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‫ةيبعشلا ةيطارقميدلا ةيرئازجلا ةيرومجلا‬
Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jazā’irīyah
ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha’bīyah
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

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A Brief Overview
Ethnic Groups
Gender roles and statuses
Marriage Family & Kinship
Health Care
Secular Celebtrations
Arts & Humanities
State of Physical & Social Sciences
A Rich Heritage in Arts & Crafts
World Heritage Sites
Maps Political and Geographical
Bibliography & Credits

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‫ةيبعشلا ةيطارقميدلا ةيرئازجلا ةيرومجلا‬
Al-Jumhūrīyah al-Jazā’irīyah
ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha’bīyah
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

Flag of Algeria

Coat of Arms

‫( بعشلل و بعشلا نم‬Arabic)
"From the people and for the people"

Anthem Kassaman (Arabic) The Pledge

Position in Africa

Capital and Largest City – Algiers
Official Language-Arabic
(Tamazight (berber) languages are recognized as "national
languages". French is also widely spoken.
Area 2,381,741 km² 919,595 sq mi
Population – 2007 estimate 33,190,000
1998 Census 29,100,867
Currency Algerian dinar

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Government – Semi-Presidential Republic
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Prime Minister Abdelaziz Belkhadem

Time Line

- Hammadid dynasty from 1014

- Ottoman rule from 1516

- French rule from 1830

- Republic July 5, 1962


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Algeria (Arabic: ‫رئازجلا‬, Al Jaza'ir IPA: [ɛlʤɛˈzɛˈʔir], Berber: , Dzayer
[ldzæjər]), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is the
second largest country on the African continent. It is bordered by Tunisia
in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and
Mauritania in the southwest, and Morocco as well as a few kilometers of
the Western Sahara in the west.

Algeria is a member of the United Nations, African Union and of Arab
League. It also contributed towards the end of the eighties to the creation
of the Arab Maghreb Union. Constitutionally, Algeria is defined as an
Islamic, Arab, and Amazigh (Berber) country.

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Kassaman or Qassaman (The Pledge) (Arabic: ‫ )يرئازج ينطو ديشن‬is the
national anthem of Algeria. It was adopted in 1963, shortly after
independence from France. The lyrics are by Mufdi Zakariah (written in
1956 while imprisoned by French colonial forces) and the music is by
Egyptian composer Mohamed Fawzi.

Transliteration English translation
Qassaman Binnazilat Ilmahiqat
We swear by the lightning that destroys,
Waddimaa Izzakiyat Ittahirat
By the streams of generous blood being shed,
Walbonood Illamiaat Ilkhafiqat
By the bright flags that wave,
F'Iljibal Ishshamikhat Ishshahiqat
Flying proudly on the high mountains,
Nahno Thurna Fahayaton Aw ma
That we have risen up, and whether we live or
Wa Aqadna Alazma An Tahya Aljazair
We are resolved that Algeria shall live -
Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo!
So be our witness -be our witness - be our witness!

Nahno Jondon Fi Sabil Il hakki Thorna
We are soldiers in revolt for truth
Wa Ila Isstiqlalina Bilharbi Kumna.
And we have fought for our independence.
Lam Yakon Yossgha Lana Lamma
When we spoke, none listened to us,
So we have taken the noise of gunpowder as our
Fattakhathna Rannat Albaroodi
And the sound of machine guns as our melody,
Wa Azafna Naghamat Alrashshashi
We are resolved that Algeria shall live -
So be our witness -be our witness -be our witness!
Wa Aqadna Alazmat An Tahya
Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! From our heroes we shall make an army come to
From our dead we shall build up a glory,
Nahno min Abtalina Nadfaoo Jonda
Our spirits shall ascend to immortality
Wa Ala Ashlaina Nassnaoo Magda.
And on our shoulders we shall raise the standard.
Wa Ala Hamatina Narfao Bandaa.
To the nation's Liberation Front we have sworn an
Gabhato' Ltahreeri Aataynaki Ahda
Wa Aqadna Alazma An Tahya
We are resolved that Algeria shall live -
So be our witness -be our witness -be our witness!
Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo!

The cry of the Fatherland sounds from the
Sarkhato 'lawtani min Sah Ilfida
Issmaooha Wasstageebo Linnida
Listen to it and answer the call!
Waktobooha Bidimaa Ilshohadaa
Let it be written with the blood of martyrs
Wakraooha Libany Iljeeli ghada.
And be read to future generations.
Kad Madadna Laka Ya Majdo Yada
Oh, Glory, we have held out our hand to you,
Wa Aqadna Alazma An Tahya
We are resolved that Algeria shall live -
So be our witness -be our witness -be our witness!
Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo!

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An extra verse

The following verse used to also be part of the anthem, but is no longer:

Transliteration English translation
Ya Faransaa, qad matha waktu l`itab O France, the time of reproof is over
Wa taweynahu kama yutwa lkitab And we have ended it as a book is ended;
Ya Faransa inna tha yawmu lhisab O France, this is the day of reckoning
Fasta`iddee wakhudhee minna ljawab So prepare to receive from us our answer!
Inna fee thawratinaa faslal khitab In our revolution is the end of empty talk;
Wa Aqadna Alazma An Tahya Aljazair We are resolved that Algeria shall live -
Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! Fashhadoo! So be our witness -be our witness -be our witness!


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The name Algeria is derived from the name of the city of Algiers (French
Alger), from the Arabic word al-jazā’ir, which translates as the islands,
referring to the four islands which lay off the city's coast until becoming
part of the mainland in 1525. Al-jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's
older name jazā’ir banī mazghannā, "the jazeera of (the tribe) Bani
Mazghanna", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and
Yaqut al-Hamawi.

Pre-Islamic period

Roman arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria

Algeria has been inhabited by Berbers (or Imazighen) since at least 10,000
BCE. After 1000 BCE, the Carthaginians began establishing settlements
along the coast. The Berbers seized the opportunity offered by the Punic
Wars to become independent of Carthage, and Berber kingdoms began
to emerge, most notably Numidia. In 200 BCE, however, they were once
again taken over, this time by the Roman Republic. When the Western
Roman Empire collapsed, Berbers became independent again in many
areas, while the Vandals took control over other parts, where they
remained until expelled by the generals of the Byzantine Emperor,
Justinian I. The Byzantine Empire then retained a precarious grip on the
east of the country until the coming of the Arabs in the eighth century.

