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Effectiveness Lab
- An Experiential Learning Platform


Personal Effectiveness Lab

This document is authorized for internal use only at IBS campuses- Batch of 2012-2014 - Semester I. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieved system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic,
mechanical, photocopying or otherwise - without prior permission in writing from IBS Hyderabad.



Dear Future Manager

Hearty Welcome to the World of Soft Skills Training at
Training in Soft Skills is imparted to the Management
Graduates through the Personal Effectiveness Lab
(PEL). PEL is an experiential platform where
kinesthetic learning takes place with the active
involvement of students. It is an activity-based learning
module where the emphasis is more on activity rather
than theory.
The main focus of the module is to groom and
transform the students into an employable human
resource catering to the future needs and challenges of
the corporate world. The training is aimed at
transforming the students into CARPET (Confident,
Adaptable, Realistic, Positive, Enthusiastic and Time &
Target oriented) personalities. The expected result is to
achieve the right blend of ASK - Attitude, Skills and

The pedagogy of PEL is an interesting combination of

student presentations, role-plays, videos, exercises,
games (in-house and outbound) and other instruments.
It complements the domain knowledge by equipping
the students with adequate life or personal skills.
Whatever may be the domain specialization, it is the
skill set that matters. A manager irrespective of the
domain has to be adequately equipped with the Soft
Skills to become a complete and well-rounded
personality. The Personal Effectiveness Lab is
designed to empower you with the required Soft Skills
and create a brand...YOU - a successful manager.
Have a wonderful learning experience...

The Soft Skills Canopy @ IBS

Self Awareness
Perception & Attitudes
Body Language
Effective Presentation Skills - Input & Output Sessions
Listening Skills
Goal Setting
Time Management
Interpersonal Skills - Conversational & Assertive Skills
Leadership & Team Building
Social Skills, Netiquette, Dining Etiquette and
Telephone Etiquettes
Stress Management
Negotiation Skills & Conflict Management
Structured Thinking

Soft Skills - Are They Important...?

Video 1.1Prof R Vaidyanathan

Video 1.4 Prof S. Mahesh Kumar

Video 1.3 - Prof. Srinivas


Video 1.2 Dr. Monika

Video 1.5 Prof T. Kalyana Chakravarthi


Self Awareness
Self Awareness

Self Assessment

Section 1

Self Awareness
To know that we know what we know and that we dont
know what we dont know is true knowledge.
The exciting journey of
personal effectiveness
starts with knowing self i.e.,
Self Awareness. A person
aspiring for success should
dig into himself and try to
better himself by identifying Source:www.daletedder.files.
his strengths and
weaknesses, spotting
opportunities and preparing to deal effectively with threats.
Every individual should
pose a question to self Am I Living or just
If you only exist, you are
one of the trillion living
creatures on the planet. But
if you are living, you should
be able to build the brand

Video 2.1.1 - Self


If you are passionately involved in
the process of self development
to build a brand YOU.. you
should answer the following

Video 2.1.2- Self


Do I know myself?
Have I set the right goals for

Do I have the competencies

and skills required in my chosen field of work?
Do I face any imperfections and shortcomings?
Am I aware of the fact that each shortcoming could
become a threat or stumbling block in my career?
How do I plan to overcome those shortcomings?
What are the opportunities available to me?

What are the threats I am faced with?

Once I know where I should go, I should be aware of the

skills and competencies required. Life is a continuous
process of learning, unlearning and relearning.
SWOT Analysis
The simplest approach to Self Awareness is through the
SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats)
Strengths or positive
points would always
produce a positive
emotion that is
invariably authentic.
Engaging or
harnessing the
strengths produces
positive emotions like
harmony, happiness,
s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o y,
sense of pride and
fulfillment. Always
identify your core
strengths and harness them in a right way to produce winwin results.
Further, a person can also identify his Signature
Strengths. According to Martin E. P Seligman, author of,
Authentic Happiness, Signature Strengths are the
strengths of character/personality which a person feels he is

authentic about. He owns them and feels a sense of joy,

elation, satisfaction and pride while displaying them. There
is a simple method to identify the Signature Strengths. List
out twenty strengths and rate them on a scale of ten. The
top four or five strengths could be called the Signature
Strengths. A manager has to spot his Signature Strengths
and see whether they are in tune with the overall goals and
Weaknesses or negative points in our personality should be
identified and a committed plan of action made to overcome
them. Many individuals try to camouflage their weak points
or try to hide them under a carpet. As a successful manager
you must develop a proactive approach to spot them and
overcome the same. Remember that every weak point is a
stumbling block in your career.
Successful individuals spot their opportunities and utilize
them in the best possible way. For example, a person
seeking finance as a specialization could look for national
and international opportunities with a national corporation or
a multi-national corporation in the areas of investment
banking, portfolio management, wealth management,
project consultancy and a host of other areas of finance.
Threats to an individual could be in terms of technology and
competition. Always upgrade yourself with respect to the
latest technology which is changing very fast. If you are not
updated you are outdated; If you are outdated you are not
dated (by the corporate to hire you). Remember to spot
competition and try to meet it. It is rightly said, If you are not

meeting competition, you are fighting it. Besides competition

and technology, every weak point is a threat in your career
A SWOT grid is provided with suggested traits. For Example,
in communication skills, a person can mention language,
stage fear, body language, voice as a strength or weakness.
Self Awareness is the first step in personality enhancement
and growth.

Table 2.1.1 SWOT Grid



Communication Skills ------------------

Communication Skills ------------------

Interpersonal Skills ------------------

Interpersonal Skills ---------------------

Leadership Skills ---------------------

Leadership Skills ------------------------

Emotional Aspects ----------------------

Emotional Aspects ---------------------

Social Skills ------------------------------- Social Skills ------------------------------Family ----------------------------------

Family ----------------------------------

Physical ----------------------------------

Physical ----------------------------------

Health ----------------------------------

Health ----------------------------------

Stress ----------------------------------

Stress ----------------------------------

Finance ----------------------------------

Finance ----------------------------------

1. Prepare a SWOT chart referring to the

SWOT grid (table 2.1.1).

Spiritual ----------------------------------

Spiritual ----------------------------------

2. Prepare an action plan to overcome the

weaknesses in your personality.

Psychological ----------------------------- Psychological ----------------------------

Tasks to Perform...

Behavioral --------------------------------- Behavioral ---------------------------------

Creativity ----------------------------------

Creativity --------------------------------

Others ----------------------------------

Others ----------------------------------



Source: IBS Hyderabad



Perception and Attitudes



Section 1

Meaning and Significance of Perception

Perception may be defined as the
process by which an individual
selects, organizes and interprets
stimuli into a meaningful and
coherent picture of the
environment in which he lives. It
is a complex cognitive process
and differs from one individual to
another, depending on the needs,
values and expectations of the
The perception of two individuals
may differ even if they are
exposed to the same stimuli,
under the same conditions. If a
manager, in an organization,
comes to each employees desk
and interacts with him, one
employee may perceive the
managers visit as friendly in
nature while another may

perceive the visit as an attempt by the manager to keep an

eye on them.


Video 3.1.1:

Sometimes, an individuals perception may be far removed

from the reality. Suppose, after a meeting with managers, a
union leader decides to withdraw some of the demands of
the union and asks his fellow employees to cooperate with
the management. This may lead some employees to
believe that the union leader might have been bribed by the
management to act in their favor, though the reality may be
that the union leader actually got convinced by the
management about the inability of the organization to fulfill
some of the demands of the workers union owing to the
firms weak financial situation.


People respond to situations on the basis of their

perceptions about reality rather than the reality itself.
Hence it is important to recognize the differences in the
perceptions of individuals to understand their behavior at
the workplace. For example, most managers assume that
all employees want to be empowered to make decisions,
but in reality, some subordinates do not want to have
decision-making power, because it will impose on them
additional responsibilities and they will be accountable for
even wrong decisions.
Here, the perceptions of the managers differ from that of
the subordinates. Perceptual differences can sometimes
lead to conflicts in the organization. Differences can be
resolved and work environment can be improved by

the aggressive and dominating culture as well as the

maintenance of conformity (of all employees to certain
beliefs and values) that are essential for their success,
others perceive factors such as cooperation, team culture
and preservation of individual identities crucial for their
The perception of an individual is influenced by several
factors. While these factors help shape perception, they,
however, sometimes can mislead the individuals by
distorting their perception. The factors which influence
perception include the perceiver himself, the object or
target being perceived, the situation in which the
perception occurs, the experience, education and the
environment in which a person is brought up.

Perception vs Reality

understanding the processes and subprocesses of

perception and the factors that influence perception.
Perceptions may also differ from organization to
organization. While some organizations perceive that it is


Task to Perform...

Refer to the keynote 3.1.1, follow the pictures

or images and write on a paper the first
impressions that appear in your mind.

Keynote 3.1.1: Perception

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from

various sources


Section 2

Concept and Components of Attitudes

Concept of Attitude
Personality describes the
whole person and attitude
determines the personality.
Attitude is a state of mind of
an individual towards
something. It may be
defined as a tendency to
feel and behave in a
particular way towards objects, people or events. The
characteristics of attitudes are described as follows:
The attitudes of an individual generally remain
unchanged for a prolonged period of time unless he is
influenced by external forces.
Attitudes are evaluative statements that can be either
favorable or unfavorable. For example, if a person
does not like a certain aspect of his job, he is said to
have a negative attitude towards that assignment.

Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs held by an

individual towards an object (or event or a person).
Components of Attitudes
Attitudes consist of three components cognitive, affective
and behavioral. The cognitive component indicates the
opinions, values or beliefs of an individual about
something. For example, a person, say Rakesh, may
believe that taking or giving a bribe is wrong. This is the
cognitive component of Rakeshs attitude. The affective
component represents the feelings of a person toward
something. For example, Rakesh may not like his
colleague Deepak because he takes bribes. The
behavioral component of a person indicates the intention
of a person to behave in a particular way. For example,
Rakesh may decide to avoid Deepak.


Video 3.2.2: Inspirational


Keynote 3.2.1:
Attitude is Everything

Video 3.2.1: Attitude

Video 3.2.3: Attitude

Determines Altitudes

Interactive 3.2.1: Jigsaw

Puzzle on Extrasensory



Body Language

Section 1

Various Aspects of Body Language

Body language is one of the key aspects of oral
communication and it has a tremendous impact on the
minds of communicants or receivers. It is the unspoken or
non-verbal part of communication. Without speaking a
single word we communicate something with our body.
Some people call it bodily communication.
Oral communication comprises basically of three
1. Body language (55%)
2. Paralanguage - tone of communication (38%)
3. Language (7%)
It is expected of communication learners to focus on body
language and fine-tune it to create a better impact on the
minds of listeners. It constitutes a solid 55% of oral

The various aspects of body language are - postures,

gestures, facial expressions, eye-contact and
Posture is the way we present ourselves physically the way we stand, the way we sit and the way we
walk. We need to stand straight, chest up and wide
open, shoulders not raised or drooping. It is a sign of


confidence and composure. We have to walk briskly and

show a lot of energy
Keynote 4.1.1:
and enthusiasm. At all
Posture & Gestures
times, we have to
avoid a bent posture.
Further, we need to
support our body
uniformly on both legs,
avoiding a slanting
posture - support on
right or left leg. Refer
to the keynote 4.1.1
Source: IBS Hyderabad
for the body postures
and gestures.
are the actions or
movements of our
hands as also that of
the head (i.e., head
nod). Our gestures
should be simple,
natural and should
synchronize with
what we speak.
There should be a
perfect harmony in
our speech and
gestures. Open palm

gestures are very good and people tend to believe us

when we showcase or display open palm gestures.
Similarly, use of head nod is good in communication.
Good gestures elevate the
impact of our communication.
Emblems are the signs we
show by using the fingers
e.g., a raised thumb indicates
everything is alright, a V
indicates victory.
Eye Contact forms a vital link between the
communicator (sender) and communicant (receiver).
We need to focus our vision on the listener or
audience. People tend to look up, down or sideward
while talking or making a presentation. It is a sign of
nervousness. Therefore, we should always maintain
a perfect eye contact while addressing a gathering
or speaking to a group.

Al Gore Hand Gestures

While making a presentation, three types of eye

movements are suggested. They are as follows:

The X-type eye movement: Focus your vision at

the left corner of the last row and bring it diagonally
down to the right corner of the first row; similarly,
focus your vision on the right side corner of the last
row and bring it diagonally down to the left side
corner of the first row.


ii. The Z-type eye movement: Focus your vision on

the left corner of the last row; move it horizontally
to the right corner of the last row and bring it
diagonally down to the left corner of the first row;
move it to the right corner of the first row.

should avoid gestures such as stroking the neck,

twiddling with the fingers, playing with pen, tapping the
thighs or scratching the head/forehead; rubbing the
nose, chin, etc., and develop those mannerisms which
create a positive impact to the extent possible.

iii. The Inverted U Type: Focus your vision on the left

corner of the first row and bring it to the right corner
of the first row moving it in the inverted U form,
covering all the rows.

