DISTRICT REPORT OF LUCKNOW

Submitted to: Col. Arun Dongdhe Co-ordinator PGDBM

Submitted by: Bhoopendra Tiwari PGDBM I (13-A)

Acknowledgement
This acknowledgement is not merely a list of names but an expression of deep sense of gratitude to all those who have helped in the successful completion of the project. Firstly I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my institution, EMPI Business School and Program Coordinator Col. Arun Dhongde for giving an opportunity to work on my own district Lucknow. A special thanks to Mr. R.N.Mishra, Chief secretary of “Khadi Gram Udyog Mandal (Lucknow)” for his precious time. Last but not the least to my family and all my friends and batch mates for their support and guidance.

Synopsis
1. Introduction 2. About Lucknow 3. Language 4. Culture 5. History 6. In and around the city 7. Arts and Crafts 8. Attractions 9. Getting in, around and away 10. Geography and climate

LUCKNOW
Lucknow (Lakhnau) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It had a population of 2,207,340 in 2001. Lucknow is also the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. The name is derived from the name of the brother of the Lord Rama, Lakshmana in Hinduism who stayed here for a period of time.

Lucknow District
Mayor Population:
DINESH SHARMA 36.8 lacs 62.7% 331/km≤ - Urban - Density

Becomes capital city: Under Awadh Rule: Car plates Main Languages: Local Transport: Area: Altitude: STD code:

around 1500 BC 16th Century UP-32 Hindi, Urdu and English Bus/Tempo/Auto-rickshaw/Taxi/Tonga/ Cycle-rickshaw 2528 sq. kms 123 sq mt. above sea level 0522

About Lucknow
'Lucknow', this name is synonymous with architectural beauties of 'Lakhauri' bricks, the fragrance of 'itra', musical notes, the sound of dancers' trinklets, the sweetness of 'dussheri' mangoes, 'malai' and 'gulab revadis', and of course its 'Mehman Nawazi'. Known for its refinement in speech, entertainment, dresses and manners, Lucknow is also called the 'City of Adab'. Infact, it is here that one can experience hospitality in the true sense of the term. Various cultural ingredients have contributed to the richness of this unique city. Mention must be made of the Urdu language. Gazals, Shairi, expressive dance forms, colourful festivals, buzzing chowks and various exciting games like Patangbazi, Baterbazi & Kabutarbazi. Lucknow became the focal point of a cultural renaissance with theshifting of capital from Faizabad to Lucknow in 1776. Under royal patronage Kathak, Thumri, Khayal, Dadra, Gazals, Qawalies and Sher-o-Shairi reached their zenith point. As a centre of Islamic learning Lucknow witnessed the formation of Lucknow school of poetry under renowned poets like Anes, Dabeer, Imam-Buksh 'Nasika', Mirza Mohd. Raza Khan Burq, Atish, Mirza Shauq Asar, Josh and others. Apart from Gazals, another form of long narrative poem for which Lucknow is famous is Masnavi. Elegy writing in Urdu also reached a new height through the three forms-'marsiyas'*. 'salams'* and 'nauhas'*. Urdu as a language attained a rare degree of perfection in Lucknow and slowly Lucknow emerged as a cradle of unforgettable gazals, masnavi, elegy, hazal* and dramas.

Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, himself composed a number of songs and dramas under the pen name of , 'Akhtari Pia'. Of the famous Indian dance styles kathak is closely associated with Lucknow. This devotional dance stvle of pre-Mughal days was transformed into a highly eclectic dance form under the patronage of the Nawabs of Awadh. Pandit Iswari Prasad Mishra of Handia is said to be the founder of the Lucknow gharana of Kathak. The Kathak school founded by him was perfected by his sons Thakur Prasad, Durga Parsad. Bindadin. Kalka Prasad and the three sons of Kalka -Achchhan Maharaj, Lachchu Maharaj and Shambhu Maharaj. Today Pandit Birju Maharaj is the living doyen of this glorious house of Lucknow Turning to the festivals that make, Lucknow one-of-a-kind, mention must be made to the Moharrum festival. Commemorating the death of Alam's. Not only festivals, the people of this beautiful city 'indulge in various exciting Imam Hussain, Moharrum witnesses emotional