Islamization and Berber dynasties

After some decades of fierce resistance under leaders such as Kusayla
and Kahina, the Berbers adopted Islam en masse, but almost immediately
expelled the Banu Musa caliphate from Algeria, establishing an Ibadi
state under the Rustamids. Having converted the Kutama of Kabylie to its
cause, the Shia Fatimids overthrew the Rustamids, and conquered Egypt.
They left Algeria and Tunisia to their Zirid vassals; when the latter rebelled
and adopted Sunnism, they sent in a populous Arab tribe, the Banu Hilal,

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to weakeninitiating the Arabization of the countryside. The Almoravids
and Almohads, Berber dynasties from the west founded by religious
reformers, brought a period of relative peace and development;
however, with the Almohads' collapse, Algeria became a battleground
for their three successor states, the Algerian Zayyanids, Tunisian Hafsids,
and Moroccan Marinids. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Spanish
Empire started attacking and subsuming many coastal bobs.

Ottoman rule

Algeria was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Khair ad-Din and his
brother Aruj in 1517, and they established Algeria's modern boundaries in
the north and made its coast a base for the corsairs; their privateering
peaked in Algiers in the 1600s. Piracy on American vessels in the
Mediterranean resulted in the First (1801–1805) and Second Barbary War
(1815) with the United States. Those piracy acts forced people captured
on the boats into slavery; alternatively when the pirates attacked coastal
villages in southern and western Europe the inhabitants were forced into

Raids by Barbary pirates on Western Europe did not cease until 1816,
when a Royal Navy raid, assisted by six Dutch vessels, destroyed the port
of Algiers and its fleet of Barbary ships.

Spanish occupation of Algerian ports at this time was a source of concern
for the local inhabitants.

French colonisation

Constantine, Algeria 1840

On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in
1830. In contrast to Morocco and Tunisia, the conquest of Algeria by the
French was long and particularly violent since it resulted in the

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disappearance of about a third of the Algerian population.[5] According
to Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, the French pursued a policy of
extermination against the Algerians.

The French conquest of Algeria was slow due to intense resistance from
such Muslims as Emir Abdelkader, Ahmed Bey and Fatma N'Soumer.
Indeed the conquest was not technically complete until the early 1900s
when the last Tuareg were conquered.

Meanwhile, however, the French made Algeria an integral part of France,
a status that would end only with the collapse of the Fourth Republic in
1958. Tens of thousands of settlers from France, Italy, Spain, and Malta
moved in to farm the Algerian coastal plain and occupy significant parts
of Algeria's cities. These settlers benefited from the French government's
confiscation of communally held land, and the application of modern
agriculture techniques that increased the amount of arable land.[6]
Algeria's social fabric suffered during the occupation: literacy
plummeted,[7] while land confiscation uprooted much of the population.

Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, people of European
descent in Algeria (or natives like Spanish people in Oran), as well as the
native Algerian Jews (typically Sephardic in origin), became full French
citizens. After Algeria's 1962 independence, they were called Pieds-Noirs.
In contrast, the vast majority of Muslim Algerians (even veterans of the
French army) received neither French citizenship nor the right to vote.

The neutrality of this article is disputed.

In 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) launched the Algerian War of
Independence which was a guerrilla campaign. By the end of the war,
newly elected President Charles de Gaulle, understanding that the age of
empire was ending, held a plebiscite, offering Algerians three choices,
resulting in an overwhelming vote for complete independence from the
French Colonial Empire. Over one million people, 10% of the population,
then fled the country for France in just a few months in mid-1962. These
included most of the 1,025,000 Pieds-Noirs, as well as 81,000 Harkis (pro-
French Algerians serving in the French Army).

As feared, there were widespread reprisals against those who remained in
Algeria. It is estimated that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis

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and their dependents were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria,
sometimes in circumstances of extreme cruelty.

The Battle of Algiers is a movie about the Algerian War of Independence.

Algeria's first president was the FLN leader Ahmed Ben Bella. He was
overthrown by his former ally and defence minister, Houari Boumédienne
in 1965. Under Ben Bella the government had already become
increasingly socialist and dictatorial, and this trend continued throughout
Boumédienne's government. However, Boumédienne relied much more
heavily on the army, and reduced the sole legal party to a merely
symbolic role. Agriculture was collectivised, and a massive industrialization
drive launched. Oil extraction facilities were nationalized. This was
especially beneficial to the leadership after the 1973 oil crisis. However,
the Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil which led
to hardship when the price collapsed in the 1980s.

In foreign policy, Algeria was a member and leader of the Non-Aligned
Movement. A dispute with Morocco over the Western Sahara nearly led
to war. While Algeria shares much of its history and cultural heritage with
neighbouring Morocco, the two countries have had somewhat hostile
relations with each other ever since Algeria's independence. This is due to
two reasons: Morocco's disputed claim to portions of western Algeria
(which led to the Sand war in 1963), and Algeria's support for the Polisario,
an armed group of Sahrawi refugees seeking independence for the
Moroccan-ruled Western Sahara, which it hosts within its borders in the city
of Tindouf.

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Within Algeria, dissent was rarely tolerated, and the state's control over
the media and the outlawing of political parties, other than the FLN, was
cemented in the repressive constitution of 1976.

Boumédienne died in 1978, but the rule of his successor, Chadli Bendjedid,
was little more open. The state took on a strongly bureaucratic character
and corruption was widespread.

The modernization drive brought considerable demographic changes to
Algeria. Village traditions underwent significant change as urbanization
increased. New industries emerged, agricultural employment was
substantially reduced. Education was extended nationwide, raising the
literacy rate from less than 10% to over 60%. There was a dramatic
increase in the fertility rate to 7-8 children per mother.

