Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal

Personal Informatics+Context

Using Context to Reveal Factors that Affect Behavior
Ian Li
Anind Dey, CMU, Co-chair
Jodi Forlizzi, CMU, Co-chair
Niki Kittur, CMU
John Stasko, Georgia Tech
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 2
Alice
•  20 years old
•  Family history of heart
disease
•  Wants to be more active,
but donʼt know how
because sheʼs busy
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 3
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 4
Mon 1573
Tue 4392
Wed 4537
Thu 5842
Fri 10258
Sat 7528
Sun 1368
Mon 1497
Tue 1837
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 5
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Transcribe to Excel
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 6
Active
Inactive Inactive
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 7
Active
Inactive Inactive
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Factors
•  Lack of time
•  Lack of motivation
•  Activities
•  Location
•  People
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 8
Active
Inactive Inactive
Location
Office
Activity
Shopping
People
Family
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Problem
Pedometer only recorded one type of
information.
9
Location Activity People
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 10
Physical Activity
Finance
Health
Mood
Electricity
Diabetes
http://personalinformatics.org/tools
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis
A personal informatics system 

that allows users to associate 

context with behavioral information 

can better reveal factors that affect
behavior, compared to systems that only
show behavioral information.
11
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
12
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  YES, I will show this in 3 completed
studies and my proposed work.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 13
Location Activity People
Location: Park
Activity: Hiking
People: Friend
Step counts: 7531
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 14
Location Activity People
UbiComp
Sensors
Data mining
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
15
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Alice had to do a lot to get data and reflect
on them.
•  Issues collecting data? Reflecting on
data?
•  It is not as easy as just automating the
system.
•  Whether the system is manual or
automated has an effect on the userʼs
awareness.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 16
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Prototypes
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 17
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Prototypes
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
18
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Create a framework as guide in designing
personal informatics systems.
•  Building a PI system involves many parts
each with their own HCI issues.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Survey and Interviews
68 people who use personal informatics
Advertised the survey in blogs about
personal informatics.
What tools they use and their problems
19
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Sample Questions
•  How difficult is it to collect this personal
information?
•  How do you explore this collected personal
information?
•  What patterns have you found?
Transcript of the survey is at:
http://personalinformatics.org/lab/survey
20
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Analysis
Identified barriers that people experienced.
Affinity diagrams to identify themes.
Derived a model composed of:
•  5 stages
21
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
5 Stages
22
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
5 Stages
23
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 24
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Alice
•  Wanted to become
active
•  Decided to track her
physical activity
•  Chose to track step
counts using a
pedometer
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 25
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Mon 1573
Tue 4392
Wed 4537
Thu 5842
Fri 10258
Sat 7528
Sun 1368
Mon 1497
Tue 1837
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 26
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
26
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Transcribe to Excel
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 27
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Active
Inactive Inactive
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 28
The stage when people
choose what they are going
to do with their new-found
understanding of themselves.
•  Alerts
•  Incentives
•  Suggestions
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Other research have explored these different
stages in isolation
•  Collection
•  MyLifeBits (Gemmell et al. 2006)
•  SenseCam (Hodges et al. 2006)
•  Reflection
•  Casual InfoVis (Pousman et al. 2007)
29
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Barriers cascade.
2. Stages are iterative.
30
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Barriers Cascade.
Problems in the earlier stages can affect the
later stages.
31
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Barriers Cascade.
32
Active
Inactive Inactive
Location
Office
Activity
Shopping
People
Family
M T W Th F Sa Su M T
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Barriers Cascade.
Problems in the earlier stages can affect the
later stages.
→ Consider all the stages when designing PI
systems.
33
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
2. Stages are Iterative.
Users may need to incorporate new types of
data, tools, and processes as they
progressed through the stages.
34
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
2. Stages are Iterative.
35
Location Activity People
Location: Park
Activity: Hiking
People: Friend
Step counts: 7531
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
2. Stages are Iterative.
Users may need to incorporate new types of
data, tools, and processes as they progress
through the stages.
→ Flexibility is important, but consider user
needs early to minimize missed data.
36
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Barriers cascade.
2. Stages are iterative.
3. User- or system-driven
4. Uni- or multi-faceted
37
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. User- vs. System-driven
The stages can be user-driven, system-
driven, or a combination of both.
38
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. User- vs. System-driven
Collection
Combination
Integration
User-driven
Reflection
System-driven
39
Mon 1573
Tue 4392
Wed 4537
Thu 5842
Fri 10258
Sat 7528
Sun 1368
Mon 1497
Tue 1837
Transcribe to Excel
Excel graphs
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. User- vs. System-driven
Collection
System-driven
Integration
System-driven
Reflection
System-driven
40
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. User- vs. System-driven
The stages can be user-driven, system-
driven, or a combination of both.
→ Explore the tradeoffs between user-driven
and system-driven stages.
41
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Uni- vs. Multi-faceted
Most personal informatics are uni-faceted.
Some personal informatics systems have
multi-faceted collection, but only support
uni-faceted reflection.
42
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Uni- vs. Multi-faceted
Users expressed desire to see associations
between different facets of their lives.
•  “To understand trends in symptoms,
behaviors, and circumstances.” P26
•  “If it were easily collected, information on
food intake, calories, fat, etc., would make
an interesting starting point for analysis.”
P49 who tracks medication intake
43
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Uni- vs. Multi-faceted
44
Active
Inactive Inactive
Location
Office
Activity
Shopping
People
Family
M T Th F Sa Su M T
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Uni- vs. Multi-faceted
Most personal informatics are uni-faceted.
→ Explore support for multiple facets
throughout the stages.
•  I explore using contextual
information.
45
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
46
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Created a framework to analyze PI
systems.
•  When designing, consider all the stages.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 47
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Prototypes
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
48
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
→ Deploy prototypes in field studies.
How do we build a PI system with context?
→ Build prototypes that explore different
ways of supporting context.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Domain: Physical Activity
49
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Why Physical Activity?
Lack of physical activity is a common
problem that leads to obesity, diabetes, and
high blood pressure.
Lack of awareness of physical activity is one
reason why people are not active.
50
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Physical Activity Awareness
51
Products
Research
UbiFit