processions of tazias (models of Imam Hussain's mausoleum at Karbala, Iraq) &

contests that have come down from the time of the Nawabs. Kite flying is one such sport. Kites of different shapes, sizes, colours take to the skies leading to all round excitement and enjoyment The art of training pigeons which was perfected by the nobility of yesteryears is prevalent even today. The pigeon flying event is yet another exciting game that is eagerly awaited. No account of Lucknowi culture is complete

without a mention of the famous 'Chowk' of Lucknow. The term 'Chowk' has become synonymous with Lucknow. 'Chowk' has played a vital role in the development of the Lucknowi culture. It is the pivotal point around which the traders, engravers, painters. Artisans, weavers,singers and nautch girls flourished and grew. This main bazar of yester years has not changed much. but transformation is there. Its humming and lively characteristics represent Lucknowi culture in its modern day context. Lucknow, the ìGolden city of the eastî is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh and is popularly called the city of Nawabs and Kababs. Though it is rapidly modernising, it has still kept its past glory and is known for its cultural refinement. It is also associated with legendary hospitality, leisurely moods of life and world-renowned cuisine. The city offers plenty of places of historical interest to tourists. The popular Parsi theatre originated from the Urdu theatre, and the Tabla and Sitar were first heard on the streets of Lucknow.

Language
Both Hindi and Urdu are spoken in Lucknow but Urdu has been the lingua franca here for centuries. Under the rule of Nawabs, Urdu flourished and turned into one of the most refined languages. Hindu and Muslim poets like Aatish, Nasikh, Daya Shankar Naseem, Musahafi, Insha , Safi Lakhnavi and the great Meer Taqi Meer took Urdu poetry to dizzying heights. The two great poets, Mir Anis and Mir Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of elegiacal poetry called 'Marsia' centred on Husayn bin Ali's supreme sacrifice in the battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil "who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow" was hugely influenced by poetry and wrote verse under the pseudonym of "Bismil". The towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Rudauli and Malhibad produced innumerable poets and litterateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz Lucknowi, Josh Malihabadi and Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi.

Culture
Lucknow, the golden city of the east' is struggling to retain the old world charm that still exists in the old quarters of the city close to the Chowk area. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy and a love for gracious living. The (pehle-aap) 'You-First' culture so popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow is waning but there still remain people who possess those beautiful qualities. This sublime cultural richness famous as 'Lakhnawi Tehzeeb' blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests, speaking a common language -Urdu. Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the Nawabs of Awadh, who took keen interest in every walk of life and encouraged them to attain a rare degree of perfection. It is an extremely laidback city in some respects. Anyone visiting the city via the ugly and distant airport will form a very negative first impression of the city. However, the beautiful architecture and the yellow facade of the railway station, along with its milling crowds of travellers, hawkers and the general public can put a smile on anyone's face.

History
The intricate carving at a Monuments From Lucknow India. In ancient times, Lucknow was part of Kosala kingdom (modern Ayodhya) ruled over by Ikshvaku dynasty to which Lord Rama belongs. It is believed that he gave the territory comprising of modern Lucknow to his devoted brother Lakshman. Therefore, the original name of Lucknow was Lakshmanpur, popularly known as Lakhanpur or Lachmanpur. Lucknow's medieval history begins with its elevation to a capital city under the Nawabs of Awadh. The architectural contributions of the Awadh rulers, many paintings of whom are maintained at the Art Gallery today, include numerous mosques and palaces. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples, although neglect by the authorities has put them in danger of turning into ruins. Claude Martin's palace, "Constantia" now houses one of five schools founded under his will. Photograph by John Edward Sache, working in India 1865 - 1882 The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the British rulers of India in 1856. In the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today the ruins of the

Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the Mutiny. During the uprising and the siege of the Residency in 1857, it was the students of La Martiniere College that went ahead to defend the Residency. For the valour that they displayed, La Martiniere College at Lucknow is the only college in the world that has received battle honours of the British Empire. Other architectural delights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Parliament) and the main railway station at Charbagh with its yellow domes and pillars. One of the oldest schools in the world is also situated in Lucknow: La Martiniere, founded by the bequest of the immensely successful colonial entrepreneur Claude Martin (1735 - 1800).