Therefore body language is an important aspect of the

communication eco system which has to be refined to create
a positive impact. Remember, it constitutes 55 percent of our

Facial Expression is also an

important aspect of our body
language. The feelings or
expressions that we display on the
face are very much significant. It
also includes the micro gestures
(movement of eyebrows, nostrils,
wrinkles on forehead). The micro
gestures should elevate the Source:www.nosweatp
communication rather than disrupt
the impact of communication. Always maintain a sober,
serene and natural expression. The face has to look
radiant with a smile.
Mannerisms are some unique actions or gestures
specific to an individual which either enhance or disturb
the communication. Mannerisms are habitual gestures or
a way of speaking/behaving that become abnormal
through over-exaggeration and repetition. Hence we

Body Language


Video 4.1.1: Importance

of Smile
Tasks to Perform...

Video 4.1.2: Indra


1. Observe the Body Language of the Chairman

& Marketing Manager of a company, a
relative, close friend and note the
2. Keep reading people for their Body Language in different

Video 4.1.3: Body Language: The Meanings of

Hand Gestures



Effective Presentation Skills


Section 1

Tips for Effective Presentations

Effective presentation is a
perfect blend of body
language, paralanguage
(voice and tone) and
language. Body language
was discussed in the earlier
chapter. In this section, the
focus is on basic tips or
tenets of making an effective
presentation. The following points may be considered in
delivering an effective presentation:

purpose or objective of the speech is conveyed to the

audience. Ralph C. Smedley rightly stated, A speech
without a specific purpose is like a journey without a
destination. It could be started by a Quote, followed
by relating it to the subject. Sometimes a Joke could
prove effective. One can share an anecdote or an
incident and relate it to the subject.

1. Content or subject matter is very important for

communication. Probably, no communication is
effective without the content. Proper salutation or
greeting should precede the process. The content/
subject should be organized into: 1. Opening, 2. Body
and 3. Closing. Proper care should be taken to chose
a topic/subject that suits the audience.

In the closing part of the presentation, we should take

care to convey to the audience the gist of the entire
presentation. We should also highlight and ensure that
the intended action or response is received. It is
strongly recommended that we should first think of and
how to close the presentation and then
probably, think of the opening and body of the

The opening should be effective. In the opening few

lines, we should make it clear to the audience about
the topic and the broad points to be covered. The

Depending on the topic we could devote about 10% of

the scheduled time for the opening and closing and

In the body of presentation, the main points about the

topic have to be covered with relevant examples and


balance time for the body. The overall impact should be

2. Voice Control is the key to any good presentation.
When we talk of voice the following aspects are to be
noted: 1. Pitch, 2. Modulation and 3. Tone or emotion.
Pitch is the intensity or the height at which we speak or
communicate whereas modulation is the change of
pitch. Voice inflection is very important and we should
not make it monotonous and boring to the listeners.
A soft tone or emotion is very much needed. It should
be appealing rather then conceited. The tone of our
voice does the entire job of communicating and hence
we have to select an appropriate tone that suits a
situation. It is apt to quote Fredrick Nietzsche, who said,
We often refuse to accept an idea merely because the
tone of voice in which it has been expressed is
unsympathetic to us. A cheerful and joyous tone is
always welcome whereas a harsh/rigid tone doesnt go
well with the audience. Remember that the tone and
voice constitute a whooping 38% of the communication.
3. Language or spoken word is important in terms of
grammar, accent, vocabulary and expression. Effort
should be made to develop the language to avoid
grammatical errors and MTI (Mother Tongue Influence).
The expression should be smooth and perfect. Avoid
fillers like Ahs and Uhs. When you want to speak
good English, think in English. That is to say, the

thought process has to take place in the English

language. Most
people think in their
mother tongue and
convert it into
English while making
a presentation. It
hampers the
expression and also
the communication.

4. Positive Emphasis plays an important role in

successful and effective communication. It refers to the
positive words, syllables, sentences or the tone used in
communicating with the people. By and large, positive
thinking leads us to positive emphasis in
communication. Try to infuse a sense of positive
thinking into the listeners mind by using positive words,
phrases and sentences. The following examples will
illustrate the positive emphasis in communication:
Wrong - Our office closes at 6 pm.
Right - Our office is open till 6 pm.
Wrong - Ma, I am going to a movie with my friends. I
will not come home till 11 pm.
Right - Ma, I will come home positively at 11 pm after
watching a movie with my friends.


Wrong - Sir, We will not be able to complete the report

until Sunday.

Pace is the speed at which we speak, i.e., the number of

words we speak per minute.

Right - Sir, We will complete the report by Sunday.

Pause in a spoken text is like a comma or a full stop of a

written text. We should effectively use the pause to drive
home the point perfectly. With effective use of pause, the
pace can be maintained properly.

Wrong - We dont exchange goods which are damaged.

Right - We exchange only the good ones.
The listener will not be positively tuned or oriented to hear
negative words and sentences from our communication.
It will trigger negative emotions. It will lead to mood
disturbances and anger in the people. Hearing positive
words and phrases will have a better impact on the mind
of the listener.
5. Correct Emphasis has a better impact on the readers/
More impact - Ravi is an intelligent investor who made
investments at a proper time and could reap maximum
Less impact - Ravi could reap maximum profits because
he made investments at a proper time. He is an intelligent
6. Pace, Pause & Emphasis They add a lot of variety to
our speech and help in sustaining the interest of the

Emphasis is the stress we lay on important words,

syllables or phrases. However, not each and every word
should be emphasized. The following example
demonstrates the use of emphasis in our speech:
He has gone to a MOVIE. (Here, movie is emphasized).
He has gone to a movie (Here, Syllable he is emphasized)
He has gone to a movie (Imagine, how it would appear if
we emphasis each and every word or syllable of the
7. Body Orientation is a significant aspect of our
presentation. We need to orient ourselves properly to the
audience. That is, we should stand face to face to the
audience. Avoid being left or right oriented.
8. Personal Grooming is also important. In formal
situations and presentations, one has to dress up in
formals. It is said that the way we dress up also
influences our mind and the way we think. If we are
dressed formally, our thought process also would be
influenced to be formal rather than causal. It is rightly

said that we need to dress up to impress. Dark trouser

and light shirt with black shoes and tie is recommended
for gentlemen. A Business suit or light colored chudidar
or sari is the formal attire recommended for ladies. We
should remember, we are going to make a statement,
about ourselves, by our attire.

Presentation in a Nutshell
Important Ingredients of an Effective Presentation are:

9. Audio Visual (AV) Aids constitute an important aspect

of presentations. The perfect use of AV aids enhances
the overall impact of a presentation. It is dealt in detail in
the Section: 8.


10. Presentation Supplements include handouts,

questionnaires, articles, notes, take aways, powerpoint/
keynote, collar mike, cue cards, etc. The notes, take
aways, handouts should be handed over to the
audience at an appropriate time. Handouts could be
given at the end of the presentation to facilitate
additional reading.


Cue cards of the size 3

inches by 2 inches are
used to jot down main
points of the presentation.
They should comfortably
fit into the palm of your
hands. They should be
properly numbered.

Video 5.1.1: Tips on Effective Presentation Skills

Video 5.1.2: Dr. APJ Abdul

Kalams Speech



Presence - make it lively with humor and contemporary
Passion - care and enthusiasm


Section 2

Speech Purposes - General and Specific

There are three
general speech
purposes - to inform,
to persuade, and to
entertain (these three
purposes apply equally
to public or private
we discuss these
speech purposes, we should remember that we are in
reality talking about responses we desire from our
audience. Any discourse concerning this topic must take
into account the obvious fact that all individuals are
different and therefore what is intended by the speaker as
a speech to inform may well persuade or entertain certain
members of the audience. Let us now briefly examine
these three types of speeches.
Informative Speeches
The purpose of informative communication is to increase
the receivers knowledge and understanding of a subject.
Informative speeches may also entertain or change

beliefs. A speaker whose immediate purpose is to impart

information often uses amusing or dramatic illustrations to
entertain his or her audience, thus holding their attention.
Moreover, information, even it if consists only of facts, may
lead to changes of beliefs, although such results may not
be a part of the speakers purpose.
In informative speaking, your main concern is to make the
audience understand and remember the information you
present. The teacher talking to a class or the manager of a
department store explaining the duties of a job to staff
members are both engaged in informative speaking. How
much the listener knows at the conclusion of a talk is the
real test of the speech.
Some examples of informative subjects are:
The procedures to be followed for adding new courses
to the college curriculum.
How to grow vegetables in a greenhouse.
The working of a pollution-free engine.


Persuasive Speeches
The major function of the persuasive speech is to induce the
audience to think, feel or act in a manner selected by the
speaker. You may want your listeners to discard old beliefs or
form new ones; or you may merely want to strengthen opinions
that they already hold. The salesperson uses the speech to
persuade as a means of getting the customer to buy a coat.
The person asking for a raise, the wife trying to get her
husband to fix the tap, the teacher trying to get the class to
study - all are trying to persuade someone to do something.

mind in one direction or another. Entertainment is the purpose

of many after-dinner speeches.
Interactive Image 5.2.1.
General Speech Purposes

Entertaining Speech

The following are examples of subjects that need persuasive

Final examinations in our colleges should be abolished.

Persuasive Speech

The Indian Government should condemn the actions of


Informative Speech

Students should be given time off to campaign on behalf of

political candidates.
Entertaining Speeches
The third major type of speech has the purpose of entertaining
the audience. Here the word entertainment is used in its
broadest sense to include anything that stimulates a
pleasurable response, whether it be humorous or dramatic.
Through such speeches the speaker wants the people present
to have an enjoyable time. The speaker is not concerned with
ensuring that they learn a great deal or that they change their

Some subjects that lend themselves to humorous treatment

My first day as a college student.
The gourmet food served in the college cafeteria.
How to write a political speech.


These, then, are the three major speech purposes. If you

know exactly what the purpose of your speech is, you will
have a guide for your preparation - a reminder that each bit
of material contained in your presentation should contribute
something to the accomplishment of your purpose.
Speech Purposes - Specific
The general reaction you want to secure from your
audience may be stated in terms of informing, persuading,
or entertaining. But the particular and immediate reaction
that you seek must be precisely formulated into a specific
purpose. The specific purpose describes the exact nature of
the response you want from your audience. It states
specifically what you want your audience to know, feel,
believe, or do.
There are three requirements a purpose of a speech should
meet: it should contain only one central idea; it should be
clear and concise; and, most important, it should be worded
in terms of the audience response desired.
When your general purpose is to inform, your specific
purpose might be:
To have the audience understand the important aspects
of student government.

If your general purpose is to persuade, your specific

purpose might be:
To get the audience to give money to a college fund to
beautify the campus.
To get the audience to agree that India should withdraw
its soldiers from Kashmir.
To get the audience to agree that we should have a
Department of Womens Studies at our University.
If your general purpose is to entertain, your specific
purpose might be:
To make the audience laugh at the clear statements of
some political leaders.
To have the audience enjoy hearing about the best
ways to escape the clutches of the hostel warden.
You might find it helpful to write down your specific purpose
on a sheet of paper. This will give you a constant target at
which to aim. It allows you, at a glance, to see if the
material you have gathered, and the organization of that
material, directly relates to your specific purpose.

To have the audience understand the fundamentals of

boating safety.
To have the audience understand the history of the
modern Animal Rights movement

Section 3

Methods of Speaking
The method of speaking or the type of delivery should
suit the subject, audience and occasion.

Video 5.3.2: Killer

Presentation Skills

There are different methods of presenting a speech: (1)

reading from a manuscript, (2) speaking from memory,
and (3) delivering in an impromptu/extemporaneous
manner. Sometimes, a situation may call for a
combination of two or three methods. The methods of
speaking are briefed in the keynote 5.3.1 annexed.
Keynote 5.3.1: Methods of

Source: Internal


Section 4

Analyzing the Audience

To communicate your purpose effectively, you need to
understand the audience. Audience analysis means, in a
very practical sense, finding out all you can about the
people you are talking to or will be talking to. You discover
what your receivers are like so that you can adapt your
material directly to their
needs, wants,
experiences and
attitudes. Only by seeing
things from their
viewpoint you can deal
directly with their
Remember that
communication is a two-
way process involving sender and receiver.
As a public speaker you must also make an analysis of your
audience if your speech is to be meaningful. The speaker
who presents a speech without considering the audience
has very little chance of gaining support or being
understood. Audience analysis enables you to establish a

rapport with your listeners. By understanding your audience

you can adapt your materials - and yourself - to the people
with whom you want to communicate. Audience analysis is
dealt in detail in the keynote 5.4.1.
Keynote 5.4.1: Audience Analysis

Source: Internal


Section 5

Why Organize a Speech?