Consolvo et al. ʼ08
Shakra
Maitland et al. ʻ06
Fish ʻn Steps
Lin et al. ʻ06
want to wait for an update, he or she can manually
synchronise via the Sync menu option.
Users specify in advance the peers they wish to share
results with, but at any time they can change this list.
Figure 2a shows the Compare Daily Activity screen that
users can view to assess their performance in relation to
their peers. For a week’s overview of their own activity,
users may use the Week’s Activity screen shown in Fig. 2b.
In order to provide real time feedback to the user, an
animated representation of the user’s current mode of
activity runs continuously on the main screen of the
application. This is shown in Fig. 2c and d.
3.1 Sensing activity
The current activity of the user is inferred using patterns of
fluctuation in GSM signal strength and changes to the IDs
of detected cells. This method has been demonstrated as a
reliable and unobtrusive way of sensing current activity [2],
and has the advantage over the more traditional approach of
using an accelerometer in that it does not require additional
sensor hardware as in Sensay [17] and the multimodal
sensor board of [11]. Similarly, while the processing of
physiological and biometric data could complement our
approach, the benefits of encapsulating the system within a
mobile phone would be lost. An alternative approach would
be to utilise the positioning information available from
some mobile phone networks, however this approach
frequently involves prohibitive cost, as well as depending
upon much of the same technology as our client based
monitoring.
Rather like a traditional accelerometer, the levels of
signal strength fluctuation change when a mobile phone is
moved. For example, Fig. 3 shows the total signal strength
fluctuation across all monitored cells during successive 30-s
time periods whilst walking, remaining still and travelling
in a motor car. The figure illustrates that it is relatively easy
to distinguish between moving and remaining stationary,
but at times, the pattern of fluctuation whilst walking will
match that of driving and vice versa. This is due to the
stop–start nature of both walking and travelling in a motor
car in urban areas. When driving, a greater geographical
distance will typically be covered over a given time period
when compared to that of running or walking. As such it is
possible to use the rate of change of neighbouring cells to
infer travel by car.
To classify these patterns we use an artificial neural
network. The network inputs are the sum of signal strength
fluctuation across all monitored cells, and the number of
distinct cells monitored over a given time interval. The
network consists of a single layer of eight hidden neurons;
weights are learnt using back propagation. The network
outputs the currently sensed activity for the given input
values. The network is trained by repeatedly presenting data
collected during each method of movement.
The current activity of the user is conditionally depen-
dent upon their previous activity. In order to provide instant
feedback to the user interface, the neural network deliber-
ately does not model this behaviour. Instead, when deter-
mining if any additional minutes have been earned, we
apply task knowledge based upon the output from the
neural network over the previous two and a half minutes.
This enables noise to be filtered out and a more accurate
representation of the users’ activities achieved. For exam-
ple, periods of low signal strength fluctuation such as
stopping at traffic lights whilst driving can be ignored when
placed between periods of high fluctuation where many
distinct neighbouring cells were monitored. It could be
argued that activity would be more accurately inferred if a
longer rolling filter had been applied to the GSM data.
Introducing longer filters would have increased the likeli-
hood of active minutes ‘disappearing’ from the users’
Figure 2 The phone interface. Images a and b show screens for examining relative and individual activity levels: compare Daily Activity and
This Week’s Activity Images. c and d show two of the screens showing the estimated current activity level: Stationary and Walking
Mobile Netw Appl (2007) 12:185–199 189
Fish’n’Steps: Encouraging Physical Activity with an Interactive Computer Game 263
!!
Fig. 1. One participant’s display after approximately two weeks into the trial in the Fish'n'Steps
team-condition, also the public kiosk and pedometer platform, which rotated through each of
the team fish-tanks. The components of the personal display include: 1) Fish Tank - The fish
tank contains the virtual pets belong to the participant and his/her team members, 2) Virtual Pet
