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Figure

Dissolved oxygen
by flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
During mid-range to low flows, dissolved oxygen concentrations are lower than in the other flow conditions. This is
Good

Fecal coliform by
flow

Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow
Suspended solids
by flow

Good to Moderate
Good

likely due to a lack of water agitation (which would allow greater diffusion of oxygen into the water) and high
temperatures (low flow conditions are often associated with summer which has higher temperatures and lower oxygen
solubility).
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources. The infrequent sewer overflows (once every 2-5
years) would only contribute during the high flows when substantial non-point loads are already present. Note that during
any period with the highest flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the variance standard. During low flows and dry
conditions, the variance standard is met consistently. During these low flows would be the safest time for recreational
uses (most likely wading).
Concentrations are greatest at high flows, with concentrations exceeding the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline less than 50% of
the time during the highest flows. This suggests that the inputs are primarily non-point source pollution.
Suspended solids concentrations increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources. All of
the instances when the concentration exceeds the reference condition occur at the high flow condition. These conditions
most often occur following large storms or major snow-melt events. The suspended solids may come from runoff that
carries a sediment load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream sediments. Note that this site is located
downstream of some concrete-lined reaches within the watershed. As a result, upstream activities such as stream bank
erosion and re-suspension of stream sediments likely make less of a contribution to suspended sediment loads at this site
compared to sites that are situated downstream of natural reaches that experience these activities.

Flashiness index
Reach
831

Location
Lyons Park Creek

Richards Baker Flashiness Index
1.01

Average Daily Flows
Lyons Park Creek (831)
50
AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Existing Water Quality Data

Assessment
Point

Water Quality
Indicator

KK-1
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Lyons Park Creek
(annual)

Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(May-September: 153
days total)

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Phosphorus

Statistic

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

5,659

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

80

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

492

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

296

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

2,660

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

90

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

361

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

150

Mean (mg/l)

6.6

Median (mg/l)

6.3

Percent compliance with dissolved
oxygen standard (>2 mg/l)1

100

Mean (mg/l)

0.052

Median (mg/l)

0.031

Percent compliance with recommended
phosphorus standard (0.1 mg/l)

88

Total Nitrogen

Mean (mg/l)

0.66

Median (mg/l)

0.67

Total Suspended Solids

Mean (mg/l)

8.5

Median (mg/l)

5.0

Copper

1

Condition
Existing

Mean (mg/l)

0.0036

Median (mg/l)

0.0013

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

Kinnickinnic River @ Lyons Park Creek (RI 831)
360

320

Average Number of Days Per Year

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ Lyons park Creek (RI 831)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River @ Lyons Park Creek (RI 831)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

Average TP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ Lyons Park Creek (RI 831)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

Average TSS (mg/L)

Lyons Park Creek – Reach 831
Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Lyons Park Creek – Reach 831
Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2,000 cfu/100 mL)
Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers
Dry
Conditions

Low
Flows

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Lyons Park Creek – Reach 831
Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Lyons Park Creek – Reach 831
Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Watershed Restoration Plan

Fact Sheet for Assessment Point KK-2

Assessment Point: KK-2
The following data are excerpts from multiple reports. While the same location in the
Kinnickinnic watershed is represented, the assessment point IDs differ. Throughout the
following data, Assessment Point KK-2 is also represented by:
o Reach 801
o RI-801
o South 43rd Street Ditch

94
59

894

io n

Villa ge of
WEST MILW AUKE E

ve
al A

SOUTH 43RD ST REET DIT CH

B

re

st

H

om

e

A

ve

38

20 t h St

27 t h St

i

35 t h St

o
el

43 r d S t

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

ve
tA

Fo

60 t h St

45

794

B ur nha m S t

B ur nha m S t

Linc oln A v e

Linc oln A v e

COMBINED SEWER AREA

24

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

C le v e la nd A v e

T
Ok la hom a A v e

Fo

r

t
es

H

om

e

A

C le v e la nd A v e

ve

Ok la hom a A v e

C ha s e A v e

6t h S t

13 t h St

20 t h St

35 t h St

43 r d S t

60 t h St

27 t h St

LYONS PARK CREEK

62

C le m en t Av e

N at

13 t h St

100

59

181

59

32

Mo rg an A v e

Mo rg an A v e

241

U

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

WILSON PARK CREEK
H owa r d A ve

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

894

36

45

43

B oliv ar A ve

94
38

Y

La y ton A v e

Y

62

Pe nn sy lv a nn ia A v e

H owe ll Av e

6t h S t

La y ton A v e

13 t h St

24

894

35 t h St

N

43

20 t h St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27 t h St

100

VIL LA MANN CREEK

Edg e rt on A ve

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

32

Gr a nge Av e

Gr a nge Av e

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

LEGEND
Water

KK WATERSHED

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Subwatersheds
Civil Divisions

0

1,150 2,300
Feet

4,600

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

ve
Burnham St
Burnham St

H
st
re
Fo

Linc oln Ave

Linc oln Ave

COMBINED SEWER AREA

KINNICKINNIC RIVER
Cleveland Ave

Okla homa Ave

e
Av

20th St

27th St

e
Av

35th St

o it

43rd St

l
Be

60th St

SOUTH 43RD STREET DITCH

e

om

H
st
re
Fo

e

om

Cleveland Ave

e
Av
Okla homa Ave

Chase Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

43rd St

60th St

LYONS PARK CREEK

Clement Ave

A
na l

13th St

o
Nati

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK
Howard Ave

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

Bolivar Ave

VILLA MANN CREEK
Lay ton Ave

Pennsy lvannia Ave

Howell Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

Gra nge Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds

Aerial Map

Subwatersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Combined Sewer Service Area
Civil Divisions

0

1,100 2,200
Feet

4,400

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

94
59

ve

38
13th St

20th St

Lincoln Ave

Lincoln Ave

43rd St

24
Cleveland Ave

Cleveland Ave

60th St

KK-9

KK-3

KK-10
Oklahoma Ave

20th St

ve

43rd St

eA

27th St

s
re
Fo

Oklahoma Ave

om
tH

35th St

T

32

Morgan Ave

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

Morgan Ave

62

Clement Ave

it

m
Ho
st
re

eA

13th St

lo
Be

27th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

Fo

KK-2

e
Av

794

Burnham St

Burnham St

60th St

45

Villa ge of
WEST MILWAUKEE

Av e

Chase Ave

894

nal

6th St

o
Na ti

35th St

100

59

181

59

KK-1

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

241

U

Howard Ave

894

KK-8

KK-7
36

45

43

Bolivar Ave

94
38

Y

Layton Ave

62

Pennsylvannia Ave

Howell Ave

Layton Ave

6th St

24

KK-6
Y
35th St

N

894

13th St

Y
43

43

20th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27th St

100

Edger ton Ave

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

KK-4

KK-5

32

Grange Ave

Grange Ave

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

ZZ

ZZ

LEGEND

Assessment Points

32

Combined Sewer Service Area

KK Watershed
Model Reach Tributary Area

Water
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed
Waterbodies
Civil Division