The organizational process benefits speakers in several
ways. It helps them detect any weaknesses in the fabric
of their logic and any inadequacies in the amount and
quality of their evidence (for supporting their argument). It
enables them to juxtapose ideas in a variety of ways and
determine the sequence that is best suited to their
audience and the accomplishment of the purpose. Clear
organization also helps speakers to retain ideas with
greater ease during a presentation. Finally, they benefit
from the added credibility gained.
The message must be understood at the moment of
encounter because the listener, unlike the reader, cannot
freeze the message and study it at leisure. Clear
organization facilitates understanding and encourages
the listener to remain attentive. Whether the message is
a formal speech or an informal presentation, whether it is
prepared in advance or composed instantly, it will be
more effective and have a greater impact on the listeners
if it has organizational clarity.
While there are a variety of ways to approach the task of
organizing the message, the basic approach involves

formulating a core statement which expresses the central

idea of the message, phrasing main points to support the
core statement (and sub-points to support the main
points, if needed), and choosing appropriate patterns to
show relationships among the points.
The traditional three-fold division of the presentation - the
introduction, the body and the conclusion - will be
followed on most occasions. Although this division may
not be applicable to all situations, it is a useful approach
for studying organizational structure. This three-fold
division has also been humorously but appropriately
expressed as:
1) Tell them what you are going to tell them
2) Tell them
3) Tell them what you told them.
The various main points and sub points of the
presentation that clarify, amplify, or prove the core
statement have to be organized systematically so that
they can be easily understood by the listener.


Innumerable patterns of organization are available since

each speaking situation is unique. So, let us restrict our
survey of organizational patterns to those that are found
most commonly in informative and persuasive speeches.
Systematic arrangement of material is crucial in
informative speaking if the listener is to retain the
information presented. Speeches that seem to leap from
point to point without any sense of direction seldom
leave the listener with anything meaningful to focus on.
The body of the speech could be organized in one or a
combination of the methods mentioned in the keynote
Keynote 5.5.1: Methods to Organize the
Body of Speech

Source: Internal


Section 6

Supporting Your Ideas

Supporting material or evidence is an essential part of a
Simply stating a point does not necessarily make it
believable. There may be some assertions that listeners
will accept at face value because the assertions are
consistent with their beliefs and prejudices. But more
frequently, listeners want the assertions to be supported
with proof or facts. Suppose a speaker at the college
campus advocated that the cricket team be disbanded on
the ground that it was a financial burden to the student
body. Would anyone believe him in the absence of proof
to support his charge?

Best ways of supporting the presentations are further

discussed in detail in the keynote 5.6.1.
Keynote 5.6.1: Supporting Ideas
for Presentations

Some of the best ways of supporting the presentation are:

Illustration (example)

Source: Internal

Expert testimony

Whatever technique is adapted, it should be remembered

that the argument is to be supported adequately to
convince the audience.

Anecdotes, fables, parables


Section 7

Visual Aids
Most formal speeches and presentations incorporate
visual aids. From a purely practical standpoint, they are a
convenience to the speaker, who can use them as a tool
for remembering the details of the message. Visual aids
also dramatically increase the audiences ability to absorb
and remember information. In a sense, they support the
support or proof used in the oral presentation.
Designing and Presenting Visual Aids
Two types of visual aids are used to supplement speeches
and presentations: Text and Graphic. Text visuals consist
of words and help the audience follow the flow of ideas.
Because text visuals are simplified outlines of a
presentation, they can be used to summarize and preview
the message and to signal major shifts in thought. Graphic
visuals, on the other hand, illustrate the main points. They
help the audience grasp numerical data and other
information that would be hard to follow if presented orally.
Because people cant read and listen at the same time,
the visual aids have to be simple enough for the audience
to understand within a moment or two. Visual aids should

be just aids. They should enhance the speech by

explaining and emphasizing key points. Too many or too
flashy visuals can distract the message.
As a rule, text visuals are more effective when they consist
of no more than six lines, with a maximum of six words per
line. They should be typed in large, clear type (using
a n d
letters), with
extra white
s p a c e
between lines
of type. List
items should
be phrased in
form. The
should be


(i.e., brief) but not cryptic.

Many presentations begin with several text visuals. The first
is usually the equivalent of a title page: it announces the
subject and signals the audience that the presentation is
underway. The second typically lists the three or four major
points that will be covered, thus providing a road map of
what is to come. The remaining text visuals are used to
emphasize the transitions between main points.
A variety of graphic visuals can be used: line, pie and bar
charts; flow charts and organization charts; diagrams,
maps, drawings and tables. Simplify the graphics so that
they can be grasped easily by the audience. To help the
audience focus immediately on the point of each graphic
visual, use headings that state the message in one clear
phrase or sentence.
Visual aids should be such that (a) they can be understood
quickly by the audience and (b) they do not detract from the
presentation. The following guidelines are suggested:
Be sure that all members of the audience can see the
visual aids.
Allow the audience time to read a visual aid before
providing an explanation.
Limit each visual aid to one idea.
Illustrate only the main points, not the entire

Paraphrase the text of the visual aid; dont read it word

for word.
After discussing the point illustrated by the visual, it should
be removed from the audiences view. The speaker should
remember that the audience is there to listen to him, not to
study the visual aids. The visual aids are there to
supplement the speech, not the other way.
Selecting the Right Medium
There are a variety of media to choose from, so select
those that are best suited to your speaking occasion.
Handouts: You may choose to distribute sheets of paper
bearing an agenda, an outline of the program, an abstract,
a written report, or supplementary material such as tables,
charts and graphs. Handouts can help the listeners by
reminding them of the subject and the main ideas of the
presentation. In addition, listeners can refer to them while
you are
Handouts work
well in informal
situations where
the audience
takes an active
role; they often
make their own
notes on the handouts. However, handouts can be
distracting because people are inclined to read the material


rather than listen to the presentation, so many speakers

distribute handouts after the presentation.
Chalkboards and whiteboards: When
addressing a small group of people,
and when you want to draw out their
trade ideas, use a board to list points as they
are mentioned. Using multiple boards, text
graphics can also be prepared in advance and
revealed when required. Such boards provide flexibility
because they can be altered on the spot. However, they are
too informal (and messy) for certain situations.
Flip charts: Large sheets of paper
are attached at the top so that you
can flip or turn the pages as you
speak. Each chart illustrates or
clarifies a point. You might have a
few lines from your outline on one, a
graph or diagram on another and so Source:www.businessm
on. By using different colored
markers you can highlight ideas as you go along. This
technique is effective in small, informal groups.
Overheads: One of the most
common visual aids in
business is the overhead
transparency, which can be
projected on a screen in full
daylight. Because you dont

have to dim the lights, you dont lose contact with the
audience. Transparencies are easy to make using a typed
original on regular paper, a copying machine or a paper-size
sheet of plastic. Opaque projections are similar to
transparencies but do not require as much preparation. You
can use an opaque projector to show the audience a
photograph or an excerpt from a report.
Slides: The content of slides may be text, graphics or
pictures. If you are trying to create
polished, professional
atmosphere, you
might find this
approach worthwhile.
H o w e v e r, b e a r i n
mind that you will
have to speak in a
darkened room. Moreover, you m a y
need someone to operate the projector, so you will have to
coordinate the slide presentation with your speech.
Computers: With a special projector, a personal computer
can be turned into a large-screen intelligent chalkboard that
allows you to create and modify your visual aids as the
presentation unfolds. For example, if you are discussing
financial projections, you can show how a change in sales
forecasts will affect profits by typing in a new number. When
the presentation is over, you can print out hard copies of the
visual aids for interested members of the audience. You can
also make a computer-generated slide show, for instance, by


using Microsoft Powerpoint software, which gives you the

opportunity to make changes right up to the minute you start
speaking. Using this technology, you can incorporate both
animation and photos in your presentation. Computer
presentations can also be mailed (email or snail mail) to
potential customers .
Videotapes, Audiotapes, Filmstrips and Films: These can
be used to illustrate major points. For example, a videotape
showing mock interviews would be an effective aid in
illustrating effective interviewing strategies in a human
resources management training seminar. In todays visual
age, an audience relates well to the color and elaborate
production provided by these visuals. However, remember
that visuals are intended to support the speech, not replace
it. Like computer presentations, these tapes can be mailed
to different people (if required), both customers and
Models and Physical Objects: A sample of a product or a
replica to exact scale allows the audience to visualize and
become involved with the idea being presented. A scale
model of a proposed office building can give the audience a
clear idea of its spaciousness.
The accompanying table 5.7.1 summarizes some of the
factors to consider when selecting a visual medium.
With all visual aids, the crucial factor is how you use them.
Properly integrated into a presentation, they can save time,
create interest, add variety, make an impression and
illustrate ideas and concepts that are difficult to express in
words alone.

Table 5.7.1 - Guidelines for Selecting Visuals

Optimum Audience Size
Degree of Formality
Design Complexity
Equipment and Room Requirements
Production Time
Fewer than 110
Typed text and photocopying machine
Typing or drawing time; photocopying time
Boards and Flip Charts
Fewer than 20
Chalkboard or whiteboard or easel and chart, with writing implements
Drawing time only
Over Heads
About 100
Formal or informal
Text, photocopying machine, plastic sheets, and projector screen
Drawing or typing time; photocopying time
Inexpensive unless professionally designed or typeset
Several hundred
Anything that can be photo-graphed
Slides, projector, and screen; dim lighting
Design and photographing time; at least 24 hours production time
Relatively expensive
Source: C. L. Bovee and J.V Thill, Business Communication Today, IV Edition.
( New York: McGraw Hill, 1995)


On all but the most formal occasions, an oral presentation is
followed by a question-and-answer session. Dont be
intimidated by questions. Questions from the audience
indicate that people have listened to you and are interested
in your presentation.

This will prevent the person from boring or annoying the rest
of the audience. If it is appropriate to stay after the session to
talk individually with members of the audience, offer to do so.
Dont forget to thank them for their courtesy in listening to
Keynote 5. 7.1 - Effective
Presentation Skills (EPS)

When fielding questions, make sure that everyone in the

audience has heard the question. If there is no moderator to
do this job, you should ask if everyone has heard the
question. If they havent, repeat or paraphrase it yourself.
Sometimes this can be done as an introduction to your
response: Your question about the efficiency of these three
If you hear the question but dont understand it, ask for a
clarification. After responding, ask if you understood the
question correctly.
If you understand the question but dont know the answer,
tell the truth. No one expects you to know the answer to
every question. If you have some ideas about how to find the
answer - by checking a certain reference text, for example share them. If the question is obviously important to the
person who asked it, you might offer to meet him afterwards
to discuss the answer. Or you could offer to research the
issue and get back by a certain time with the answer.
If you are unfortunate enough to have a belligerent character
in the audience who is not content with your response and
insists on restating his original point, a useful technique is to
offer politely to discuss the matter further after the session.

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from

various sources

Interactive 5.7.1 Crossword

Presentation Skills

IBS Hyderabad

Video Case Analysis

The students are expected to watch the videos and
critically analyze them in terms of body language,
paralanguage and language, organization of content,
body orientation, pace, pause and emphasis.

Video 5.7.3 Effective Presentation


Video cases
Video 5.7.1 - Rahul Dravids
farewell Speech

Discussion will be made in the classrooms on

communication and presentation skills.

Video 5.7.2 - Barack

Obamas Speech

Tasks to Perform...

Student Presentations - Individual and Group

Students will make presentations on:
1. Current Corporate Analysis (CCA) - Students will be
given topic on current corporate issues/problems/
situations and are expected to make three minute
presentations, which are throughly evaluated by the
faculty and feedback given.
2. Movie Review (MR) - Students are formed into groups of
four and are given some select movies. Each group has
to make movie reviews which are evaluated by the faculty
and feedback given. Each group has to make a 12minute presentation.