– The participant’s own fish in a frontal view on the right side next to the fish tank, 3) Calcula-
tions and feedback - improvement, burned calories, progress bar, personal and team ranking,
etc., 4) Chat window for communicating with team members.
To evaluate the effect of Fish’n’Steps, we recruited 19 participants from the staff
of Siemens Corporate Research to participate in a 14-week study. Two experimental
conditions were designed to separately assess the impact of the virtual pet and the
social influences. Application of the TTM to assess behavior that changed during the
study demonstrated that Fish’n’Steps was a catalyst of a positive change for 14 out of
19 participants. This effect was evident in either an increase in their daily step count
(for 4 participants), a change in their attitudes towards physical activity (for 3 partici-
pants) or a combination of the two (for 7 participants). The greatest change in daily
number of steps was by the participants who were at the TTM’s intermediate levels of
the behavior change. For these participants the game provided just enough motivation
to translate mental readiness into action.
While the overall findings were encouraging, there are a number of possibilities for
future investigations. For example, selecting participants from our own research or-
ganization limited representativeness of the sample to highly educated individuals
relatively open to adopting new technologies. In addition, the game highlighted the
importance of careful selection of incentives: unachievable or not challenging goals
can fail to inspire the desired change.
2 Interventions for Behavior Change
There are a variety of techniques developed over the years to motivate behavior
change. Traditional techniques are usually delivered by a trained specialist in either
individual or group settings. Examples of these techniques include goal-setting, self-
assessment, or monitoring of achieved progress [17] . Two particular approaches that
influenced the current project include motivating behavior change by cultivating a
1 2
3
4
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Physical activity is affected by lack of time,
choice of activities, the environment, and
social influence. (Sallis & Hovell 1990)
CDC suggests understanding of factors to
circumvent barriers to physical activity.
Research on Factors
52
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 53
Physical Activity Level
Location
Activity
People
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 54
Physical Activity Level
Location
Activities
People
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Research on Factors
Diabetes awareness of blood sugar level and
food consumption (Frost & Smith ʼ03)
•  Images of food associated with blood
sugar level.
•  Used in a class where people discussed
their images and blood sugar level.
•  Made a prototype, but only tested with one
person.
55
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Research on Factors
Asthma patients videotaping daily routines
found that they are in the presence of harmful
allergens more often than they realized
(Rich et al. ʻ00)
•  Users videotaped daily routines, but a
trained observer looked at the video for
assessment.
•  Matt Leeʼs embedded assessment work
56
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Sedentary People and Walking
Research suggests that they are less aware
of their physical activity and how to become
active (Sallis & Hovell 1990)
Focused on walking because it is easier to
integrate into daily life. (Norman & Mills 2004)
57
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 58
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Prototypes
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
59
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Run field studies with prototypes.
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Build several prototypes to try different
ways of supporting context.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 60
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Prototypes
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
61
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
Diary Study
How would people find factors using context?
IMPACT 1.0
Would context reveal factors that affect behavior?
IMPACT 2.0
What is the value of context in the long term?
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
62
How do we build a PI system with context?
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
63
Time-Stamped
End-of-Day
Aggregated
Real-time
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 64
Date:
What? Where? Time
6a
7a
8a
9a
10a
11a
12p
1p
2p
3p
4p
5p
6p
7p
How active were you? With whom?
























































:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
What? Where? Time How active were you? With whom?
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Continue to the next page.!
SenseWear Booklet
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 65
No Feedback
Aggregated
Real-time
Time-Stamped
End-of-Day
Tracking Booklet Reflection
No Feedback
Date:
What? Where? Time
6a
7a
8a
9a
10a
11a
12p
1p
2p
3p
4p
5p
6p
7p
How active were you? With whom?
























































:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
What? Where? Time How active were you? With whom?
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Continue to the next page.!
Date:
What? Where? Time
6a
7a
8a
9a
10a
11a
12p
1p
2p
3p
4p
5p
6p
7p
How active were you? With whom?
























































:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
What? Where? Time How active were you? With whom?
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Continue to the next page.!
Date:
What? Where? Time
6a
7a
8a
9a
10a
11a
12p
1p
2p
3p
4p
5p
6p
7p
How active were you? With whom?
























































:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
What? Where? Time How active were you? With whom?
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Continue to the next page.!
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Setup
4 female participants (A1-A4)
•  Ages 25-50
•  Sedentary. Pre-screened using Stages of
Exercise Behavior Change (Marcus et al. 1998)
Audio-taped interviews every week
66
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 67
1 2 3
No
Physical Activity
Information
Pedometer SenseWear
Graph Printouts
Booklet
SenseWear Tracking
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Results
68
Excellent compliance over 3 weeks
•  At least one activity recorded per hour
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
In all phases, participants found factors
that affected their physical activity.
Week 1, A3:
“Writing down had an effect. I would think ʻOh
good I have something active to write down.ʼ
Like when I would carry my laundry to the
Laundromat on foot.”
69
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
In all phases, participants found factors
that affected their physical activity.
Week 2, A1:
“It was nice to see that I walked more than I
did. There was one day when I was
babysitting. I walked so much with the
baby. I walked all over campus.”
70
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Matching SenseWear graph printouts
with booklet entries.
71
8 hrs 49 m...
Duration of Vi...
Not detect...
Sleep
Not detect...
Lying Do...
11346
Step Count
1 hr 43 m...
Physical Activity (2.5 ME...
438 cal
Active ...
includes off-body
estimate of 4 cal
1041 calori...
Total EE
- Fri Dec 8, 2006 02:03 PM Session end
End Time
- Fri Dec 8, 2006 05:14 AM
Start Time
Start
5:14 AM
End
2:03 PM
FRI DEC 8, 2:03 ... THU DEC 7, 2:16 ...
cindy
8 hrs 49 m...
Duration of Vi...
Not detect...
Sleep
Not detect...
Lying Do...
11346
Step Count
1 hr 43 m...
Physical Activity (2.5 ME...
438 cal
Active ...
includes off-body
estimate of 4 cal
1041 calori...
Total EE
- Fri Dec 8, 2006 02:03 PM Session end
End Time
- Fri Dec 8, 2006 05:14 AM
Start Time
Start
5:14 AM
End
2:03 PM
FRI DEC 8, 2:03 ... THU DEC 7, 2:16 ...
cindy
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Matching SenseWear graph printouts
with booklet entries.
Week 3, A2:
“The paper feedback [SenseWear] told me
when the intensity was greater than other
times, so I was able to gauge my activities
like if I just walk upstairs…I was calling them
in the diary ʻaerobic mini burstʼ.”
72
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Matching SenseWear graph
printouts with booklet entries.
Week 3, A1:
“I had a lot of data, probably too much to
decipher, but it was good. I didnʼt really
compare everything to my booklet, only the
peaks on the charts to see what I was
doing.”
73
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 74
Time-Stamped
End-of-Day
Aggregated
Real-time
Detailed reflection Immediate awareness
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
75