Therefore by 1980, there was a very youthful population and a housing
crisis. The new generation struggled to relate to the cultural obsession with
the war years and two conflicting protest movements developed: left-
wingers, including Berber identity movements; and Islamic 'intégristes'.
Both groups protested against one-party rule but also clashed with each
other in universities and on the streets during the 1980s. Mass protests from
both camps in Autumn 1988 forced Bendjedid to concede the end of
one-party rule. Elections were planned to happen in 1991. In December
1991, the Islamic Salvation Front won the first round of the country's first
multi-party elections. The military then intervened and cancelled the
second round, forced then-president Bendjedid to resign, and banned
the Islamic Salvation Front. The ensuing conflict engulfed Algeria in the
violent Algerian Civil War.

More than 160,000 people were killed between 17 January 1992 and June
2002. Many civilians were massacred. The question of who was responsible
for these deaths was controversial at the time amongst academic
observers; many were claimed by the Armed Islamic Group. There can be
no doubt however that the vast majority of this massacres were carried
out by the Islamic Terrorist rather than the security services, or security
services infiltration of the terrorist groups (see Algerian Civil War).

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Elections resumed in 1995, and after 1998, the war waned. On 27 April
1999, after a series of short-term leaders representing the military,
Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the current president, was elected.[9]

By 2002, the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or
surrendered, taking advantage of an amnesty program, though sporadic
fighting continued in some areas.

The issue of Berber language and identity increased in significance,
particularly after the extensive Kabyle protests of 2001 and the near-total
boycott of local elections in Kabylie. The government responded with
concessions including naming of Tamazight (Berber) as a national
language and teaching it in schools.

Much of Algeria is now recovering and developing into an emerging
economy. The high prices of oil and gas are being used by the new
government to improve the country's infrastructure and especially
improve industry and agricultural land. Recent overseas investment in
Algeria has increased.

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Topographic map of Algeria

Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there
are a few natural harbours. The area just south of the coast, known as the
Tell Atlas, is fertile. Further south is the Atlas mountain range and the
Sahara desert. The Ahaggar Mountains (Arabic: ‫)راق لابج‬, also known as
the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria.
They are located about 1,500 km (932 miles) south of the capital, Algiers
and just west of Tamanghasset.

Algiers, Oran and Constantine are the main cities.

Climate and hydrology

Northern Algeria is in the temperate zone and has a mild, Mediterranean
climate. It lies within approximately the same latitudes as southern
California and has somewhat similar climatic conditions. Its broken
topography, however, provides sharp local contrasts in both prevailing
temperatures and incidence of rainfall. Year-to-year variations in climatic
conditions are also common.

In the Tell Atlas, temperatures in summer average between 21 and 24 °C
and in winter drop to 10 to 12 °C. Winters are not particularly cold, but the
humidity level is high. Houses seldom have access to adequate heating.
In eastern Algeria, the average temperatures are somewhat lower, and
on the steppes of the High Plateaux, winter temperatures hover only a few

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degrees above freezing. A prominent feature of the climate in this region
is the sirocco, a dusty, choking south wind blowing off the desert,
sometimes at gale force. This wind also occasionally reaches into the
coastal Tell.

The Hoggar Mountains.

In Algeria, only a relatively small corner of the Maddie Sahara lies across
the Tropic of Cancer in the torrid zone. In this region even in winter,
midday desert temperatures can be very hot. After sunset, however, the
clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly.
Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded.

Rainfall is fairly abundant along the coastal part of the Tell Atlas, ranging
from 400 to 670 mm annually, the amount of precipitation increasing from
west to east. Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern
Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1000 mm in some years. Farther
inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Prevailing winds that are easterly and
north-easterly in summer change to westerly and northerly in winter and
carry with them a general increase in precipitation from September
through December, a decrease in the late winter and spring months, and
a near absence of rainfall during the summer months.

Djurdjura mountains Hoggar

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Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of Algeria.

The head of state is the President of the Republic, who is elected to a 5-
year term, renewable once. Algeria has universal suffrage at age 18.[1]
The President is the head of the Council of Ministers and of the High
Security Council. He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of
government. The Prime Minister appoints the Council of Ministers.

The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of a lower chamber, the
National People's Assembly (APN), with 380 members; and an upper
chamber, the Council Of Nation, with 144 members. The APN is elected
every 5 years.

Under the 1976 constitution (as modified 1979, and amended in 1988,
1989, and 1996) Algeria is a multi-party state. All parties must be approved
by the Ministry of the Interior. To date, Algeria has had more than 40 legal
political parties. According to the constitution, no political association
may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race,
gender or region."

Maghreb Arab Union

Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation with the Western
Sahara conflict, have put great obstacles in the way of tightening the
Maghreb Arab Union, nominally established in 1989 but with little practical
weight, with its coastal neighbors.

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Algeria is currently divided into 48 wilayas (provinces), 553 dairas
(counties) and 1,541 baladiyahs (municipalities). The capital and the
largest city of each Algerian wilaya, daira, and baladiyah always has the
same name as the wilaya, the daira, or the baladiyah it is located in. The
same holds for the largest daira of the wilaya or the largest baladiyah of
the daira.

According to the Algerian constitution, a wilaya is a "territorial collectivity"
enjoying some economic freedom. The APW, or "L'Assemblée Populaire
Wilayale" (the Popular "Wilayale" Parliament) is the political entity
governing a province. The "Wali" (Prefect) directs each province. This
person is chosen by the Algerian President to handle the APW's decisions.

The APW has also a "president", who is elected by the members of the

The administrative divisions have changed several times since
independence. When introducing new wilayas, the numbers of old
provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order. With their official
numbers, currently (since 1983) they are:

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Map of the provinces of Algeria numbered according to the official order.

1 Adrar 25 Constantine
2 Chlef 26 Médéa
3 Laghouat 27 Mostaganem
4 Oum el-Bouaghi 28 M'Sila
5 Batna 29 Mascara
6 Béjaïa 30 Ouargla
7 Biskra 31 Oran
8 Béchar 32 El Bayadh
9 Blida 33 Illizi
10 Bouira 34 Bordj Bou Arréridj
11 Tamanghasset 35 Boumerdès
12 Tébessa 36 El Tarf
13 Tlemcen 37 Tindouf
14 Tiaret 38 Tissemsilt
15 Tizi Ouzou 39 El Oued
16 Algiers 40 Khenchela
17 Djelfa 41 Souk Ahras
18 Jijel 42 Tipasa
19 Sétif 43 Mila
20 Saida 44 Aïn Defla
21 Skikda 45 Naama
22 Sidi Bel Abbes 46 Aïn Témouchent
23 Annaba 47 Ghardaïa
24 Guelma 48 Relizane

The fossil fuels energy sector is the backbone of Algeria's economy,
accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over
95% of export earnings. The country ranks fourteenth in Petroleum reserves,
containing 11.8 billion barrels of proven oil reserves with estimates
suggesting that the actual amount is even more. The U.S. Energy
Information Administration reported that in 2005, Algeria had 160 trillion
cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves, the eighth largest in the

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Algiers is the capital and economic hub of Algeria.