Listening Skills

Listening Skills
Amit Suri was asked to represent his department at the
Benefits Committee meeting. The purpose of the meeting
was to announce changes in the companys home loan
schemes. Amit and the others in his department were
unanimous in their support of the OTP (one-timepayment) scheme. But he knew that there were some in
the other departments who favored the MIP (monthlyinstallment-payment) scheme. He walked into the room,
hoping the OTP scheme would be adopted.
The head of the committee entered the room, walked up
to the podium, put his papers in front, and began to speak.
I know you are all here to learn about our new home loan
scheme, and I wont keep you in suspense. We have
decided that the MIP scheme will be our primary scheme.

What do you think happened in this case? Amit was present

throughout the meeting. Yet, he didnt really hear what the
speaker was saying. Why? Because he wasnt listening.
If research studies are anything to go by, Amit is certainly not
an oddity in the business world. According to some
researchers, the average listening efficiency rate is only 25
percent. Further, immediately after a ten-minute presentation,
a normal listener can recall only 50 percent of the information
conveyed. And after 24 hours, the recall level is only 25
percent! Does this bode well for organizations? No. Why? Let
us see why listening is so important in a modern-day

Various Facets to Effective Listening

As he continued to talk, Amit fumed. As soon as the

meeting ended, he rushed back to his department with the
news. Everyone was upset.
Twenty minutes later Amits colleagues walked up to his
desk. Are you sure the MIP is the only scheme the
company is adopting? I just spoke to a friend in the
Accounts Department. He says the MIP will be the primary
scheme, but those who wish to do so, can opt for the

Amit couldnt believe his ears. He called up another

colleague, who confirmed what he had just heard.

Section 1

The Importance of Listening

One primary reason why listening is so important is the
amount of time people spend doing just that listening.
Listening is the most frequent, perhaps the most
important type of on-the-job communication. Studies
indicate that adults spend about 29.5 percent of their
waking hours listening.
Recent studies that focus on the workplace show that,
on an average, personnel at all levels spend about
32.7% of their time listening, while speaking takes up
25.8% of their time and writing 22.6%. Top executives
spend even more time listening than other employees.
Listening on the job is not only frequent, it is very
important as well. In fact, most managers agree that
active listening is the most crucial skill for becoming a
successful manager. Stephen Covey identifies listening
as one of the seven habits of highly effective people.
Listening can improve work quality and boost
productivity. Poor listening leads to innumerable
mistakes because of which letters have to be retyped,
meetings have to be rescheduled, shipments have to be

rerouted, etc. All this affects productivity and hence

profits. Apart from the obvious benefits, good listening
helps employees to update and revise their collection of
facts, skills and attitudes. Good listening also helps them
to improve their speaking.
Good listening skills are needed in the business world
today because of the benefits stated. A number of
studies have revealed why people listen poorly, despite
the advantages of doing just the opposite.


Section 2

Barriers to Effective Listening

When we hear, we only perceive sounds, but when we
listen, this hearing is accompanied
by a deliberate and purposeful act
of the mind. To listen means to get
meaning from what is heard. One
may hear the words another
person utters, without really
understanding them. Let us look
at some of the factors that impede Source:www.collectormen
effective hearing.

nearly 500 words per minute. This gives listeners a good

deal of spare time, which is often used for mental
excursions ranging from daydreaming to thinking about the
speakers hairstyle! Spending this time for analyzing the
message would make for better listening.
Environmental Barriers
Physical distractions

Hearing impairment

Distracting sounds, poor acoustics, uncomfortable seating

arrangements can all hamper effective listening. But then it
is not impossible to counter these distractions through

Sometimes poor listening can be traced to hearing

deficiencies. However, once these deficiencies are
detected, they can usually be treated.

When all your attention is focused on what is being said,

the other noises take backseat in your consciousness.
Unless of course, the noises are too powerful.

Speaking-Thinking rate

Message overload

According to an estimate, we speak at an average of 125

to 150 words a minute. Our mind, however, can process

When you are forced to listen to a quick succession of

messages, then after a point your receptivity dulls. You find

Physiological Barriers


it impossible to listen attentively. Coping with a deluge of

information is like juggling you can keep only a few things
going at a time.

Figure 6.2.1: Barriers to Effective Listening

Attitudinal Barriers
Sometimes our prejudices and deep-seated beliefs make it
impossible for us to be receptive to the speaker. For
instance, when politicians of two different political parties
argue an issue, they do not give each other a fair hearing,
because of their preconceived attitudes. To break down this
barrier, we must achieve some control over our instinctive
responses and learn to postpone judgement until we have
listened to exactly what is being said.
Sometimes we are preoccupied with other concerns. As
students, all of you must have had days when you
registered nothing of what was said in class, because your
thoughts were on the freshers party you had to arrange the
next evening.
A Casual Attitude
Because hearing is relatively easy, we assume that we can
do it without much concentration and effort. This attitude is
often a major barrier to listening.


Many people are poor listeners, because they are overly
concerned with themselves. Three personal concerns
dominate their listening behavior. These can be summed
up in three sentences:

or simply uninteresting. If we do this often, this turning

off becomes a consistent pattern.
Focusing on Delivery: Sometimes we are so
concerned with how someone says something that we
pay scant attention to what he or she is actually saying.

1) I must defend my position.

Lack of Common Experiences

2) I already know what you have to say.

It is difficult for a person to understand what is being said, if

he or she has no experience, either direct or indirect, of the
concepts being discussed. Can you imagine a farmer, who
has lived all his life in a small village, trying to understand
the message of a VJ of a television channel?

3) How am I coming through?

These concerns set up effective barriers that destroy the
critical link between speaker and listener.
Poor Listening Habits

Tips for Effective Listening

Listening, like much of human behavior, tends to follow

consistent patterns. Most of us develop certain bad
listening habits that eventually create a pattern. Four of the
most common bad habits are:
Faking Attention: Many of us fake attention so as not
to appear discourteous. However, this can become
habitual and turn out to be a barrier to effective
Listening Only for Facts: In looking only for the facts,
we often forget to locate the main idea.

Selective Listening and avoiding difficult and

uninteresting material: Sometimes we switch off our
attention when what is being said is difficult, unfamiliar,

Section 3

Approaches to Listening
Now that weve considered some of the barriers to
effective listening, let us look at another question: Why
do people listen at all? Well, the answers to this
question are many and varied. Sometimes people listen
because they want some information from the speaker;
sometimes they listen, because they enjoy what theyre
hearing. Depending on the purpose, a listener adopts
one of the following listening approaches discussed
Discriminative Listening
Discriminative listening involves
an attempt to distinguish one
sound from all the others.
Stopping work to determine
whether the phone is ringing is an
We learn how to
discriminate among sounds at an
early age. Eventually, we come to
recognize not only the sounds
that make up our language, we
also learn to identify vocal cues such as tone of voice,

volume, pitch and rate, all of which contribute to the total

meaning of a message.
Comprehensive Listening
A person trying to understand a speakers message in
totality, to interpret the meaning as precisely as possible,
is engaged in
comprehensive listening.
This kind of listening is
generally practiced in the
classroom when we must
remember what we have
heard in a lecture and rely
upon it for future use.
Critical Listening
When a person wants to sift
through what he has heard and
come to a decision, he must listen
critically. This involves judging the
clarity, accuracy and reliability of
the evidence that is presented


and being alert to the effects of emotional appeals.

Active Listening
Active listening is also called empathic listening. This kind of
listening goes beyond just paying attention or listening
critically. It entails supportive behavior that tells the speaker,
I understand. Please go on.
When you listen actively, you encourage the speaker to
express himself fully. Sometimes active listeners provide the
speakers with neutral summaries of what they have heard in
order to affirm that they
have understood what they
have heard. Active
listening involves
responding to the
emotional content as
well, apart from the
bare verbal
active listener is
alert to all cues
and carefully
observes the
behavior of
the speaker
to get the


Section 4

How to be a better listener?

Listening skills can be improved with a conscious effort
regardless of whether the situation calls for appreciative,
critical, discriminative or active listening.
Be Motivated to Listen
When you resolve that you will
listen, an improvement in your
listening skills will become
immediately noticeable.
Researchers have concluded
that the more motivated a
listener is, the more active and
alert he becomes as a receiver.
Though motivation alone
cannot solve all problems in
listening, it is the first
prerequisite to becoming a
good listener.

Video 6.4.1: NR
Narayana Murthys

piece of communication. It is helpful to gather as much

relevant information as you can about the subject, the
speaker, and the situation. This will help you to better
understand and appraise what the speaker is saying.
Preparations could also include attempts to minimize
physical barriers between yourself and the speaker and to
eliminate all distractions in the environment.
Be Objective
From your own experiences, you would have noticed that
you are more receptive to a message when you approach
it with an open mind.
Keynote 6.4.1: Listening Skills

Be Prepared to Listen
Sometimes you need to make some preparation
beforehand in order to listen effectively to a particular
Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from
various sources

To be objective, one must avoid jumping to conclusions.

Keep your critical faculties on the alert, but do not make a
judgement until all points are fully developed. If you make a
judgement too fast, there is always the danger that you may
fail to register things the speaker says that may not exactly tie
in with your judgement. Objective listening entails a conscious
effort to keep our emotions and prejudices at bay. The
example given at the beginning of the chapter shows how you
can miss important facts, when your emotional responses pull
down the shutters over your receptivity.
Be Alert to all Cues
Look for the speakers main ideas. The speakers voice
quality, inflection, emphasis and body movement can all offer
vital clues to what the speaker feels is most important.
Besides, these cues also give you insights into the emotional
content of the speakers message, which must be taken into
consideration if the message is to be fully understood.

Make Good Use of the Thinking-Speaking Time Difference

As mentioned earlier, we normally think much faster than we
speak. If you are a listener you can use this gap to your
advantage by mentally summarizing and reviewing what the
speaker has said. Focus on what the speaker is saying, rather
than on what would be the appropriate response to the
Use Feedback
Using feedback is one way we can get more from our
communication encounters. Sometimes this feedback may be
as simple as telling the speaker that you dont understand.
This lets you hear the message again. While using feedback,
make sure that the speaker receives your message, that
theres no ambiguity about your feedback and that your
feedback is related to what is going on.
Use Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Encourage the
The listener can use a number of verbal and nonverbal cues
to aid the speaker in communicating. Establishing eye contact
with the speaker can go a long way in reassuring him or her.
Looking out the window while somebody is speaking affects
the morale of the speaker. Sometimes nodding the head
slightly or casual remarks like I see can tell the speaker that
youre actively involved in the communication process. Even
an act as simple as smiling can offer warmth and support to
the speaker and help him to get over his nervousness.

Tasks to Perform...

Simple Tips to Practice Listening

Proficiency in listening, like in any other skill, is the result

of conscious effort. Many of the barriers to effective
listening can be successfully overcome through practice.
Commit and force yourself to listen to speeches and
lectures that seem to hold no obvious interest value.
Doing this will help you overcome the temptation to
switch off when the messages seem dull or difficult.
Listen to a news capsule on the TV and try to recollect
what is heard.
Watch a movie or a TV serial and summarize the total
content and also, character wise.
Have a group discussion in the peer group and
summarize the discussion.



Goal Setting


Section 1

Setting Goals and Objectives

Personal Effectiveness depends on setting goals and
objectives according to long-term and short-term plans. It
is ideal to have separate goals for long and short-term
plans. However, goals and objectives should be in
accordance with the plans. The goals should be
achievable so that they act as motivators for the setting
up of higher goals. Goals must be set in such a way that
there is enough time left to take care of deviations if any.
It is vital to allow time for a deviation or an unforeseen
situation. Anticipating and making time for such situations
would help in avoiding confusion.
Advantages of Goal Setting
Many managers believe that setting goals improves the
productivity of the employees and the organization. A
goal is defined as a desired result. It specifies a
performance, result or outcome. Goals provide a
standard way to measure an outcome or result or an
accomplishment. Goals and objectives should be
measurable. An abstract goal such as to become

successful is not effective. On the other hand, a goal like

to become a CEO of an FMCG company in 25 years is
clearer and more effective. A manager may have the goal
of increasing productivity. However, this is vague since a
goal must have a numerical or quantitative value related
to the desired result. The goal can be redefined as
improving productivity by 2% within the next four weeks.
Goal setting can improve the performance of managers
for a number of reasons. A goal provides managers with
regular feedback on their performance. It enables them to
work better. They can identify the areas to which
resources and efforts need to be channeled. The goal
setting makes managers feel more responsible and
accountable for their work and activities. Achievement of
goals is a good motivator to the managers to set bigger
and higher goals and achieve them. Refer to table 7.1.1
for stretch goals.