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Participants made associations between
their physical activity and contextual
information helping them become aware of
factors that affected their physical activity.
→ Can we do this in a field study of a
prototype with more people?
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
76
How do we build a PI system with context?
→ Help users make direct associations.
→ Value in aggregated real-time info and
end-of-day time-stamped info.
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 1.0
77
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
78
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
Diary Study
How would people find factors using context?
IMPACT 1.0
Would context reveal factors that affect behavior?
IMPACT 2.0
What is the value of context in the long term?
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
79
How do we build a PI system with context?
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 80
Pedometer Booklet
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 81
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 82

5
had an interface to label time segments with contextual
information, including a participant’s activity, location, and
people the participant was with. In addition to the per-day
and per-week visualizations of step counts, they also used
the online service to see visualizations showing the
association between their daily activities and their number
of steps (Figure 3e, 3f, & 3g). Users carried diary booklets
with additional fields for contextual information.
FIELD STUDY
We used the IMPACT system to explore if associating
physical activity with context can produce a greater self-
awareness about one’s own behaviors and can then
motivate an improvement in physical activity. We had two
hypotheses:
H1: Users who recorded the context of their physical
activity would find more opportunities to be physically
active.
H2: Users who find more opportunities to be physically
active would increase the number of steps they take.
Participants and Method
We recruited 43 participants, 14 males and 29 females,
using a recruiting web site, newsgroups, and flyers. The
ages of the participants ranged between 19 and 55. All
participants owned a computer and had high-speed online
access at home or at work. Participants received $100 for
their participation.
Participants wore a pedometer (Omron HJ-112 Walking
Style) (Figure 2a) all day throughout the duration of the
study. Participants also carried a pocket-sized diary booklet
to record the time and their step counts. When in the Plus-
Context phase, participants received a diary booklet with
additional fields for contextual information (Figure 2b).
Participants entered their booklet entries into the IMPACT
web site at their convenience.
Participants used the Baseline version of IMPACT during
the first week of the study. After the first week, participants
were randomly assigned to use the Steps-Only version or
the Plus-Context version for 3 weeks. After this period of 3
weeks, participants used the other version for 3 more
weeks.
During the Steps-Only phase, participants recorded their
step counts every time they changed activities or about once
an hour. During the Plus-Context phase, participants
recorded their step counts and the context of their activity
(the kind of activity, location, and the people they were
with). Participants were instructed to record every time they
changed their context, such as when they changed
activities, moved locations, or met with a different person.
The researchers met with the participants 4 times
throughout the study: at the Start of the study, after
Baseline, after Steps-Only, and after Plus-Context. During
these meetings, participants received materials and
instructions for the phase they were about to begin.
Participants also answered questionnaires. Four participants
Baseline
a

Steps-Only
b

c

d



Plus-Context
e

f

g

Figure 3. a) Interface for recording steps. Steps-Only additions.
b) One day of steps. c) Week of steps by day. d) Week of steps for
each day. Plus-Context additions. e) Context labeler. f) Table and
chart showing association between steps and context. g) Steps by
hour and period of day.