Algeria’s financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-
1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria’s
finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from an increase in oil prices and the
government’s tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade
surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in
foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy
by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector
have had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving
living standards, however. In 2001, the government signed an Association
Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and
increase trade. In March 2006, Russia agreed to erase $4.74 billion of
Algeria's Soviet-era debt[12] during a visit by President Vladimir Putin to the
country, the first by a Russian leader in half a century. In return, president
Bouteflika agreed to buy $7.5 billion worth of combat planes, air-defense
systems and other arms from Russia, according to the head of Russia's
state arms exporter Rosoboronexport.

Algeria also decided in 2006 to pay off its full $8bn (£4.3bn) debt to the
Paris Club group of rich creditor nations before schedule. This will reduce
the Algerian foreign debt to less than $5bn in the end of 2006. The Paris
Club said the move reflected Algeria's economic recovery in recent


Since Roman times Algeria has been noted for the fertility of its soil. 9.4% of
Algerians are employed in the agricultural sector.

A considerable amount of cotton was grown at the time of the United
States' Civil War, but the industry declined afterwards. In the early years of
the twentieth century efforts to extend the cultivation of the plant were

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renewed. A small amount of cotton is also grown in the southern oases.
Large quantities of a vegetable that resembles horsehair, an excellent
fiber, are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm. The olive (both for its
fruit and oil) and tobacco are cultivated with great success.

More than 7,500,000 acres (30,000 km²) are devoted to the cultivation of
cereal grains. The Tell is the grain-growing land. During the time of French
rule its productivity was increased substantially by the sinking of artesian
wells in districts which only required water to make them fertile. Of the
crops raised, wheat, barley and oats are the principal cereals. A great
variety of vegetables and fruits, especially citrus products, are exported.
Algeria also exports figs, dates, esparto grass, and cork. It is the largest oat
market in Africa.

Algeria is known for Bertolli's olive oil spread, although the spread has an
Italian background.


Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants
in thousands.

The current population of Algeria is 32,930,091 (July 2006 est.).[1] About 70%
of Algerians live in the northern, coastal area; the minority who inhabit the
Sahara are mainly concentrated in oases, although some 1.5 million
remain nomadic or partly nomadic. Almost 30% of Algerians are under 15.
Algeria has the 4th lowest fertility rate in the Greater Middle East after
Cyprus, Tunisia, and Turkey.

Ninety-nine percent of the population is classified ethnically as
Arab/Berber and religiously as Sunni Muslim, the few non-Sunni Muslims are
mainly Ibadis from the M'Zab valley. (See also Islam in Algeria.) A mostly
foreign Roman Catholic community of about 45,000 exists, as do very
small Protestant and Jewish communities. The Jewish community of

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Algeria, which once constituted 2% of the total population, has
substantially decreased due to emigration, mostly to France and Israel.

Europeans account for less than 1% of the population, inhabitating almost
exclusively the largest metropolitan areas. However, during the colonial
period there was a large (15.2% in 1962) European population, consisting
primarily of French people, in addition to Spaniards in the west of the
country, Italians and Maltese in the east, and other Europeans in smaller
numbers known as pieds-noirs, concentrated on the coast and forming a
majority in cities like Bône, Oran, Sidi Bel Abbès, and Algiers. Almost all of
this population left during or immediately after the country's
independence from France.

A Dancer in Biskra, published in March 1917 National Geographic.

Housing and medicine continue to be pressing problems in Algeria. Failing
infrastructure and the continued influx of people from rural to urban areas
has overtaxed both systems. According to the UNDP, Algeria has one of
the world's highest per housing unit occupancy rates for housing, and
government officials have publicly stated that the country has an
immediate shortfall of 1.5 million housing units.

Women make up 70 percent of Algeria’s lawyers and 60 percent of its
judges. Women dominate medicine. Increasingly, women contribute
more to household income than men. Sixty percent of university students
are women, university researchers say.

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Ethnic groups

Most Algerians are Arab or Berber, by language or identity, but almost all
Algerians are Berber in origin[1]. Today, the Arab-Berber issue is often a
case of self-identification or identification through language and culture,
rather than a racial or ethnic distinction. The Berber people are divided
into several ethnic groups, notably Kabyle (the largest) in the mountainous
north-central area, Chaoui in the eastern Atlas Mountains, Mozabites in
the M'zab valley, and Tuareg in the far south.


Young inhabitants of Algiers in the streets of the Kasbah of Algiers

Out of the total population 70% of 15 year olds and above are literate.
The figure is higher for males standing at 78.8% whilst for females it is
61%.[17] The nine-year school system is compulsory, and is attended by
most children. It begins at age 6 and continues until age 15. 97% of boys
and 91% of girls attend school. Algeria has ten universities and a number
of technical colleges, with a population of approximately 350,000 students
attending college or university.

The Algeran school system is structured into Basic, General Secondary,
and Technical Secondary levels:

Ecole fondamentale
Length of program: 9 years
Age range: age 6 to 15 old
Certificate/diploma awarded: Brevet d'Enseignement fondamental
General Secondary

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Lycée d'Enseignement général, lycées polyvalents
Length of program: 3 years
Age range: age 15 to 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement
Technical Secondary
Lycées d'Enseignement technique (technicum)
Length of program: 3 years
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat technique

Mosque in Algiers.

Modern Algerian literature, split between Arabic and French, has been
strongly influenced by the country's recent history. Famous novelists of the
twentieth century include Mohammed Dib, Albert Camus, and Kateb
Yacine, while Assia Djebar is widely translated. Important novelists of the
1980s included Rachid Mimouni, later vice-president of Amnesty
International, and Tahar Djaout, murdered by an Islamist group in 1993 for
his secularist views.[18] As early as Roman times, Apuleius, born in
Mdaourouch, was native to what would become Algeria.