Table 7. 1.1 Stretch Goals

A goal can act as a motivator. Initially, a manager should
set small, simple goals. On achieving these goals, he/she
feels motivated to set bigger goals and higher targets. The
stretch goal pushes people to stretch their capabilities to
the limit and hence helps them to achieve more. For
example, a manager has the goal of finishing a project
within fifteen months; he/she can set a stretch goal of 12
months. This enables the manager to fully utilize his/her
capabilities and resources.
Jack Welch, the former CEO of GE and author of various
books, is known for the tough goals that he had set for both
the organization and employees. He was successful in
turning around the fate of GE. Welch believed in pushing
the employees to give their best by stretching goals.
Adapted from <

Setting Goals
A goal is a powerful tool to focus energy
and resources. Goals play a vital role in
the time management process. Manager
learns to overcome obstacles, develop
strengths and discover new objectives in
the process. This process gives longlasting fulfillment and motivates them to

achieve higher goals. Managers often find greater fulfillment in

achieving goals which they set themselves, than by achieving
goals set by others. A worthwhile goal gives a manager
something he/she personally cares about having or being.
Managers should set goals that are in harmony with the
organizations long-term plans and objectives. The manager
must set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Reviewable and
Timed (SMART) goals.
The goals must be specific. They should answer the questions
of what, why, when, who and where and relate well to both the
manager as well as the organization. For example, a shortterm goal for a manager could be to earn 1 lakh per month
and a long-term goal could be to buy a home in a desired
place in the next 15 years. Always, the short and mediumterm goals should be framed in tune with the long-term goals.
For an organization, a short-term goal could be to meet the
sales target of 10 crore in one year and the long-term goal
could be to capture 2% of the global market share in five


The goals must be measurable. If they are not, then it is

difficult to achieve them. Managers must be able to measure
their goals. The goals can be measured by the amount of time
required to achieve them. Then the managers can decide the
amount of time they would like to spend on that particular goal.
For example, a manager may have a goal of getting two new

clients in a month. The best course of action to achieve this

goal should be selected so as to avoid wastage of time.
Besides time, goals could be defined in terms of money or
rank or position or percentage. For example, to earn 5 crore
in 5 years, to become the top most CEO of the country at
the age of 40.
The goals should be achievable and ideally be practical and
realistic. An achievable goal helps managers to accomplish
it easily and hence motivates them to set even higher goals.
The goals should be reviewable. The manager should be
able to review the goals at specific time intervals - weekly,
monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and yearly - to review the
progress in terms of achievement of the goal. For example,
a person sets a financial goal of earning Rs. 5 crores in 5
years. He should be reviewing the goal each year to
accomplish the goal attainment, i.e., earning one, two, three,
four and five crores at the end of each year.
The goals should have a time target or deadline. A target
helps in keeping track of the goals achieved till then. A
manager should set time limits and deadlines for realizing
the goals. These deadlines act as reminders of what else
needs to be achieved. The deadlines need to be reviewed
without any changes in the goals.

Section 2

Goal Areas
A manager has to set SMART goals in the following areas:

Goal Chart

1. Personal goals - Financial, Skills development, Health,

Physical and Pleasure

An effective manager can prepare a goal chart which is in

essence a plan of action for success. The suggested goal
chart (table 7.2.1) is as follows:

2. Professional goals - Career and Financial

Table 7.2.1 Goal Chart

3. Family goals
4. Social goals

S. No.

Goal type/ Action

Goal area area

Time Remarks

5. Spiritual goals
Types of goals
1. Immediate goals (within 6 months)
2. Short-term goals (6 months to one year)
3. Mid-term goals (2 to 4 years)
4. Long-term goals (more than 4 years)

Source: IBS Hyderabad

Students are expected to prepare their goal chart and

come to the classroom to discuss the same.


Role Model
A manager can draw inspiration by following a role model
who could be a person whom the manager tries to follow,
emulate or get influenced. A role model could be a
parent, sibling, relative, teacher, friend or any celebrity. A
role model need not be from the same profession or
chosen goal area. He is just an individual who wields a
considerable influence on the person. The manager
always looks to the role model as a source of
tremendous inspiration.

Table 7.2.2 Goal Setting in Action



Analyze self
Write your strengths & weaknesses.
Refer chapter no. 1.

Make a Goal Statement

For example, I want to become one of the top ten
portfolio managers in the country by 2020.

Check whether the goal statement satisfies the SMART


Goal Model

A manager can also select or follow a goal model who is

a person who excels in the chosen goal area. For
example, a person aspiring to become a cricketer can
choose a leading cricketer as a goal model and follow his
rigor, preparation, training, planning and his commitment
to the profession.

Write a self-affirmative statement

For example, I want to become one of the top ten
portfolio managers in the country by 2020 by imbibing
or learning the requisite traits/competencies.

List out the traits/competencies required for the

For example, Finance - Portfolio Management,
Analytical Skills and Risk-Taking ability.

Check the traits required for the goal achievement with

the traits in your personality. Refer Chapter no. 1.

Check whether your strong points are suited or

redundant for a particular goal.

What additional strengths/ competencies should be

learnt to achieve the goal.

What weak points or negatives should be unlearnt.


Prepare goal chart


ACT (Action with Commitment to Time) to succeed.

Similarly, an aspiring CEO can choose a leading CEO of

a company as a goal model and emulate the CEO for his
integrity, honesty, planning and decision-making.

Task to Perform...
Prepare goal chart duly referring to the
table (7.2.2) of goal setting in action.

Source: IBS Hyderabad


Goal Setting-some inspirational quotes

If you are born poor it is not your mistake, but if you die
poor its surely your mistake.
Set your goals high and dont stop till you get there...Bo
A goal is essentially an end towards which an effort is

If you want to make your dreams come true, the first

thing you should do is to wake up.
You control your destiny. What you think about comes
about. By recording your dreams and goals on paper,
you set in motion the process of becoming the person
you most want to be. Put your future in good hands: your

You cannot hit the target if you cannot see it.

A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan

and a deadline.

This is one quality one must posses to win...and that is

definiteness of purpose, the knowledge of what one
wants and a burning desire to possess it. -Napoleon Hill

If one does not dream and plan, one may not go far, but
if one does not plan and only dream, one may go
nowhere at all.

My philosophy of life is that if we make up our mind

about what are we going to make of our lives, then work
hard towards that goal, we never lose.

KASH is KING - Knowledge, Attitude, Skills and Habits.

Video 7.2.1: Goal Setting

Stand up; be bold and take the whole responsibility on

your shoulders and know that you are the creator of your
destiny. All the success and strength that you want are
within yourself.
-Swami Vivekananda
Shoot for the moon. Even if you miss, you will land up
among the stars.
One half of knowing what you want is knowing what you
must give up before you get it.

The impossible is often the untried.



Time Management


Time management is very important for personal

effectiveness. It is said that a successful man has time for
everything. But to achieve success, time management is an
essential skill a manager has to learn and practice with a
sense of dedication and commitment.
According to the CEO of GE, Jeff Immelt, time management
is a very important skill for any manager or leader to have,
since proper time management improves the efficiency of a
manager. A manager, an employee, or a leader needs to
spend time on important things by setting priorities. Many
organizations provide training to help employees manage
their time better. Companies like Essar, Wipro, Motorola,
organize time management workshops for their employees.
TCS provides mandatory training in time management for
every employee.

Video 8.1: Effective Time

Management Techniques



Section 1

Importance of Time Management

Time is a very precious resource something that cannot
be stored. It is therefore important to plan time well and
spend it wisely. Time management is important in every
facet of life, especially in the professional area. Many
people believe in working faster or for long stretches of
time. But both cases reflect poor time management.
Working faster may
result in many
errors while
working for long
hours may
exhaust the
can juggle
roles without
feeling the
pressure of
lack of time.
treat time as a
very valuable
It helps to balance various aspects of life and analyze
time-wasters and interruptions. The focus is not so much
on managing or spending time as on investing time in
activities or tasks that are important. Time management is
not just about utilizing time appropriately, it is also about
identifying and avoiding time-wasting activities. People

have many tasks to perform and many roles to play in

both their personal as well as professional lives. Time
management starts with analyzing the pattern of spending
time both in personal and work life. Developing long-term
and short-term goals and planning to achieve them is one
of the essential elements of efficient time management.
Improvement in technology has changed the approach to
time management. There is a constant flow of information
from the Internet, e-mails, mobiles, and the intranet, which
is helping managers to take decisions quickly. However,
technology has not made time management any easier. In
fact, the time pressure has increased with tougher
deadlines and targets having to be met.
Time management has become more important in
organizations due to the flatter organization structure. A
flatter structure means a broader span of control for
managers. This means that the managers have to spend
the same amount of time handling more responsibilities.
They have to manage time more effectively and efficiently.
The flatter structure also integrates multiple roles for the
managers. This results in an increased workload and also
greater need for effective time management.


Section 2

Analysis of Time
Effective time management starts with analyzing where
and how time is spent. An effective manager has the
ability to gain control over time and make the best use of

spend most of his/her time arranging documents and

searching for files and this may cause significant wastage
of time. Another manager may spend time by starting to
do too many things and finishing none.

Many managers may feel that they are working hard and
making optimum utilization of their time. For instance, a
manager skipping his/her lunch may feel that he/she is
working hard. However, the truth is that he/she may be
poor at time management. It is therefore necessary to
analyze where the time is spent. It involves identifying the
time-wasters and time abusers with the help of time logs.

Once the major time spending patterns have been

identified on a broad scale, daily time logs can be
prepared. A daily time log allows managers to evaluate
how productively a day has been spent. It is important to
update the time log at regular intervals and to make
entries of the various tasks performed through the day.
The description should,
however, be very brief,
Video 8.2.1:
containing only about one
Time Management
to four words. The number
of minutes spent on each
activity should also be
included. Some managers
feel that maintaining time
logs is a time consuming
activity. It is true that it may h?v=SLibyXxsUdY&feature=rel
take some time initially, but ated
once they get used to it,

Time Logs
Time logs (refer to table 8.2.1) are used by employees to
fill in a detailed account of the time spent at the
workplace. They can be designed for daily, weekly or
fortnightly use and can help in identifying how many hours
an individual spends on actual work. After maintaining
time logs for a period (say four or five weeks), managers
can analyze their pattern of spending time. Time logs help
managers in identifying activities that waste time and the
amount of time wasted. For instance, a manager may


Table 8.2.1 Time Log (From d/m/y To d/m/y) Time Spent Each Day at Workplace (Hrs/Min)






Working on the actual task

Use of telephone (work related)
Use of telephone (personal use)
Use of Internet (work related)
Use of Internet (personal use)
Meetings/seminars attended
Tea/Coffee breaks/Lunch at work
Preparing for seminars/presentations
Socializing with colleagues
Meeting visitors
Filing and maintaining records
Time spent on solving others problems
Work related travels (to meet clients/
Reading and analyzing Reports
Total Hours Spent at Workplace.
Adapted from Fontana, David, Your Current use of Time. Managing Time. First Edition, BPS Books, New Delhi 1996, p19


each entry will take less than 15 seconds and the whole
process, only 5 to 10 minutes a day. Regular maintenance
of time logs gives the managers an idea of the time
required for performing any given task. This enables them
to plan accordingly.
Time logs improve the performance of managers and
increase the organizations productivity. Managers start
feeling accountable for the way they spend their time.
However, time logs should be used only to improve
performance and effectiveness and not to monitor
employees. It must be a productivity tool and not a
monitoring tool. Moreover, time logs alone cannot help to
bring about efficient time management. They should be
used along with planning, scheduling and delegating to
overcome potential wastage of time and help in effective
time management.
Time Budget
Budgeting of time is an important aspect for a successful
manager. The manager has to allocate time to various goal
areas as discussed in goal setting.
The time budget (refer table 8.2.2 and keynote 8.2.1)
should be prepared on a weekly basis and be reviewed
every week to find out whether the budgeted time is spent
as per the plan. Sincere efforts should be made to stick to
the plan and avoid time wasters.
The time budget for various goal areas can be prepared as

1. Personal goals - personal time

2. Professional goals - professional time
3. Family goals - family time
4. Social goals - social time
5. Spiritual goals - spiritual time.
Keynote 8.2.1: Time Budget

Source: IBS Hyderabad

Tasks to Perform...