Day with "
context labels
Table and
charts of steps
and context
Steps by hour
and by period
of day
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 83
Pedometer Booklet Web Site
IMPACT 1.0
Steps-Only Steps-Only
Steps-Only
Steps-Only
Baseline
No Vis
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Setup
30 participants (B1-B30)
•  Sedentary. Pre-screened using Stages of
Exercise Behavior Change (Marcus et al. 1998)
Questionnaires at the end of each phase
84
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 85
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
B
a
s
e
l
i
n
e
Steps-Only IMPACT 1.0
Steps-Only IMPACT 1.0
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Results
Same level of physical activity awareness
between Steps-Only and IMPACT
86
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Greater awareness of factors
After using IMPACT, participants 

self-reported greater awareness of factors
that affect physical activity (5-point Likert
scale)
3.93 (IMPACT) vs. 3.57 (Steps-Only)
F[1,58] = 5.32, p < .05
87
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Greater awareness of factors
Mentioned context
•  “It has been interesting to see what times
of the day I'm most active.” B17
•  “It turns out I get the most walking done to
and from work, which I can't say I wasn't
expecting, but I also had no idea that
walking around Squirrel Hill for just an
hour or two made such a difference.” B24
88
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Greater awareness of factors
89
Mentioned Context Mentioned Context
Excluding Time
Control
Steps-Only
IMPACT 1.0
18
13
11
13
7
6
out of 30
out of 30
out of 30
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT was rated most useful
“The [context] I used the most was the one
asking who I was with during my most active
periods…I hadnʼt realized that I was so
sedentary most of the time I spent with my
friends.” B1
90
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
But IMPACT was harder to use
17 of 30 participants preferred Steps-Only.
“IMPACT gave a lot of cool information, but
having to input all the various factors was a
hassle.” B4
91
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Problem can be fixed
Those who preferred Steps-Only said:
•  “There were times I wanted to explain my
context.” B22
•  “IMPACT should be provided as an option.” B30
90% reported they would continue using
IMPACT if collection of context was
automated.
92
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
93
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Context can increase awareness of factors
that affect physical activity.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
94
How do we build a PI system with context?
→ Users need help collecting and integrating
data over a long period of time.
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Visualizations
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 2.0
95
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
96
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
Diary Study
How would people find factors using context?
IMPACT 1.0
Would context reveal factors that affect behavior?
IMPACT 2.0
What is the value of context in the long term?
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
97
How do we build a PI system with context?
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 2.0
98
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 2.0
99
Bluetooth GPS
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 2.0
100
Context Input
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 2.0
101
Bluetooth Sync
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 102
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 103
Mobile Phone Web Site
Steps-Only
IMPACT 2.0
Steps-Only
Control
No Vis
Steps-Only
Steps-Only
GPS Context Input
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Setup
35 participants (C1-C35)
•  Sedentary. Pre-screened using Stages of
Exercise Behavior Change (Marcus et al. 1998)
Questionnaires at the end of each phase
104
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 105
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Control
Control
IMPACT 2.0
Steps-Only
Baseline Phase Intervention Phase
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Results
Complaints were not about the tedium of
writing things down, but about having to carry
multiple devices.
•  “I would not like carrying two devices (GPS
and phone), that was too much.” C30
•  “I would use [the prototype] if I could use
the software on my own cell phone.” C17
106
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Awareness of factors increased for
all groups between the phases
107
F[2,32] = 3.98, p = .0547
3
3.3
4
4.3
3
8asellne lnLervenuon
!
"
#
$
%
&
%
'
'
(
)
*
(
+
#
,
-
)
$
'
(
ConLrol SLeps-Cnlv lMÞAC1 2.0
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Similar awareness of factors
108
Mentioned Context Mentioned Context
Excluding Time
Control
Steps-Only
IMPACT 2.0
8
8
6
6
3
5
out of 11
out of 12
out of 12
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Long-term reflection
What is the value of contextual information in
the long-term?
6-months later when they were more likely to
have forgotten the data
109
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Follow-Up Interviews
Participants:
•  Control (5)
•  Steps-Only (6)
•  IMPACT 2.0 (3)
110
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Follow-Up Interviews
Expressed interest in comparing over long
periods of time.
Curious about the peaks in physical activity.
But only those who collected contextual
information had reminders of what happened
during those peaks.
111
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Collection vs. Reflection
112
Short-term
Reflection
Long-term
Reflection
Manual
Collection
GOOD NOT GOOD
Automated
Collection
NOT GOOD GOOD
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
113
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
Automation has an effect:
•  In the short term, reduced interaction with
context data so not difference in
awareness of factors.
•  In the long term, users had data to
effectively reflect on factors.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
114
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Automation is valuable in the long term,
but not as useful in the short term.
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
115
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Diary Study and IMPACT 1.0: YES

