these thistles, which differ from one another in their
form, and fruit. The plant on which the cochineal is found, is called
_tuna_ by the Spaniards, and _opuntia_ by botanists. From a very short
root rises a thick stalk, sometimes four-cornered, green, crooked, with
a white fragile pulp, and covered with thorns: on this, instead of
boughs and leaves, grow other stalks, the same as the former, very long,
and extremely full of juice. Yellow flowers are succeeded by fruit of a
red colour, larger than a common fig, with a sweet, and at the same
time, rather acid flavour, which renders them very delightful to the
palate. Their pulp is full of small, black seeds, like grape stones, and
when peeled has a delicious taste. From these shrubs therefore, the
women collect cochineal, which consists of very small, white, fluid
particles, closely resembling moss. Most of the particles are made into
small, round cakes, and, after exposure to the air, become red and hard.
Nothing further is requisite to fit them for painting, and dying. The
Jesuit priest of the Guarany town Nuestra Senhora de Sta. Fè, took care
to have the tuna thistle planted in a large garden, that they might not
be obliged to seek the cochineal necessary for his town in distant
plains. When the thistles were grown up, those winged insects,
resembling bugs, were carried by the Indians from the plain, and
scattered up and down, with more than the desired success; for so
abundant, and so excellent was the cochineal collected from them, that
it was anxiously bought, at any price, by the neighbouring priests, for
the use of their towns; because it was of a deeper, and brighter red,
than that of the plains, and the woods, and was, moreover, scented with
citron juice. In succeeding years, the same Father prevented all access
to the town by means of these thistles, that the equestrian savages, who
had committed much carnage amongst them, might not be so easily able to
approach it. This kind of living hedge, which the Spaniards use both in
their gardens and estates, became not only a means of security, but at
the same time, an ever fertile nursery of cochineal, which, as well as a
most beautiful paint, affords the Paraguayrians a medicine for
strengthening the heart, creating perspiration, and counteracting
poison; so that it may be safely, and usefully mixed with vinegar, and
other seasoning liquors.
Golden-rod, which has a very straight stalk crowded from top to bottom
with leaves, is sometimes four, sometimes five feet high, and adorned
with a bright, yellow flower, abounds in the plains of Paraguay. Both
its trunk, and leaves, boiled in water, and mixed with alum, afford
painters, and dyers a most splendid yellow colour, and mixed with blue a
very bright green. The same golden-rod is also of great, and various use
amongst physicians. I remember a gentlewoman, who had been confined to
her bed for years by some disease which baffled the skill of many
physicians, being quickly, and happily cured, by a German, who
prescribed the use of this medicine. There are many species of
golden-rod, but I was acquainted with only one in Paraguay.
The Guaranies in marshy places dig up roots called yzipò with a dusky
surface, which they use to dye woollen, and cotton cloths of a dark red.
Whether this root be the _rubia_ of dyers I cannot venture to affirm,
for though that plant is cultivated in Austria, I never happened to see

The bark of the tree caatiguà, when dipped in water, imparts a pale red
colour, and is chiefly used for dying leather.
To dye cloth black, they make use either of a kind of alfaroba, which I
have described elsewhere to be like the Egyptian tree acacia, of a
well-known Paraguayrian herb, or of a rich, black clay. Though cotton
will take a black dye, it will not hold it long; consequently the cotton
dresses which we wore in Paraguay, became almost of no colour, and the
blackness, by degrees, faded away. The Spanish ladies of St. Iago, and
the Chiquito Indians have the art of dying cotton with a very lasting
black, a secret unknown to every one else.
Walking in a wood on the banks of the Narahage I discovered a shrub,
before unknown to me, covered with leaves of such a very bright green
that I felt an inclination to taste them. I found them sweeter than
sugar, and thought to use them for sweetening the herb of Paraguay.
Applauding myself vastly, for what I thought so useful a discovery, I
gave a leaf to the Spaniard, my companion, to taste; but he prudently
declared, that he should take care not to eat, or even touch that
strange plant. The Indian old women were consulted on this affair: they
told us that these leaves were used for dying things green, but were
very poisonous.
Woods, moreover, used for dying various colours, which are brought into
Europe from Brazil, Guayana, and other countries of America, are found
in that part of Paraguay, which borders on Brazil. The same may be
observed with regard to roots, oils, juices, gums, rosins, kernels, &c.