In and around the city
Lucknow airport is located around 20 km outside the city at Amausi. Locations of interest in and around Lucknow include Kukrail (a picnic spot and crocodile sanctuary), Malihabad (home of the famed Dashahri mangoes), Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Mirzapur. Lucknow is also home to the Central Drug Research Institute, the King George's Medical College (now King George's Medical University), Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, National Botanical Research Institute and Industrial Toxicology Research Centre which is the biggest institute of its kind (in toxicology) in Southeast Asia. Aminabad, a quaint bazaar quite like Delhi's Chandni Chowk, is situated in the heart of the city and is a large shopping centre, catering to a wide variety of consumers. The Hazratganj area is the upmarket shopping area with colonial style buildings that also has a number of government and administrative buildings. Kakori, 14 km from Lucknow is a unique place. It is known for train dacoity during the independence movement and the memorial of the revolutionaries is located here. The town has a predominantly Muslim population and in 19th century had the highest percentage of civil servants in the country compared to any other place in British India. This town that is located in the Mango belt has three dozen mosques and numerous huge havelis besides being the seat of the Qadiria Qalandaria Sufi order. The Alavis of Kakori are renowned for preserving the most refined and

uncorrupted Urdu. The Kakori kebabs are a delicacy famous across the world. The Asafi Imambara ( populary called Bada Imambara ), the Husainabad Imambara ( popularly called the Chhota Imambara )Dilkusha Garden, The Residency , Shah Najaf , La Martiniere are some famous monuments at Lucknow. The famous "Bhul Bhulaiya "(meaning labyrinth) is part of the famous Asafi Imambara that was built by The Goels. Lucknow is also famous for culinary delights, including "makkhan malai" (flavoured whipped cream) and "Tundey Kababs" and "kakori kebabs ". Lucknow is also home to the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow one of the six premier business schools of India.

Arts and crafts
Chikan, sometimes anglicised to 'chicken' despite having no poultry affiliation - an embroidered handicraft that has traditionally been associated with Lucknow, and 'Lakhnawi Zardozi' are important small-scale industries around Lucknow. Old Lucknow's Chowk area is the location where the maximum number of Chikan factories and shops can be found. Apart from clothing, the Chowk area is also famous for its mouth-watering sweets like 'Malai Gilauri', 'Badam Halwa' and 'RasMalai', as well as the famed 'Chatpati chaat'. Kathak, the classical dance form took shape here. Additionally it is also famous for its perfumes and silverwork.

Attractions In & Around Bara Imambara
This huge and elegant building is also called the Asafai Imambara. It is said that this hall is the world’s largest arched room without any pillars and the Nawabs used to hold their public hearings. The building was built in a famine relief program in 1784 by Nabab Asaf-ud-Daulla.

Chhattar Manzil
It was the most imposing building erected by the Nawabs. It can still be seen in its former glory from all the corners of Lucknow. Its gilded dome "chattar", giving its name, is the prominent landmark.

Jama Masjid
The splendid mosque built by Muhammad Ali Shah in the typical Mughal style with two minarets and three domes, lies to the west of the Hussainabad Imambara and is entirely free from pseudo Italian art, then in vogue in Lucknow.

Moti Mahal
Among the three beautiful buildings on the fringes of the River Gomti, is the Moti Mahal or the Palace of Pearls constructed by Nawab SaadatAli Khan. The Nawabs used these buildings to view the birds in flight.

Roomi Darwaza
Just beyond Bara Imambara is an impressive gateway, Rumi Darwaza, built by Nawab Asafuddaula in 1784. It is also known as the Turkish Gateway. The heart and soul of the Awadh architecture is well expressed here.

Shaheed Smarak
The tower was built to mark the first centenary of the Mutiny of 1857 and is a mark of respect for the thousands of unknown warriors who laid down their lives for the freedom and glory of their nation.

State Museum
The State Museum is open on all days except Monday, from 10.30 am to 4.30 pm. It is located in a modern three-storied building at Banarasibagh in Lucknow and is a multipurpose museum with sculptures, bronzes, paintings, natural history and anthropological specimens, coins, textiles and decorative arts. We can also find sculptors of the earliest image of Balarama and a Panchmukhi Shivalinga.

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CLOCK TOWER

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CHOTA IMAMBARA

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RUMI GATE

Getting in, Around & Away AIR: Lucknow's Amausi airport is 14 kms. away from the centre of town, with
regular flights to Delhi, Patna, Calcutta, Varanasi and Mumbai.It also has flights to Sharjah.

RAIL: City's Railway station popularly known as Charbagh, is a major junction. The
Northern and North-Eastern railway networks connect Lucknow with the important cities within the country.