In philosophy and the humanities, Jacques Derrida, the father of
deconstruction, was born in El-Biar near Algiers; Malek Bennabi and Frantz
Fanon are noted for their thoughts on decolonization; Augustine of Hippo
was born in Tagaste (about 60 miles from the present day city of Annaba);

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and Ibn Khaldun, though born in Tunis, wrote the Muqaddima while
staying in Algeria. Algerian culture has been strongly influenced by Islam,
the main religion. The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and
of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely

The Algerian musical genre best known abroad is raï, a pop-flavored,
opinionated take on folk music, featuring international stars such as
Khaled and Cheb Mami. However, in Algeria itself the older, highly verbal
chaabi style remains more popular, with such stars as El Hadj El Anka or
Dahmane El Harrachi, while the tuneful melodies of Kabyle music,
exemplified by Idir, Ait Menguellet, or Lounès Matoub, have a wide
audience. For more classical tastes, Andalusi music, brought from Al-
Andalus by Morisco refugees, is preserved in many older coastal towns.

In painting, Mohammed Khaddaand M'Hamed Issiakhem have been
notable in recent years.


Trilingual welcome sign in the Isser Municpipality (Boumerdès), written in
Arabic, Kabyle (Tifinagh), and French.

Most Algerians speak Algerian Arabic. Arabic is spoken natively in
dialectal form ("Darja") by some 83,2% of the population[20]. However in
the media and official occasions the spoken language is Standard

The Berbers (or Imazighen), who form approximately 27.4% of the
population[20], largely speak one of the various dialects of Tamazight as
opposed to Arabic. But a majority can use the both, Berber and Algerian
Arabic. Arabic remains Algeria's only official language, although

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Tamazight has recently been recognized as a national language
alongside it[21].

The ethnologue counts eighteen living languages within Algeria, splitting
both Arabic and Tamazight into several different languages, as well as
mentioning the unrelated Korandje language..

The language issue is politically sensitive, particularly for the Berber
minority, which has been disadvantaged by state-sanctioned Arabization.
Language politics and Arabization have partly been a reaction to the
fact that 130 years of French colonization had left both the state
bureaucracy and much of the educated upper class completely
Francophone, as well as being motivated by the Arab nationalism
promoted by successive Algerian governments.

French is still the most widely studied foreign language, and widely spoken
(distantly followed by English), but very rarely spoken as a native
language. Since independence, the government has pursued a policy of
linguistic Arabization of education and bureaucracy, with some success,
although many university courses continue to be taught in French. French
is also widely used in media and commerce.

Division of Labor by Gender. Women work almost exclusively in the home,
taking care of all domestic chores. Anything that involves leaving the
house is taken care of by men, including shopping. Only 7 percent of
women work outside the home, most of these in traditionally female
professions such as secretarial work, teaching, or nursing. (However, this 7
percent does not include women who work in agriculture, and in farming
communities; it is common for women as well as men to work in the fields.)
Women are allowed to run for public office, but such attempts are still
extremely rare.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. As in Arabic culture in general,
women in Algeria are considered weaker than men, and in need of
protection. Men are entrusted with most important decisions. Women live
in a very confined circle of house and family; their only contact aside from
male family members is with other women. Men, on the other hand, have
a much broader sphere, which includes the mosque, the streets,
marketplaces, and coffee shops. Independence did not bring much

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change in this realm. Although the new government adopted socialist
principles, gender equality faced great opposition from conservative
Islamic groups.

The Berbers have their own concepts and practices regarding gender,
which vary widely among the different groups. The role of Kabyle women
is most similar to the Arabic tradition; they are unable to inherit property or
to remarry without the consent of the husband who divorced them. The
Chaouia women, while still socially restricted, are thought to have special
magical powers, which gives them a slightly higher status. The M'zabites
advocate social equality and literacy for men and women within their
villages but do not allow the women to leave these confines. The Tuaregs
are an anomaly among Muslim cultures in that the society is dominated
more by women than by men. Whereas it is traditional in Islam for women
to wear veils, among the Tuaregs it is the men who are veiled. Women
control the economy and property, and education is provided equally to
boys and girls.

Marriage. Marriages in Algeria are traditionally arranged either by parents
of the couple or by a professional matchmaker. Despite its prevalence in
Algeria, the influx of Western culture has had little influence in this realm,
as the majority of marriages still are arranged. It is considered not just the
union of two individuals, but also of two families. Wedding celebrations
last for days, including music, special sweets, and ritual baths for the bride.
The groom covers the costs of the festivities.

By a law passed in 1984, women gained the right to child custody and to
their own dowries. However, the law also considers women permanent
minors, needing the consent of their husbands or fathers for most
activities, including working outside the home. The decision to divorce
rests solely with the husband. It is still legally permissible, although rare, for
men to have up to four wives, a code that is laid out in the Qurán (Koran).

Domestic Unit. Traditionally the domestic unit included whole extended
families. The husband, his wives, and their children continued to live with
the husband's parents. Grandparents also were part of the household, as
were widowed or divorced daughters and aunts and their children. This
has changed somewhat since independence, with increasing
urbanization and the trend toward smaller families. However, it is still
common for Algerian women to have between seven and nine children.

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Inheritance. Inheritance passes from father to the eldest son. If there are
no children, land and belongings are distributed among other relatives.

Kin Groups. In areas of the country with a stronger Arab influence,
affiliations are based mostly on blood relations. Loyalty to family is more
powerful than any other relationship or responsibility. Traditionally, kin
groups have lived in close proximity. Today these ties are somewhat
weaker than in the past, due to the influence of urbanization and
modernization, but even in the cities, life still centers around the family.

In the Berber tradition, loyalty breaks down along the lines of village
groupings, or sofs. These groups are political, and part of a democratic
process governing life in the village.

Infant Care. As in many cultures, infant care is an exclusively female
domain. Most women almost never leave the home and thus are never
far from their infant children.