To the thistles called tunas, or Indian figs, you may add the
_cardones_, or _cerei_, the trunk of which is large, and tall, with a
spungy, and brittle pulp. In the place of branches and leaves there grow
on them other stalks, both thick, and long, which are thorny on every
side, full of juice, and straight upright. They bear white flowers, and
oval-shaped fruit larger than a goose's egg, which produce a red colour,
and are eaten by the Indians with impunity. In the deserts of Paraguay,
I have often traversed immense woods of _cardones_. The honey which bees
deposit in them is very famous in Europe. Every part of the cardo is
converted into medicinal uses, both by the Europeans, and Americans.
There are many species of cardones, of strange, and monstrous forms.
Some creep on the ground, others stand upright. The most remarkable is
the large, thorny, Peruvian cereus, which is twenty feet high, and one
foot thick. Its trunk has various corners, and channels, as it were,

together with knobs, and thorns. The bark is green, and the pulp fleshy,
and under it lies a ligneous substance, the pith of which is white, and
juicy. It bears but few flowers. If you wish to know more of this
cereus, it is to be seen in the gardens of princes.
Many species of this plant are commonly to be met with in Paraguay. I
will briefly mention those with which I am best acquainted. The
caraquatà guazù, or the great caraquatà, is supported by a short thick
root. It consists of about twenty very thick leaves, dentated on both
sides, remarkably sharp, and about two feet in length, in the midst of
which rises a stalk, like a trunk, five, and often more feet high. The
top of it is crowned with yellow flowers. The Indian women spin threads
of the fibres of the leaves, as others do of flax, or hemp, and weave
them into cords, cloths, and nets. But no time, or art can make these
threads perfectly white, nor will they hold any colour with which they
may be dyed. Creditable authors write that in the province of Guayana
such beautiful stockings are woven of this same thread, that they are
sometimes preferred to silk ones in France for strength, and softness.
Another kind of caraquatà, very like the former, is seen in the woods,
but it cannot be spun into threads. In the woods of Mbaèverà, the Indian
women who inhabit there make thread, and garments, not of the caraquatà,
but of the bark of the tree pinô, after it has been properly cleaned:
for the webs woven of the thread of this bark, after being exposed for
sometime to the sun, and frequently sprinkled with water, become
beautifully white and will retain any colour with which they are dyed,
extremely well. It is much to be lamented that this tree pinô is found
in the larger woods only, and is not to be seen in many parts of
Paraguay. Another caraquatà of a different shape produces a kind of
artichoke, or anana. It bears fruit of a scarlet colour, and has plenty
of seed contained in a straight slender stalk. It is surrounded with
very large leaves, denticulated like a saw, and pointing towards the
ground, in the centre of which travellers find a tolerable supply of
very clear water, and with it often quench their thirst in dry deserts,
where sometimes not a drop of water is to be found. Another caraquatà
with leaves very like a sword, and armed on both sides with a
threatening row of thorns, bears fruit of a pale yellow within and
without, full of black seeds, and pregnant with an acidulated, and
pleasant juice. But to extricate this fruit from the many thorns, with
which the leaves that guard it are armed, without being wounded, is the
labour and the difficulty. Of this fruit mixed with sugar a very
wholesome drink, and an excellent medicine for various diseases are
made. These, and other kinds of caraquatà are of great use to the
Americans. Planted around gardens, and the buildings of estates, they,
by their thorns, prevent all secret, and improper access, more
effectually than any other kind of hedge, and will survive every
inclemency of the weather. Their leaves supply the place of flax in
making thread, as well as of tiles in covering temporary huts, and their
thorns serve for needles. Their leaves, on being pricked, yield a thick
juice which washerwomen use for soap, and when boiled on the fire are
fit to be eaten. The Indians look upon the various fruits of the
caraquatà as food. From their leaves, when scraped with a knife, flows a
sweet liquor, which is thickened on the fire, and condensed into sugar.