0

1,200 2,400
Feet

4,800

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Ave
na l
o
i
t
Na

l
Be

ve

27th St

tA
oi

35th St

Burn ham St

KK-2

43rd St

60th St

Lincoln Ave

Clevelan d Ave

r
Fo

Okla hom a Ave

LEGEND

Assessment Points
CSO

o
tH
s
e

m

e

e
Av

Water

Assessment Point Map : KK-2

Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed

SSO

Waterbodies

NonContact Cooling Water

Civil Division

0

355

710
Feet

1,420

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Ave
na l
o
i
t
Na

l
Be

ve

KK-2

43rd St

60th St

Lincoln Ave

r
Fo

Okla hom a Ave

LEGEND
Assessment Points
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area

Land Use

Agriculture

Outdoor Recreation, Wetland, and Woodland, Open Lands

High Density Residential

Manufacturing and Industrial

Institutional and Governemntal

Civil Divisions

Low Density Residential

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities

Commercial

Surface Water

o
tH
s
e

m

e

e
Av

Land Use Map : KK-2
0

355

710
Feet

1,420

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

27th St

tA
oi

35th St

Burn ham St

Menomonee River - Variance Standards/Targets
Constituent

Measure

Standard/Target
1

Variance Standard - Geometric mean not to exceed
Fecal Coliform

1,000 counts/100 ml
1

Variance Standard - Less than 10% of all samples/month
1

2,000 counts/100 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Variance Standard - Minimum Concentration

2 mg/l

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

USGS Median TSS Reference Concentration (estimated
background concentration)

17.2 mg/l

Total Phosphorus (TP)

Flashiness
1

Planning Guideline
Richards Baker Flashiness Index (quantifies the frequency
and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow; the index
ranges from 0 - 2, with 0 being constant flow)

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

0.1 mg/l

indicator only

Kinnickinnic River Watershed Restoration Plan Fact Sheet
KK-2, Reach 801, South 43rd Street Ditch
Data resulting from model runs:

Figure
Flashiness index

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
Good to Moderate The Flashiness Index quantifies the frequency and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow. The index ranges from 0

Dissolved oxygen
v. days per year

Good

Fecal coliform v.
days per year

Variable (some
good, some bad)

Phosphorus v.
days per year
Suspended solids
v. days per year

Good

Monthly
dissolved oxygen

Moderate

Monthly fecal
coliform

Moderate

Monthly
phosphorus

Moderate

Monthly
suspended solids

Very Good

Very Good

to 2, with 0 being constant flow. The flashiness is slightly high at this location.
Typically, aquatic communities need 5 mg/l or more of dissolved oxygen to survive. Concentrations at this site do not fall
below this level. While concentrations on several days approach 5 mg/l, the concentration is well above 2 mg/l variance
standard for the site.
For recreational uses, lower fecal coliform counts (a measure of bacteria) are better (preferably under 400 count / 100ml).
The counts on majority of the days are either ‘below 400’ or ‘above 5,000’. A potential goal in this case may be to
determine the conditions that create the ‘above 5,000’ days and discourage recreational use on days that meet these
conditions. As there is a variance that allows the fecal coliform counts to reach 2,000, another potential goal could be to
find ways to decrease coliform loading in order to increase the number of days that have fewer than 2,000 counts.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that can lead to increased growth of algae. The concentrations on most of the days are at or
below the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline. The concentration of phosphorus does not exceed 0.4 mg/l on any day.
Suspended solids cause water to become cloudy and aesthetically unpleasant. They can clog the gills of fish and
invertebrates, make feeding difficult, and lead to sediment deposition (poor habitat). The concentrations on most of the
days are less than 25 mg/l. The concentrations do not exceed 100 mg/l on any day.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations are highly variable at this site. Winter concentrations decline more than would be
expected. This variability suggests that there is substantial organic enrichment and biochemical oxygen demand within
the ecosystem. The decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations during the summer is typical due to the decreased
solubility of oxygen in warmer water. While the variance standard is not exceeded, the lower concentrations in the winter
are an issue.
While the ranges of values are fairly consistent throughout the year, note that the 75th percentile concentrations decline
during the summer swimming season. This may be related to the die-off of bacteria due to solar radiation. Conditions are
particularly poor in March and are likely related to snow melt.
Phosphorus concentrations decline through the late spring, summer, and early fall. This may be related to uptake by
plants during the growing season. Concentrations exceed the planning guideline 50% of the time in March. This is likely
related to snow melt.
Suspended solids concentrations fall below the reference concentration most of the time. The majority of the higher
concentrations are likely related to larger rain or snow melt events that disturb bare soil. With the exception of some
enclosed reaches, most of the reaches upstream of this site are natural; sediment could be re-suspending from the stream
bed.

Figure
Dissolved oxygen
by flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
During low flows and dry conditions, dissolved oxygen concentrations are lower than in the other flow conditions. This is
Good

Fecal coliform by
flow

Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow

Very Good to
Good

Suspended solids
by flow

Good

likely due to a lack of water agitation (which would allow greater diffusion of oxygen into the water) and high
temperatures (low flow conditions are often associated with summer which has higher temperatures and lower oxygen
solubility).
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources. The infrequent sewer overflows (once every 2-5
years) would only contribute during the high flows when substantial non-point loads are already present. Note that during
any period with the highest flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the regulatory variance standard. During low flows and
dry conditions, the standard is met all of the time. During these low flows would be the safest time for recreational uses,
likely limited to wading.
Phosphorus concentrations are relatively consistent among all flow conditions; however, concentrations periodically
exceed the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline during the highest flows. This suggests the prevalence of non-point loads of
phosphorus.
Suspended solids concentrations increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources Nearly all
of the instances when the concentration exceeds the reference condition occur at the high flow condition. These
conditions most often occur following large storms or major snow-melt events. The suspended solids may come from
runoff that carries a sediment load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream sediments in areas without a
concrete channel.