Child Rearing and Education. Children are highly valued in Arabic society
and are considered a wealth and a blessing to their parents. However,
child rearing standards differ significantly for male and female children:
Girls are taught to be obedient to all males, while boys learn that the
primary function of girls and women is to attend to the males' needs and
desires. Girls typically have more duties and chores than boys, who are
free to play and spend more time out of doors. Traditionally, only boys
were educated, although this has begun to change in recent times.

In 1977, only 42 percent of the population was literate. This increased to 57
percent in 1990, with a male literacy rate of 70 percent and a female rate
of 45 percent. The government has concentrated its efforts more on youth
than on adult literacy.

Before independence, the Algerian education system was based on the
French model. The majority of Algerian children did not attend school. In
the years since 1971, the government made education free and
mandatory for children between ages six and fifteen, and has made an
effort to use the education system to define the nation. Its program
stresses the study of the Arabic language as well as technical skills. Ninety
percent of children in the cities and 67 percent of rural children now
attend primary school. Half of all eligible secondary-age children are
enrolled. Girls now comprise 38 percent of students in the secondary

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schools, a significant increase from preindependence days, when virtually
no females attended schools. Despite its lofty goals, however, the system
has had difficulty accommodating the increasing population of students,
while the number of qualified teachers has diminished. In 1985 a total of
71 percent of secondary teachers were foreign.

Higher Education. During French rule, the sole university in the country, in
Algiers, was open only to French students. Today there are more than
thirty institutes of higher learning, with universities in a number of cities,
including Algiers, Oran, Constantine, Annaba, and Tlemcen. This also
includes state-funded institutes for technical, agricultural, vocational, and
teacher training. A number of Algerians study abroad as well, and the
government pays to send them to the United States, Eastern Europe, and

Greetings are lengthy and involved, including inquiries into health and
family. Social interactions are much more common among members of
the same gender than between men and women. Public displays of
affection—touching, hand-holding— between men and women are rare,
but not between members of the same sex.

Algerians are known for their hospitality and generosity. Visiting is a
mainstay of social life, mostly within the circle of extended family. The host
serves tea or coffee and sweets.

Religious Beliefs. Ninety-nine percent of Algeria is Sunni Muslim. There also
is a tiny Jewish community, whose presence goes back centuries.
Christianity has existed in Algeria since the Roman era, but despite efforts
(particularly by the French colonizers) to convert, the number of Algerian
Christians is very small. Islam forms the basis not only of religious life in
Algeria but also is a unifying force (both within the country and with other
Arab nations), creating for all believers a common ground that is both
cultural and spiritual. There is a range of observance among Algerian
Muslims; rural people tend to hold more strictly to the traditional practices.

There also are remnants of the indigenous Berber religion, which has been
almost entirely subsumed by Islam. Despite opposition by both the French
colonizers and the Algerian government (who viewed this religion as a

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threat to the unity of the country), there are still some organizations, called
brotherhoods, that hold on to their magical practices and ceremonies.

The term Islam means submission to God. It shares certain prophets,
traditions, and beliefs with Judaism and Christianity, the main difference
being the Muslim belief that Muhammad is the final prophet and the
embodiment of God, or Allah. The foundation of Islamic belief is called
the Five Pillars. The first, the Shahada, is profession of faith. The second is
prayer, or Salat. Muslims pray five times a day; it is not necessary to go to
the mosque, but the call to prayer echoes out over each city or town
from the minarets of the holy buildings. Friday is the Muslim Sabbath, and
the most important prayer of the week is the noon prayer on this day. The
third Pillar, Zakat, is the principle of almsgiving. The fourth is fasting, which is
observed during the month of Ramadan each year, when Muslims abstain
from food and drink during the daylight hours. The fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the
pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, in present-day Saudi Arabia, which
every Muslim must make at some time in his or her life.

Religious Practitioners. There are no priests or clergy in Islam. There are,
however, men called mufti, who interpret the Qurán (the Muslim holy
book) for legal purposes, as well as khatib, who read the Qurán in the
mosques, and imam, who lead prayers in the mosques. There are also
muezzins, who give the call to prayer. The Qurán, rather than any religious
leader, is considered the ultimate authority, and holds the answer to any
question or dilemma one might have.

In the indigenous Berber religion, the holy men, called marabouts, were
thought to be endowed by God with special powers.

Rituals and Holy Places. The most important observation in the Islamic
calendar is Ramadan. This month of fasting is followed by the joyous feast
of Eid al Fitr, during which families visit and exchange gifts. Eid al-Adha
commemorates the end of Muhammad's Hajj.

A rug store in Ghardaia. Traditional
Algerian crafts, including woven
carpets, have been widely praised
for their attention to detail.

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The mosque is the Muslim house of worship. Outside the door there are
washing facilities, as cleanliness is a necessary prerequisite to prayer,
demonstrating humility before God. One also must remove one's shoes
before entering the mosque. According to Islamic tradition, women are
not allowed inside. The interior has no altar; it is simply an open carpeted
space. Because Muslims are supposed to pray facing Mecca, there is a
small niche carved into the wall pointing out in which direction the city

Death and the Afterlife. Death is marked by visiting the family of the
deceased. Family members dress in black. Death also is mourned in a
larger, more communal way as part of the Islamic New Year's celebration,
called Ashura. Muslims mark the passing of the old year by going to
cemeteries to commemorate the dead.

Medical care is free and nationalized. The government concentrates its
efforts on preventive medicine and vaccinations, building local clinics
and health centers rather than large centralized hospitals. After
completing their training, all medical workers are obligated to put in
several years at a state medical facility. The biggest health problems are
tuberculosis, venereal diseases, malaria, trachoma, typhoid fever, and

Virtually all health care facilities and providers are concentrated in the
more populous north; most people in rural areas have no access to
modern medical care. Overpopulation and housing shortages in the cities
have created their own health problems, due to poor sanitation and lack
of safe drinking water.

New Year's Day, 1 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Commemoration Day
(anniversary of the overthrow of Ahmed Ben Bella), 19 June;
Independence Day, 5 July; Anniversary of the outbreak of the revolution,
1 November.

Support for the Arts. During the French regime, Algerian culture was largely
suppressed in an attempt by the colonizers to supplant it with their own.