1. Prepare your time log for the last 30

2. Prepare your time budget


Table 8.2.2 Time Budget


Time per day

Time per week


Personal goals - personal time

Getting ready
Watching TV
Commuting time
Professional goals - professional
Professional magazines
Family goals - family time
Social goals - social time
Spiritual goals - spiritual time
Prayer and meditation
Total time per week



Interpersonal Skills

In 2004, a survey was conducted among 1,420 Chief

Information Officers of various American companies which
had 100 or more employees. The major objective of the
survey, conducted by an independent research group for
Robert Half Technology, was to find out how many of these
companies offered their IT staff soft skills training in areas like
leadership, communication, etc. The results showed that 53
percent of the companies provided soft- skills training to their
employees. It was found that 70 percent of the companies in
the business services also gave soft skills training to their
employees a higher percentage than any other sector.
Interpersonal skill was the most important soft skill required
by people in the information technology business, according
to the survey results. Communication skills came next,
followed by skills like aptitude to work under pressure,
business aptitude and professional conduct.
The company also conducted a survey of the top 100
organizations in Canada to find out the most important skills
required by managers. Senior managers from various
departments like personnel, marketing, sales and finance
participated in the survey. It was found that 32% of the
respondents considered interpersonal skills as the most
essential attribute for managers. Honesty (28%) and open
mindedness (23%) were the second and third preference,
respectively. Only 11% percent of the respondents believed
that hard work was the most important quality. The findings of
the survey concluded that interpersonal skills were very
important for managers at all levels. According to Paul
McDonald, executive director, RHI Management Resources,
While strong interpersonal skills are essential at all levels,

theyre particularly critical for managers, whose primary job

responsibilities include hiring, supervising, mentoring, and
retaining employees. In this chapter, we will examine the
importance of interpersonal skills and the various ways to
improve them.
Interpersonal Skills


Section 1

Introduction to Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills are the essential skills required for
interacting and connecting with others. In other words, it is
the capability to interpret and manage ones own feelings,
actions and motivations and those of others in social
contacts. In the organizational context, interpersonal skills
refer to a persons ability to interact effectively with other
members of the organization like subordinates, peers and
superiors. For example, a manager would have to interact

with employees, who report directly to him/her. In various

job situations like providing training, directing, commending
a good performance, giving a warning, taking a decision,
solving a problem, etc., the manager would require better
interpersonal skills.
An employee with good interpersonal skills would
essentially have the following qualities:
Ability to treat everyone in the organization with
Ability to get along with others
Readiness to share knowledge with others
Willingness to train others in the organization
Good negotiation skills
Ability to resolve conflicts in time
Readiness to accept feedback

Ability to learn from mistakes

Readiness to accept responsibility for his/her actions
Ability to manage behavior in personal interactions
Ability to align with team goals in shared activities while
pursuing own goals
Ability to listen to others
Ability to influence the behavior of others positively
A team usually contains members who are from diverse
backgrounds and who have diverse values. To succeed in
team-based organizations, it is important to have good
interpersonal skills.

Video 9.1.1:
Conversational Skills


Section 2

Developing Interpersonal Skills

Developing Assertiveness
Assertiveness can be defined as the ability to state your
point clearly without being aggressive. Assertive people
are able to engage in discussions where they respect the
viewpoints of others without losing their own point of
view. People who fail to use their assertive skills are
likely to be manipulative and try to make others do what
they do not really want to do. Others may be extremely
aggressive and tend to provide over-directions in the
workplace. Still
others may adopt
passive positions
at the workplace
just to avoid
confrontations. But
assertive people
would be able to
take a middle path
in such situations.

Assertiveness is essential for a manager to work

effectively in organizations. It helps a person to cope
effectively with uneasy people and uneasy situations.
Assertiveness is essential in solving problems in
organizations in such a way that all the parties concerned
are able to come out of the situation reasonably satisfied.
Managers who want to develop assertiveness should
think about how they would want to be treated by others
at the workplace and try to treat all others in the
organization the same way. When trying to communicate
assertively, their body language is very important. It
should not give the impression that they are aggressive.
What they are trying to say should correspond with how
they are saying it. If they are anxious, it affects the way
they put across things. They should avoid all disturbing
gestures while they communicate and try to look friendly.
The tone of their voices should be appropriate to what
they are trying to communicate.


Factors Hampering Interpersonal Interactions

Emotional Arousal

There are many hindrances to effective interpersonal

interactions. An understanding of these will go a long way in
developing interpersonal skills. The most common causes are:

In excess, negative emotions can prove to be another major

block to interpersonal interactions. This applies primarily in the
case of negative emotion like anger. For example, when a
person is excessively angry, he/she may not be able to
understand the perspective of another person fully. In addition,
it may also cause a dent in the relationship. An angry manager
may say something unpleasant to an employee on the spur of
the moment. This will not only affect the positive outcome of
that interaction, it is also likely to affect future interactions
between them. Anger often breeds anger and may lead to
arguments between the persons concerned. The best possible
course of action in such a situation would be to stop the
interaction till the people involved are able to get their emotions
under control.

Poor Listening
Listening attentively to what the other person says ensures the
effectiveness of
interactions. In
communication, if one
person is talking and
the other person is not
listening to what is
being said, then all the
attempts of the first
person would go waste. Another problem is of the listener
jumping to conclusions. For example, when a manager is
communicating with a subordinate, the subordinate may give
the impression that he/she has fully understood what is being
said even if that is not actually the case.
In such a situation, the manager should ask for immediate
feedback from the subordinate. Instead of asking the
subordinate whether he/she has understood the matter, the
manager should ask the person to explain in his/her own words
what was said.

Lack of Time
Time pressure can affect the interpersonal interactions
between two persons to a great extent. This is especially true in
organizations where everyone is busy and has no time to get
feedback on what they have said. For example, a manager
may move around giving instructions to everyone. But he/she
may not wait for the feedback. However, it is essential to obtain
feedback as a failure to do so could result in
misunderstandings and prove costly at a later stage.


Differences in objectives
In interpersonal interactions, the parties involved may
sometimes have differences in objectives or interests. For
example, take the case of an interaction between a manager
and a subordinate. The objective of the manager may be to
find a solution to a problem related to the loss of work hours
due to machine failure. The objective of the subordinate may
be to avoid being criticized for that problem. They both have
different objectives. Such interpersonal interactions can be
fruitful only when both the parties involved have a common

Task to Perform...

Enact role plays within your peer group by

assuming corporate situations. For example, as
a Marketing Manager of a construction company,
explain the features of your gated community of
houses to the customer.

Keynote 9.2.1: Conversational


Source: Soft Skills Handbook, IBS HO



Leadership and Team-Building

Section 1

Leadership Skills
Leadership is an essential trait
for personal effectiveness.
leadership in itself is a set of
qualities and traits that guide an
individual, his team and his
organization towards the
achievement of success.
Leaders are not just born, but they can be made by
proper grooming and training.
Leadership can be defined as the act of influencing the
behavior of another person. In
organizations, leaders have to
influence all the members to
carry out the tasks of the
organization. They have a
vision about the organization;
they motivate, persuade and
usually get work done in the
way they want it done because
of a certain set of
characteristics they exhibit.

They are able to focus on the value of their people and to

empower them. It is the leadership factor which
differentiates a successful organization from others.
Effective leaders use different methods to direct an
organization. The effectiveness of a leadership style
depends on the situation. And there is no single
leadership style which is applicable to all situations. Some
leaders are charismatic while some others maintain a low
profile; some are methodical, others are instinctive. For
example, to turn around an organization requires a leader
with a very powerful personality, while an organization
which is planning a merger
Video - Leadership
needs a sensitive negotiator as
the leader. In this chapter, we
will discuss how to develop
leadership skills and the
various skills that effective
leaders need to have like
vision, persuasion, motivation,
c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a n d /watch?v=GPeeZ6viNgY
leadership tactics.


Aspiring leaders are rated on the basis of the Nine Facets

of Leadership, which are as follows:
Charisma: The ability to instill faith, respect and trust. A
charismatic leader has the ability to convey a strong
sense of purpose and vision and is aware of the
requirements of others.
Individual Consideration: The ability to coach, advise
and teach people and to help the newcomers in the
organization. It also includes the skill to listen actively.
Intellectual Stimulation: The ability to make others in
the organization use logic and facts in order to evolve
new ways to solve problems. It also includes the ability
to help others think differently.

Judgment: The ability to evaluate all possible courses

of action and use that ability to make decisions based
on previous experiences and logic.
Respect for others: The ability to honor and consider
the opinion of others, in spite of their position in the
organizational hierarchy.
Leadership style is unique to a person or situation and the
objective of any leadership styles is to accomplish success
in terms of achieving organizational goals.
Leadership style

Courage: The ability to do what is good for the

organization and workforce even in the face of
difficulties. It is also the ability to withstand the pressure
tactics of others and stand firm on matters that one feels
is right.
Dependability: The ability to work independently,
assuming responsibility for actions done and also for
mistakes committed and the ability to keep promises.
Flexibility: The ability to change as per the demands of
the situation and to manage various tasks at a time.
Integrity: The ability to honor position or authority and to
act as a role model, doing what is morally correct.


Section 2

Together Everyone Achieves More. Togetherness
Energizes All Members.
These two quotes on team highlight the importance of
designing teams for all occasions.

Personal Traits

Team building is the crux of all managerial effort. All efforts

must be directed in building functional and responsive
teams that could work efficiently and effectively towards
the organizational goals and objectives.


The objective of any corporate should be to design and

build teams of individuals who should be highly responsive
and result-oriented with a positive outlook and a
perspective to work shoulder to shoulder with the other
team members.

Perfection (in the respective field)

Team Building is a process of enabling people to reach

their goals and objectives. Each and every member of the
team should be thorough in terms of responsibility and role
clarity. The following sterling qualities, represented by
14Ps, are expected of a team.

Positive approach


Passion for work

Powerful (sufficient authority to be vested)


Once the people are selected, the task of creating teams
that endeavor and endure for all seasons is done. Good
management of teams calls for an effective supervision,
leadership, networking, building relationships and above all,
to influence and inspire people to work as team players and
foster a sense of team spirit.

Keynote 10.2.1: Team Building

There is no substitute for the age old adage, working

together always works.
Team Building Module is executed through games and
activities ...

Gallery 10.2.1: Team Building in

Action @ IBS

Source: IBS Hyderabad

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from

various sources

Keynote 10.2.2: Team Building


Video 10.2.1: The Hare and the

Tortoise story

Interactive 10.2.1: Jigsaw

Puzzle on TeamBuilding

Keynote 10.2.3: Team Building

Task to Perform...
Attend the outbound training session on
Leadership and Team Building executed
through games.



Social Skills


Section 1

Social Skills
Personal Effectiveness of a manager is not limited to
knowing or ingraining some skills or traits that help in
the attainment of personal, team or organizational
success. A successful manager has to learn and imbibe
certain social skills which are indispensable on the
corporate platform.
The social skills are essential to develop and enhance
good relationships with clients and customers and
sometimes in clinching important business deals. A
manager showcasing refined manners is paid a lot of
attention by a guest or a client. Hence, the social skills
form an important facet of personal effectiveness.
Some of the social skills that a manager has to learn are
introducing self and others, receiving guests and seeing
of guests, extending invitations for formal events,
exchanging business cards, some pleasantries and
niceties, gifting, table manners and dining etiquettes,
telephone and e-mail etiquettes (refer to keynote 11.1.2)
(netiquette), etc.

Keynote 11.1.2: E-Mail Etiquette

Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from

various sources

Keynote 11.1.1: Corporate


Source: IBS Hyderabad, Adapted from

various sources

Video 11.1.3: E-mail

Video 11.1.1: Telephone

Video 11.1.2: Why Do We

Shake Hands

Video 11.1.4: Tips on



Section 2

Practical Session on Dining Etiquette

watched or observed by the faculty and appropriate
advice is given on the spot.

Gallery 11.2.1: Dining Etiquette

Sessions @ IBS


Dining Etiquette is one of the most sought after

sessions at IBS. It is executed as a theory or input
session followed by a practical session.

Source: IBS Hyderabad

The menu is designed in such a way that the students

will use all the items of silverware or cutlery. It is closely


Eating Difficult foods

Task to Perform...
Attend the Dining Etiquette session in formal
attire (full suit with tie) to practice the usage
of silverware/cutlery.



Stress Management

Section 1

Stress - Pressures on an Individual

Stress is one of the offshoots of
globalization and it affects everyone. In
spite of the tremendous advancements,
luxuries and comforts of the
modern world, man is not
leading a satisfied and
comfortable life. There is a lot
of pressure per se on the human beings. It is very
important to know the sources of stress and also to
manage it because the long term ill-effects of stress are
very disastrous leading to a plethora of psycho-somatic
disorders. Simply stated, stress leads to an imbalance in
the bodys immunological system. As a result, the bodys
resistance is weakened and leads to a number of
diseases. Prolonged periods of stress and strain lead to
what is known as BOSS (Burn Out Stress Syndrome), .i.e.,
a person feeling helpless, hopeless and worthless with low
energy levels, feeling depressed, nervous breakdown and
in some cases suicidal tendencies.
Types of Pressures on an Individual
An individual is subjected to three types of pressures viz.,
time pressures, money pressures and emotional

Time Pressure: We are poor managers of time and

invariably put ourselves to time-related
pressures. We never plan our time
properly. We dont properly estimate
the time or sometimes we start
late and want to rush through
and accomplish the things in a
haste, in the process, exerting a
lot of stress on ourselves.
Financial Pressures or Money
Pressures: One of the greatest
pressures on an individual is money
or finance. In most cases, poor
management of finances leads to a
mismatch between income and
Emotional Pressures: Ego,
a n g e r, e n v y, j e a l o u s y,
prejudices, attitudes and the
way of thinking determine the
stress levels on an individual.