Flashiness index
Reach
801

Location
South 43rd Street Ditch

Richards Baker Flashiness Index
0.84

Average Daily Flows
South 43rd Street Ditch (801)
50
AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Existing Water Quality Data

Assessment
Point
KK-2
S. 43rd Street
Ditch

Water Quality
Indicator
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(annual)

Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(May-September: 153
days total)

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Phosphorus

Statistic

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

5,659

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

80

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

492

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

296

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

2,660

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

90

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

361

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

150

Mean (mg/l)

6.6

Median (mg/l)

6.3

Percent compliance with dissolved
oxygen standard (>2 mg/l)1

100

Mean (mg/l)

0.052

Median (mg/l)

0.031

Percent compliance with recommended
phosphorus standard (0.1 mg/l)

88

Total Nitrogen

Mean (mg/l)

0.66

Median (mg/l)

0.67

Total Suspended Solids

Mean (mg/l)

8.5

Median (mg/l)

5.0

Copper

1

Condition
Existing

Mean (mg/l)

0.0036

Median (mg/l)

0.0013

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

Kinnickinnic River @ S.43rd Street Ditch (RI 801)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ S. 43rd Street Ditch (RI 801)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

AverageTP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ S. 43rd Street Ditch (RI 801)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River @ S. 43rd Street Ditch (RI 801)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

Average TSS (mg/L)

South 43rd Street Ditch – Reach 801
Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 43rd Street Ditch – Reach 801
Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2,000 cfu/100 mL)
Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers
Dry
Conditions

Low
Flows

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 43rd Street Ditch – Reach 801
Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

South 43rd Street Ditch – Reach 801
Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Watershed Restoration Plan

Fact Sheet for Assessment Point KK-3

Assessment Point: KK-3
The following data are excerpts from multiple reports. While the same location in the
Kinnickinnic watershed is represented, the assessment point IDs differ. Throughout the
following data, Assessment Point KK-3 is also represented by:
o Reach 710
o RI-710
o Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek

94
59

894

io n

Villa ge of
WEST MILW AUKE E

ve
al A

SOUTH 43RD ST REET DIT CH

B

re

st

H

om

e

A

ve

38

20 t h St

27 t h St

i

35 t h St

o
el

43 r d S t

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

ve
tA

Fo

60 t h St

45

794

B ur nha m S t

B ur nha m S t

Linc oln A v e

Linc oln A v e

COMBINED SEWER AREA

24

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

C le v e la nd A v e

T
Ok la hom a A v e

Fo

r

t
es

H

om

e

A

C le v e la nd A v e

ve

Ok la hom a A v e

C ha s e A v e

6t h S t

13 t h St

20 t h St

35 t h St

43 r d S t

60 t h St

27 t h St

LYONS PARK CREEK

62

C le m en t Av e

N at

13 t h St

100

59

181

59

32

Mo rg an A v e

Mo rg an A v e

241

U

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

WILSON PARK CREEK
H owa r d A ve

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

894

36

45

43

B oliv ar A ve

94
38

Y

La y ton A v e

Y

62

Pe nn sy lv a nn ia A v e

H owe ll Av e

6t h S t

La y ton A v e

13 t h St

24

894

35 t h St

N

43

20 t h St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27 t h St

100

VIL LA MANN CREEK

Edg e rt on A ve

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

32

Gr a nge Av e

Gr a nge Av e

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

LEGEND
Water

KK WATERSHED

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Subwatersheds
Civil Divisions

0

1,150 2,300
Feet

4,600

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

ve
Burnham St
Burnham St

H
st
re
Fo

Linc oln Ave

Linc oln Ave

COMBINED SEWER AREA

KINNICKINNIC RIVER
Cleveland Ave

Okla homa Ave

e
Av

20th St

27th St

e
Av

35th St

o it

43rd St

l
Be

60th St

SOUTH 43RD STREET DITCH

e

om

H
st
re
Fo

e

om

Cleveland Ave

e
Av
Okla homa Ave

Chase Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

43rd St

60th St

LYONS PARK CREEK

Clement Ave

A
na l

13th St

o
Nati

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK
Howard Ave

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

Bolivar Ave

VILLA MANN CREEK
Lay ton Ave

Pennsy lvannia Ave

Howell Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

Gra nge Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds

Aerial Map

Subwatersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Combined Sewer Service Area
Civil Divisions

0

1,100 2,200
Feet

4,400

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

94
59

ve

38
13th St

20th St

Lincoln Ave

Lincoln Ave

43rd St

24
Cleveland Ave

Cleveland Ave

60th St

KK-9

KK-3

KK-10
Oklahoma Ave

20th St

ve

43rd St

eA

27th St

s
re
Fo

Oklahoma Ave

om
tH

35th St

T

32

Morgan Ave

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

Morgan Ave

62

Clement Ave

it

m
Ho
st
re

eA

13th St

lo
Be

27th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

Fo

KK-2

e
Av

794

Burnham St

Burnham St

60th St

45

Villa ge of
WEST MILWAUKEE

Av e

Chase Ave

894

nal

6th St

o
Na ti

35th St

100

59

181

59

KK-1

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

241

U

Howard Ave

894

KK-8

KK-7
36

45

43

Bolivar Ave

94
38

Y

Layton Ave

62

Pennsylvannia Ave

Howell Ave

Layton Ave

6th St

24

KK-6
Y
35th St

N

894

13th St

Y
43

43

20th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27th St

100

Edger ton Ave

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

KK-4

KK-5

32

Grange Ave

Grange Ave

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

ZZ

ZZ

LEGEND

Assessment Points

32

Combined Sewer Service Area

KK Watershed
Model Reach Tributary Area

Water
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed
Waterbodies
Civil Division