ROAD: Connected to all major cities. Some of the important road distances from
Lucknow areKanpur: 79 Km Allahabad: 210 km Ayodhaya: 135 km Delhi: 497 km Agra: 363 km Dudhwa National Park: 238 km Varanasi: 305 km Khajuraho: 320 km Jim Corbett and Rajaji national park: 400 km

Works of Art to Shop while in Lucknow Lakhnawi Chikan
work has made its presence felt throughout the world. It

provides excellent chikan creation kurta-pyjama, salwar-kameez and sarees. Not just limited to apparel, chikankari has made it to the drawing rooms in a new incarnation as furnishings, table linen, tray cover, napkins, curtains, bed sheets etc. Once known as the Paris of the East, it still is the treasure house of handicrafts. Apart from the exquisite shadow work-chikankari- that the city has become synonymous with, other embroidery styles, murri, tepchi, kaamdani and aari

zardozi work, have done the

city proud. The famous enamelling work of the city has enhanced jewellery designs. Exquisite silverware with patterns of hunting scenes, floral motifs are much sought after.

The

Bidri and Zarbuland work of Lucknow finds expression in excellent pieces

of huqqas, jewel box, bowls, trays etc. Fine Pottery from Lucknow is another work of art along with terracotta pottery from Chinhat.

Other crafts are - Ivory & Bone carving, gota weaving, dyeing, calico printing,
silver warq making, wood work and kite making. Other famous things of this city are itrs (perfume), paan, zarda,

gulukand and khamira produced by local tobacconists.

Geography and climate
Situated at the heart of Uttar Pradesh, 500 km southeast of New Delhi, Lucknow has mainly a tropical climate even though it is situated very close to Nepal. The temperature varies from 45 degrees Celsius in the summer to 3 degrees Celsius in the winter. It is surrounded on the eastern side by Barabanki District, on the western side by Unnao District, on the southern side by Raebareli District and on the northern side by Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti River flows through the city, dividing it in trans-gomti and cis-gomti regions. Some of the tributries of this river are the Kukrail, Loni, and Beta. The Sai River flows from the south of the city and in the east enter Raebareli District. Lucknow is accessible from every part of India through air, rail and road. It is directly connected with New Delhi, Patna, Calcutta, Mumbai, Varanasi and other major cities by Amausi airport.

BEST TIME TO VISIT: October to March

Tourist Information Center

U P State Tourism Development Corporation Ltd 3, Naval Kishore Road, Lucknow Ph No 0522-228349/225165 Regional Tourist Office 10, Station Road, Lucknow. Ph No 0522-638105 U P Govt. Tourist Reception Centre N. Railway Station, Mainhall Charbagh. Ph no. 0522-636773 State Information Bureau Ashok marg, Hazratganj, Lucknow. Ph. no. 0522-224728

ROLE OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES
The Small Scale Industry (SSI) sector has emerged over four decades as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian economy. Today, this sector accounts for about 95 per cent of the industrial units and is contributing more than 40 per cent of value addition in the manufacturing sector and about 35 per cent of exports (both direct and indirect). More than 31 lakh units are spread all over the country producing over 7,500 times. Small enterprises, i.e., small scale units, not only play a crucial role in providing large scale employment opportunities at lower capital cost than large scale industries, but also help in industrialization of rural and backward areas, thereby reducing regional imbalance, assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth. SSI units are also supplementing and complimentary to large and medium scale units as ancillary units. The Government of India has helped the small scale sector through supportive policy measures since adoption of planned economy model. The basic policy support for SSI sector has its roots in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956. Further, the Industrial Policy Statement, 1977, laid emphasis on reservation of items. The reservation of economically viable and technologically feasible products to be exclusively manufactured by SSIs began with a list of 47 items which was gradually extended to many products. Presently, 812 items are on the reserved list. Other policy supports which could be listed are excise exemption, credit under priority sector lending from banks and financial institutions, marketing support

through reservation of items for products from SSI sector for government purchases, providing infrastructure facilities like sheds, plots in industrial estates, technological support, new management techniques, training and entrepreneurship development. Though this sector has shown substantial progress, its major problems like inadequate credit flow from banks and financial institutions (Fis), inadequate infrastructure facilities, low quality standards of products, use of obsolete technology, plant and machinery and equipment, inefficient management techniques, etc, are still inhibiting the sector, Besides, this sector has to face challenges of competition from the opening up of economy, to globalisation, need for increasing exports, and meet WTO commitments.