Section 2

Sources of Stress
The primary sources of stress could be Government,
society, family, job or profession and the person himself or
Government: Our lives are controlled by the
government directly or indirectly. We are very much
affected by the controls, policies, procedures, rules,
regulations, laws and enactments formulated by the
government from time to time. The bureaucratic
behemoth is perhaps the greatest stressor for people
dealing with the government departments. An
entrepreneur has to comply with almost 15 to 20
Government departments and the cumbersome
procedures take a heavy toll on the individual.
Society: The society exerts a lot of stress on an
individual in various ways. Our relations with friends,
neighbors, relatives and the numerous new
acquaintances that we make everyday put us to a lot
of pressure. Under the influence of the western
society, we subject ourselves to what is known as
social status stress. There are many people who put
up a false show to the society especially in terms of
display of valuables, vehicles and other possessions.
It is easy to enhance the status and is very difficult to

maintain. Religion, ethics, morals, codes, mores and

social commitments are the other stressors.
Family: Relations between the family members and
health and wealth of the family determine the
pressure on the individuals in the family. In families,
where the Hidden Contract of Marriage is altered,
there is a lot of pressure on the members of a family.
According to the social scientists, the hidden contract
of marriage is the simple and implied understanding
that goes with the marriage that the male member is
an earning member and also provides the security to
the family while the female member brings up the
children and looks after the family. In those families
where the female
member plays the
dual role of the
house wife and that
of bread-earner
(Hidden Contract
Altered) there is a
lot of pressure on
her. Perhaps, the
same pressure gets


transmitted to the other family members.

Job or Profession: It is
perhaps the most
important source of
stress on an individual.
Type of job, workload,
remuneration, role
clarity, competition,
d e a d l i n e s , s k i l l u p Source;
gradation, relations with the colleagues, subordinates
and the superiors, work ambience or environment,
promotion and transfers, etc., are the various factors
that contribute to a persons stress.
Person: In most cases, the person himself or herself
is the cause of stress. Attitudes, beliefs, type of
thinking, emotional make up, decisions and the
choices to be made among the available alternatives,
interpersonal skills, etc., could be the cause of stress
on an individual. An impatient and a hasty person is
prone to stress. A person who worries more is also
subjected to a lot of tension and pressure. Worry
often casts a big shadow
of a small problem. Based
on the behavioral
response, the persons are
categorized into different
personality types. A-Type
personalities, who are
very aggressive,

ambitious, action oriented go-getters, are prone to

more tension and stress. B-Type personalities, who
are relatively cool, calm and composed, are relatively
less prone to stress than the A-Type individuals. A
polyphasic individual (a person doing two or more
things at a time) is subjected to a lot of stress.



Section 3

Symptoms of Stress
The symptoms of stress could be categorized into four
Physical Symptoms: Headache, Insomnia
(sleeplessness), muscle and joint pains, back pain,
premature greying of hair, falling of hair, wrinkles on
the fore head, dark circles around the eyes, obesity,
Physiological Symptoms: Indigestion, diarrohea,
Cardio-vascular Heart Disease (CHD), high blood
pressure, ulcers, excessive heart beat and excessive
sweating, nervous break down
Behavioral or Psychological Symptoms: Irritation,
anger, isolation (unable to interact with the other
people), feeling helpless, hopeless and worthless,
smoking and escapist drinking and in extreme cases,
suicidal tendencies
Personal or Professional Symptoms: Poor
personal hygiene, lack of morale, lack of interest on
the job, reduced efficiency, racy thoughts,
impatience, poor self esteem.


Section 4

Stress Management
The objective of any stress management program is Add
life to years, not years to life. No doubt, as managers we
are highly focused on success. But then, let us keep
ourselves fit and fine to enjoy the fruits of success. Hence
success coupled with satisfaction and good health should
be our objective.
It should be remembered that some amount of stress or
tension is needed in our lives. Man is inherently lazy and
does not move or get charged
to work without some pressure.
This tension which propels us
to work is called positive stress
or Eustress. However, we have
our own abilities and
capabilities and cannot work
beyond a point. It is then that
the negative stress or Dystress
begins to operate. As we get
stressed, we should have some
m e c h a n i s m t o D e s t r e s s Source:www.stress-ma
(coming out of the stress).

Hence we need to manage the stress in such a way that

we always operate at the positive levels by a systemic
and sustained process of stress busting or de-stressing.
Video 12.4.1: Stress

We prescribe a Psychosomatic (body-mind) approach at

three levels:
1. Body level (strengthening of the body)
2. Mind Level (controlling of mind)
3. Intellectual Level (review of the intellect)


Body Level
Physical Exercise: Half an hour of rigorous physical
exercise, every day, is a must. After a work-out we
sweat a lot and we will be in a feel good state. This
state is called Exercise Euphoria. During this stage,
the anti-depressants or anti-stress enzymes or
endorphins (sedative/comatose substances produced
inside the body) are released into the blood stream
which take care of the daily stress and strain.
Stress Exercise: A
simple two-minute
exercise to release
the tension from the
muscles and joints
of the body. Stress
percolates down to
the bodys muscles
and joints as a
result of which they
become very stiff
and hard, leading to
joint pains and
muscular pains.

Video 12.4.2: Endorphin Release through Brainwave


feet - bend and release fingers, move the ankle or foot

joint, bend and release the knee-joint.
Body Stretching: raise both hands above the
head, clasp them, slowly bend backwards for a
count of 10 (repeat six times); follow it with side
stretching (six times).
Food and Food Habits: Supplement the food
intake by fruits and vegetables (at least 20%).
Stress Management Food Pyramid

(Repeat each movement six times) Fingers - bend

and release, wrists - rolling to the left and right,
shoulder roll - forward and backward, head roll - move
the head to the left and right, up and down, rotate left,
rotate right, waist - move the torso to the left and right,

Avoid coffee and tea to the extent possible and

take fruit juices; follow a routine of heavy
breakfast, light lunch and heavy early dinner.

Deep Breathing: It is the most energizing exercise.

Take a deep breath (counting 1 to 10), hold the
breath (counting 1 to 20), slowly release the breath
(counting 1 to 10). Repeat at least 10 times.
Mind Level (Controlling of Mind)
Much of the stress and tension is caused by the thought
process, especially the negative one and too much thinking
of the problem on hand without a modicum of concentration
on the solution.
Mind Exercises:
Sit with a straight posture and be in a cool and
composed state. Recite the exercises within mind,
without any lip movement. Sometimes the mind goes
offtrack. Bring it back and repeat.
1. Recite alphabets backwards from Z to A
2. First and last alphabet, second and second last
alphabet, i.e., AZ, BY, CX..And so on.
3. Repeat the numbers backwards, 100 to 1
4. Only odd numbers backwards
5. Only even numbers backwards
6. Alphabets and numbers, alternatively, backwards,
i.e., Z 26, Y 25, X 24

7. 1 0 0 s h r e e m , 9 9 s h r e e m , 9 8 . . . s h r e e m
97 ...shreem and so on (recite the word shreem
loudly and the numbers to be recited within mind).
Prayer and Meditation: Minimum ten minutes of prayer
and meditation is recommended. You may be an atheist
or a theist, it is better to spend sometime on prayer and
meditation. Someone has rightly said, If there is no God,
we have to invent one.
Rhythmic chanting of the shlokas and the
mantras triggers the release of antistress hormones. Stress is basically a
chemical/hormonal reaction. Increased
levels of the hormone Cortisol causes
stress and bad mood. On the contrary,
the release of hormone Seritonin
reduces stress and leads to a pleasant Source:www.stres
mood. Prayer and meditation triggers the
release of Seritonin.
Autogenic Training: It is a powerful technique wherein
we focus on the self - breathing, heart-beat, feeling the
pulse or any other part of the body.
Lie flat on the floor, close the eyes and concentrate on
the breathing or on the pulse. A simple way is to count
the breath for ten times. You can concentrate only on
exhaling, for ten times. If you lose the track, start from


Scanning Relaxation Technique: Take a deep breath,

close the eyes, focus the vision between the two eyebrows, and start imagining a symbol or an image. The
mind is fixed or focused on the symbol or the image. If
the mind side tracks or gets diverted, bring it back and
concentrate on the image or symbol. Images or symbols
like yellow rose, letter S, Z could be focused upon.
There are a lot of images or symbols that could be
concentrated on.
Creative Imagery or Visualization: Instead of focusing
the mind on one symbol or an image, it is directed to
concentrate or focus on a series of creative images
pertaining to a subject or a situation. It means, the mind
is on a guided tour. Someone has rightly said that
visualization is like a short mental vacation before
embarking on the assigned job/work.
Sit in a relaxed posture and imagine being in a jungle or a
forest. Imagine the long path with trees on either side. Feel
the beauty of the forest with its beautiful flora (flowers) and
fauna (Animals). Imagine the flowing river, visualize the
sounds of the chirping of birds and Relax.
Intellectual Level (Review of the Intellect)
Self Directed Study: Make a SWOT analysis of your
personality and take up projects accordingly.
Active and Creative Diversions: Associate with a
hobby where you are actively involved. Dancing, tennis,
badminton are good both for the mind and the body.

Foster Friendships
Socialize but not over socialize
Relax: It is very much different from rest. Rest is forced
on us where as relaxation is by choice. Give a break to
the monotonous routine and enjoy an outing in the
company of family or friends, at least once in a month.
Sleep: It is an intelligent decision and hence included in
the intellectual category. Minimum six hours of sleep
everyday is suggested. Extra hours of sleep lead to body
Attitude: Develop a positive mindset and always think
positively and develop a positive attitude to life and
profession. If you cannot get a job you like, then like the
job you get. If you dont like the job, you have to work
every minute. If you love your job or profession, you
need not work for a minute.
Work-Life Balance: Depending on the type of
profession, maintain a proper work-life balance. All work
and no play leads to burn out in the long run with the
concomitant stress disorders. All play and no work would
lead to hedonistic paradox.
Humor and Entertainment: Humor and lots of laughter
lead to a positive neuro-endocrine response. Many
studies have proved that laughter reduces the levels of
stress hormones (Cortisol and Epinephrine) in the blood.


Auto Suggestion: Always, try to reinforce yourself with

positive thoughts and feelings like, I am fine, I can do it,
this problem is nothing and I can overcome it with little
bit of attention, concentration and a concerted effort.
Proper Planning and Time Management: Plan the 5
Ms of men, money, methods, machines and materials.
We never plan to fail, but we always fail to plan.
Video 12.4.3: Deep Meditation Music

Keynote 12.4.1: Stress


Source: IBS Hyderabad


Tasks to Perform...


Check your stress levels instantly

Stress levels


Prepare a list of stressors bugging you - Government,

society, family, job and personal sources.


Prepare an action plan to combat them (refer Goal



Attend the practical / workout session on Stress




Negotiation Skills and Conflict Management


Section 1

Approaches to Negotiation & Conflict Management

Negotiation is one of the important communication skill in
personal effectiveness training. Negotiation involves
communicating or discussing with one or more individuals
about an issue, problem, business deal or any transaction
where two or more
have to come to a
negotiated settlement.
Post-negotiation, all
the parties involved in
the negotiation should
be happy and
satisfied. There should
not be any
dissatisfaction or
dissonance in any one
of the parties involved
in the negotiations.
The objective of any
negotiation should be such that the conflicts are removed
and a better understanding is reached between the
There are various approaches to negotiation.