0

1,200 2,400
Feet

4,800

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

o

20th St

35th St

ve

Lincoln Ave

60th St

Lincoln Ave

Clevelan d Ave

KK-3

e
Av

Okla hom a Ave

20th St

43rd St

t
es

m
Ho

e

35th St

r
Fo

Okla hom a Ave

60th St

l
Be

tA
oi

27th St

r
Fo

tH
es

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

LEGEND

Assessment Points
CSO

Water

Assessment Point Map : KK-3

Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed

SSO

Waterbodies

NonContact Cooling Water

Civil Division

0

337.5 675
Feet

1,350

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

o

20th St

35th St

ve

Lincoln Ave

Clevelan d Ave

om

e
Av

Okla hom a Ave

20th St

43rd St

tH
es

e

KK-3

35th St

r
Fo

Okla hom a Ave

60th St

l
Be

tA
oi

27th St

r
Fo

tH
es

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

LEGEND
Assessment Points
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area

Land Use

Agriculture

Outdoor Recreation, Wetland, and Woodland, Open Lands

High Density Residential

Manufacturing and Industrial

Institutional and Governemntal

Civil Divisions

Low Density Residential

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities

Commercial

Surface Water

Land Use Map : KK-3
0

345

690
Feet

1,380

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Menomonee River - Variance Standards/Targets
Constituent

Measure

Standard/Target
1

Variance Standard - Geometric mean not to exceed
Fecal Coliform

1,000 counts/100 ml
1

Variance Standard - Less than 10% of all samples/month
1

2,000 counts/100 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Variance Standard - Minimum Concentration

2 mg/l

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

USGS Median TSS Reference Concentration (estimated
background concentration)

17.2 mg/l

Total Phosphorus (TP)

Flashiness
1

Planning Guideline
Richards Baker Flashiness Index (quantifies the frequency
and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow; the index
ranges from 0 - 2, with 0 being constant flow)

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

0.1 mg/l

indicator only

Kinnickinnic River Watershed Restoration Plan Fact Sheet
KK-3, Reach 710, Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek
Data resulting from model runs:

Figure
Flashiness index

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
Good to Moderate The Flashiness Index quantifies the frequency and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow. The index ranges from 0

Dissolved oxygen
v. days per year
Fecal coliform v.
days per year

Very Good to
Good
Variable (some
good, some bad)

Phosphorus v.
days per year
Suspended solids
v. days per year

Good

Monthly
dissolved oxygen

Moderate

Monthly fecal
coliform

Moderate

Monthly
phosphorus

Moderate

Monthly
suspended solids

Very Good

Very Good

to 2, with 0 being constant flow. The flashiness is slightly high at this location.
Typically, aquatic communities need 5 mg/l or more of dissolved oxygen to survive. Concentrations at this site do not fall
below this level and are well above the 2 mg/l variance standard.
For recreational uses, lower fecal coliform counts (a measure of bacteria) are better (preferably under 400 counts / 100ml).
The counts on majority of the days are either ‘below 400’ or ‘above 5,000’. A potential goal in this case could be to
determine the conditions that create the ‘above 5,000’ days and discourage recreational use on days that meet these
conditions. As there is a variance that allows the fecal coliform counts to reach 2,000, another goal could be to find ways
to decrease coliform loads in order to increase the number of days that have fewer than 2,000 counts.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that can lead to increased growth of algae. The concentrations on most of the days are at or
below the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline. The concentrations of phosphorus do not exceed 0.35 mg/l on any day.
Suspended solids cause water to become cloudy and aesthetically unpleasant. They can clog the gills of fish and
invertebrates, make feeding difficult, and lead to sediment deposition (poor habitat). The concentrations on most of the
days fall below 25 mg/l. The concentrations do not exceed 150 mg/l on any day.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations are highly variable at this site. Concentrations decline more than would be expected
during the winter. This variability suggests that there is organic enrichment and biochemical oxygen demand in the
ecosystem. The decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations during the summer is typical due to the decreased solubility of
oxygen in warmer water. While the variance standard is not exceeded, the lower concentrations in the winter are an issue.
While the ranges of values are fairly consistent throughout the year, note that the 75th percentile concentrations decline
during the summer swimming season. This may be related to the die-off of bacteria due to solar radiation. Conditions are
particularly poor in March and are likely related to snow melt.
Phosphorus concentrations decline through the late spring, summer, and early fall. This may be related to uptake by
plants during the growing season. Concentrations exceed the planning guideline nearly 50% of the time in March, likely
related to snow melt.
Suspended solids concentrations fall below the reference concentration most of the time. Most of the higher
concentrations are probably related to larger rain or snow melt events that disturb bare soil. As this is a concrete-lined
channel, there is little sediment to re-suspend from the stream bed.

Figure
Dissolved oxygen
by flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
During low flows and dry conditions, dissolved oxygen concentrations are lower relative to other flow conditions. This is
Good

Fecal coliform by
flow

Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow

Moderate

Suspended solids
by flow

Good

likely due to a lack of water agitation (which would allow greater diffusion of oxygen into the water) and high
temperatures (low flow conditions are often associated with summer which has higher temperatures and lower oxygen
solubility).
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources. The infrequent sewer overflows (once every 2-5
years) would only contribute during the high flows when substantial non-point loads are already present. Note that during
any period with the highest flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the variance standard. During low flows and dry
conditions, the variance standard is met all of the time. During these low flows would be the safest time for recreational
uses (boating, wading, swimming), although the amount of water in the stream may limit recreational use to wading.
Phosphorus concentrations are highest at high flows. This suggests the prevalence of non-point loads of phosphorus.
However, concentrations periodically exceed the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline under moist conditions as well. The
similarities between the phosphorus and suspended solids data suggest that the phosphorus may be associated with
suspended sediment.
Suspended solids concentrations increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources. Nearly
all of the instances when the concentration exceeds the reference condition occur at the high flow condition. These
conditions most often occur following large storms or major snow-melt events. The suspended solids may come from
runoff that carries a sediment load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream sediments. Note that this site is
located downstream of some concrete-lined reaches within the watershed. As a result, upstream activities such as stream
bank erosion and re-suspension of stream sediments likely make less of a contribution to suspended sediment loads at this
site compared to sites that are situated downstream of natural reaches that experience these activities.