This liquor of the caraquatà, mixed in water with the seeds of oranges,
or lemons, undergoes a vinous fermentation; exposed to the sun it turns
to vinegar. By what method, and in what cases, wounds and disorders are
healed by the juice of the caraquatà, would be long to tell. A
polypodium, preferable in the opinion of physicians to any European one,

appears to be artificial. the sweeter and thicker becomes their juice. never grow in Paraguay. others scarce equal to his thumb: many which are slenderer than a goose's quill. because less fragile. and ships. which is commonly called the pure and natural sugar-candy. Some made very large flagons. you see a great abundance and variety of reeds. which are always noisy and stinging. they are seminaries and abodes of tykes. the Indians ingeniously conjecture the name and country of their savage foes who have been travelling the same way. and from them a new germ arises. if properly cultivated. Some are as thick as a man's thigh. Those reeds which the Germans call Spanish canes. The juice squeezed out by the tight compression of the cylinders. VARIOUS KINDS OF REEDS. that they supply the place of wood in building houses. These are thrust by the hand into two large cylinders of very hard wood. you find white crystallized stones. In Paraguay. slips of canes. waggons. and kept in skins. and if cut at proper times would exceed it in hardness and durability. being perfectly ripe. It is then boiled in a brass pan. but full ten yards long. more or less. and in the moister woods. and the Spaniards Indian ones. and have been obliged to pass the night there even. In the month of August. THE SUGAR-CANE. for no means of extinguishing the flames are at hand. though neither rare nor precious in the provinces of North America. for that yellow candied sugar so full of threads. falls into a boat or cup placed beneath. always sleepless. especially on an impending calm. at the bottom of which. it must be boiled for a long time. These gradually rot under ground.grows on the caraquatà. from the reed of an arrow which they may have chanced to see on the road. which serves either for food or drink. about one or two feet long. will set fire to the reeds. which are covered with leaves. for as reeds generally delight in a marshy soil. others hollow. Both in marshy plains. entwine themselves about the neighbouring trees. are placed sloping in furrows. and properly ploughed. after being stripped of their leaves. which are turned round by two oxen with the help of a great wooden wheel. at equal distances. and you will be burnt. and is cut down in the space of about two months. according to the various uses for which the sweet liquor is intended. gnats and other insects. and the longer it is . some solid. If a violent wind comes on. for if it be used in the same manner as honey. it is less thickened on the fire. always anxious. which is sold in shops. after the liquid part is consumed. are cut into pieces a foot and a half in length. and which are used for walking-sticks. and never spare either the blood or ears of strangers. at the end of winter that is. the canes. which grows to the height of eight feet. The sugar-cane flourishes exceedingly in the hotter territories towards the north. the fire at which you sit. of these reeds. and there are no opportunities of escape. We have often crossed woods of wide extent bristling with continual reeds. You commonly meet with reeds of such immense size. But if the liquor expressed from the canes be intended for making sugar. As various kinds of reeds grow in various parts of the province. The longer they are left in the field. and brought to a thick mass. snakes. being thereby scattered up and down. made of the coagulated sugar. The oftener this is strained through an earthen pan perforated at the bottom. for the purpose of holding wine on a journey. which is afterwards expressed by various methods and machines in America. and they answered better than glass.

immoderate ones do harm. As the industry of the inhabitants in Paraguay by no means answers to the fertility of the soil. should often be sold at such an extravagant price in Europe. the more thoroughly it is purged of the dregs. and a perpetual source of riches. The honeycombs which certain wasps build in Europe are constructed in much the same way. which flow off into a vessel placed beneath the pan. especially in those territories which enjoy a mild climate. and very full of leaves. or aqua vitæ. or bull's blood. so laboriously prepared in America. for the more leaves it bears the less juice it will yield. and are near to flowery plains. I have briefly described the principal ones. so that no one thinks of exporting any from thence. BEES' HONEY. because the various species of bees deposit their excellent and copious honey either in hollow trees. Observe. in the caverns of the earth. A quantity sufficient to fill many jugs is often dug out of one cave. though well watered. less in the to the sun. and the whiter and better sugar it becomes. because they exhaust it all. it is the chief strength of the Portugueze trade. must be carefully kept away. In some places it is rather acid. Though the plant is seven or eight feet high. The sugar cane differs from the common reed no otherwise than in having more joints. and made as hard as a stone by aid of chalk. must be carefully extirpated. and the converting of them into sugar. Many other arts. For the same purpose others use the canes that have been pressed by the cylinders. that Europeans may be made thoroughly acquainted with the origin of sugar. moreover. which are destructive to the young canes. because they thicken the sweet liquor. great part of it towards the top is thrown away. Honey differs both in name and taste according to the different bees that produce it. The materials of which the cells of this honey consist are very like blotting-paper. in