THE LEADING BANK OF LUCKNOW STATE BANK OF INDIA

The origin of the State Bank of India goes back to the first decade of the nineteenth century with the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta in Calcutta on 2 June 1806. Three years later the bank received its charter and was re-designed as the Bank of Bengal (2 January 1809). A unique institution, it was the first joint-stock bank of British India sponsored by the Government of Bengal. The Bank of Bombay (15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (1 July 1843) followed the Bank of Bengal. These three banks remained at the apex of modern banking in India till their amalgamation as the Imperial Bank of India on 27 January 1921. Primarily Anglo-Indian creations, the three presidency banks came into existence either as a result of the compulsions of imperial finance or by the felt needs of local European commerce and were not imposed from outside in an arbitrary manner to modernize India's economy. Their evolution was, however, shaped by ideas culled from similar developments in Europe and England, and was influenced by changes occurring in the structure of both the local trading environment and those in the relations of the Indian economy to the economy of Europe and the global economic framework.

KHADI GRAM UDYOG MANDAL

BACKGROUND
Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation, had visualised the development of village industries as an important tool for promoting a self-reliant rural economy and decentralised process of growth. He had also made it an integral part of the freedom movement, so much so that the Khadi and the implements to produce it, especially the charkha, had become icons of independence. India lives in villages as 80 per cent of its population is rural. A large percentage (nearly 70 per cent) still depends upon agriculture and allied activities. Obviously, the increasing number of the populace cannot be absorbed in the farm sector activities. Moreover, the employment generation potential of the large and medium sector which are primarily urban, is too low to provide jobs to the unemployed section of the labour force as heavy industries offer employment to only 4 per cent, medium

industries 12 per cent, and village and small industries sector 84 per cent.

In view of the above, Rural Industrialisation has been recognised as an important development strategy for rural development in terms of income and employment generation and poverty alleviation.

In this era of all round races for large industry, the Cottage & Village Industry sector is important and relevant because rural industries not only provide a self-reliant rural economy and decentralised process of growth but they also • • • provide high employment per unit of capital and through units requiring low capital investment offer self employment opportunities so that rural folk may live with honour, pride and dignity check migration of rural folk to urban areas are based on simple technology • • preserve traditional skill and craftsmanship utilise local resources are environment friendly and offer pollution free industrialisation.

ORGANISATION
The Uttar Pradesh Khadi & Village Industries Board (UPKVIB)- a State Government owned organisation, is charged with the mission of effecting rural industrialisation in the state of U.P. through development of Cottage and Village Industries with a view to create employment opportunities in rural areas.

The Board envisages bringing about rural industrialisation by-

Creating opportunities of self-employment, imparting training, using traditional artisan skills, developing appropriate technology, products and processes and Devising effective marketing strategies to market the output.

The Board has adopted a holistic approach to effectively carry out these tasks. In its operation, the Board-

Identifies and selects potential entrepreneurs, provides them motivational and skill training, makes available financial resources on easy terms, Guides entrepreneurs in successfully establishing their ventures and provides marketing linkages and export opportunities.

At government level, there is a separate department - Department of Khadi & Village Industries. It has an apex officer - Secretary, Khadi & Village Industries, heading it under the Minister. UPKVIB with its headquarter at Lucknow is headed by a Chief Executive Officer.

The Infrastructure includes:
Total Strength of Staff : Head Quarter : Zonal offices : District offices : Khadi Departmental Production Units : Blanket & Woolen Factories : Hand-Made Paper Production & Training Centers: Trading Centers: Central Stores: Retail Sales Outlets : 990 Lucknow 17 70 13 9 3 10 2 45

1. Village Industry
Cottage and Village Industry has been defined as: The industrial unit, which is set up in rural areas outside municipal limits having population less than 20,000 people. provides employment to at least one person on every capital investment of Rs. 50,000/Falls within the categories of scheduled Village Industries.

2. Khadi:
'Khadi' means cloth which is handspun and hand woven from cotton, silk or woollen yarn or from a mixture of any such yarns. 'Khadi' provides employment especially to women folk in rural areas at their doorstep. Categories of Village Industries GROUP I: Mineral Based Industry e.g. : Cottage Pottery Industry, Manufacturing of Bangles, Lime Stone and Lime Paints Pigments GROUP II: etc. Forest Based Industry e.g. Hand Made Paper, Gums & Resins, Cane and Bamboo work, Collection and processing of GROUP III: herbal products etc. Agro Based and Food Industry e.g. Processing & Packing of Cereals, Pulses, spices, Fruits & Vegetable preservation, Palm Gur etc.