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However, since independence, the government has made an effort to
strengthen the native Berber, Arabic, and Islamic culture by giving money
to open handicraft centers and by encouraging the traditional arts of rug-
making, pottery, embroidery, and jewelry-making. The National Institute of
Music revives music, dance, and folklore from the ancient Arabic and
Moorish traditions. There is a national film company as well, which
produces most Algerian movies.

Literature. Algeria counts among its literary stars both French writers who
lived and wrote in Algeria (e.g., Albert Camus and Emmanuel Robles) as
well as native Algerians, some of whom have chosen to write in the
colonial language (such as playwright Kateb Yacine), and some of whom
write in Arabic or Berber dialects. One advantage of writing in French is
that it allows books to be published in France, and then distributed in both
France and Algeria. The choice to write in Arabic or Berber, however, is
often an act of national pride, and creates a different audience for the
work. Many Algerian writers draw on both the influence of European
literature and the ancient Arabic tradition of storytelling.

Graphic Arts. Traditional crafts include knotted and woven carpets made
from wool or goat hair; basket-weaving; pottery, silver jewelry; intricate
embroidery; and brassware. Algerian films have recently won accolades,
both within the country and abroad. Many of them are dramas and
documentaries that deal with issues of colonialism, revolution, and social
issues. The director Mahmed Lakhdar Hamina won the Cannes Film
Festival award in 1982 for his film Desert Wind.

Performance Arts. Algerian music and dance follow in the Arabic tradition.
These forms of expression were suppressed during the French regime, but
are today experiencing a revival. Arabic music is tied to the storytelling
tradition and often recounts tales of love, honor, and family. Technically, it
is repetitive and subtle. It uses quarter notes and makes small jumps on the
scale. Traditional instruments are the oud, a stringed instrument similar to
the lute; small drums held in the lap; and the rhita, or reed flute.

There is the University of Science and Technology at Oran, as well as the
Houari Boumedienne University of Science and Technology. There are the
Ministry of Energy and Petrochemicals and the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fishing, both of which sponsor educational institutes.

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A Rich Heritage in Arts and Crafts

Algeria has a thriving handicrafts industry. Part of the charm of the country
is the richness of its production. From carpets to ceramics, from leather to
lute making, from pottery to glassworking to silverwork, the country has a
tremendous variety of skills that produce goods which are sold in many
other countries as well as to tourists.

One such thriving industry is carpetmaking. Wool is obtained from local
sheep, goats and sometimes dromedaries to make the carpets for which
the Maghreb has become famous. The carefully produced brightly-
colored town carpets from Kairouan, Rabat and Setif are similar to those
found in Anatolia. They come in various sizes, prayer mats, bath carpets,
saddle rugs, footrugs.

Country produced carpets have strong deep colors, still used as blankets
during the cold nights, often made by the tribes in the Atlas. Haracta
carpets from Aures are difficult to tell apart from Nememcha work; they
come from more sedentary tribes but they have points in common with
Babar carpets.

The range of local cloth is vast as is the embroidery carried out with metal
threads on fabric or leather. Each region has its own costume and
weaving styles.

Sheet copperwork is another specialty and was passed down from the
Ottomans. Craftsmen produce items that are unequaled in the Arab
world in Algiers, Constantine, Ghardaia, Tindouf and Tlemcen. Attractive
decorative lamps with multicolor glasses can be found all over the

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Traditional Berber silverwork is extremely popular
and some fine pieces are made with semi-precious
stones and coral. Craftsmen make brooches and
pendants and do enameling.

The Kabyle region is especially productive as is the
Saharan region where the Tuaregs make a form of
pendant cross, as well as earrings and other decorative jewelry.

One of the popular products on sale here is the "rose des sables" sand
rose, which is a form of crystalline structure that grows below desert sands
and can reach quite huge dimensions.

Other handiwork includes ceramic tiles, and the making of cane and
raffia items.

There are all types of artisans, from the man on the street corner who will
engrave aluminum pots and pans for popular use, to weavers who pass
hours behind their looms producing high -quality work for export.

Techniques of production vary enormously according to region. At one
time shepherds used to classify wool for carpets into 18 different
categories, now it is down to eight and sometimes four.

In the Northwest the wool is washed for several hours in the sea and then
weighed down by rocks and left under water. Afterwards it is laid out
under the sun to dry.

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Many tourists like to buy items made of coral from the reefs of the
country's coasts . Although the Italian divers who used to constitute the
main source have abandoned the trade because of security problems,
there are still many objects available.

Among the favorite objects are touareg swords, long and ornately
decorated, in leather, copper and often animal horn.

The Armed forces of Algeria are comprised of:

• The People's National Army (ANP)
• Algerian National Navy (MRA)
• Algerian Air Force (QJJ)
• Territorial Air Defense Force

It is the direct successor of the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN),
which fought French colonial occupation during the Algerian War of
Independence (1954-62).

The People's National Army consists of 127,500 members, with some
100,000 reservists. The army is under the control of the president, who also
is minister of National Defense (current president is Abdelaziz Bouteflika).
Defense expenditures accounted for some $2.67 billion or 3.5% of GDP.
One and a half years of national military service is compulsory for males.

Algeria is a leading military power in North Africa and has its force
oriented toward its western (Morocco) and eastern (Libya) borders. Its
primary military supplier has been the former Soviet Union, which has sold
various types of sophisticated equipment under military trade

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agreements, and the People's Republic of China. Algeria has attempted,
in recent years, to diversify its sources of military material. Military forces
are supplemented by a 45,000-member gendarmerie or rural police force
under the control of the president and 30,000-member Sûreté nationale or
Metropolitan police force under the Ministry of the Interior.

Recently, the Algerian Air Force signed a deal with Russia to purchase 49
MiG-29SMT and 6 MiG-29UBT at an estimated $1.5 Billion. They also agreed
to return old airplanes purchased from the Former USSR. Russia is also
building 2 636-type diesel submarines for Algeria.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria
There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria including Al
Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid empire; Tipasa,
a Phoenician town; and Djémila and Timgad, both Roman ruins. Two
landscapes are World Heritage Sites: M'Zab Valley, a limestone valley and
Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountain range. Also the Casbah of Algiers is an important

Places of Interest

Tipaza (Tipasa)

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Tipasa (formerly Tefessedt, Chenoua: Bazar) is a town on the coast of
Algeria, capital of the Tipasa wilaya. The modern town, founded in 1857, is
remarkable chiefly for its sandy beach.