ships. from the exquisite cultivation of the sugar cane. Of these dregs the Spaniards make either coarser sugar. Throughout the whole of Paraguay you see none of those beehives the keeping of which is so troublesome in Europe. but have not had all their juice entirely squeezed out. being devoid of juice. and cease to wonder that these reedy sweets. or in the open plain. Brazil derives immense wealth from Europe. in others very sweet. and a smaller space between each. and are often of such extent and circumference that you can hardly embrace them with both arms. That alone is used by the Portugueze. More earth must be heaped on the sugar cane after it has been lately planted in the summer. which suck up the moisture of the earth. the sugar made there is rarely sufficient for that province. and the neighbouring Brazil. that it may not bud too much. It is adorned with beautifully green and very large leaves. Sugar canes like a rich and moist soil. Ants. and if it remains untouched for some months. and escapes the eyes and hands . nor will they grow much on hills. by liquefying it at the fire drop by drop. it is transported from Lisbon. has the appearance of wheat flour. especially at the top. that the pans in which that sweet liquor is daily exposed to the sun are carefully covered with fresh moist mud. That which is taken at the beginning of spring from the tops of shrubs or high grass is called by the Spaniards _lechiguana_. I choose to omit for the sake of brevity. Moderate frosts are useful to the full grown canes. to different places. That which is concealed under ground the Abipones call _nahérek_. Weeds. On the contrary. All the sugar prepared in Paraguay. and the different times and places in which it is produced. It is about four inches thick. proper to be used in the rearing and expression of canes. The excellence of the lechiguana honey you may ascribe to its being made of the first spring flowers. which they know so well how to consume.

pursue them on foot till they see what tree they enter: this they climb with all the agility of apes. but during time of drought it is very difficult to reach those lakes. deny water both to the carriers. is converted into salt. Wax is scarce ever used amongst the Indians: for the fire. and children soon consume these adventitious sweets. often not to be procured. which is always kept alive on the floor of the hut. and salt. when poured into a glass. when the sky is clear. Iago prefer to every other kind that found on the cardones. or drinking them like nectar. the honey they bring is mixed with cold water. in the winter months the Abipones think honey extremely unwholesome. and in the plain. the first place is given to the _eỹrobáña_. which is in great request both amongst the savages and almost all beasts. both of which are forced to be conveyed in ships. yet none of either kind can be obtained throughout immense tracts of land. no salt is coagulated. SALT. as the plains. nitre collected in the plains. very white. In rainy seasons. by whom the salt is conveyed in waggons to the cities. which being frequently the case. and becomes wine in the space of some hours. if found on the fragrant wood of the tree ybir̂apayè is then decidedly the best. All the Guarany towns are destitute of chalk. open a hole by way of a door. or salt water boiled in small pans. like sugar. when those lakes are full. . without addition of any other ferment. or waggons. At the town of Concepcion the salt boiled in the little town of Sta. and after whitening it with immense labour in the sun. is much esteemed. and all just estimators. In many places under the jurisdiction of the cities Asumpcion. and leaving their horse at the bank of a river. where their friends. and as a mark of the hive. The Spaniards of St. and carefully abstain from eating it. and excels all other honey as the sun does the lesser stars. sell it to the people of Peru and Chili. The same honey. In Paraguay. Being possessed of wonderfully quick eyesight. Lucia was sometimes too bitter to be eaten: that salt made in the Indian town Lambare.of passers by. In the Cordoban territories. because it is hard as a stone. the sweetest and most transparent of all honey. take out the honey and wax into a leathern bag. with hardly moderate profits. To discover and rifle the beehives concealed in the woods is a matter of little difficulty to the Abipones. Iago go out in crowds to seek honey and wax in distant woods. serves to dress the food by day. could not be distinguished from water. which it excels in sweetness. when. and stirred for a little while with a stick. which. are often purchased at an exorbitant price. through which you must pass. ride out on horseback into the country. and taken even in small quantities intoxicates the Indians like very pure wine: for we have found two or three cups sufficient to upset their naturally imbecile minds. froths. With the Guaranies. Moreover it has no admixture of wax. But if a general drinking-party be appointed on any occasion. they perceive the bees flying about. Iago. either by eating them like ambrosia. and the sun bright. and St. and in Cochinoco where it borders on Peru. who. The Spaniards of St. wives. unless it be brought at a great expense from other places. and to the oxen. and carry it home. the lakes which have been exhausted by a long drought do indeed afford coagulated salt. it effervesces. and elsewhere. and supplies the place of a candle by night. it hardens of itself. yet the principal storehouses of the bees are the hollow trunks of lofty trees. Though various kinds of honey are found under the earth. From honey let us proceed to salt. or artificial. though they are scarce ever able to procure it: for notwithstanding that some parts of Paraguay abound in salt either natural. from the remote colonies of the Spaniards. salt is in consequence often scarce and dear.