GROUP IV:

Polymer and Chemical Based

Industry e.g. Cottage Soap Industry, Rubber goods, Flaying & Curing of hides, Rexin, PVC, Essential Oils, Detergent Washing GROUP V: Powder, etc. Engineering and Non Conventional Energy e.g. Carpentry, Blacksmithy, Manufacture of paper pins, Clips, Safety pins, Stove pins, Utensils, aluminium Products, Electronics GROUP VI: items etc. Textile Industry (Excluding Khadi) e.g. Manufacturing of Lok Vastra Clothing, Hosiery, Tailoring and preparation of Readymade Garments, Surgical Bandages, GROUP VII: Toys and Doll making etc. Service Industry e.g. Laundry, Barber, Plumbering, Tyre Vulcanising, Battery Charging etc.

Chikan Industry

An Introduction
The chikan work of Lucknow is perhaps one of the most popular embroidery works in India. It has a certain grace and elegance, which ensures that it never goes out of style. The word chikan literally means embroidery. It is said to have been originally introduced by Nur Jahan, the beautiful wife of Mughal emperor, Jahangir. It has since evolved and attained its glory nad perfection in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The work became popular in a number of important cities of the Indo-Gangetic plain such as Delhi, Agra, Rampur, Banaras, Patna and Gava. But the supremacy of Lucknow remained unchallenged. The designs depend for its effect on the variety of stitches used and different grades of threads used to form the patterns which include the lace like jail, the opaque fillings and the delicacy or boldness of outline and details. The most beautiful part of chikan work is the open work ground, an effect of drawn thread work is achieved without drawing out any. Tiny raised flowers done in what seem to be French knots are balanced by the flat stem stitch and large areas of open work to prevent either a crowned or too scattered appearance. A variation of the chikan work is the bakhia or shadow work. Here the work is done from the back, the stitches completely covering the design in herringtone style. The shadow of the thread is seen through the cloth on the right side. To give a richer appearance, the designs are produced with tiny backstitches on the right side over the shadow. A similar effect is created by cutting out tiny flowers and leaves in the same material as the basic fabric and then applying them on the wrong side. The work is done so dexterously thjat the turned in edges of the cut pieces are scarcely visible from the front of the work.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Enhancing the customer satisfaction by providing quality garments produced by adopting better environmental practices and complying with best service standards. Ever since the dawn of civilization , man’s progress has been marked by the desire to wrap himself in an ensemble, which is comfortable and duradle and carries a distinct taste of style and individuality. It is established due to tenacity for quality, perfection and style by improving the garment range that the world has to wear. It comprises of satisfied customers in the vast and demandind international markets where the zeal for perfection has been noticed and appreciated as the clients vouch for the quality standards and have been our brand ambassadors.

ITS WORKING
The company focuses on quality assurance in all the aspects of business including garment designing and purchase of raw material. The teams of highly qualified professionals undertake the processes of sampling, finishing and final dispatch of goods. The best available quality testing equipment on the manufacturing lines. There are highly experienced quality inspectors who check the products at very stage.

PROCESS OF MAKING A GARMENT:GAILORING: It is given directly to the tailors specified by different retailers. It may range from 3-4 tailors. These tailors just cut the pieces in different sizes. Their recruitment depends on workload. STITCHING: Here a group of workers who are permanently hired stitch the pieces. KAAJI(BUTTON-HOLE): The button-holes are made in the garment by workers. PRINTING: The garments are sent for printing which are done by wooden blocks. The design are given by manufacturers. WORKING AND EMBROIDERY: This work is done mainly by women and proper guidance of colour combination are provided to them. WASHING: This is the stage in which the garments are washed and are sent for final packaging. FINISHING AND PACKAGING:

This is done by core staff members to put the garments for final sale.

PROUDUCTS OFFERED

• SAREES(BRIDAL & CASUAL) • LADIES TOP • APPAREL • GENTS KURTAS • INDIAN AND WESTERN DRESSES • DRESS MATERIALS • STITCHED SUITS • MADE UPS

LUCKNOW PRODUCER’S CO-OPERATIVE MILK UNION LIMITED – PARAG
INTRODUCTION
Lucknow producer’s co-operative milk union limited (Parag Dairy, Lucknow) was established in 1938. Lucknow milk union is the first co-operative dairy established in India. Very few people know the fact that the process developed by Lucknow milk union was later used in spirit in Gujrat co-operative milk movement and is now famous as “Anand Pattern”. Operation Flood started by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970 and Lucknow Milk Union (LMU) was then made the model dairy to implement it.