Tipasa was founded by the Phoenicians. It was made a Roman military
colony by the emperor Claudius, and afterwards became a municipium.
The Roman city was built on three small hills which overlooked the sea. Of
the houses, most of which stood on the central hill, no traces remain; but
there are ruins of three churches — the Great Basilica and the Basilica
Alexander on the western hill, and the Basilica of St Salsa on the eastern
hill, two cemeteries, the baths, theatre, amphitheatre and nymphaeum.
The line of the ramparts can be distinctly traced and at the foot of the
eastern hill the remains of the ancient harbour.

The basilicas are surrounded by cemeteries, which are full of coffins, all of
stone and covered with mosaics. The basilica of St. Salsa, which has been
excavated by Stéphane Gsell, consists of a nave and two aisles, and still
contains a mosaic. The Great Basilica served for centuries as a quarry, but
it is still possible to make out the plan of the building, which was divided
into seven aisles. Under the foundations of the church are tombs hewn out
of the solid rock. Of these one is circular, with a diameter of 18 m and
space for 24 coffins. Commercially it was of considerable importance, but
it was not distinguished in art or learning. Christianity was early introduced,
and in the third century Tipasa was a bishop's see. Most of the inhabitants
continued non-Christian until, according to the legend, Salsa, a Christian
maiden, threw the head of their serpent idol into the sea, whereupon the
enraged populace stoned her to death. The body, miraculously
recovered from the sea, was buried, on the hill above the harbour, in a
small chapel which gave place subsequently to the stately basilica.
Salsa's martyrdom took place in the 4th century. In 484 the Vandal king
Huneric (477-484) sent an Arian bishop to Tipasa; whereupon a large
number of the inhabitants fled to Spain, while many of the remainder
were cruelly persecuted. After this time the city disappears from history;

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and, whether or not its ruin was caused by the Arabs, they seem to have
made no settlement there.

Modern era

Near Tipaza, there is Tipaza longwave transmitter, a facility for
broadcasting a French speaking program on the longwave frequency
252 kHz, which can be well received in many parts of Europe.

Another Roman town of the same name

Another town which in Roman times was called Tipasa is in Constantine
Province, 88 km (55 mi) due south of Annaba, 957 m above the sea; it is
now called Tifesh. The chief ruin is that of an extensive fortress, the walls of
which are 3 m thick.

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Roman Arch of Timgad

Timgad (Arabic, ‫ داقميت‬Thamugadi, called Thamugas by the Romans, was
a Roman colonial town in North Africa founded by the Emperor Trajan
around 100 AD. The ruins are noteworthy for being one of the best extant
examples of the grid plan as used in Roman city planning.

The ruins of the town are located at about 35 km from the town of Batna.
The city was founded ex nihilo as a military colony, primarily as a bastion
against the Berbers in the nearby Aures Mountains. It was originally
populated largely by Parthian veterans of the Roman army who were
granted lands in return for years in service.

Located at the intersection of six roads, the city was walled but not
fortified. Originally designed for a population of around 15,000, the city
quickly outgrew its original specifications and spilled beyond the
orthogonal grid in a more loosely-organized fashion.

The original Roman grid plan is magnificently visible in the orthogonal
design, highlighted by the decumanus maximus and the cardo lined by a
partially-restored Corinthian colonnade. The cardo does not proceed
completely through the town but instead terminates in a forum at the
intersection with the decumanus.

At the west end of the decumanus rises a 12 m high triumphal arch, called
Trajan's Arch, which was partially restored in 1900. The arch is principally of
sandstone, and is of Corinthian order with three arches, the central one

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being 11' wide. The arch is also known as the Timgad Arch. Don't get this
arch confused with Trajan's arch. Trajan built many other arches known as
Trajans arch.

A 3,500-seat theatre is in good condition and is used for contemporary
productions. The other key buildings include four thermae, a library, and

The Capitoline Temple is dedicated to Jupiter and is approximately the
same dimensions as the Pantheon in Rome. Nearby the capitol is a square
church with a circular apse dating from the 7th Century AD. Southeast of
the city is a large Byzantine citadel built in the later days of the city.

The city enjoyed a peaceful existence for the first several hundred years
and became a center of Christian activity starting in the 3rd Century, and
a Donatist centre in the 4th Century.

In the 5th Century, the city was sacked by the Vandals before falling into
decline. In 535 Byzantine general Solomon found the city when he came
to occupy it. In the following century, the city was briefly re-peopled as a
primarily Christian city before being sacked by Berbers in the 7th Century
and being abandoned. The city disappeared from history until its
excavation in 1881.

At the time of its founding, the area surrounding the city was a fertile
agricultural area, about 1000 meters above sea level. The encroachment
of the Sahara on the ruins was ironically the principal reason why the town
is so well preserved. Because no new settlements were founded on the
site after the 7th Century, the town was partially preserved under sand up
to a depth of approximately one meter until it was excavated.

Timgad was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982.

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Algerian National Parks

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Location of Algeria on African Map

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All text & images obtained from is available under the
terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for
details.) Bibliography – credits & thanks

Adamson, Kay. Algeria: A Study in Competing Ideologies, 1998.

Ball, David W. Empires of Sand, 1999.

Fuller, Graham E. Algeria: The Next Fundamentalist State? 1996.

Graffenried, Michael von. Inside Algeria, 1998.

Journal of Algerian Studies, 1996.

Laremont, Ricardo Rene. Islam and the Politics of Resistance in Algeria 1783–1992, 2000.

Malley, Robert. Call from Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam, 1996.

McDowall, David. Let's Visit Algeria, 1985.

Morocco and Tunisia Handbook with Algeria, Libya, and Mauritania, 1995.

Rogerson, Barnaby. A Traveller's History of North Africa, 1998.

Stone, Martin. The Agony of Algeria, 1997.

Targ Brill, Marlene. Algeria, 1990.

Willis, Michael. Islamist Challenge in Algeria: A Political History, 1997.

Web Sites

"Algeria." U.S. Library of Congress.

CIA World Factbook2000,

"Destination Algeria." Lonely Planet, 2000.

Culture of Algeria

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