a pound was worth about twenty of our cruitzers. but not every where. and of snow. Those best known to me are the abati hatâ. sometimes in waggons by land from the lakes. bastard marjoram. as there are no salt-pits there. mallows. the abati mir̂i. and aji. or mixed with honey or sugar. and property of exciting saliva. as they are situated towards the straits of Magellan. vervain. is the principal provisions of the Americans. These lakes. fumitory. the most famous of all. are seen here in some places. Great troops of Spaniards were often cruelly murdered on the way by the southern savages. which the Guaranies call gỹ. in my opinion. the reason that so many of them are afflicted with cutaneous disorders. On considering these difficulties you will not much wonder that salt is generally scarce in Paraguay. MAIZE. quickly allay hunger . and often not to be procured. many days' journey from the city. For as an arroba (a Spanish weight of twenty-five pounds) of salt often cost four crowns. but is remarkably pungent. golden-rod. The Guaranies eat their meat and all their other provisions without a grain of salt. Ginger grows abundantly when planted. the grains of which are angular and pointed: when pounded in a wooden mortar. That which the Spaniards call royal sage is scarce. purslain. cumbarỹ. liquorice. others seven or eight hundred. but has very small dwarfish grains. and three kinds of pepper. which the Spaniards call _mayz_. were I to mention the names of all the other shrubs and plants? In certain Guarany towns you find immense woods of rosemary. plantane. Liberal nature has bestowed on the soil of Paraguay innumerable herbs useful to physicians. It bears grains of divers colours. Others burn a shrub which the Spaniards call _la vidriera_. and seldom without some danger. and this is. Borage. garden-nasturtium. either alone. CORO. but a single spoonful was given on Sundays by the free bounty of the priest. the ashes of which they used instead of salt. where there is an immense accumulation of native salt. composed of very hard grains. and bisingallo. but endued with the same virtues. which we call Turkish pepper: all these. they yield a sweet and very wholesome flour. who scarce left one alive to announce the massacre to the city. the abati morotî. The Guaranies sow various kinds of it. That grain. to every father of a family. When should I ever have done writing. of which some contained a thousand inhabitants. to season their meat with and to prepare medicines. that is. to last the whole week: yet even this little portion was expensive to the towns. It may be proper to give some little account of the grains which compose the chief part of the support of the Indians. rue.and fit for medicinal purposes. which grow in Europe. can never be reached without much expense. or eight Austrian florens. and wormwood. mint. The savages who live in hidden wilds generally eat their food without salt. Throughout many tracts of land I could discover none of the nettles of our country. its pungency. The people of Buenos-Ayres sometimes convey salt in ships by the South Sea. which has a small grain. and drunk with water. because seldom cultivated. I was acquainted with three different kinds of sage. &c. such as contrayerva. which consists of very soft and white ones. common pepper. This plant closely resembles tobacco in its leaf. artemisia or mugwort. varying in appearance. bugloss. which ripens in one month.