SCENARIO OF DAIRY INDUSTRY :
Dairying is a vital sub-section of agro economy and has a tremendous employment potential along with nutritive support. The dairying industry of India now ranks second in the world, and milk contributes about Rs. 8,933 million to the National Income. India in the current decade rank fourth in the world in the matter of milk production which is about 33 million tonnes (1981-1982) and 58.6 million tonnes (1992-1993). The milk production in eighth five year plan is targeted to be 70 million tonnes.

AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim of Lucknow milk union is to provide reasonable price to farmers thereby defending them from milk vendors and earn supplementary income apart from agriculture. On the other hand the milk union also helps urban consumers in getting high quality pure milk and milk products at their door step. It has running “Clean Milk and Breed Conservation Programme” under UPDASP where milk producers have been taught as how to produce milk under clean and hygienic condition and provided with semen of pure Indian breed for the animals. Another important thing that Lucknow Milk Union aims at is to provide quality milk for which they carry out various quality tests time and over again.

PARAG – AN INSIDE STUDY
PRODUCTS :
• Milk : Gold (full cream milk) Taaza Doodh (toned milk) Janta Milk • Parag Dahi • Parag Flavoured Milk • Parag Paneer • Parag Butter • Parag Peda • Parag Kheer Rs.18/litre Rs.14/litre Rs.10/litre

COMPETITORS:
  

AMUL RAJ DEVA

STRATEGIES :
With the introduction of AMUL, the milk-power giant, in cities of Kanpur and Lucknow, PARAG has not only announced a series of rate cuts, its officials have also started a verbal duel against Gujrat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), the promoter of AMUL. Lucknow Milk Union has a setup of teams for “Quality Check and Health Awareness Programme” for the urban consumers of milk. The team visits different localities in city, test their milk and provides them with results on the spot. Apart from milk pouches it is also gearing itself to provide fresh loose milk and for this the milk supply vehicles hav already been introduced in the cities. All time Milk Booths are being developed so that consumers can get high quality milk & milk products round the clock. It has started “Door to Door Milk Delivery System” through mini insulated tankers.

WORKING :
Under Lucknow Producers Co-operative Milk Union Limited, there are 486 Milk Producing Co-operative Societies working. To get a wider and better access to each and every corner these societies have been formed. Every such society is under one senior head who has to report in the head office. There are about 23,460 members under these societies. The union has estimated that in the coming year they are going to increase it to 500 such societies under which around 25,000 milk producing members would be working. There has been milk sheds established in areas like Sitapur, Hardoi, Barabanki, Rae-Bareilly, Sultanpur, Lakhimpur, Gonda, Basti, Behraich, etc., from where the milk is transported to Lucknow manufacturing unit. There are around 500 staff members working in the manufacturing unit located in Lucknow. These 500 staff members are assisted by the task force which works on daily wages. The milk and milk products are then transported to various corners of the district through the efficient network of transport exclusively under Parag.

PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT (P W D)

Introduction:
As name suggest, this is the organisation that works for the public, what ever it is. There are many works performed by the P W D, some of them are 1. Road ways 2. Government buildings 3. Parks 4. Apartments I have done the study on roadways. This comes under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yogana (PMGSRY).

HISTORY:
1885: - Betwa canal opened to irrigate jalaun and hamirpur districts. 1903: - Second famine commission setup  Commission reiterated the provision of irrigation facilities 1913: - Hydro power station on upper ganga canal started at (Near Hardwar) bahadrabad 1930: - Tube well construction commended in Meerut distt. 1950: - Hydro Electric wing separated, Electricity department was formed 1954: - First flood work entrusted to irrigation deptt. was formed. 1961: - Rihand dam completed : project cost Rs 28 Crores. 1968: - Directorate of life irrigation was created.