Context can increase awareness of factors
that affect physical activity.
•  IMPACT 2.0: DEPENDS

Automation reduces immediate
awareness, but helps with long-term
reflection.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
116
How do we build a PI system with context?
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
Need visualization
Support
Need to reduce burden
of Collection and
Integration stages.
Consider the effect of
automation on
immediate awareness.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 117
Introduction
Stage-Based Model of PI
Completed Work
Diary Study
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
Proposed Work
Conclusion
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 3.0?
118
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
119
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  How do people use context in the
visualizations to find factors that affect
behavior?
•  How do we support comparison
between different types of context?
•  Infer cause-and-effect?
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
120
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Reduce the cost of using personal
informatics system while increasing
awareness of factors that affect physical
activity.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 121
UNI-FACETED vs. MULTI-FACETED
uni-faceted multi-faceted
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 122
Collection Integration Reflection
Diary
Prototype
IMPACT 1.0
IMPACT 2.0
user-driven user-driven
user-driven user-driven
user-driven
system-driven
system-driven
system-driven combination
IMPACT 3.0
system-driven system-driven combination
Need visualization
Support
Need to reduce burden
of Collection and
Integration stages.
Consider the effect of
automation on
immediate awareness.
Design semi-
automated collection
without losing
immediate awareness
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Forced users to collect three types of
contextual information.
•  Some of them may not have been useful,
i.e. they are incurring a cost in Collection,
but not providing a benefit during
Reflection.
123
ITERATIVE
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
The prototypes did not support context other
than activity, location, and people.
•  Weather
•  Mood
•  Nutrition
•  Other data sources: calendar, email
124
ITERATIVE
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
The prototypes did not count other types of
physical activity.
•  Swimming
•  Biking
•  Sports
125
ITERATIVE
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
•  Allow users to select factors that is
important to them.
•  Support factors other than activity,
location, and people.
•  Count other types of physical activity.
126
ITERATIVE
COLLECTION REFLECTION PREPARATION INTEGRATION ACTION
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
The prototypes experienced several barriers
that affected their usage.
Subsequent prototypes addressed some of
these barriers.
Keep these in mind!
127
BARRIERS CASCADE
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
IMPACT 3.0 Requirements
1.  Maintain immediate awareness in semi-
automated collection.
2.  Give choices for other types of context
and physical activity.
3.  Explore visualizations of context and
physical activity.
128
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Maintain Immediate Awareness
Low-cost manual collection where
visualizations are shown after input. 

(ES+feedback, Hsieh et al. 2008)
•  Once during the day, the system asks the
user to input data manually. After, the user
shows visualizations to the user of other
automatically collected information.
129
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
1. Maintain Immediate Awareness
Encourage daily use of the visualizations.
•  Alert the user of an interesting fact.
•  “You were active while walking in the
park.”
•  Make it easy for users to find what they
are looking for.
•  Direct users to the graph that would
answer their question.