Those of Paraguay are decidedly superior to the German ones in size and flavour. and is to my taste preferable to wheaten bread. The grains of maize. and sprinkled with water. In my opinion the red ones are by far the worst. The ears. and. Of the grains of each kind of maize. THE MANDUBI. The Spanish ladies. Its slender boughs are covered with four small leaves of a bright green on one side. however prepared. however. dressed on the hot coals. and the Germans earth-apples (_erdäpfel_). are much relished both by Europeans and Americans. ferment in a few hours. and by its aid they often accomplish long and arduous excursions in a few days. the Indian women make various sorts of food. Each of these pods contains either one or two kernels. which has a square hairy stalk of a reddish green colour. in Paraguay. a high place is given to certain roots which the Spaniards call _batatas_. These kernels. to which indeed it is superior. with the exception of the bark. This flour is the delicious food of the soldiers of St. The mandubi. has an agreeable flavour. are much liked even by Europeans. slender. and inclosing a very white and very rich pulp. are sometimes white. and sometimes yellow. These roots.) beautifully covered with a red skin. This flour was likewise a great relief to myself in calamitous journeys under a burning sun. sometimes red.[2] Amongst articles of food used by the Indians. It would be superfluous to describe with prolixity a thing so commonly seen. without ever being obliged to light a fire to cook their victuals. which. in appearance. resembles an almond in oiliness. and still oftener certain Indians. and even a thin bread. The Indians find this grain. sweetness. At the beginning of the little boughs grow small yellow flowers with red edges. and lengthening life. a fermented liquor called _chicha_ or _aloja_. and frequently afford the lower orders of Spaniards. and many eat it with food in the place of . or pounded in a mortar. for it does not require a very rich soil. who abound in honey and the alfaroba. increasing the blood. while new. and on them hang yellow oblong pods with a soft rind. when they pursue the fugitive savages. One grain often yields the cultivator more than a thousand-fold. a fruit which Europe may envy America the possession of. though very fond of maize. and the yellow the best of all. make a white bread. either roasted or boiled with meat. Footnote 2: Potatoes. either whole. The Abipones. and surrounded by three leaflets. hunger alone would render palatable to a European. carefully strained through a sieve. when young and milky. highly useful in strengthening the body. never use it in that manner. and are clothed with tender down. and a whitish hue on the other. on lettuce. or rather bulbs.and the most burning thirst. (for there are various species of the mandubi. The roots of this plant are short. The oil expressed from them is used instead of oil of olives. of maize flour. It grows under ground from a very beautiful plant about two feet high. which. and tortuous. BATATAS. Many and great are the advantages of maize. hanging by a short stem. when pounded in a mortar. Iago. Neither could we discover any thing better for fattening hens and other animals. slightly fried or roasted.

into Paraguay. immediately get bitter and are filled with most offensive bugs. if rightly cultivated. THE RADISH. which virtue the seeds likewise possess. Besides lentils. Rainy weather is extremely injurious to the young melons. grows spontaneously in moist places. Italy. without injuring the stomach. but degenerate to black and very pungent radishes the next. Their pulp. Iago del Estero. but. The curuguà.butter or beef fat. and turns to seed. LETTUCE. serve excellently both to fill the stomach and delight the palate. is always to be seen in the more careful gardens. which. and a celebrated medicine for persons afflicted with the tertian ague. This gourd is a by no means unpleasant dish. gourds. Hanging from its stalk. and always cold. fasels. and the other parts of the body. a wholesome seasoning for food. They will keep great part of a year. beans. and Africa. a kind of gourd. brought from England. which is sometimes red. for they absorb so much water that they either burst before they are ripe. Mustard seed. or when ripe quickly putrify. Indeed the soil of Paraguay seems peculiarly favourable to radishes. which grow every where to an amazing size. greatly refreshes the mouth when parched with heat. . European rapes grow successfully the first year they are planted. by choking up the fields like tares. by reason of the excessive heat of the sun. unless it be planted on the banks of rivers. which is sandy. unless plucked as soon as ripe. The soil of St. NASTURTIUM. and other kinds of vegetables. After being kept at home for many months. Lettuce grows in the winter months. Germany. where it certainly would be useful in many ways. produces exceedingly sweet and enormously large melons. Water-melons are very plentiful and of great size. sometimes yellow. VARIOUS KINDS OF VEGETABLES. it fills the room with a delightful fragrance. Melons of almost too great sweetness grow every where here. and cucumbers. it creeps like ivy along the neighbouring hedges and trees. The European nasturtium is almost unknown to the whole of Paraguay. or water-nasturtium. I have often wished that this excellent fruit grew in Europe. there is an infinite variety of melons. but very seldom in the summer. is of great size. and are very pernicious to wheat. if suspended in any open airy place. dressed in various ways. it soon blossoms. for in a garden. though the garden. MUSTARD SEED.