OBJECTIVE; • The main objective of PMGSRY was that, the facility which the village people were not getting because they are very far away from the city and the roads were not in the condition that people can go by there own convince. • To make a good road network between all the villages and city • To enhance the existing road condition in villages

Employment: In this there are two types of planning i. Flexible planning ii. Rigid planning Ingredients used in making flexible planning are: i. Earth ii. Stones iii. Morang iv. Stone Chips v. Damer Ingredients used in making rigid planning are: i. Stone chips ii. Scrim materials iii. Iron bars

iv. Cement In making rigid planning they were facing a problem that each and every single cement unit was sick. To overcome this problem they introduce Cement concrete. To make this planning success, manpower, automobile, petrol, query level, etc were required They also introduced a programme called MINIMUM EXPENDITURE PROGRAMME Instead of giving money they were supplying food to the labour and they were two main points, which they were considering i.e; i. They were able to use there food grains from FCI ii. Less transaction

Staff Structure: Engineer in chief (E I C)

Chief Engineer

Different Chief Engineer Executives

Governing body: -

There is a centralised governing body called NATIONAL RURAL ROADS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (NRRDA) and then there is a governing body of PMGSY called STATE RURAL ROADS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (SRRDA). The SSRDA is looking each and every step of PMGSY. For executing there are two department i.e; 1. Public workers Department (P W D)
2. Rural Engineering Services (R E S)

There are total 70 districts in Utter Pradesh and these districts are divided into the two department. 40 districts are given to P W D and 30 districts to R E S

Finance: 60% of the total expenditure is finance by central government and 40 % by the State government. They also take loan from the World Bank and for this loan 3rd party was involved i.e; SMAC. SMAC is an Australian company. P W D of our district is in IV phase where as others are in VI phase, The reason behind this is that they are having more work in phase IV. The expenditure for phase III was taken loan from the World Bank.

There are two executions 1. Plan Execution 2. Non Plan Execution In plan execution contracts were given to the contractors to make the roads and in non-plan execution the contract was given to the contractors to maintain the roads. But there was a problem that the plan execution was increasing less and non-plan was increasing more. To over come this problem they ask the contractor (who makes the road) to maintain for five years.

Other industries having made Lucknow the hub are:
1. Hindustan Aeronautics ltd. 2. Eveready Batteries.
3. Cosmetic Products Sugandhco - Engaged in exporting of natural itra, exotic perfumes, air fresheners, cooler perfumes, agarbatties, natural essential oils, floral waters and industrial perfumery compounds. Orgomatic Exports - Manufacturer and exporter of essential oils, natural spice oils, peppermint oil, menthol crystals, mint products, aroma chemicals, castor oil, red chillies, pharmaceutical preparations and perfume concentrates. 4. White Metal Crafts - Engaged in manufacturing of white metal handicrafts such as ashtrays, candle votives, glasses, glass bowls, photo frames, candle holders, coasters, jewellery boxes, sculptures and flower vases. 5. Construction Halwasiya Developments Private Limited - Providing civil construction & real estate development services for shopping centres, offices, residential houses with robust infrastructure, skilled workforce, and best of breed material utilization and state-of-the-art technology. Eldeco Housing & Industries Ltd. - Offers construction services for residential apartments, commercial / office buildings, township development, group housing and also undertakes contract work for civil, electrical and infrastructure projects. Sketch Consultants - Provide complete solutions for architectural and interior designing. 6. Chemicals AMA Herbal Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. - Manufacturers of natural dyes used for ages in carpet industry.

7. Industrial Goods Engineering Enterprises - Manufacturers and exporters of high tensile cold bent U bolts for various heavy and Light commercial vehicles. 8. Medical & Hospital Precision Eye Care - Offering diagnosis and surgery in cataract phacoemulsification, glaucoma, cornea & corneal grafting, oculoplastic, orbital surgeries and treatment of uveitis. 9. Plant & Machinery Simple Controls - Engaged in the manufacturing of water & wastewater treatment equipments, swimming pool treatment plants and metering pumps. 10. Scientific Instruments Microlit - Suppliers of electronic & multichannel micropipettes, semi & fully autoclavable single channel micropippettes, electronic pipette filling device, lilpet, tips for micropipettes and stands.

11.

Government industries:• Wagon manufacturing. • DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organisation). • RDSO (Research Design and Standard Organisation).

To boost the number of Industries in Lucknow the Uttar Pradesh government today announced setting up of a Lucknow Industrial Development Authority (LIDA) to develop the Lucknow-Kanpur corridor. LIDA would function along the lines of New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA), in a bid to turn the corridor into another hub of industrial development in UP. The prime focus of the new authority would be to attract potential investors to set up big industries in the corridor. The Amausi airport here already boasts of international flights to some Gulf countries. These upgrades are in sight to attract the big MNCs to invest in Lucknow and make the level of growth a benchmark for other states.

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