Flashiness index
Reach

Location
Kinnickinnic River Upstream of
Confluence with Wilson Park Creek

710

Richards Baker Flashiness Index
0.93

Average Daily Flows
Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek (710)

AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

250

200

150

100

50

0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Existing Water Quality Data

Assessment
Point

Water Quality
Indicator

KK-3
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Kinnickinnic River
(annual)
Upstream of
Confluence with
Wilson Park
Creek

Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(May-September: 153
days total)

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Phosphorus

Statistic

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

Total Suspended Solids

Copper

1

5,659

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

80

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

492

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

296

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

2,660

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<2,000 cells per 100 ml)1

90

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

361

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<1,000 cells per 100 ml)1

150

Mean (mg/l)

6.6

Median (mg/l)

6.3

Percent compliance with dissolved
oxygen standard (>2 mg/l)1

100

Mean (mg/l)

0.052

Median (mg/l)

0.031

Percent compliance with recommended
phosphorus standard (0.1 mg/l)
Total Nitrogen

Condition
Existing

88

Mean (mg/l)

0.66

Median (mg/l)

0.67

Mean (mg/l)

8.5

Median (mg/l)

5.0

Mean (mg/l)

0.0036

Median (mg/l)

0.0013

Variance standards are from Chapter NR 104 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code apply.

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek (RI 710)
400

360

320

Average Number of Days Per Year

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek Creek (RI 710)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek (RI 710)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

AverageTP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek (RI 710)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

Average TSS (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek – Reach 710
Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek – Reach 710
Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard- Special Variance (2,000 cfu/100 mL)
Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers
Dry
Conditions

Low
Flows

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek – Reach 710
Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Kinnickinnic River Upstream of Confluence with Wilson Park Creek – Reach 710
Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Watershed Restoration Plan

Fact Sheet for Assessment Point KK-4

Assessment Point: KK-4
The following data are excerpts from multiple reports. While the same location in the
Kinnickinnic watershed is represented, the assessment point IDs differ. Throughout the
following data, Assessment Point KK-4 is also represented by:
o Reach 828
o RI-828
o Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek

94
59

894

io n

Villa ge of
WEST MILW AUKE E

ve
al A

SOUTH 43RD ST REET DIT CH

B

re

st

H

om

e

A

ve

38

20 t h St

27 t h St

i

35 t h St

o
el

43 r d S t

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

ve
tA

Fo

60 t h St

45

794

B ur nha m S t

B ur nha m S t

Linc oln A v e

Linc oln A v e

COMBINED SEWER AREA

24

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

C le v e la nd A v e

T
Ok la hom a A v e

Fo

r

t
es

H

om

e

A

C le v e la nd A v e

ve

Ok la hom a A v e

C ha s e A v e

6t h S t

13 t h St

20 t h St

35 t h St

43 r d S t

60 t h St

27 t h St

LYONS PARK CREEK

62

C le m en t Av e

N at

13 t h St

100

59

181

59

32

Mo rg an A v e

Mo rg an A v e

241

U

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

WILSON PARK CREEK
H owa r d A ve

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

894

36

45

43

B oliv ar A ve

94
38

Y

La y ton A v e

Y

62

Pe nn sy lv a nn ia A v e

H owe ll Av e

6t h S t

La y ton A v e

13 t h St

24

894

35 t h St

N

43

20 t h St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27 t h St

100

VIL LA MANN CREEK

Edg e rt on A ve

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

32

Gr a nge Av e

Gr a nge Av e

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

LEGEND
Water

KK WATERSHED

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Subwatersheds
Civil Divisions

0

1,150 2,300
Feet

4,600

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

ve
Burnham St
Burnham St

H
st
re
Fo

Linc oln Ave

Linc oln Ave

COMBINED SEWER AREA

KINNICKINNIC RIVER
Cleveland Ave

Okla homa Ave

e
Av

20th St

27th St

e
Av

35th St

o it

43rd St

l
Be

60th St

SOUTH 43RD STREET DITCH

e

om

H
st
re
Fo

e

om

Cleveland Ave

e
Av
Okla homa Ave

Chase Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

43rd St

60th St

LYONS PARK CREEK

Clement Ave

A
na l

13th St

o
Nati

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK
Howard Ave

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

Bolivar Ave

VILLA MANN CREEK
Lay ton Ave

Pennsy lvannia Ave

Howell Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

Gra nge Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds

Aerial Map

Subwatersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Combined Sewer Service Area
Civil Divisions

0

1,100 2,200
Feet

4,400

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

94
59

ve

38
13th St

20th St

Lincoln Ave

Lincoln Ave

43rd St

24
Cleveland Ave

Cleveland Ave

60th St

KK-9

KK-3

KK-10
Oklahoma Ave

20th St

ve

43rd St

eA

27th St

s
re
Fo

Oklahoma Ave

om
tH

35th St

T

32

Morgan Ave

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

Morgan Ave

62

Clement Ave

it

m
Ho
st
re

eA

13th St

lo
Be

27th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

Fo

KK-2

e
Av

794

Burnham St

Burnham St

60th St

45

Villa ge of
WEST MILWAUKEE

Av e

Chase Ave

894

nal

6th St

o
Na ti

35th St

100

59

181

59

KK-1

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

241

U

Howard Ave

894

KK-8

KK-7
36

45

43

Bolivar Ave

94
38

Y

Layton Ave

62

Pennsylvannia Ave

Howell Ave

Layton Ave

6th St

24

KK-6
Y
35th St

N

894

13th St

Y
43

43

20th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27th St

100

Edger ton Ave

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

KK-4

KK-5

32

Grange Ave

Grange Ave

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

ZZ

ZZ

LEGEND

Assessment Points

32

Combined Sewer Service Area

KK Watershed
Model Reach Tributary Area

Water
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed
Waterbodies
Civil Division

0

1,200 2,400
Feet

4,800

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

KK-4

6th St

Penn sylva nnia Ave

How ell Ave

Layton Ave

Gran ge Ave

LEGEND

Assessment Points
CSO

Water

Assessment Point Map : KK-4

Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed

SSO

Waterbodies

NonContact Cooling Water

Civil Division

0

412.5 825
Feet

1,650

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

KK-4

6th St

Penn sylva nnia Ave

How ell Ave

Layton Ave

Gran ge Ave

LEGEND
Assessment Points
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area

Land Use

Agriculture

Outdoor Recreation, Wetland, and Woodland, Open Lands

High Density Residential

Manufacturing and Industrial

Institutional and Governemntal

Civil Divisions

Low Density Residential

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities

Commercial

Surface Water

Land Use Map : KK-4
0

420

840
Feet

1,680

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Kinnickinnic River Standards/Targets
Constituent

Measure

Standard/Target

Geometric Mean Standard

200 counts/100 ml

Fecal Coliform

Not to Exceed Standard

400 counts/100 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Minimum Concentration Standard