130
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
2. Other types of context and PA
Integrate other sources of context
•  Online weather information
•  Event information from calendars
•  Status updates
•  Other personal informatics tools (e.g.,
MoodJam, your.flowingdata)
131
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
2. Other types of context and PA
Allow logging of other physical activity.
Equate amount of physical activity with
amount of walking
•  1 hour of softball = 30 minutes of walking
132
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Personal Informatics Browser
133
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. Explore Visualizations in Detail
Problems occurred in stages before
Reflection, now I can explore this stage in
detail.
•  Visualizations for comparing between
instances of physical activity
•  Visualizations for making cause-and-effect
associations between context and physical
activity
134
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. Explore Visualizations in Detail
135
Same Physical Activity Level

Different Context
Housework
Shopping
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
3. Explore Visualizations in Detail
136
Different Physical Activity Level

Same Context
Office
Office
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Setup
40 participants
•  Sedentary and active
Questionnaires at the end of each phase
137
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal 138
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Control
IMPACT 3.0
Steps-Only
Baseline Phase Intervention Phase
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Awareness Effects
Higher awareness of factors that affect
physical activity.
Maintain immediate awareness even when
collection is semi-automated.
Increased interest in the visualizations
139
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Psychological Effects
Higher locus of control
Higher self-efficacy
Self-reports of change in physical activity
140
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
141
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Deployment of a personal informatics
system that has minimal cost in collection
without loss in benefit in reflection.
•  Exploration of how people use context in
visualizations to find factors that affect
behavior.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
142
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Designs that reduce the cost of using
personal informatics system while
increasing awareness of factors that affect
physical activity.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Limitation
Focus on physical activity.
•  PI systems share the same stages.
•  Revealing factors that affect behavior
benefits the user.
•  Diabetes (Frost & Smith 2003)
•  Early work on smart meters (Betz 2010)
143
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Future Work
Sharing data.
•  Many PI systems allow sharing.
•  Explore the quality of discussions when
data is shared with context.
144
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
145
Is a PI system with context better at
revealing factors that affect behavior?
•  Showed that context can increase
awareness of factors that affect behavior.
•  Automation reduces immediate
awareness, but helps with long-term
reflection.
•  Deployed a system that doesnʼt sacrifice
long-term for immediate, vice versa.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thesis Questions
146
How do we build a PI system with context?
•  Created the stage-based model of PI as a
framework to analyze PI systems.
•  Created prototypes that support context in
field studies.
•  Identified issues in supporting context and
addressed them in subsequent prototypes.
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Schedule
147
U
b
i
c
o
m
p
C
H
I 2 0 1 0
Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Write Dissertation
Prototype Analysis
IMPACT 3.0 Development
Deployment
Analysis
Ian Li Personal Informatics+Context Thesis Proposal
Thank you!
To my advisors, Anind Dey and Jodi Forlizzi, and the rest of my
committee, Niki Kittur and John Stasko.
To people who have helped discussions, pilot studies:

Gary Hsieh, Scott Davidoff, Erin Walker, Karen Tang, Matt Easterday,
Amy Ogan, Amy Hurst, Ruth Wylie, Moira Burke, Matt Lee, Gabi Marcu,
Queenie Kravitz, Min Kyung Lee, Turadg Aleahmad, Tawanna Dillahunt,
Brian Lim, Chloe Fan, Jenn Marlow, Jason Wiese, Sunyoung Kim,
Aubrey Shick, Chris Harrison, Julia Schwarz, Bilge Mutlu, Andy Ko,
Johnny Lee, Ido Roll, Jeff Nichols, Jeff Wong, Sara Kiesler, Laura
Dabbish, Scott Hudson, Tessa Lau, Jaime Teevan, Fernanda Viegas,
Jon Froehlich, UISTʼ09 and UbiCompʼ09 Symposia attendants,
Alexandra Carmichael, Gary Wolf, Nathan Yau, Nicholas Felton, Ellie
Harrison, Edison Thomaz
148

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.