Some of them are as follows:

This approach involves avoiding the conflict when
confronted by it. Avoidance can be physical or
psychological. Physical avoidance could be in the form of
refusing to take a phone call, refusing to meet the parties
involved in the conflict, etc. Psychological avoidance
involves refusing to acknowledge the existence of a
problem or its seriousness. Avoidance, however, can only
be used as a short- term approach to conflict
management. Sometimes, when both the negotiating
parties are strong and do not foresee any loss, they avoid
or ignore each other.
This approach involves sacrificing ones own position and
paying more importance to reaching an agreement. Some
of the situations where the accommodating approach can
be used are: a). when a person is sure that he/she is
wrong, b). when the person wants to reduce the extent of
loss in a losing situation, c). when the issue is not as
important to the person as it is to the other party. When
one party is weak and another party is strong, the weak

party tries to accept and accommodate the proposals of the

stronger party. This is called lose-win approach. Some
benefit is better than no benefit.
This approach to conflict involves not paying any heed to the
concerns of the other person/party. While this approach
creates animosity in most cases, it may be necessary in
some situations. For example, in case of an emergency, it is
necessary to take quick action. In such cases, this approach
is required. For some organizational issues like reducing
costs or imposing certain unpopular decisions which are in
the interests of the organization, this approach may be
In the collaborative
approach, the needs of
both the parties
involved in the conflict
are met. In this
approach, the basic
assumption is that
conflict is a natural part
of life and that it can be
solved. Through this
approach, the
relationship between
the parties involved can
b e i m p r o v e d w h i l e

resolving the conflict at the same time. This approach is

necessary when it is necessary to ensure a long term
relationship between the parties involved in the conflict. Both
the parties are strong and realize the importance of the other
party to strengthen themselves individually. This is called
win-win approach.
In compromise, both the parties involved in the conflict forgo
something that they were trying to achieve in order to reach
an agreement. This approach can be considered as a
backup when attempts for collaboration fail. Both the parties
are strong and realize that they stand to loose something by
not reaching a negotiated settlement. Hence they are
prepared to give in or loose something to solve the issue.
This is lose-lose approach.
While trying to avoid conflict or accommodate the demand of
another person, interpersonal skills are very critical. But,
while trying to use the other three approaches
collaborating, competing, or compromising the way people
conduct themselves is very important. They should be
specific, objective and non-emotional while describing the
issue at hand. It is better for them to convey their feelings
about an incident rather than accuse a person directly. For
example, instead of saying, You are never on target, it is
better if they start with I am disappointed because In
short, an aggressive approach has to be avoided as this
only serves to alienate the other party involved in the


conflict. An assertive communication style helps in getting

the point across without showing any disrespect.
The objective of a successful manager is to avoid conflicts
and legal wrangles and aim for a negotiated settlement.
Refer to the keynote 13.1.1. for further explanation on
negotiation skills and conflict management

Video 13.1.2: Negotiation


Keynote 13.1.1: Negotiation Skills

and Conflict Management

Interactive 13.1.1:
Crossword: Negotiation
Source: IBS Hyderabad

Video 13.1.1: Thomas Kilman

on Conflict Management

Source: IBS Hyderabad

Task to Perform...

Enact role plays within the peer group. For

example, you are Marketing Manager of ABC Ltd.,
selling computers to a client. Negotiate the terms
and conditions.



Structured Thinking

Structured Thinking is one of the important aspects of

personal effectiveness. A manager has to enrich and
empower himself with the structured thinking to get a
panoramic view of an issue, problem or situation to come out
with an effective decision.

Six Thinking Hats is a powerful decision-making tool which

allows structured thinking.

Six Thinking Hats

Decision Making is the essence of any profession, especially

business and management. Choices, decisions and the
consequences or results constitute the hallmark of a
managers personal or professional life. Making career
choices, selecting the profile of a company, investment
decisions are sometimes baffling and put a manager in a state
of indecision. In fact, these are the occasions when a
manager has to think in a rational, pragmatic and methodical
way to arrive at good decisions. Managers rely on a set of
decision making tools that are scientific, practical, rational and
methodical in all respects.
It is rightly said that confusion is the biggest enemy of ones
thinking. Thinking big should be preceded by thinking good.
Thinking good always leads to good and effective decision
making. Thinking good encompasses different facets of being
clear, rational, logical, factual and emotional. Many a time,
individuals take decisions that do not have a 360 degree
perspective as a result of which they encounter problems,
bottlenecks, opposition, discouragement to their ideas and
plans. Sometimes, it could happen in choosing a business or
project. The challenge before a person or a professional is to
take a decision which is foolproof and failsafe. There are
numerous techniques or tools which help a manager in
decision making.


Section 1

Structured Thinking with Six Thinking Hats

Six Thinking Hats is a powerful tool in decision making
followed by many individuals and organizations the world
over. It was propounded by the legendary Edward De
Bono in his widely acclaimed book of the same title, Six
Thinking Hats. This method of Six Thinking Hats is very
simple to understand, implement and reap good results.
This decision making tool could be used by individuals,
managers or organizations to address a plethora of
problems and issues, both personal and organizational.
It is a process of structured thinking which guides a
manager to take a decision after taking into consideration
six important facets of thought. In fact, the six hats
represent six facets of thought or thinking in six different
angles. It is a comprehensive approach which avoids the
pitfalls by identifying the lacunae or gaps in an individuals
thinking or approach to various issues.
The person is encouraged to use his brain by wearing a
hat of a particular color. Each hat is a metaphor for a
thinking state. Wearing a particular Hat is a symbolic
representation of thinking in a particular direction. For

example, putting a red hat or red hat thinking enables a

manager to think of emotional issues of a problem.
Sometimes, a manager is puzzled with the complexity of a
problem or situation and does not know how to proceed in
a given situation. Six Thinking Hats is a perfect tool which
bestows on a manager, a definite approach by thinking in a
set pattern. The process allows the manager to consider
all the perspectives. Therefore, it is a perfect guide in the
decision making process. It can be put into action by an
individual or a group of people.
A hat is something
one can easily put
on and take off.
The hats are visual
cues for a manager
to allow an easy
switch in his mode
of thinking. The
best and the
beautiful aspect of

Keynote 14.1.1: Six Thinking Hats


this method is that it can be taught to children as well as

top managers.
The Six Hats being considered are: 1. White Hat 2. Red
Hat 3.Yellow Hat 4. Black Hat 5.Green Hat and 6.Blue

negatives of taking a decision are considered.

Identification of the weak points helps a manager in
preparing the contingency plan or be ready with an
action plan for a detour. During the Black Hat thinking
the following points or questions could be raised: What
could be problems, where can we go wrong, etc.

White Hat is the information hat. The person or group

wearing the White Hat is entrusted with the job of
collecting the data and information relating to a
problem, project or issue on which a decision has to
be taken. This will help to identify the gaps or lacunae
in the knowledge. Besides, it will help to analyze the
past and also extrapolate the future trends. The white
Hat thinking revolves around three important aspects
viz., information already known, information needed
and sources of information.

Green Hat is the creative hat and focuses on the

creative solutions to the problems. Person or group
putting on the green hat will come out with creative
ideas of implementing the decision. No criticism is put
forth to encourage an incessant flow of ideas from the
people. Of course, the practicality of the solutions is
considered at a later time by the implementation team.
Green Hat thinking focuses on better ways of doing a
particular thing or choosing alternatives.

Red Hat is the emotional hat. The person or group will

concentrate on feelings, instincts, gut reactions,
emotional aspects or the intuitions.

Blue Hat focuses on the implementation aspects of

the plans. Generally, the blue hat people are the top
managers or the people chairing the meetings.
Operational focus is the important aspect of the blue
hat thinking.

Yellow Hat is about the positives or strong points. All

the advantages are focused upon. In times of crisis,
wearing a yellow hat or yellow hat thinking offers the
motivational tonic.
Black Hat is a hat of judgment and caution. Black hat
thinking focuses on problems, negatives, barriers,
hurdles and obstructions. All the weak points or the

The advantages of the six thinking hats approach are listed

Different view points are considered
Creative decision making is involved
Plans are sound and resilient
Saves a lot of time
Team building
Addresses the ego problems

time. Everyone wears a different hat and switches to

another at the same time.
A better way is to allow the person to wear a hat according
to his attitude or thinking style. The pessimists in a group
are asked to wear the Black Hat and the optimists are
allowed to wear the Yellow Hat. A trouble-shooting
manager or a doubter is asked to wear the Black Hat and
play a devils advocate. Similarly emotional managers are
provided with the red hat and creative geniuses are
encouraged to go the green way. A person having
leadership traits is encouraged to put on the blue hat.

Logical decisions are arrived at

Execution of Six Thinking Hats
It can be adopted by an individual manager or a group of
managers in arriving at a decision.
When a manager has to decide individually, he can direct
his thinking in a particular dimension and the points are
noted. For example, when the manager has to decide the
positives of a decision, he has to put on the Yellow Hat. It
is possible that while thinking the positive aspects of an
issue the negative points could flash. They are recorded by
the manager immediately.

Tasks to Perform...

1. Becoming an entrepreneur or taking up a

job in a top IT company - analyze the
situation using Six Thinking Hats decision
2. Analyze a problem faced by you using the decision tool
of Six Thinking Hats.

When using the Six Hats method in a group, all the

members are involved in the role-play at the appointed
time. No person is asked to wear a single hat for the entire


In todays corporate world, being a good team player is
essential for everyone. All managers agree that they
need to work in teams. At the same time, as a leader
one needs to understand what drives the people and
the implications for the job. Managers constantly face
employees who for some reason or the other do not
perform their jobs satisfactorily and it is here that soft
skills become useful to overcome such practical
The soft skills module has many real-life simulations
which may possibly occur both at professional as well
as personal levels. One cannot deny the fact that the
soft skills are hard to acquire and acquiring such skills
is a continuous process throughout ones career.
Soft skills should not be treated as a capsule of
medicine or an instant
key to managerial
success. Soft skills are to
be imbibed and
internalized in such a
way that they become
part and parcel of ones
personality. Soft skills are

not bound by any

limits. Neither are they
static. Learning in this
field is a continuous
cycle of unlearning and
relearning. It is ever
dynamic. Hence once
you finish the soft skills
course at IBS, you
would have taken the
final step of the course
but, in reality, it is the
first step in
professional life.

Video 15.1: Shiv Kheras

Success Secrets

We are sure that the soft skills training at IBS would

certainly help you to unlock your hidden leadership
qualities to put you on the track to become successful
Wishing you
All the Best to be the Best
in creating the Brand YOU...
Stress and coping-D.M.Pestonjee

Attitude is Everything: Keith Harrel.

Managing stress-Cooper & Dewe

Authentic happiness by Martin E.p. Seligman

Executive stress-Frederick Betz

The art of reading minds- Henrik Fexeus

Soft Skills for Managers, Dr. Kalyana Chakravarthi

Soft Skills Labs faculty handbook-IBS 2009

Understanding executive stress-Cary L. cooper & Judi


Business Communication by Mallika Nawal

Kalpana Kochhar-
nandan Nilekani-
Samarajiva, Rohan, Knight-John, Malathy, Anderson,
Peter, et al. (2005, March 17). National Early Warning
System Sri Lanka: A Participatory Concept Paper for the
Design of an Effective All Hazard Public Warning System
Version 2.1. LIRNEasia and Vanguard Foundation, 2006.
Organizational Behavior (2004), ICMR: Hyderabad
Team building for disaster management, prof. Mahesh

Understand stress and improve quality of life, Prof.

Mahesh Kumar
Six Thinking Hats, Edward De Bono
Six Thinking Hats- A decision-making tool for managers,
Prof. Mahesh Kumar
A Summary by Sylvie Labelle-http://
Techniques/sixhats.htm-(dated Jan 11, 2012).
trainerresources/PG_SixThinkingHats.pdf(dated January
9, 2012)

106 January 9, 2012)
impact_in_the_classroom.htm( dated January 22, 2012)
dated January 24, 2012) dated January 24,
2012) dated
January 25, 2012)


This document is authorized for internal use only at IBS campuses- Batch of 2012-2014 - Semester I. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieved system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic,
mechanical, photocopying or otherwise - without prior permission in writing from IBS Hyderabad.

Hedonistic paradox
If all the days in a year were playing holidays, then, to play would be as difficult as to
work- Shakespeare.

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Chapter 12 - Stress Management

Kinesthetic learning
Kinesthetic learning is a learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. It is also referred to as tactile learning. People with a kinesthetic
learning style are also commonly known as do-ers.

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Chapter 1 - Prologue

Self Awareness
Self Awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to reconcile oneself as
an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. Self Awareness,
though similar to sentience in concept, includes the experience of the self, and has
been argued as implicit to the hard problem of consciousness.

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SWOT analysis (alternately SLOT analysis) is a strategic planning method used to
evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and Threats involved
in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.

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Thumb twiddling is an activity that is done with the hands of an individual whereby the
fingers are interlocked and the thumbs circle around a common focal point, usually in
the middle of the distance between the two thumbs.

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Chapter 4 - Various Aspects of Body Language