5 mg/l

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

USGS Median TSS Reference Concentration (estimated
background concentration)

17.2 mg/l

Total Phosphorus (TP)

Flashiness

Planning Guideline
Richards Baker Flashiness Index (quantifies the frequency
and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow; the index
ranges from 0 - 2, with 0 being constant flow)

0.1 mg/l

indicator only

Kinnickinnic River Watershed Restoration Plan Fact Sheet
KK-4, Reach 828, Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek
Data resulting from model runs:

Figure
Flashiness index

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
The Flashiness Index quantifies the frequency and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow. The index ranges from 0
Good

Dissolved oxygen
v. days per year

Moderate

Fecal coliform v.
days per year

Variable (some
good, some bad)

Phosphorus v.
days per year
Suspended solids
v. days per year

Moderate

Monthly
dissolved oxygen

Good

Monthly fecal
coliform

Moderate to Poor

Monthly
phosphorus

Moderate to Poor

Monthly
suspended solids

Good

Good

to 2, with 0 being constant flow. The flashiness is good at this location.
Typically, aquatic communities need 5 mg/l or more of dissolved oxygen to survive. Concentrations at this site decline
below this level very infrequently. There is a preponderance of days with concentrations at the lower end of the
acceptable range. This suggests the presence of biochemical oxygen demand within the waterway.
For recreational uses, lower fecal coliform counts (a measure of bacteria) are better (preferably under 400 counts / 100ml).
The counts on majority of the days are either ‘below 400’ or ‘above 5,000’. A potential goal in this case may be to
determine the conditions that create the ‘above 5,000’ days and discourage recreational use on days that meet these
conditions. An additional goal could be to find ways to decrease the fecal coliform loads in order to increase the number
of days that are ‘below 400’.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that can lead to increased growth of algae. The concentrations on most days are at or below the
0.1 mg/l planning guideline. The concentrations of phosphorus exceed 5 mg/l on some days.
Suspended solids cause water to become cloudy and aesthetically unpleasant. They can clog the gills of fish and
invertebrates, make feeding difficult, and lead to sediment deposition (poor habitat). The concentrations on most of the
days are less than 25 mg/l, but the concentrations on a few days exceed 200 mg/l.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations are somewhat variable at this site. The median and minimum concentrations decline
more than would be expected. This variability suggests that there is a source of oxygen demand in the ecosystem. The
decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations during the summer is typical and is likely due to the decreased solubility of
oxygen in warmer water. While the regulatory standard is not exceeded, the concentrations approach the standard.
While the ranges of values are fairly consistent throughout the year, note that the median concentrations decline during the
summer swimming season. This may be related to the die-off of bacteria due to solar radiation. Conditions are
particularly poor in March and are likely related to snow melt.
Phosphorus concentrations are notably very high during the winter. This might be caused by deicing fluids used at the
airport; these fluids often contain phosphorus compounds that serve as corrosion inhibitors. Phosphorus concentrations
decline through the late spring, summer, and early fall. This may be related to uptake by plants during the growing
season.
Suspended solids concentrations fall below the reference concentration most of the time, particularly in the winter. The
higher concentrations are likely related to larger rain or snow melt events that disturb bare soil. As this is a concrete-lined
channel, there is little sediment to re-suspend from the stream bed.

Figure
Dissolved oxygen
by flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
Good to Moderate Dissolved oxygen concentrations are relatively consistent throughout all flow conditions. At the highest flows, there

Fecal coliform by
flow

Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow

Moderate

Suspended solids
by flow

Good

appears to be a slight increase in oxygen concentrations, perhaps due to increased water agitation (which would allow
greater diffusion of oxygen into the water).
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources The infrequent sewer overflows (once every 2-5
years) would only contribute during the high flows when substantial non-point loads are already present. Note that during
any period with the highest flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the regulatory standard. During low flows and dry
conditions, the standard is met approximately 75% of the time. This would be the safest time for recreational uses
(boating, wading, swimming), although the amount of water in the stream may limit recreational use to wading.
Phosphorus concentrations are highest at high flows. This suggests the prevalence of non-point loads of phosphorus.
However, concentrations exceed the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline during mid-range flows more decisively than at high
flows. This suggests that phosphorus loading in the waterway is not limited to non-point sources.
Suspended solids concentrations increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources. The
suspended solids may come from runoff that carries a sediment load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream
sediments. Note that this site is located downstream of some concrete-lined reaches within the watershed. As a result,
upstream activities such as stream bank erosion and re-suspension of stream sediments likely make less of a contribution
to suspended sediment loads at this site compared to sites that are situated downstream of natural reaches that experience
these activities.

Flashiness index
Reach

Location
Wilson Park Creek Upstream of
Holmes Avenue Creek

828

Richards Baker Flashiness Index
0.56

Average Daily Flows
Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek (828)
50
AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Existing Water Quality Data

Assessment
Point
KK-4
Wilson Creek
Upstream of
Holmes Avenue
Creek

Water Quality
Indicator
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(annual)

Fecal Coliform Bacteria
(May-September: 153
days total)

Dissolved Oxygen

Total Phosphorus

Statistic

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

Total Suspended Solids

Copper

3,897

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<400 cells per 100 ml)

52

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

609

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<200 cells per 100 ml)

54

Mean (cells per 100 ml)

2,179

Percent compliance with single sample
standard (<400 cells per 100 ml)

67

Geometric mean (cells per 100 ml)

313

Days of compliance with geometric mean
standard (<200 cells per 100 ml)

36

Mean (mg/l)

7.5

Median (mg/l)

7.3

Percent compliance with dissolved
oxygen standard (>5 mg/l)

100

Mean (mg/l)

0.144

Median (mg/l)

0.04

Percent compliance with recommended
phosphorus standard (0.1 mg/l)
Total Nitrogen

Condition
Existing

81

Mean (mg/l)

1.12

Median (mg/l)

0.5

Mean (mg/l)

20.1

Median (mg/l)

6.5

Mean (mg/l)

0.0041

Median (mg/l)

0.0019

Kinnickinnic River @ Wison Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek (RI 828)
400

360

320

Average Number of Days Per Year

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>10

9-10

8-9

7-8

6-7

5-6

4-5

3-4

2-3

1-2

0-1

Average DO (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ Wison Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek (RI 828)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>5000

4000-5000

3000-4000

2000-3000

1000-2000

600-1000

400-600

0-400

Average Fecal Coliform (#/100ml)