. European wheat differs from that of Paraguay. acid. like birds and beasts. others hakamìk. every thing acrid. I saw but two wind-mills of this kind. as is thought sufficient for one year. FUNGUSES. is extremely fruitful of wheat. and St. when boiled. serve in some measure to fill the bellies of the Indians. but for dying things of a yellow colour. never take the pains to sow. are frequently seen in gardens and at table. Verengena.SAFFRON. The soil of Paraguay. If the surface of the earth yields no food. There is also a kind of very small bean. and detest radishes. of which they call some neeyeka. The mill-stone is turned about by horses. in some places by the wind. who. containing larger grains. and are even eaten raw with avidity by hungry persons. Monte-Video. garden-nasturtium. and leave the stalks in the field. leading a vagrant life. The Indians like sweet things. called by the Latins melongena. Various funguses are found both in the woods and plains. in short. on whatever their predatory habits supply. The grains of wheat are pressed out of the ear by the feet of horses. where they are afterwards burnt as they stand. they seek under the earth. or liberal nature gratuitously offers to hunters in the plains. ASPARAGUS. but a larger ear. Asparagus grows wild in the plains. The Guaranies cut off the ears alone with a common knife. and others again leèkate. It is nevertheless no less true than surprizing that greatest part of the Spanish nation never taste wheaten bread. The European saffron is found in no part of Paraguay. nor find occasion to reap. The American. mustard-seed. which the Germans call apples of Paradise. and which is commonly found in the woods. better known to Spaniards than Germans. Iago of the Tucumans. In every Guarany town as much wheat is sown. ONIONS AND GARLICK. lettuces sprinkled with vinegar. and those were in the city of Buenos-Ayres. WHEAT. The Abipones. for esculent roots. or bitter. wherein the ears are strewed on the floor. and other condiments of this kind. particularly in the territories of Buenos-Ayres. or the waters. though not very savoury to the palate. the latter having a very short stalk. woods. it would become quite gigantic. which they call nauvirgila. and lakes. which is saffron in name and appearance only. These beans. rivers. to avoid the difficulty of sowing and grinding this grain: for you never see any thing like a water-mill here. as the ashes fertilize the soil better than any other manure. and slenderer than a thread. one or two hundred of which are driven round an area surrounded by hedges. Onions and garlick are diligently cultivated with great care and expense by the Spaniards. is not used for seasoning food. if cultivated in gardens. subsist. but no one would venture either to touch or taste them. tomates. but is very bitter.

and emits a sound like that of a boiling kettle.OATS. Juan. Iago is a hot spring. and not very wholesome. bubbling with the heat of its waters. occasioned by the water bubbling up from the bottom. which I shall describe in his own words. The same complaint is made by the inhabitants of the town of St. Many persons who had been long. Let me hasten therefore to the Abipones. that two places contained salubrious springs. in his journeys through the towns of the Chiquitos. and when rubbed against steel emit fire like flint. loses itself amid extensive palm groves. Roworth. but gradually cools as it goes along. That water is hot at its source. 1. derived much benefit from these springs. The banks of the fountain are surrounded by lime-stones. and plants I have described with a hasty touch. like one speeding upon a journey. or rather of the total absence of all metals. I. or medicinal waters. the chief subject of my pen. but their sulphureous odour renders them very disagreeable." Of metals. END OF VOL. which gives birth to another river. which. "Not far from the town of St. In none of those parts of Paraguay which I have myself visited did I ever find any mineral. rises another small fountain. but not proper to be drunk. In sight of the town of St. lest I appear to dwell too long upon the introductory part of my work. the colder it becomes. Transcriber's notes. But Father Joseph Sanchez Labrador discovered. PETRIFICATION OF WOOD AND HORN. and grievously ill. Immense pieces of petrified wood are sometimes seen in the river Parana. which in a short time becomes tolerable. On dipping your foot into it you feel a violent heat. forming a river. Indeed the inferior fruitfulness of the women of that town is ascribed by many to this water. From which I conclude that these waters are beneficial to sick persons bathing in them. it forms a lake in the neighbouring vale. Little fishes swim in these waters. about three feet deep. Cows' horns also. without however doing them any injury. about three leagues beyond the town of Santissimo Corazon de Jesu. Oats are not even known by name in Paraguay. trees. at the borders of the rocks. Wild animals. London: Printed by C. HOT SPRINGS. It is wide. The farther the water recedes from the spring. The two "n"s with Macrons have been changed to ñ in this sentence to . are often transformed in this way. and is drunk by the Chiquitos: but it is of an unpleasant taste. Temple-Bar. surrounded on all sides by woods. Bell-Yard. I have discoursed elsewhere. which are mottled with various colours like marble. Iago.

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