Kinnickinnic River @ Wison Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek (RI 828)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>0.5

0.45-0.5

0.4-0.45

0.35-0.4

0.3-0.35

0.25-0.3

0.2-0.25

0.15-0.2

0.1-0.15

0.05-0.1

0-0.05

AverageTP (mg/L)

Kinnickinnic River @ Wison Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek (RI 828)
400

360

Average Number of Days Per Year

320

280

240

200

160

120

80

40

0
>200

175-200

150-175

125-150

100-125

75-100

50-75

25-50

0-25

Average TSS (mg/L)

Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek – Reach 828
Dissolved Oxygen
Flow Conditions

Regulatory Standard (5 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

100

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek – Reach 828
Fecal Coliform
Flow Conditions
1.E+05

Regulatory Standard (400 cfu/100 mL)
Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Box & Whiskers
Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

C onc e ntra tion (c fu/1 0 0 m L)

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

1.E+00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek – Reach 828
Total Phosphorus
Flow Conditions

Planning Standard (0.1 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1.00

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

0.10

0.01
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Wilson Park Creek Upstream of Holmes Avenue Creek – Reach 828
Total Suspended Solids
Flow Conditions

Reference Concentration (17.2 mg/L)

Box & Whiskers

1000

C onc e ntra tion (m g/L)

Mid-range
Flows

Moist
Conditions

High
Flows

Low
Flows

Dry
Conditions

100

10

1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Flow Duration Interval (%)

Modeled Flow Data

70

80

90

100

Watershed Restoration Plan

Fact Sheet for Assessment Point KK-5

Assessment Point: KK-5
The following data are excerpts from multiple reports. While the same location in the
Kinnickinnic watershed is represented, the assessment point IDs differ. Throughout the
following data, Assessment Point KK-5 is also represented by:
o Reach 830
o RI-830
o Holmes Avenue Creek

94
59

894

io n

Villa ge of
WEST MILW AUKE E

ve
al A

SOUTH 43RD ST REET DIT CH

B

re

st

H

om

e

A

ve

38

20 t h St

27 t h St

i

35 t h St

o
el

43 r d S t

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

ve
tA

Fo

60 t h St

45

794

B ur nha m S t

B ur nha m S t

Linc oln A v e

Linc oln A v e

COMBINED SEWER AREA

24

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

C le v e la nd A v e

T
Ok la hom a A v e

Fo

r

t
es

H

om

e

A

C le v e la nd A v e

ve

Ok la hom a A v e

C ha s e A v e

6t h S t

13 t h St

20 t h St

35 t h St

43 r d S t

60 t h St

27 t h St

LYONS PARK CREEK

62

C le m en t Av e

N at

13 t h St

100

59

181

59

32

Mo rg an A v e

Mo rg an A v e

241

U

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

WILSON PARK CREEK
H owa r d A ve

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

894

36

45

43

B oliv ar A ve

94
38

Y

La y ton A v e

Y

62

Pe nn sy lv a nn ia A v e

H owe ll Av e

6t h S t

La y ton A v e

13 t h St

24

894

35 t h St

N

43

20 t h St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27 t h St

100

VIL LA MANN CREEK

Edg e rt on A ve

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

32

Gr a nge Av e

Gr a nge Av e

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

LEGEND
Water

KK WATERSHED

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Subwatersheds
Civil Divisions

0

1,150 2,300
Feet

4,600

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

ve
Burnham St
Burnham St

H
st
re
Fo

Linc oln Ave

Linc oln Ave

COMBINED SEWER AREA

KINNICKINNIC RIVER
Cleveland Ave

Okla homa Ave

e
Av

20th St

27th St

e
Av

35th St

o it

43rd St

l
Be

60th St

SOUTH 43RD STREET DITCH

e

om

H
st
re
Fo

e

om

Cleveland Ave

e
Av
Okla homa Ave

Chase Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

43rd St

60th St

LYONS PARK CREEK

Clement Ave

A
na l

13th St

o
Nati

Morgan Ave

Morgan Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK
Howard Ave

CHEROKEE PARK CREEK

Bolivar Ave

VILLA MANN CREEK
Lay ton Ave

Pennsy lvannia Ave

Howell Ave

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

WILSON PARK CREEK

HOLMES AVENUE CREEK

Gra nge Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds

Aerial Map

Subwatersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Combined Sewer Service Area
Civil Divisions

0

1,100 2,200
Feet

4,400

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

94
59

ve

38
13th St

20th St

Lincoln Ave

Lincoln Ave

43rd St

24
Cleveland Ave

Cleveland Ave

60th St

KK-9

KK-3

KK-10
Oklahoma Ave

20th St

ve

43rd St

eA

27th St

s
re
Fo

Oklahoma Ave

om
tH

35th St

T

32

Morgan Ave

KINNICKINNIC RIVER

Morgan Ave

62

Clement Ave

it

m
Ho
st
re

eA

13th St

lo
Be

27th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
W
WE
ES
S TT A
A LL LL II S
S

Fo

KK-2

e
Av

794

Burnham St

Burnham St

60th St

45

Villa ge of
WEST MILWAUKEE

Av e

Chase Ave

894

nal

6th St

o
Na ti

35th St

100

59

181

59

KK-1

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
S
S TT .. FF R
RA
AN
NC
C II S
S

241

U

Howard Ave

894

KK-8

KK-7
36

45

43

Bolivar Ave

94
38

Y

Layton Ave

62

Pennsylvannia Ave

Howell Ave

Layton Ave

6th St

24

KK-6
Y
35th St

N

894

13th St

Y
43

43

20th St

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
D
E LL D
G
N FF II E
EN
EE
RE
GR

27th St

100

Edger ton Ave

C
C ii tt yy oo ff
C
CU
UD
DA
AH
HY
Y

KK-4

KK-5

32

Grange Ave

Grange Ave

119

Village of
HALES CORNERS

Village of
GREENDALE

62

ZZ

ZZ

LEGEND

Assessment Points

32

Combined Sewer Service Area

KK Watershed
Model Reach Tributary Area

Water
Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed
Waterbodies
Civil Division

0

1,200 2,400
Feet

4,800

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Howell Ave

KK-5

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND

Assessment Points
CSO

Water

Assessment Point Map : KK-5

Routing Reach Tributary Area
Watershed

SSO

Waterbodies

NonContact Cooling Water

Civil Division

0

335

670
Feet

1,340

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

6th St

13th St

20th St

27th St

35th St

Howell Ave

KK-5

Lay ton Ave

Edgerton Ave

Gra nge Ave

LEGEND
Assessment Points
Water

Waterbodies
Watersheds
Routing Reach Tributary Area

Land Use

Agriculture

Outdoor Recreation, Wetland, and Woodland, Open Lands

High Density Residential

Manufacturing and Industrial

Institutional and Governemntal

Civil Divisions

Low Density Residential

Transportation, Communication, and Utilities

Commercial

Surface Water

Land Use Map : KK-5
0

335

670
Feet

1,340

WATERSHED RESTORATION PLAN
KINNICKINNIC RIVER WATERSHED
September 24, 2008

Kinnickinnic River Standards/Targets
Constituent

Measure

Standard/Target

Geometric Mean Standard

200 counts/100 ml

Fecal Coliform

Not to Exceed Standard

400 counts/100 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Minimum Concentration Standard

5 mg/l

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

USGS Median TSS Reference Concentration (estimated
background concentration)

17.2 mg/l

Total Phosphorus (TP)

Flashiness

Planning Guideline
Richards Baker Flashiness Index (quantifies the frequency
and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow; the index
ranges from 0 - 2, with 0 being constant flow)

0.1 mg/l

indicator only

Kinnickinnic River Watershed Restoration Plan Fact Sheet
KK-5, Reach 830, Holmes Avenue Creek
Data resulting from model runs:

Figure
Flashiness index

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
The Flashiness Index quantifies the frequency and rapidity of short-term changes in stream flow. The index ranges from 0
Moderate

Dissolved oxygen
v. days per year
Fecal coliform v.
days per year

Good to Moderate

Phosphorus v.
days per year
Suspended solids
v. days per year

Moderate to Poor

Monthly
dissolved oxygen

Moderate

Monthly fecal
coliform

Moderate

Monthly
phosphorus

Moderate to Poor

Monthly
suspended solids

Very Good

Variable (some
good, some bad)

Very Good to
Good

to 2, with 0 being constant flow. The flashiness is slightly high at this location.
Typically, aquatic communities need 5 mg/l or more of dissolved oxygen to survive. Concentrations at this site nearly
always exceed this level, but the concentrations are generally lower than other sites along the river.
For recreational uses, lower fecal coliform counts (a measure of bacteria) are better (preferably under 400 counts / 100ml).
The counts on majority of the days are either ‘below 400’ or ‘above 5,000’. A potential goal in this case may be to
determine the conditions that create the ‘above 5,000’ days and discourage recreational use on days that meet these
conditions. An additional goal could be to find ways to decrease fecal coliform loads in order to increase the number of
days that are ‘below 400’.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that can lead to increased growth of algae. The concentrations on most days are at or below the
0.1 mg/l planning guideline. However, there are several days with phosphorus concentrations that exceed 0.5 mg/l.
Suspended solids cause water to become cloudy and aesthetically unpleasant. They can clog the gills of fish and
invertebrates, make feeding difficult, and lead to sediment deposition (poor habitat). The concentrations on most of the
days fall below 25 mg/l and the concentrations do not exceed 200 mg/l on any day.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations are highly variable, particularly in the spring. This variability suggests that either there
is excessive algal growth or organic enrichment and biochemical oxygen demand in the ecosystem. The decline in
concentrations during the summer is typical due to the decreased solubility of oxygen in warmer water.
While the ranges of values are fairly consistent throughout the year, notice that the median value declines during the
summer swimming season. This may be related to the die-off of bacteria due to solar radiation. Also note that the
summer and fall account for many of the ‘below 400’ days mentioned above while the winter and early spring have many
of the ‘above 5,000’ days. Conditions are particularly poor in March and are likely related to snow melt.
Phosphorus concentrations decline in the late spring, summer, and early fall. This may be related to uptake by plants
during the growing season and the release of phosphorus from sediments and decomposing organic matter. In addition,
potential winter stormwater inputs from the airport may be a source of de-icing chemicals for the stream. De-icing
chemicals may contain phosphorus compounds that serve as corrosion inhibitors.
Suspended solids concentrations fall below the reference concentration most of the time. The majority of the higher
concentrations are likely related to larger rain or snow melt events that disturb bare soil. As this is a concrete-lined
channel, there is little sediment to re-suspend from the stream bed.

Figure
Dissolved oxygen
by flow

Overall Project
Analysis
Team Assessment
During dry conditions and low flows, dissolved oxygen concentrations are lower relative to other flow conditions. This is
Good

Fecal coliform by
flow

Moderate to Poor

Phosphorus by
flow
Suspended solids
by flow

Moderate
Good

likely due to a lack of water agitation (which would allow greater diffusion of oxygen into the water) and high
temperatures (low flow conditions are often associated with summer which has higher temperatures and lower oxygen
solubility).
Generally, a pollutant that is present at high concentrations during high flows and low concentrations during low flows
(fecal coliform, in this case) is attributed primarily to non-point sources Note that during any period with the highest
flows, fecal coliform counts exceed the regulatory standard and during moist conditions, fecal coliform counts exceed the
standard nearly 75% of the time. During low flows and dry conditions, the standard is met nearly all of the time. During
these low flows would be the safest time for recreational uses (boating, wading, swimming), although the amount of water
in the stream may limit recreational use to wading.
Concentrations are greatest at high flows, with concentrations exceeding the 0.1 mg/l planning guideline nearly 75% of
the time at the highest flows. This suggests the prevalence of non-point loads of phosphorus.
Suspended solids concentrations increase with increased flows. This suggests a prevalence of non-point sources. All of
the instances when the concentrations exceed the reference condition occur at the high flow condition. These conditions
most often occur following large storms or major snow-melt events. The suspended solids may come from runoff that
carries a sediment load, from stream bank erosion, or re-suspended stream sediments. Note that this site is located
downstream of some concrete-lined reaches within the watershed. As a result, upstream activities such as stream bank
erosion and re-suspension of stream sediments likely make less of a contribution to suspended sediment loads at this site
compared to sites that are situated downstream of natural reaches that experience these activities.

Flashiness index
Reach
830

Location
Holmes Avenue Creek

Richards Baker Flashiness Index
1.00

Average Daily Flows
Holmes Avenue Creek (830)

AVERAGE DAILY FLOW (CFS)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

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